These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.



Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.



Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.



Erythrocyte deformability and white blood cell count are associated with aspirin resistance in high-risk vascular patients.  


Recently the phenomenon of aspirin resistance has been object of several studies, but no data are available on the possible role of the haemorheologic parameters in affecting platelet function and resistance to antiplatelet agents. Aim of our study was to evaluate platelet function and haemorheology in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), receiving double antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. The study population included 301 (231M/70F; age: 66 +/- 13 yrs) consecutive adult patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of the Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, with diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina. We assessed: whole blood viscosity (WBV) at shear rates of 0.512 s(-1) and 94.5 s(-1), plasma viscosity (PLV) at 94.5 s(-1) shear rate, erythrocyte deformability index (DI) and PFA-100 closure times with ADP (PFA/ADP) and epinephrine (PFA/EPI). We considered any PFA-100-EPI result < 203 sec (95th percentile of control distribution) to be indicative of aspirin resistance. 104/301 patients (34.5%) had PFA/EPI CTs in the reference range (group 1) whereas the remaining had values higher than 203 sec (group 2). WBV at 94.5 sec (-1) s.r. was similar in group 1 and 2 (WBV: 4.43 +/- 0.25 vs 4.45 +/- 0.61 mPa.sec, respectively). PLV and WBV at 0.512 sec (-1) s.r. were slightly higher, but not significantly, in group 1 than in group 2 (PLV: 1.47+/-0.13 vs 1.44 +/- 0.15 mPa.sec; p = 0.08 and WBV: 23.37 +/- 4.6 vs 22.54 +/- 3.90 mPa.sec; p = 0.07). DI was significantly lower in group 1 with respect to group 2 (4.05 +/- 2.93 vs 5.71 +/- 3.30, p < 0.0001). White blood count (WBC) was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (11464 +/- 3504 vs 7867 +/- 2162, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that in patients with acute coronary syndromes the antiaggregant effect of aspirin is modulated not only by the direct action on platelets, but also by erythrocyte deformability and white blood cell count. PMID:16899924

Mannini, Lucia; Marcucci, Rossella; Paniccia, Rita; Antonucci, Emilia; Giglioli, Cristina; Valente, Serafina; Gori, Anna Maria; Prisco, Domenico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Abbate, Rosanna



Changes in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, White Blood Cell Count, Liver Enzymes, and Magnesium after Gastric Bypass Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is an established method for treatment of obesity, a condition of chronic inflammation with liver steatosis, characterised by increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell count (WBC), liver enzymes, and decreased magnesium (Mg). We investigated alterations, if any, in ESR, WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and Mg after RYGBP. Methods. 21 morbidly obese nondiabetic patients who underwent RYGBP surgery were evaluated preoperatively (baseline), then 1 year (1st followup) and 3.5 years (2nd followup) after RYGBP and compared to an untreated control group. Results. Body mass index, ESR, WBC, ALT, and GGT were all significantly reduced at 1 year in the RYGBP group (30%, 35%, 20%, 45%, and 57%, resp.) while Mg increased by 6%, compared to control group (P = 0.001?0.009). Conclusions. Obese patients treated by RYGBP show sustained reductions in ESR, WBC, ALT, and GGT possibly due to reduced liver steatosis and increased Mg. PMID:22235366

Johansson, Hans-Erik; Haenni, Arvo; Zethelius, Björn



[Ratio of erythrocyte number to erythrocyte size in peripheral blood].  


The count and size of erythrocytes are normally stable. In order to evaluate their ratio in health, some hematological diseases and during exposure to some ecological factors, peripheral blood erythrocytes were studied in 747 subjects (115 healthy controls aged 18-80 years, 56 subjects chronically exposed to ionizing radiation sources, 105 subjects working with aggressive liquids, 117 patients with anemias, and 81 with Hodgkin's disease). No relationship between erythrocyte count and MCV was detected in normal subjects and patients with anemia and Hodgkin's disease. It seems that this relationship is rather specific for hemopoiesis shifts associated with cell cycle delay, as it was detected in patients with B12 and folic deficiency anemias, in subjects chronically exposed to ionizing radiation sources, and in those handling nitrogen oxide in combination with heptyl. PMID:12412508

Shmarov, D A; Sobolevskaia, L V; Skripka, A V; Levina, T N; Riabenkova, O I; Kozinets, G I



Complete Blood Count  


... bruising or bleeding. Red blood cells: The CBC's measurements of red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (the ... lungs to the rest of the body. These measurements are usually done to test for anemia, a ...


Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site. PMID:24643248

AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda



A simple splenic reticuloendothelial function test: counting erythrocytes with argyrophilic inclusions.  


The presently accepted methods for evaluation of splenic reticuloendothelial (RE) function include 99mTc sulfur colloid spleen scan, antibody-coated autologous erythrocyte clearance, and pocked erythrocyte count. All methods involve special equipment and/or risk and inconvenience to patients. A simple method of assessing splenic RE function was developed by counting erythrocytes with argyrophilic inclusions using a simple silver stain and an ordinary microscope. To test the validity of this method, blood samples were collected from patients suspected of having hyposplenia or asplenia, including patients with history of splenectomy, sickle cell disease or trait, and newborns. Blood samples were also collected from normal adults and from patients without hyposplenia or asplenia as controls. The samples were tested by this method and compared to the pocked erythrocyte count that served as a gold standard. The results obtained by the two methods were found to be very comparable with little overlap between those from controls and patients with definite hyposplenia or asplenia. With the pocked erythrocyte count as the gold standard, this method has a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 97.1%. However, this method requires no special equipment. Staining can be applied to fresh blood smears as well as to Wright-stained smears, and the silver-stained smears are permanent. PMID:8623761

Tham, K T; Teague, M W; Howard, C A; Chen, S Y



Erythrocyte dynamics in flow affects blood rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Normal blood consists of highly deformable particles (red blood cells, RBC, or erythrocytes) suspended in a Newtonian fluid (blood plasma). As a rough physical model of erythrocytes, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) are successfully used to probe their membrane properties. In shear flows vesicles and red blood cells show rich variety of dynamical behaviours influencing the rheological properties of their suspensions. Here, we focus on new experimental aspects of the problem in the case, when a combination of an oscillatory shear rate and a basic constant shear rate is applied to suspensions. Experimental examples with concentrated RBC suspensions are presented together with a discussion on the importance of the superposition of a constant shear flow to the pure oscillation, which is usually used to extract the viscoelastic properties of a complex fluid.

Vitkova, V.; Farutin, A.; Polack, B.; Misbah, C.; Podgorski, T.



[Complete blood counts: new parameters].  


Performing a complete blood count analysis is a daily routine necessary for a good care of patients. Nowadays, modern blood analyzers provide on top of classical blood values, several additional parameters. In this paper, using short case presentations, we discuss how to interpret these results and integrate them in the clinical context. PMID:24313051

Lambert, J-F; Vollenweider, P



Understanding Blood Counts  


... myeloma, and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. LLS funds lifesaving blood cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy | Security | Copyright | Link Policy | Disclaimer | Refund Policy | Public Disclosure | ...


White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.



Low white blood cell count and cancer  


When your blood is tested, ask for your white blood cell count. When your white blood cell count is low, do what you can to prevent infections. Know the signs of infection and what to do if you see them.


Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.



Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1\\/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified

D. W. Bianchi; J. H. M. Knoll; A. F. Flint; M. F. Pizzimenti; S. A. Latt



Morphofunctional characteristics of the glutathione cycle in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with a history of cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation during gestation.  


We studied factors influencing peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection during gestation. Cytomegalovirus infection was associated with a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and glutathione peroxidase, which leads to H2O2 accumulation in the blood. Exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection was associated with reduction of glutathione reductase and SOD activities. Erythrocyte antioxidant function and the peripheral blood discocyte count decreased. Accumulation of degenerative erythrocytes is fraught with the risk of anemia in pregnant women. PMID:24952498

Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A; Kutepova, O L



An analysis of bison erythrocyte antigens and blood proteins  

E-print Network

hemolysis, agglutination of the erythrocytes and allergic reactions. Karl Landsteiner (Zmijewski, 1978) in 1901, was the first to point out that there were immunologic differences among red blood cell antigens. He found that humans of blood group A... that there existed a simple genetic relationship between the presence and absence of particular red cell antigens. Since Landsteiner (Land- stei ner, 1936) recognised s1mi lar differences in the blood cells of man, many attempts have been made to demonstrate...

Zamora, Linda Elia



Effect of Telfairia occidentalis on erythrocyte indices of rats following acute blood loss.  


Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is popularly used in soup and folk medicine preparation in the management of various diseases such as diabetics, anaemia, and gastrointestinal disorders in Nigeria. This study sought to investigate the effect of orally administered aqueous extract of T. occidentalis leaf on some erythrocyte indices in albino rats of the Wistar strain following acute blood loss. Thirty rats were divided into 6 equal groups. Blood loss (haemorrhagic anaemia) was induced by bleeding 30% of the blood volume of rats through the retro-orbital venus plexus in 3 groups (IV-VI). Group I served as the normal control. 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract were administered orally, once daily to Groups II and III respectively, for 28 days. Group IV served as the bled control. Groups V and VI were bled animals to which 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract was administered orally, once daily respectively, for 28 days. On the 29th day, the rats (fasted overnight) were sacrificed by decapitation and blood was collected through the retro-orbital venus plexus and used for assessment of some erythrocyte indices: red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, white blood cell count, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and erythrocyte osmofragility. Telfairia occidentalis noticeable increased the red blood cell count of the treated bled rats with 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract to give 11.90 x 10(12)/L and 11.91 x 10(12)/L respectively when compared to the bled control (10.85 x 10(12)/L), P<0.05). The 20mg/day T. occidentalis treated group showed increase in MCV (43.98fl) when compared to the bled control (39.56fl). Erythrocyte osmofragility which was decreased in the bled control was further decreased noticeably by the 20mg T. occidentalis treated group. The improved erythrocyte indices, at 20mg/day of extract, and reduced erythrocyte osmofragility are indications oferythropoietic potential of T. occidentalis. PMID:22416653

Odede, T A; Ikusagba, B; Odetola, A A



Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel



Effect of storage of blood on the osmotic fragility of mammalian erythrocytes.  


The osmotic fragility of mammalian erythrocytes during blood storage was determined. Significant changes were observed in the fragility of goat, cattle, pig, mouse, rat and rabbit erythrocytes but not in sheep erythrocytes during the storage of blood for 24 hours at 10 degrees C. PMID:8342357

Oyewale, J O



Laser-based particle-counting microimmunoassay for the analysis of single human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

A particle-counting immunoassay system for ultrasensitive analysis of proteins in a capillary environment has been developed. The assay is based on the agglutination of antibody-coated particles in the presence of an antigen (usually a protein). The particles were electrophoretically migrated in a 20-[mu]m-i.d. capillary past a detection window where a laser beam irradiates continuously. The light scattering events generated by the agglutinated particles were counted while those produced by unreacted particles were electronically rejected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was chosen as a test compound for the off-column as well as for the on-column versions of this method. A limit of detection of 620 molecules of G6PDH (1 zmol) was found in the on-column assay. The standard deviation between runs was approximately 6%, which is comparable to that of standard immunoassay methods. The application to the determination of G6PDH levels in individual human erythrocytes is presented. A 14-fold cell-to-cell variation was found which can be explained by the age distribution in the red blood cells. 42 refs., 5 figs.

Rosenzweig, Z.; Yeung, E.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States) Ames Lab., IA (United States))



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...



White blood cell counts: reference methodology.  


Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I



Six-day stability of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in-vitro: A comparison of blood samples from healthy, iron-deficient, and thalassemic individuals.  


Abstract Introduction. Stability for up to 6 days' storage of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in samples from iron-deficient and thalassemic individuals has not yet been reported. This lack of knowledge challenges evaluation of the full blood count in referral samples for hemoglobinopathy evaluation. We therefore hereby present such sample stability data. Methods. We included fresh (less than 4 hours old) blood samples from eight healthy, eight iron-deficient, and 11 thalassemic individuals. A full blood count, including reticulocyte parameters, was performed on a Sysmex XE-2100 once daily during a 6-day storage period at room temperature. For healthy individuals, we also studied stability of refrigerated samples and investigated analytical and biological variation. Results. Hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were stable for 6 days in all diagnostic groups. Mean corpuscular volume increased less in samples from iron-deficient individuals while the number of reticulocytes increased more in samples from thalassemic, as compared to healthy individuals. Ret-He stability depended on its baseline value. Within-person biological variation in samples from healthy individuals was low both for erythrocyte parameters and for reticulocyte hemoglobin, while higher for reticulocyte counts. Conclusion. Results for hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin are reliable in hemoglobinopathy investigation of referred samples for up to 6 days. Storage time-dependent changes of other erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters in blood samples from iron-deficient and thalassemic individuals differ from those of healthy individuals. PMID:25608597

Sudmann-Day, Åshild A; Piehler, Armin; Klingenberg, Olav; Urdal, Petter



ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.



Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)




E-print Network

LYSIS OF ANTIBODY COATED CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES BY A NON-LYMPHOCYTE PIG BLOOD LEUKOCYTE B. CHARLEY H : minimal essential medium. CRBC : chicken red blood cells. PBL : peripheral blood leukocytes. EA communication, using a con- ventionnal slchromium release test with label- led chicken erythrocytes sensitized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The physiologic role of erythrocytes in oxygen delivery and implications for blood storage.  


Erythrocytes are not just oxygen delivery devices but play an active metabolic role in modulating microvascular blood flow. Hemoglobin and red blood cell morphology change as local oxygen levels fall, eliciting the release of adenosine triphosphate and nitric oxide to initiate local vasodilation. Aged erythrocytes undergo physical and functional changes such that some of the red cell's most physiologically helpful attributes are diminished. This article reviews the functional anatomy and applied physiology of the erythrocyte and the microcirculation with an emphasis on how erythrocytes modulate microvascular function. The effects of cell storage on the metabolic functions of the erythrocyte are also briefly discussed. PMID:25169686

Benedik, Penelope S; Hamlin, Shannan K




E-print Network

count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3


Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research. PMID:23467296

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid



Influence of propofol on erythrocyte morphology, blood viscosity and platelet function.  


The intravenous anaesthetic propofol has been associated with cardiovascular side effects. We therefore studied its influence on blood viscosity, erythrocytes and platelet aggregation. Blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with propofol concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 200, and 500 microg/ml plasma. Whole blood viscosity (shear rates 94.5 and 0.1 s(-1)), plasma viscosity, erythrocyte morphology and platelet aggregation (PFA-100 system) were determined. These parameters were also measured in vivo in 9 patients prior to anaesthesia, after induction, before the end and 1 h after the end of propofol anaesthesia. Propofol induced a slight, dose-dependent echinocytic shape transformation of erythrocytes in vitro, indicating a preferential intercalation of the drug in the outer hemileaflet of the membrane. Neither whole blood nor plasma viscosity were affected in vitro. In vivo, no change in erythrocytes shape was seen, but plasma and whole blood viscosity at high shear rate (94.5 s(-1)) were decreased at the end of anaesthesia, which may be due to some extent to plasma dilution. Platelet aggregation with epinephrine was decreased both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that propofol interacts with the erythrocyte membrane without affecting blood and plasma viscosity and decreases platelet aggregation, which may have clinical implications. PMID:14561902

Reinhart, W H; Felix, Ch



Effect of blood hematocrit and erythrocyte deformability on adenosine 5'-diphosphate platelet reactivity in patients with acute coronary syndromes on dual antiplatelet therapy.  


Previous studies have explored the association between hemorheologic alterations and aspirin resistance, pointing out the possible interaction between hematologic components and platelet responsiveness to antiplatelet drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between hemorheologic variables and residual platelet reactivity in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention on dual antiplatelet therapy. The study population included 528 patients with ACSs. Hemorheologic studies were performed by assessing whole blood viscosity at 0.512 and 94.5/second, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte deformability index. Post-treatment platelet reactivity was investigated by measuring platelet aggregation by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) 10 mumol and a value >70% was defined as high ADP platelet reactivity. Significantly (p <0.01) lower values of hematocrit and erythrocyte deformability and higher values of whole blood viscosity at 94.5/second were found in patients with high ADP platelet reactivity. At multivariate analysis, lower values of hematocrit and erythrocyte deformability index and higher values of whole blood viscosity at 94.5/second and leukocytes (highest vs lowest tertile) also resulted in an independent association with high platelet reactivity, except for leukocytes, after simultaneous adjustment for hematocrit, leukocyte count, and erythrocyte deformability index. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the influence of hematocrit and of erythrocyte deformability on ADP platelet reactivity. These variables could be considered to optimize treatment with antiplatelet therapy in these patients. PMID:19733708

Cecchi, Emanuele; Marcucci, Rossella; Paniccia, Rita; Bandinelli, Brunella; Valente, Serafina; Giglioli, Cristina; Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco; Abbate, Rosanna; Mannini, Lucia



Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic methods of phase micro-objects visualization (the holographic phase contrast method and the method of holographic interferometry) are considered. Comparative analysis of classical and holographic methods in microscopy of phase micro-objects is carried out. An arrangement of the holographic interference microscope realizing the holographic methods and experimental results of 3-D imaging of native blood erythrocytes are presented. It is shown that 3-D morphology of blood erythrocytes reflects and determines the state of a human organism and those different physical and chemical factors and internal pathologies influence erythrocytes morphology. The holographic interference microscope was used for investigation of ozone therapy influence on human blood erythrocytes. Blood samples of 60 patients of different age with neurosensoric hardness of hearing before and after ozone therapy were investigated. It was shown that all patients have changed erythrocytes mrophology. Ozone therapy treatment results in normalization of erythrocytes morphology of patients.

Tishko, Tatyana V.; Titar, V. P.; Barchotkina, T. M.; Tishko, D. N.



Blood count and hematologic morphology in nonanemic macrocytosis: differences between alcohol abuse and pernicious anemia.  


In order to find out if blood count parameters could help to differentiate between the two most common causes for nonanemic macrocytosis, alcohol abuse and vitamin B12 deficiency, we studied 18 nonanemic pernicious anemia patients and 136 alcohol abusers without deficiency of folate and with an erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV) value > or = 100 femtoliters. In addition to blood count reticulocytes, peripheral blood smear and marrow aspirates were examined. The combination of a low red cell count (< 4.0 x 10(12)/l) or a high red cell distribution width (E-CDW) value (> 15.0%) with a normal thrombocyte count and a normal thrombocyte mean cell volume (T-MCV) was found in 94.4% of the vitamin deficient patients but in only 14.6% of the abusers, in 25.0% of the folate deficient patients (n = 8), and in 26.9% of the patients without any cause for macrocytosis (n = 52). None of the peripheral blood smear or marrow findings exceeded this sensitivity, and the few highly specific findings had low sensitivities. Thus, the combination of the four blood count parameters proved to be, as compared to hematologic morphology, a good diagnostic tool in selecting patients for appropriate further diagnostic tests. All patients with macrocytosis should be asked about their alcohol consumption. Additionally, serum B12 vitamin should be measured at least when nonanemic macrocytosis is combined to a low red cell count or a high E-CDW and the thrombocyte count and T-MCV are normal. PMID:8216878

Seppä, K; Sillanaukee, P; Saarni, M



Erythrocyte-Derived Microparticles Supporting Activated Protein C-Mediated Regulation of Blood Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived microparticle surface is suitable for the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system, which may be important to balance the initiation and propagation of coagulation in vivo. PMID:25136857

Livaja Koshiar, Ruzica; Somajo, Sofia; Norström, Eva; Dahlbäck, Björn



Erythrocytes participate significantly in blood transport of amino acids during the post absorptive state in normal humans.  


To investigate the participation of erythrocytes in the blood transport of amino acids during the course of intestinal absorption in humans, erythrocyte and plasma amino-acid concentrations were determined following ingestion of an oral load of amino acids. In addition to baseline plasma and erythrocyte amino acid concentrations in 18 subjects, plasma and erythrocyte amino acids kinetics during the 125 min following an oral amino acid load were further determined in 9 of the 18 subjects. The results showed that human erythrocytes contained most amino acids at similar or higher concentrations than plasma. Furthermore, the correlations observed between plasma and erythrocyte contents clearly indicated that erythrocytes were involved in the transport of amino acids by the blood. For some amino acids erythrocyte transport sometimes exceeded that of plasma. Significant correlation coefficients showed that strong plasma-erythrocyte relationships existed for alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and ornithine. In conclusion, our data supported the hypothesis that both blood compartments, plasma and erythrocytes, are involved significantly in the blood transport of amino acids in humans during the postabsorptive state. PMID:9840404

Agli, A N; Schaefer, A; Geny, B; Piquard, F; Haberey, P



How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites  

E-print Network

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites 1. Scanning for Leucocytozoon in bird blood in the blood, but are large parasites and can be spotted even under low power. 2. For Plasmodium slide box (Carolina blue box) that holds 25 slides. The bottom of the slide box has a layer of paper

Schall, Joseph J.


Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter

Claudio R. M. Mauricio; Fábio K. Schneider; L. Correia dos Santos



Multiple loci influence erythrocyte phenotypes in the CHARGE Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of erythrocytes within the blood are important clinical traits and can indicate various hematological disorders. We report here genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for six erythrocyte traits, including hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red blood cell count (RBC). We performed an initial GWAS in cohorts of

Neil A Zakai; Frank J A van Rooij; Nicole Soranzo; Albert V Smith; Michael A Nalls; Ming-Huei Chen; Anna Kottgen; Nicole L Glazer; Abbas Dehghan; Brigitte Kuhnel; Thor Aspelund; Qiong Yang; Toshiko Tanaka; Andrew Jaffe; Joshua C M Bis; Germaine C Verwoert; Alexander Teumer; Caroline S Fox; Jack M Guralnik; Georg B Ehret; Kenneth Rice; Janine F Felix; Augusto Rendon; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Daniel Levy; Kushang V Patel; Eric Boerwinkle; Jerome I Rotter; Albert Hofman; Jennifer G Sambrook; Dena G Hernandez; Gang Zheng; Stefania Bandinelli; Andrew B Singleton; Josef Coresh; Thomas Lumley; André G Uitterlinden; Janine M vanGils; Lenore J Launer; L Adrienne Cupples; Ben A Oostra; Jaap-Jan Zwaginga; Willem H Ouwehand; Swee-Lay Thein; Christa Meisinger; Panos Deloukas; Matthias Nauck; Tim D Spector; Christian Gieger; Vilmundur Gudnason; Cornelia M van Duijn; Bruce M Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Aravinda Chakravarti; Andreas Greinacher; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Susan Furth; Mary Cushman; Tamara B Harris; Jing-Ping Lin; Santhi K Ganesh; Christopher J O'Donnell



Computed tomography of the periphery blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biological objects, including blood cells, are optically transparent. They don't absorb light and only change optical path length by variations of object's thickness or its refractive index variations. The phase shifting interferometry is used for the visualization of the phase information and the obtaining quantitative properties of cells. Cells are fixed by glutaraldehyde and mounted into immersion liquid for

Elena A. Streletskaya; Julia K. Novoderzhkina; Gennady N. Vishnyakov; Gennady G. Levin; Gennady I. Kozinets



Multicompartment kinetic model for lead. III. Lead in blood plasma and erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by P.E. deSilva and one subject studied by W.I. Manton and C.R. Malloy. Nonlinear models for plasma lead vs blood lead in populations provide significantly better descriptions than does a linear model. Short-term kinetic data do not clearly resolve the precise nonlinear mechanism, however, parameters of plasma and erythrocyte distribution in a single subject were significantly different on two occasions.

Marcus, A.H.



Erythrocyte Concentrates Recovered from Under-Collected Whole Blood: Experimental and Clinical Results  

PubMed Central

Background Although periodic blood shortages are widespread in major Chinese cities, approximately 1x105 U of whole blood are discarded yearly because of under-collection. To reduce the wastage of acid citrate dextrose solution B (ACD-B) anticoagulated under-collected whole blood (UC-WB), this study was performed to elucidate the effect of extracellular pH and holding time on erythrocyte quality. Mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP) erythrocyte concentrates (UC-RBCs) were prepared with UC-WB to assess the safety and efficacy of this component. Methods The effect of the different extracellular pH levels and storage times on erythrocytes was assessed by fluorescent probes, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. In vitro properties of 34 UC-RBCs that were prepared with UC-WB at different times after collection were analyzed and compared to normal RBCs during 35 days of storage. The results of transfusion with UC-RBCs and the incidence of adverse reactions in 49 patients were determined. Results 1) Low extracellular pH levels and long storage time induced increases in RBC fluorescence polarization and mean microviscosity, changes in membrane fluidity, band 1, 2 and 3 protein expression, and erythrocyte morphology. 2) During storage for 35 days, difference in between-subjects effects of K+, hemolysis and supernatant erythrocyte membrane protein (EMP) were statistically significant (P = 0.041, 0.007 and 0.002, respectively), while the differences between these parameters in the 4 h group and comparable controls were less significant. 3) Clinical data from 49 patients confirmed that transfusions with UC-RBCs were satisfactory with no adverse reactions. Conclusion These results suggest that it is feasible to prepare RBCs with ACD-B anticoagulated UC-WB at a minimum of 66% volume of the labeled collection. It was effective and safe to transfuse the UC-RBCs prepared within 4 h after collection and stored within 7 days. The use of UC-WB would be a welcome addition to limited blood resources in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003967 PMID:25706725

Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Min-Hui; Liu, Yan-Chun; Cai, Li; Li, Zheng-Gang; Huang, Bing; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jun; Zhu, Yi



Effect of erythrocytes oscillations on dielectric properties of human diabetic-blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that the erythrocytes (RBCs) oscillate during their tank-treading motion with high-frequency oscillations. This oscillatory motion drastically affects the dielectric and electrical properties of RBCs. Moreover, the glucose level in blood affects the electrical and dielectric properties of blood. It has been, also, shown that the frequency of these oscillations exponentially decrease from 1.2 MHz down to 0.85 MHz with variation of glucose level from 85 mg/dL up to 346.1 mg/dL. It is expected that these oscillations strongly affect the general physiological properties of blood and would stimulate the curiosity of scientists and bioengineers to present new, more efficient, rapid, safe and viable diagnostic and/or therapeutic methods for blood disorders; in particular diabetes.

Abdalla, S.



Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns  

SciTech Connect

The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha (USA))



Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.



Dose-response curves for erythrocyte protoporphyrin vs blood lead: effect of iron status  

SciTech Connect

An increase in erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) is one of the most useful indicators of adverse biological response to lead exposure. A nonlinear mathematical model relating EP to blood lead concentration (PbB) was fitted to data in a sample of 1677 US children (ages 2-6 years) in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Iron status was defined by percentage transferrin saturation (PTS). The dose-response curves for EP vs PbB increased systematically with decreasing PTS, largely due to decrease of a parameter proportional to red cell lead-holding capacity with decreasing PTS.

Marcus, A.H.; Schwartz, J.



The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humans.  


Lead-induced oxidative stress has been identified as the essential factor in lead poisoning pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the association between occupational lead exposure and blood rheological parameters with respect to malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product), lipofuscin, and glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. In brief, 129 workers were classified as the low-exposure group, while the high-exposure group was composed of 154 workers. The mean blood levels of lead and zinc-protoporphyrin and the mean urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid were used as exposure markers. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male administrative workers. Whole blood viscosity was elevated in both exposure subgroups compared with the control group. Erythrocyte aggregability increased significantly; although the increase was greater in the low exposure group. Erythrocyte deformability decreased in both subgroups. The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin were significantly elevated, whereas the glutathione content decreased. In conclusion, occupational exposure to lead may induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes. This stress elevates whole blood viscosity and disturbs erythrocyte aggregability and deformability. There is a dose-effect relationship between lead levels and blood rheological parameters. PMID:23370159

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, S?awomir



Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong



Biodynamic parameters of micellar diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and blood plasma.  


In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895

Staroverov, Sergey A; Sidorkin, Vladimir A; Fomin, Alexander S; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu; Dykman, Lev A



[Purification of superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte by nano magnetic chitosan microspheres].  


Nano magnetic microspheres prepared by chitosan and poly acylic acid were applied to purifying superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte. Chitosan-polyacyilc acid graft copolymer was synthesized by free radical graft copolymerization with potassium persulfate as inititator. To prepare Fe3O4 magnetic fluids with chemical coprecipitation, chitosan-polyacylic nano magnetic microspheres were prepared with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Structure of nano magnetic microspheres was detected by FT-IR spectrometer. Particle size and morphology were characterized by JEM-4000EX technology. Chitosan-polyacylic nanometer microspheres have good paticle cize distribution, magnetic responsiveness and protein adsoption. Activity, product yield and activity recovery of SOD after purification reached 6 727 U/mg, 21.1%, and 85.7% respectively. Purification of blood superoxide dismutase by chistosan-polyacylic acid microspheres has its renewable and feasible nature. PMID:25212016

Wang, Baoquan; Ping, Juan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yongzhou; Liu, Cui; Pang, Xiaobin



Erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as potential drug vehicles: Isolation by gradual hypotonic hemolysis and biochemical and morphological characterization.  


The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of isolation process-gradual hypotonic hemolysis on chosen parameters of the erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) originating from bovine and porcine slaughterhouse blood. The estimation of the gradual hypotonic hemolysis as a drug loading procedure for the erythrocyte ghosts was performed as well. Based on the results derived from analysis of the osmotic properties of the erythrocytes, the gradual hemolysis was performed with high volume of erythrocytes and 35mM hypotonic sodium-phosphate/NaCl, enabling >90% of hemolysis for both types of erythrocytes. Detailed insight into ghosts' morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy revealed a distortion from erythrocyte shape and an altered surface texture with increased bilayer curvature for both samples. Compared to erythrocytes, an average diameter of ghosts from both type of erythrocytes decreased for only about 10%. The reported unidispersity of the isolated ghosts is of great importance for their potential application as vehicles of active compounds. Gradual hemolysis did not lead to substantial loss of cholesterol and membrane/cytoskeleton proteins. This result indicated the ghosts' possibility to mimic the chemical and structural anisotropic environment of in vivo cell membranes, which is of significance for drug diffusion and partition coefficients. Induced shift of phosphatidylserine to external surface of the ghosts demonstrated their potential application as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to cells of reticuloendothelial system. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a drug model - dexamethasone-sodium phosphate, and its interaction with structural components in both types of erythrocyte ghosts. PMID:25051307

Kosti?, Ivana T; Ili?, Vesna Lj; ?or?evi?, Verica B; Bukara, Katarina M; Mojsilovi?, Slavko B; Nedovi?, Viktor A; Bugarski, Diana S; Veljovi?, ?or?e N; Miši?, Danijela M; Bugarski, Branko M



Red blood cell distribution width and erythrocyte deformability in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  


Increased RDW has been found to be a marker of adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Recently, several authors have found that higher RDW is associated with decreased erythrocyte deformability, which can impair blood flow through microcirculation, a fact which may explain the increased risk for CVD events associated with elevated RDW. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between RDW and erythrocyte deformability in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study group comprised 60 AMI patients and 72 gender- and age-matched controls, in whom erythrocyte deformability was determined by means of the elongation index (EI) in a Rheodyn SSD, along with haematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters. Patients showed higher RDW (p = 0.012) and lower EI (p < 0.05) than controls. When anaemic patients were removed from the study, AMI showed still lower EI than controls (p < 0.05), but no differences in RDW were observed (p = 0.141). RDW correlated inversely with haematimetric indices (p < 0.001), but not with inflammatory and biochemical parameters (p > 0.05). EI correlated inversely with Hb, MCHC (p < 0.001) and directly with MCV (p < 0.05). EI also correlated inversely with glucose (p < 0.05) and directly with HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). The multivariate regression model showed that only MCV and Hb were independent predictors of RDW (beta coefficients: -0.383, -0.208; p < 0.001, p = 0.050, respectively). In addition, MCV, MCHC and hyperlipidaemia were independent predictors of EI (beta coefficients: 0.366, -0.533, -0.192; p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.019 respectively). In AMI patients, increased RDW is not related with EI, so this mechanism does not seem to be responsible for an increased CDV risk in these patients. PMID:23752170

Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; de la Espriella, Rafael; Sanchez, Fernando; Suescun, Marta; Hernandez, José Luis; Fácila, Lorenzo



Targeted quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of erythrocyte membranes during blood bank storage.  


One of the hallmarks of blood bank stored red blood cells (RBCs) is the irreversible transition from a discoid to a spherocyte-like morphology with membrane perturbation and cytoskeleton disorders. Therefore, identification of the storage-associated modifications in the protein-protein interactions between the cytoskeleton and the lipid bilayer may contribute to enlighten the molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations of mechanical properties of stored RBCs. Here we report the results obtained analyzing RBCs after 0, 21 and 35?days of storage under standard blood banking conditions by label free mass spectrometry (MS)-based experiments. We could quantitatively measure changes in the phosphorylation level of crucial phosphopeptides belonging to ?-spectrin, ankyrin-1, ?-adducin, dematin, glycophorin A and glycophorin C proteins. Data have been validated by both western blotting and pseudo-Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM). Although each phosphopeptide showed a distinctive trend, a sharp increase in the phosphorylation level during the storage duration was observed. Phosphopeptide mapping and structural modeling analysis indicated that the phosphorylated residues localize in protein functional domains fundamental for the maintenance of membrane structural integrity. Along with previous morphological evidence acquired by electron microscopy, our results seem to indicate that 21-day storage may represent a key point for the molecular processes leading to the erythrocyte deformability reduction observed during blood storage. These findings could therefore be helpful in understanding and preventing the morphology-linked mechanisms responsible for the post-transfusion survival of preserved RBCs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25800014

Rinalducci, Sara; Longo, Valentina; Ceci, Luigi R; Zolla, Lello



Erythrocyte-Bound Apolipoprotein B in Relation to Atherosclerosis, Serum Lipids and ABO Blood Group  

PubMed Central

Introduction Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB) are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. Methods Subjects with and without CVD were included (N?=?398). Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ?0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was determined as a measure of (subclinical) atherosclerosis. Results Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80±0.09 mm, N?=?140) compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57±0.08 mm, N?=?258) (P?=?0.007, adjusted P<0.001). CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman’s r: –0.116, P?=?0.021). A total of 55 subjects (13.6%) were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04–3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85–2.82). Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56±0.94 a.u.) when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89±1.15 a.u), blood group B (0.73±0.1.12 a.u.) or blood group AB (0.69±0.69 a.u.) (P-ANOVA?=?0.002). Conclusion Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant. PMID:24069429

Klop, Boudewijn; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Bovenberg, Sarah A.; van der Meulen, Noëlle; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Birnie, Erwin; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; van Miltenburg, Addy; Jukema, J. Wouter; Cabezas, Manuel Castro



[The fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes in test of glucose tolerance].  


The sample of 26 patients with ischemic heart disease and syndrome of insulin resistance was subjected to standard test of glucose tolerance. The content of individual fatty acids was detected using technique of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In blood plasma, after 2 hours of post-prandial hyperglycemia, reliably decreased content of C 16:1 of palmitoleic mono fatty acid, C 18:1 oleic mono fatty acid and in a lesser degree C 18:2 linoleic unsaturated fatty acid (p < 0.05). The level C 14:0 of myristic unsaturated fatty acid, C 16:0 of palmitic unsaturated fatty acid and with 18:0 of stearic unsaturated fatty acid, ratio C 16:0/C 16:1 and C 18:0/C 18:1 had no changes: content of both (omega-6 C 20:3 digomo-gamma-linoleic unsaturated fatty acid and essential polyenoic fatty acids remained the same. The significant differences between initial content in blood plasma of palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic monoenic fatty acid was noted. The alteration in content of fatty acids in membranes of erythrocytes is the most expressed. In erythrocytes reliable (p < or = 0.05) decrease of content of C 16:0 palmitic fatty acid, C 18:0 stearic fatty acid and C 18:1 oleic fatty acid is established. The reliable decrease is noted in content of linoleic unsaturated fatty acid. In erythrocytes, moderate decrease is detected in levels of C 20:4 arachidonic polyenoic fatty acid, C 20:5 eicosapentaenoic polyenoic fatty acid. It is assumed that under post-prandial hyperglycemia insulin regulates metabolism of fatty acids, blocks lipolysis, decreases in cytosol of cells content of oleic and palmitic fatty acids inform of acetyl-KoA and forces mitochondrions intensively oxidate acetyl-KoA formed from pyruvate, from GLU. On surface of membrane, insulin increases number of glucose carriers GLUT4. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin is mediated by regulation first of all of metabolism of fatty acids. Hyperglycemia and insulin are two phylogenetically different humoral regulators. Insulin initiates blockade of lipolysis in adipocytes and positioning on membrane GLUT4. Hyperglycemia passively (activated) increases absorption by cells GLU on gradient of concentration inter-cellular medium--cytosol and synthesis of glycogen. PMID:25080793

Ameliushkina, V A; Aripovski?, A V; Titov, V N; Kaba, S I; Kotkina, T I; Parkhimovich, R M



The erythrocyte-stasis-meter (ESM): a device to determine a universal parameter for the flow characteristics of blood.  


A new experimental method is described which permits estimation of flow ability of blood: measuring the yield shear stress with the erythrocyte-stasis-meter (ESM). This method is based on the phenomenon that pathological blood under low pressure behaves like a solid body. Knowing the pressure difference at the transition point from solid to fluid behavior and the geometry of the channel, the yield shear stress can be calculated. PMID:6236858

Radtke, H; Roggenkamp, H G; Wolf, S; Mrowietz, C; Kiesewetter, H




PubMed Central

Blood counts were made on six series of monkeys before and at various intervals after the injection of active poliomyelitic virus. From the data thus obtained the variations in the circulating white cells have been followed in the several stages of the disease (a) before injection, (b) during the incubation period, (c) during the acute stage, including the stage of prostration, and (d) during recovery. On account of experimental conditions not all the monkeys were observed during the four periods, so that averages of counts in several monkeys are used for comparison. Averages of 121 counts on 40 normal monkeys are recorded. Immediately following the injection of the virus the relative and actual numbers of lymphocytes are slightly diminished. In many cases the curve continues sharply downward. In others from the 4th to the 6th day there is an actual increase for a brief period to a point somewhat in excess of the original count. With the onset of symptoms a lymphocytic crisis takes place. The curve then continues slightly downward, while the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes are relatively and actually increased at approximately the same time. During the stage of prostration the curve of the polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocytes returns to almost normal, while the lymphocytic curve continues slightly downward. With recovery the lymphocytes slowly return to normal after several weeks. There is no evidence of lymphocytic stimulation after recovery. Eosinophilic, basophilic, large mononuclear, and transitional leucocytes follow the depressions and stimulations exhibited by the neutrophilic cells of the same series. The results here recorded are consistent with the observations of Peabody, Draper, and Dochez on human cases. The increase in the total number of circulating lymphocytes after the lymphocytic crisis is coincident with the passing of the acute stage. Additional evidence is presented to indicate that Smillie produced atypical but definite poliomyelitis in the monkey with cultivated virus. PMID:19868309

Taylor, Herbert D.



Invasion of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and erythrocytes by Mycoplasma bovis.  


Mycoplasma bovis is a small, cell wall-less bacterium that contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in both dairy and feedlot cattle, including mastitis and bronchopneumonia. Numerous reports have implicated M. bovis in the activation of the immune system, while at the same time inhibiting immune cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether the specific immune-cell population M. bovis is capable of attaching to and potentially invading. Here, we demonstrate that incubation of M. bovis Mb1 with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in a significant reduction in their proliferative responses while still remaining viable and capable of gamma interferon secretion. Furthermore, we show that M. bovis Mb1 can be found intracellularly (suggesting a role for either phagocytosis or attachment/invasion) in a number of select bovine PBMC populations (T cells, B cells, monocytes, ?? T cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, and T-helper cells), as well as red blood cells, albeit it at a significantly lower proportion. M. bovis Mb1 appeared to display three main patterns of intracellular staining: diffuse staining, an association with the intracellular side of the cell membrane, and punctate/vacuole-like staining. The invasion of circulating immune cells and erythrocytes could play an important role in disease pathogenesis by aiding the transport of M. bovis from the lungs to other sites. PMID:20713619

van der Merwe, Jacques; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose



Invasion of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Erythrocytes by Mycoplasma bovis? †  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis is a small, cell wall-less bacterium that contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in both dairy and feedlot cattle, including mastitis and bronchopneumonia. Numerous reports have implicated M. bovis in the activation of the immune system, while at the same time inhibiting immune cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether the specific immune-cell population M. bovis is capable of attaching to and potentially invading. Here, we demonstrate that incubation of M. bovis Mb1 with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in a significant reduction in their proliferative responses while still remaining viable and capable of gamma interferon secretion. Furthermore, we show that M. bovis Mb1 can be found intracellularly (suggesting a role for either phagocytosis or attachment/invasion) in a number of select bovine PBMC populations (T cells, B cells, monocytes, ?? T cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, and T-helper cells), as well as red blood cells, albeit it at a significantly lower proportion. M. bovis Mb1 appeared to display three main patterns of intracellular staining: diffuse staining, an association with the intracellular side of the cell membrane, and punctate/vacuole-like staining. The invasion of circulating immune cells and erythrocytes could play an important role in disease pathogenesis by aiding the transport of M. bovis from the lungs to other sites. PMID:20713619

van der Merwe, Jacques; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose




Microsoft Academic Search

Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites\\/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or

Ralph D. Godfrey; Alan M. Fedynich; Danny B. Pence



DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts.  


Following the bite of an infective mosquito, malaria parasites first invade the liver where they develop and replicate for a number of days before being released into the bloodstream where they invade red blood cells and cause disease. The biology of the liver stages of malaria parasites is relatively poorly understood due to the inaccessibility of the parasites to sampling during this phase of their life cycle. Here we report the detection in blood and faecal samples of malaria parasite DNA throughout their development in the livers of mice and before the parasites begin their growth in the blood circulation. It is shown that parasite DNA derived from pre-erythrocytic stage parasites reaches the faeces via the bile. We then show that different primate malaria species can be detected by PCR in blood and faecal samples from naturally infected captive macaque monkeys. These results demonstrate that pre-erythrocytic parasites can be detected and quantified in experimentally infected animals. Furthermore, these results have important implications for both molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of malaria parasites. In the former case, individuals who are malaria parasite negative by microscopy, but PCR positive for parasite DNA in their blood, are considered to be "sub-microscopic" blood stage parasite carriers. We now propose that PCR positivity is not necessarily an indicator of the presence of blood stage parasites, as the DNA could derive from pre-erythrocytic parasites. Similarly, in the case of molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences alone, we argue that DNA amplified from blood or faeces does not necessarily come from a parasite species that infects the red blood cells of that particular host. PMID:24704779

Abkallo, Hussein M; Liu, Weimin; Hokama, Sarina; Ferreira, Pedro E; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Quang, Nguyen T; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Osamu; Huffman, Michael A; Kawai, Satoru; Marchand, Ron P; Carter, Richard; Hahn, Beatrice H; Culleton, Richard



Individual whole-body concentration of (137)Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.  


The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 September 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.60. PMID:24064533

Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried



Increased erythrocyte volume in car repair painters and car mechanics.  

PubMed Central

The biological effect of occupational long term low level exposure to organic solvents was studied in 17 car repair painters and 28 car mechanics, and compared with a control group consisting of 46 healthy men not exposed to organic solvents. The erythrocyte count (RBC) was significantly decreased for both the painters and the mechanics compared with the control group, and a significant increase in the mean erythrocyte volume (MCV) was seen in painters. The mode in size distribution of the erythrocytes (MAXRBC) was shifted towards larger cell volumes for both painters and mechanics. When data from painters and mechanics were combined, the exposed group showed a significantly reduced erythrocyte count (RBC), an increased mean erythrocyte volume (MVC), and an increased mean platelet volume (MPV) compared with the controls. Exposure measurements in combination with analysis of haematological parameters may be a tool for early detection of cellular changes in the blood caused by exposure to solvents, before the appearance of clinical symptoms. PMID:1854652

Beving, H; Tornling, G; Olsson, P



Prevalence of increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in German blood donors: Screening using a modified glycerol lysis test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We screened for increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in 1464 healthy German blood donors. The osmotic fragility was determined by an acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT) using glycerol-sodium phosphate-buffered NaCl solution. Since the original test described by Zanella et al. [23] showed only low specificity for hereditary spherocytosis, we used a modification with 0.0093M sodium phosphate-buffered glycerol-saline solution, pH

S. W. Eber; A. Pekrun; A. Neufeldt; W. Schröter



Erythrocytic antioxidant defense, lipid peroxides level and blood iron, zinc and copper concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni.  


Babesiosis is a common tick borne disease of dogs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world caused by different species of Babesia. The present study aimed to examine erythrocyte lipid peroxide and erythrocytic antioxidant levels in dogs with clinical babesiosis, caused by Babesia gibsoni, and impact of the disease on blood iron, zinc and copper levels. The study was conducted on 10 naturally occurring cases of canine babesiosis with the history of tick infestation, erratic pyrexia, and prolonged illness. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears confirmed B. gibsoni infection in the erythrocytes. Six apparently healthy dogs of different age, sex and breeds, brought for either health checkup or vaccination were used for comparison. Levels of erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P<0.01) higher in sick dogs than those of cytologically negative dogs (catalase: 0.192+/-0.024 units/mg Hb vs 0.074+/-0.004 units/mg Hb; superoxide dismutase: 0.014+/-0.0009 units/mg Hb vs 0.006+/-0.0008 units/mg Hb and lipid peroxide: 6.01+/-0.30 nmol MDA/mg Hb vs 1.89+/-0.10 nmol MDA/mg Hb). The levels of blood micronutrients were significantly low in these dogs (iron: 89.87+/-8.12 microg/g vs 126.44+/-14.65 microg/g; zinc: 3.67+/-1.85 microg/g vs 5.62+/-1.83 microg/g and copper: 0.55+/-0.63 microg/g vs 0.65+/-0.04 microg/g). The study demonstrated oxidative damage in dogs naturally infected with B. gibsoni. Low level of blood iron, zinc and copper seems to have an additional role in the genesis of anaemia and oxidative stress. PMID:18378268

Chaudhuri, S; Varshney, J P; Patra, R C



Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.



Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device  

E-print Network

As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

Zimmerman, Julia C



Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte count in relation to blood bicarbonate concentration in peritoneal dialysis patients.  


Metabolic acidosis negatively influences dietary intake, increases protein catabolism, and deteriorates nutritional status. In the present study, we evaluated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients whether parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium influence total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs), which are markers of the immunologic and nutritional status of dialyzed patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients, mean age 50.9 +/- 12.4 years, treated with PD for a mean of 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of blood acid-base equilibrium were measured simultaneously with evaluation of TLC and SLCs. (Antigens CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD19, CD16+56 were determined using flow cytometry.) The study patients showed compensated metabolic acidosis (pH: 7.40 +/- 0.04; HCO3-: 22.9 +/- 2.4 mmol/L). Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations of bicarbonate blood concentration and base excess with TLC and with CD3, CD5, and CD8 cell counts, but not with CD19 and CD16+56 cell counts. The CD4 cell count correlated only with blood bicarbonate level. Patients on PD who show better correction of metabolic acidosis also show higher TLC and CD3, CD4, CD5, and CD8 cell counts. The numbers of B lymphocytes (CD19) and natural killer cells (CD16+56) are not directly related to bicarbonate blood concentration, at least in the examined range. PMID:16686281

Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena



70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

Ercan, ?erif; Çal??kan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan



The impact of elevated blood glycemic level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the erythrocyte membrane: FTIR study.  


In developed countries, medical awareness about the disease and how to deal with it is less acknowledged. With diabetes mellitus the situation becomes more serious due to the fact that it affects nearly all parts of the body and may lead to loss of vision. In this study, the variation of blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients was considered, and its effect(s) on their blood erythrocyte membranes was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were classified into two groups with mean fasting blood glucose level of 185 mg/dl (D-185 group) and 285 mg/dl (D-285 group). For comparison, healthy individuals were involved where their mean fasting blood glucose level is 86 mg/dl. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to induce change in the lipid and protein components and causing some important structural changes in the protein secondary structure with change in the beta-sheet and beta-turn structures at D-285 mg/dl group. Erythrocyte membrane disorder was increased associated with restriction in the vibrational motion around the phospholipids interface region. PMID:20652761

Mahmoud, Sherif S



Erythrocyte Folate Analysis: Saponin Added During Lysis of Whole Blood Can Increase Apparent Folate Concentrations, Depending on Hemolysate pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The analysis of red cell folate (RCF) de- pends on complete hemolysis of erythrocytes, and it is assumed that complete hemolysis is achieved by 10-fold dilution of whole blood with hypotonic solutions of 10 g\\/L ascorbic acid\\/ascorbate. This report challenges this assumption. Methods: The conventional method of erythrocyte lysis was modified to include saponin, a known effective hemolyzing agent.

Anthony J. A. Wright; Paul M. Finglas; Susan Southon



E-print Network

salmon (0. keta). The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, and the blood glucose, chloride. and calcium levels fell; and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the blood urea and nonprotein nitrogen characteristics changed little, blood proteins, glucose, and cholesterol decreased progressively, and lipid


Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high (6-8 ppm) and moderate (1.5 ppm) amounts of ozone (O3) for various time periods. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone was monitored with red blood cell potassium (rubidium) influx studies, with storage stress combined with ultrastructural studies and with levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Erythrocytes of rats exposed to O3 showed no significant changes either in their potassium influx or in their glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to controls. Erythrocyte differential counts on O3-exposed animals showed significant changes initially as well as following storage stress compared to controls. Rats exposed to 8 ppm O3 for 4 h showed a marked increase in echinocytes. These consistent transformations from discocytes to echinocytes following O3 exposure suggest latent erythrocyte damage has occurred.

Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Mrs. Beck



Variation of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of Sciurus aureogaster in relation to age: an increment of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes after the administration of colchicine.  


In some species, in which the human is included, the influence of age in the variation in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) is known. In the present work we show how the process of aging influences the number of spontaneous MNE in the gray squirrel (Sciurus aureogaster). Because of the difficulty of knowing the age of each animal, 69 animals were weighed at their arrival to the laboratory and at the start of sample taking, with the supposition that the heaviest animals were the oldest and those with the lightest weight were the youngest. The major number of MNE was found in the younger animals, whereas the adults displayed less MNE (P < 0.0001). A group of 11 animals were sampled every 15 days over a period of 6 months, and the number of MNE were found to decrease with an increment in the weight in conformity with the time elapsed. These results showed that in the gray squirrel, the number of spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood depend on age. An additional interesting datum about the increment of MNE after the administration of colchicine is shown. PMID:11246224

Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Ramos-Ibarra, M L; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ventura-Aguilar, A J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ortíz, G G; Alvarez-Moya, C; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Gallegos-Arreola, M P



Quantification of hematozoa in blood smears.  


Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or from the number of fields of view examined. Doubling the number of erythrocytes counted (1) decreased the overdispersed frequency distribution patterns in only 25% of the replicate counts for numbers of H. maccallumi/100 erythrocytes for a series of 2,000 versus 4,000 erythrocytes counted; and (2) did not significantly increase the accuracy for determining parasite intensities. Thus, the number of erythrocytes that must be counted to determine parasite intensities could be considerably reduced from the 10,000 or 20,000 estimated for most studies, and still provide an accurate determination of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes in datasets collected from hosts with moderate to high levels of parasitemia. This resulted in a decreased amount of time expended by the observer on each blood smear examined. With two equivalently trained individuals, differences between observers examining the same blood smears were minimal. This study suggests an approach by which a more standardized methodology for quantifying blood parasite intensities could be developed. PMID:3119870

Godfrey, R D; Fedynich, A M; Pence, D B



Effect of oral ingestion of different fractions of Allium cepa on the blood and erythrocyte membrane lipids and certain membrane-bound enzymes in rats.  


The effect of oral ingestion of different fractions of onion (Allium cepa)--extract, residue, and whole--at a dose level equivalent to intake of 50 g of onion per day for a 70-kg man, for 30 days, to male adult, normal, albino rats was studied on blood and erythrocyte membrane lipids and certain membrane-bound enzymes. Onion extract and residue showed hypercholesterolemic effect, while whole onion showed hypocholesterolemic effect in blood. In erythrocyte membranes, all the fractions had hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effect, which was accompanied by changes in the erythrocyte membrane enzymes studied, i.e., alkaline and acid phosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, total and Mg2+ ATPase. The above study indicated that it is safer to take whole onion rather than onion residue or extract, because whole onion could lower the blood cholesterol level even in normal condition and has a less pronounced effect on the micro-environment of the cells. PMID:2525181

Ahluwalia, P; Mohindroo, A



Correlation between Peripheral White Blood Cell Counts and Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the correlation between differential leukocyte counts and hyperglycemic emergencies. Methods: Fifty patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), 50 patients with diabetic ketosis (DK), 50 non-DK diabetic patients with stable glycemic control, and 50 normal controls were enrolled. Their total and differential leukocyte counts were measured and evaluated at admission and after treatment. Results: The patients with DKA and DK had higher plasma glucose levels (20.84±6.73 mmol/L, 15.55±2.6 mmol/L, respectively) and more median leukocytes (13325/mm3 and 6595/mm3, respectively) and median neutrophils (11124 /mm3 and 4125/mm3, respectively) but fewer median eosinophils (28/mm3 and 72/mm3, respectively) compared to non-DK and control groups (all p < 0.05). Acute infection increased the elevating extent. The median leukocyte counts in DK and non-DK patients (6595/mm3 and 6008/mm3, respectively) were within the normal range. The counts of total leukocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher but eosinophils lower in severe DKA cases than in mild/moderate cases (p < 0.05). When the DKA and DK and infection resolved, total leukocytes and neutrophils fell, but eosinophils increased. The counts of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes were negatively correlated with arterial pH levels (r = -0.515, r = -0.510, r = -0.517, all p < 0.001, respectively) and positively correlated with plasma glucose levels (r = 0.722, r = 0.733, r = 0.632, all p < 0.05, respectively) in DKA patients. The arterial pH level was the most significant factor affecting total leukocytes in DKA (? = 0.467, p = 0.003). The diagnosis analysis showed that higher total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and lower eosinophil counts had a significant ability to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic emergencies. Conclusion: More total leukocytes and neutrophils but fewer eosinophils was significantly correlated with DKA and DK. Leukocyte counts can add valuable information to reflect the presence of hyperglycemic crisis and acute infection. PMID:23630441

Xu, Wei; Wu, Hai-feng; Ma, Shao-gang; Bai, Feng; Hu, Wen; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hong



Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105




Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.  


Abstract The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r?=?0.9937, p?count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p?blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p?>?0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang



Erythrocyte adducin: A structural regulator of the red blood cell membrane  

PubMed Central

Adducin is an ?, ? heterotetramer that performs multiple important functions in the human erythrocyte membrane. First, adducin forms a bridge that connects the spectrin–actin junctional complex to band 3, the major membrane-spanning protein in the bilayer. Rupture of this bridge leads to membrane instability and spontaneous fragmentation. Second, adducin caps the fast growing (barbed) end of actin filaments, preventing the tetradecameric protofilaments from elongating into macroscopic F-actin microfilaments. Third, adducin stabilizes the association between actin and spectrin, assuring that the junctional complex remains intact during the mechanical distortions experienced by the circulating cell. And finally, adducin responds to stimuli that may be important in regulating the global properties of the cell, possibly including cation transport, cell morphology and membrane deformability. The text below summarizes the structural properties of adducin, its multiple functions in erythrocytes, and the consequences of engineered deletions of each of adducin subunits in transgenic mice. PMID:20655268

Franco, T.; Low, P.S.



Interpreting Complete Blood Counts Soon After Birth in Newborns at Risk for Sepsis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A complete blood count (CBC) with white blood cell differential is commonly ordered to evaluate newborns at risk for sepsis. OBJECTIVES To quantify how well components of the CBC predict sepsis in the first 72 hours after birth. METHODS For this retrospective cross-sectional study we identified 67 623 term and late-preterm (?34 weeks gestation) newborns from 12 northern California Kaiser hospitals and 1 Boston, Massachusetts hospital who had a CBC and blood culture within 1 hour of each other at <72 hours of age. We compared CBC results among newborns whose blood cultures were and were not positive and quantified discrimination by using receiver operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios. RESULTS Blood cultures of 245 infants (3.6 of 1000 tested newborns) were positive. Mean white blood cell (WBC) counts and mean absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were lower, and mean proportions of immature neutrophils were higher in newborns with infection; platelet counts did not differ. Discrimination improved with age in the first few hours, especially for WBC counts and ANCs (eg, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for WBC counts was 0.52 at <1 hour and 0.87 at ?4 hours). Both WBC counts and ANCs were most informative when very low (eg, the likelihood ratio for ANC < 1000 was 115 at ?4 hours). No test was very sensitive; the lowest likelihood ratio (for WBC count ? 20 000 at ?4 hours) was 0.16. CONCLUSION Optimal interpretation of the CBC requires using interval likelihood ratios for the newborn’s age in hours. PMID:20974782

Thomas, B. Newman; Karen, M. Puopolo; Soora, Wi; David, Draper; Gabriel, J. Escobar



A switch in infected erythrocyte deformability at the maturation and blood circulation of Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages  

PubMed Central

Achievement of malaria elimination requires development of novel strategies interfering with parasite transmission, including targeting the parasite sexual stages (gametocytes). The formation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the human host takes several days during which immature gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIEs) sequester in host tissues. Only mature stage GIEs circulate in the peripheral blood, available to uptake by the Anopheles vector. Mechanisms underlying GIE sequestration and release in circulation are virtually unknown. We show here that mature GIEs are more deformable than immature stages using ektacytometry and microsphiltration methods, and that a switch in cellular deformability in the transition from immature to mature gametocytes is accompanied by the deassociation of parasite-derived STEVOR proteins from the infected erythrocyte membrane. We hypothesize that mechanical retention contributes to sequestration of immature GIEs and that regained deformability of mature gametocytes is associated with their release in the bloodstream and ability to circulate. These processes are proposed to play a key role in P falciparum gametocyte development in the host and to represent novel and unconventional targets for interfering with parasite transmission. PMID:22517905

Tibúrcio, Marta; Niang, Makhtar; Deplaine, Guillaume; Perrot, Sylvie; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Silvestrini, Francesco; Khattab, Ayman; Milon, Geneviève; David, Peter H.; Hardeman, Max; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Preiser, Peter R.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Buffet, Pierre



Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting.  

PubMed Central

Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching for fetal nucleated erythrocytes which do not express either of these antigens. However, significant maternal contamination was present even after MACS enrichment preventing the accurate analysis of fetal cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). To overcome this problem, we used simultaneous immunophenotyping of cells with the mouse antifetal haemoglobin antibody, UCH gamma, combined with FISH analysis using chromosome X and Y specific DNA probes. This approach enables selective FISH analysis of fetal cells within an excess of maternal cells. Furthermore, we have confirmed the potential of the method for clinical practice by a pilot prospective study of fetal sex in women referred for amniocentesis between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation. Images PMID:8133505

Zheng, Y L; Carter, N P; Price, C M; Colman, S M; Milton, P J; Hackett, G A; Greaves, M F; Ferguson-Smith, M A



Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.  


For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten



New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m  


Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.



Fetal Gender Determination and BclI Polymorphism Using Nucleated Erythrocytes in Maternal Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated determination of fetal gender from nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood and attempted to apply prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia A using BclI DNA polymorphism. Venous blood was drawn from 20 pregnant women, and NRBCs were recovered by magnetic activated cell sorting and anti-GPA (glycophorin A) immunostaining. After microdissector isolation of the NRBCs, primer extension preamplification

Jin Choe; Doyeong Hwang; Ki-Chul Kim; Young-Min Choi



Erythrocyte glutathione transferase activity: a possible early biomarker for blood toxicity in uremic diabetic patients.  


Erythrocyte glutathione transferase (e-GST) displays increased activity in patients with renal damage and positive correlation with homocysteine (Hcy) in patients under maintenance hemodialysis. Here, we determined e-GST, Hcy, and erythrocyte catalase (e-CAT) in 328 patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 61 diabetic non-nephropathic patients and 267 affected by diabetes and by chronic kidney disease (CKD) under conservative therapy subdivided into four stages according to K-DOQI lines. e-GST activity was significantly higher in all T2DM patients compared to the control group (7.90 ± 0.26 vs. 5.6 ± 0.4 U/g(Hb)), and we observed an enhanced activity in all subgroups of CKD diabetic patients. No significant correlation or increase has been found for e-CAT in all patients tested. Mean Hcy in diabetic patients is higher than that in healthy subjects (33.42 ± 1.23 vs. 13.6 ± 0.8 ?M), and Hcy increases in relation to the CKD stage. As expected, a significant correlation was found between e-GST and Hcy levels. These findings suggest that e-GST hyperactivity is not caused directly by diabetes but by its consequent renal damage. e-GST, as well as Hcy, may represent an early biomarker of renal failure. PMID:23818012

Noce, Annalisa; Fabrini, Raffaele; Dessì, Mariarita; Bocedi, Alessio; Santini, Silvia; Rovella, Valentina; Pastore, Anna; Tesauro, Manfredi; Bernardini, Sergio; Di Daniele, Nicola; Ricci, Giorgio



Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock



Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Sample Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Procedures Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Results Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use. PMID:22280380

Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Winzelberg, Sarah; Giger, Urs



Interaction of antidiabetic vanadium compounds with hemoglobin and red blood cells and their distribution between plasma and erythrocytes.  


The interaction of V(IV)O(2+) ion with hemoglobin (Hb) was studied with the combined application of spectroscopic (EPR), spectrophotometric (UV-vis), and computational (DFT methods) techniques. Binding of Hb to V(IV)O(2+) in vitro was proved, and three unspecific sites (named ?, ?, and ?) were characterized, with the probable coordination of His-N, Asp-O(-), and Glu-O(-) donors. The value of log ? for (VO)Hb is 10.4, significantly lower than for human serum apo-transferrin (hTf). In the systems with V(IV)O potential antidiabetic compounds, mixed species cis-VOL2(Hb) (L = maltolate (ma), 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (dhp)) are observed with equatorial binding of an accessible His residue, whereas no ternary complexes are observed with acetylacetonate (acac). The experiments of uptake of [VO(ma)2], [VO(dhp)2], and [VO(acac)2] by red blood cells indicate that the neutral compounds penetrate the erythrocyte membrane through passive diffusion, and percent amounts higher than 50% are found in the intracellular medium. The biotransformation of [VO(ma)2], [VO(dhp)2], and [VO(acac)2] inside the red blood cells was proved. [VO(dhp)2] transforms quantitatively in cis-VO(dhp)2(Hb), [VO(ma)2] in cis-VO(ma)2(Hb), and cis-VO(ma)2(Cys-S(-)), with the equatorial coordination of a thiolate-S(-) of GSH or of a membrane protein, and [VO(acac)2] in the binary species (VO)xHb and two V(IV)O complexes with formulation VO(L(1),L(2)) and VO(L(3),L(4)), where L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4) are red blood cell bioligands. The results indicate that, in the studies on the transport of a potential pharmacologically active V species, the interaction with red blood cells and Hb cannot be neglected, that a distribution between the erythrocytes and plasma is achieved, and that these processes can significantly influence the effectiveness of a V drug. PMID:24437949

Sanna, Daniele; Serra, Maria; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio



Effect of erythrocyte aggregation on the rheology of blood in microvessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of red blood cell aggregation on blood flow in small vessels is of primary interest to understand the resistance changes in venular microcirculation. Recent studies on rat spinotrapezius muscle have shown that venular velocity profiles are significantly affected by red blood cell aggregation at pseudoshear rates up to 40s-1. The purpose of this study is to analyze the validiy of non-linear rheological models, Casson model and Power-Law model for in-vivo blood flow conditions. These models have been widely used in blood flow studies and their applicability has been validated using in-vitro blood flow experiments. Levenberg-Marquardt method is used to obtain the fitting parameters from the data sets using the above nonlinear models. Clearly, both the Casson fluid model and Power-Law fluid model give excellent velocity fittings with experimental profiles.

Das, Bigyani; Bishop, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, Paul C.; Popel, Aleksander S.



Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  


In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko



[The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].  


In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease. PMID:24511683

Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I



WBC count  


Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... in the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 ...


Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat



Age-related changes in peripheral blood counts in humans  

PubMed Central

Anaemia has become a common concern in geriatric health. Since its prevalence varies quite significantly among different groups depending on factors such as ethnicity, lifestyle or fitness, the appropriateness of the current WHO definition of anaemia in the elderly may be questioned. We evaluated peripheral blood parameters from 1,724 individuals (908 women aged 18–101 years and 816 men aged 18–96 years), who were treated at the University of Heidelberg Medical Center with no known haematological history. Patients with a known malignant haematological or oncological disease or with chronic infection or inflammation were excluded. Patients with disorders affecting the kidneys, thyroid or stomach, as well as patients with a bleeding history, haemolysis or who had been previously diagnosed with anaemia were excluded from the study. Average haemoglobin levels for men beyond the age of 70 and for women beyond the age of 80 were found to fulfill the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia. While in our cohort ?20% of men and women between 60–69 years of age were by definition anaemic, these numbers steadily increased to 63% in females and 76% in males beyond the age of 90. Based on the results of our study and in accordance with the literature on this topic, we suggest age-adjusted criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly in conjunction with a geriatric assessment. PMID:22993635




Age-related changes in peripheral blood counts in humans.  


Anaemia has become a common concern in geriatric health. Since its prevalence varies quite significantly among different groups depending on factors such as ethnicity, lifestyle or fitness, the appropriateness of the current WHO definition of anaemia in the elderly may be questioned. We evaluated peripheral blood parameters from 1,724 individuals (908 women aged 18-101 years and 816 men aged 18-96 years), who were treated at the University of Heidelberg Medical Center with no known haematological history. Patients with a known malignant haematological or oncological disease or with chronic infection or inflammation were excluded. Patients with disorders affecting the kidneys, thyroid or stomach, as well as patients with a bleeding history, haemolysis or who had been previously diagnosed with anaemia were excluded from the study. Average haemoglobin levels for men beyond the age of 70 and for women beyond the age of 80 were found to fulfill the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia. While in our cohort ?20% of men and women between 60-69 years of age were by definition anaemic, these numbers steadily increased to 63% in females and 76% in males beyond the age of 90. Based on the results of our study and in accordance with the literature on this topic, we suggest age-adjusted criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia in the elderly in conjunction with a geriatric assessment. PMID:22993635

Mahlknecht, Ulrich; Kaiser, Simone



The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed. PMID:25562022

Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani



Whole blood cell counts and leucocyte differentials in patients with benign or malignant ovarian tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether ovarian cancer patients had haematological anomalies compared to patients with benign ovarian tumours. Study design: Whole blood cell counts and leucocyte differentials were measured in 70 patients suspected of having ovarian tumours. Postoperatively, 20 patients had metastatic ovarian cancer and 50 patients had benign ovarian tumours. A control group consisted

M. den Ouden; J. M. H. Ubachs; J. E. G. M. Stoot; J. W. J. van Wersch



Prothrombin activation in blood coagulation: the erythrocyte contribution to thrombin generation  

PubMed Central

Prothrombin activation can proceed through the intermediates meizothrombin or prethrombin-2. To assess the contributions that these 2 intermediates make to prothrombin activation in tissue factor (Tf)–activated blood, immunoassays were developed that measure the meizothrombin antithrombin (mTAT) and ?-thrombin antithrombin (?TAT) complexes. We determined that Tf-activated blood produced both ?TAT and mTAT. The presence of mTAT suggested that nonplatelet surfaces were contributing to approximately 35% of prothrombin activation. Corn trypsin inhibitor–treated blood was fractionated to yield red blood cells (RBCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-poor plasma (PPP), and buffy coat. Compared with blood, PRP reconstituted with PPP to a physiologic platelet concentration showed a 2-fold prolongation in the initiation phase and a marked decrease in the rate and extent of ?TAT formation. Only the addition of RBCs to PRP was capable of normalizing ?TAT generation. FACS on glycophorin A–positive cells showed that approximately 0.6% of the RBC population expresses phosphatidylserine and binds prothrombinase (FITC Xa·factor Va). These data indicate that RBCs participate in thrombin generation in Tf-activated blood, producing a membrane that supports prothrombin activation through the meizothrombin pathway. PMID:22968460

Whelihan, Matthew F.; Zachary, Vicentios; Orfeo, Thomas



Concise Review: Stem Cell-Derived Erythrocytes as Upcoming Players in Blood Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements. PMID:22644674

Zeuner, Ann; Martelli, Fabrizio; Vaglio, Stefania; Federici, Giulia; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Anna Rita



Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, Holger; Mueller, Gerhard J.



Flow Cytometric White Blood Cell Differential Using CytoDiff is Excellent for Counting Blasts  

PubMed Central

Background The usefulness of the CytoDiff flow cytometric system (Beckman Coulter, USA) has been studied in various conditions, but its performance including rapidity in detecting and counting blasts, the most significant abnormal cells in the peripheral blood, has not been well evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CytoDiff differential counting method in challenging samples with blasts. Methods In total, 815 blood samples were analyzed. Samples flagged as "blasts" or "variant lymphocytes" and showing <10% blasts by manual counts were included. In total, 322 samples showed blasts on manual counts, ranging from 0.5% to 99%. The CytoDiff method was performed by flow cytometry (FC500; Beckman Coulter, USA) with a pre-mixed CytoDiff reagent and analyzing software (CytoDiff CXP 2.0; Beckman Coulter). Results The average time required to analyze 20 samples was approximately 60 min for manual counts, and the hands-on time for the CytoDiff method was 15 min. The correlation between the CytoDiff and manual counts was good (r>0.8) for neutrophils and lymphocytes but poor (r<0.8) for other cells. When the cutoff value of the CytoDiff blast count was set at 1%, the sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI; 91.2-96.6) and specificity was 91.9% (95% CI; 89.0-94.1). The positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI; 84.4-91.5) (304/344 cases) and negative predictive value was 96.2% (95% CI; 93.9-97.7) (453/471 cases). The CytoDiff blast counts correlated well to the manual counts (r=0.9223). Conclusions The CytoDiff method is a specific, sensitive, and rapid method for counting blasts. A cutoff value of 1% of at least 1 type of blast is recommended for positive CytoDiff blast counts. PMID:25553277

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Myungshin; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon



Peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from grand multigravidae display a distinct cytokine profile in response to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.  


Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5-7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2-4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5-7 compared to G2-4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

Ludlow, Louise E; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J; Forbes, Emily K; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J



[Importance of non-Newtonian rheologic properties of blood in erythrocyte transport].  


The authors studied the global transport of red blood cells (RBC) in a stationary cylindrical tube flow. The human blood was considered as homogeneous fluid. For geometric and dynamic conditions fixed, the quantity of transported RBC was calculated using different models of constitutive equation: i) Newtonian model with apparent viscosity measured at 128 sec-1; ii) Landel's model for rigidified RBC suspension; iii) three non-Newtonian models (Casson law, power law and a relationship of Sisko). We showed that there was an optimum hematocrit for every model for which the quantity of transported RBC was maximum. The values of optimum hematocrit obtained for the non-Newtonian models varied in function of the tube radius and the pressure drop. It was equally observed that the optimum hematocrit was very small when the red blood cells were rigid. These theoretical results merit experimental studies and open the way to investigations of mechanical transport of RBC (global oxygen transport) under different types of flow conditions. PMID:8077863

Wang, X; Stoltz, J F



Extreme negative pressure does not cause erythrocyte damage in flowing blood.  


In extracorporeal circulation, negative pressure is thought to be a source of hemolysis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of extreme negative pressure on flowing blood. The study model was pipe flow. The hemolysis generated by negative pressure driven flow was compared with that generated by positive pressure driven flow of equal magnitude to control for the hemolytic effect of shear stress. A series of pressures (720, 600, 500, -500, -600, and -720 mm Hg; n = 8) was tested for pipe diameters of 0.04 and 0.16 cm, with a length-to-diameter ratio of 500. The pressure difference across the pipe (deltaP) was equal to the magnitude of the applied pressure. The hemolysis was quantified by the modified index of hemolysis (MIH). For both pipe diameters, MIH was found to not depend on the deltaP or the blood collection day (multiple regression analysis, p = 0.50 and p = 0.63, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the MIH for equal deltaP generated by positive or negative pressure (p = 0.50) for both pipe diameters tested. MIH did depend upon the pipe diameter, with 0.04 cm having higher MIH at all pressures (p = 0.0003). Thus, negative pressure is not a significant hemolytic factor in flowing blood. PMID:10503621

Chambers, S D; Ceccio, S L; Annich, G A; Bartlett, R H



Clinical comparison of high-resolution with high-sensitivity collimators in low-count cardiac gated blood pool studies  

SciTech Connect

We compared high-sensitivity (HS) and high-resolution (HR) collimators for 2.5-minute low-count acquisitions in 13 patients undergoing cardiac gated blood pool studies. High-count acquisitions served as standards. Ejection fractions calculated from low-count acquisitions were plotted against high-count acquisitions for each collimator; the variance of the HS plot was lower, and HS images were superior.

Kuni, C.C.; Johnson, T.K.; Boudreau, R.J.



A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis



Association between pre–biopsy white blood cell count and prostate biopsy – related sepsis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite all preventive measures and improved biopsy techniques, serious, life–threatening complications of prostate biopsy, including sepsis, still exist. In the present study, in order to identify the risk factors that may be associated with sepsis development after prostate–biopsy, we aimed to analyze retrospectively the data of our patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 889 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our clinic. We compared pre–biopsy parameters (age, prostate volume, white blood cell (WBC) count, fasting blood glucose, free and total prostate specific antigen levels) between patients who developed sepsis and those who were sepsis–free following prostate biopsy. Results 28 patients (3.1%) developed sepsis. Among the risk factors evaluated, only pre–biopsy WBC count was found to be a significant risk factor for biopsy–related sepsis. A 5.1 fold increase was detected in the risk for sepsis development, when the cut–off value of WBC was accepted as 11.165/?L, OR: 5.1 (95% CI: 2.3–11.5). The post–biopsy sepsis development rate in patients with pre–biopsy WBC count greater and less than 11.165/?L was 13.7% (n = 10) and 3% (n = 18) respectively. Conclusions Patients with a pre–biopsy WBC count greater than 11.165/?L should be informed of the increased risk of developing post–biopsy sepsis.

Bulut, Suleyman; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy; Memis, Ali



The relationship of cytotoxic and genotoxic damage with blood aluminum levels and oxidative stress induced by this metal in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) erythrocytes.  


Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements in nature and is used in diverse industrial processes. As a result, it contaminates aquatic ecosystems, inducing damage on associated biota. In fish, it has been observed to induce hypoxia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis and respiratory arrest. Although there is little information on Al-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage, this type of studies are essential in order to identify the mechanisms of action of this metal. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by Al on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) erythrocytes were determined in specimens exposed to 0.05, 120 and 239mgAlL(-1) in static exposure systems. Blood samples were taken at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, erythrocytes were separated, and the following were evaluated: frequency of micronuclei and frequency of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, blood Al levels, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results show that tested aluminum concentrations produces oxidative stress (increase in lipid peroxidation degree and oxidized proteins content, as well as decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity) and induced higher frequencies of micronuclei and TUNEL-positive cells, so this metal can be considered as a cytotoxic and genotoxic agent for erythrocytes of common carp. PMID:23856122

García-Medina, Sandra; Núñez-Betancourt, Judith Angélica; Lucero García-Medina, Alba; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel



On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.  


This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100?000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement. PMID:25631744

Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu



Correlation Between Erythrocyte CR1 Reduction and Other Blood Proteinase Markers in Patients With Malignant and Inflammatory Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte CR1, a CSb\\/C4b-binding complement-regula- tory protein, is sensitive to proteolysis in vitro. To test the hypothesis that in vivo erythrocyte CR1 reduction results from intravascular proteinase activities, we used enzyme- linked immunosorbant assays to measure 7-crosslinked fibrin degradation products (D-dimers) as indicators of coagulation\\/fibrinolytic activity, and complexes of neutro- phil elastase with a1 proteinase inhibitor (E\\/A) as indica- tors

Mark S. Currie; Marc Vala; David S. Pisetsky; Charles S. Greenberg; Jeff Crawford; Harvey J. Cohen



Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565



[Seasonal changes in mechanical resistance of erythrocytes of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus)].  


Seasonal changes of relative blood reticulocyte counts, free plasma hemoglobin and mechanical erythrocyte resistance were studied in the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus), under different functional conditions (winter hibernation, forced arousal in winter, and summer activity). A significant increase in reticulocyte counts in the ground squirrel blood was observed in April and October, indicating enhancement of erythropoeisis. This conclusion is also confirmed by a significant increase in free plasma hemoglobin at these periods. It has been also shown that erythrocytes of hibernating and forcibly awaken winter ground squirrels have a significantly lower mechanical resistance in comparison with those of active summer animals. The obtained data indicate that during the periods preceding the onset of winter hibernation and transition to summer activity there occurs a seasonal replacement of the erythrocyte pool by a pool more adapted to performance of functions in the novel functional state of the animal-hibernator. PMID:25786319



A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

Hu, Shaowen



Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.



Effect of transmission intensity and age on subclass antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens.  


Cytophilic immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG3) to Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from malaria, yet the relative importance of transmission intensity and age in generation of subclass responses to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens have not been clearly defined. We analyzed IgG subclass responses to the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, LSA-1, and TRAP and the blood-stage antigens AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-1 in asymptomatic residents age 2 years or older in stable (n=116) and unstable (n=96) transmission areas in Western Kenya. In the area of stable malaria transmission, a high prevalence of cytophilic (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies to each antigen was seen in all age groups. Prevalence and levels of cytophilic antibodies to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens increased with age in the unstable transmission area, yet IgG1 and IgG3 responses to most antigens for all ages in the unstable transmission area were less prevalent and lower in magnitude than even the youngest age group from the stable transmission area. The dominance of cytophilic responses over non-cytophilic (IgG2 and IgG4) was more pronounced in the stable transmission area, and the ratio of IgG3 over IgG1 generally increased with age. In the unstable transmission area, the ratio of cytophilic to non-cytophilic antibodies did not increase with age, and tended to be IgG3-biased for pre-erythrocytic antigens yet IgG1-biased for blood-stage antigens. The differences between areas could not be attributed to active parasitemia status, as there were minimal differences in antibody responses between those positive and negative for Plasmodium infection by microscopy in the stable transmission area. Individuals in areas of unstable transmission have low cytophilic to non-cytophilic IgG subclass ratios and low IgG3:IgG1 ratios to P. falciparum antigens. These imbalances could contribute to the persistent risk of clinical malaria in these areas and serve as population-level, age-specific biomarkers of transmission. PMID:25446174

Noland, Gregory S; Jansen, Paul; Vulule, John M; Park, Gregory S; Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; John, Chandy C



Correlation of Circulating MMP-9 with White Blood Cell Count in Humans: Effect of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans. PMID:23825535

Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yu, Daozhan; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Gong, Da-Wei



Multivariate data analysis of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid Fatty Acid profiles in the discrimination between normal blood tissue and various disease States.  


The investigation presented here aims to compare the fatty acid composition of red blood cells of patients with different disease states and to test the hypothesis that the changes in fatty acid profiles derived from erythrocyte phospholipids might be relevant to various diseases. The study sample consisted of 342 blood donors, among them 135 with inflammatory bowel disease, 53 with uterine leiomyoma, 14 with verified absence of uterine leiomyoma, 52 with asthma, 18 with colon adenomas, and 70 blood samples without any of mentioned diseases that was used as a control group. After the isolation of erythrocytes from blood samples, total extracted lipids were separated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) into non polar lipids and polar phospholipids. After the saponification of phospholipid fraction, the esterification process followed with boron trifluoride-methanol reagent. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition of the total red blood cell phospholipid fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). Additionally two fatty aldehyde dimethyl acetals (hexadecanal and octadecanal dimethyl acetals; 16:0 DMA and 18:0 DMA) derived from erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen phospholipids were also determined. The resulting fatty acid and plasmalogen linked fatty acid composition was evaluated by the principal component analysis (PCA). We demonstrated decreased levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in red blood cell membrane of patients with colon adenomas. Also, a large negative correlation was observed among all samples between the quantity of saturated acids and arachidonic (20:4n6) acid as well as saturated acids and adrenic (22:4n6) acid. In PCA score plot a group of female donors is distinguished mainly by the content of linoleic (18:2n6) acid; a small subgroup shows its concentration highly above the average value. At the same time, the same subgroup has both dimethyl acetals below the average concentrations. The study demonstrates feasibility of multivariate data analysis in discrimination of patients with different diseases according to fatty acid profile and suggests considerable differences in membrane fatty acid profiles in patients with various disease states. PMID:24061802

Kodba, Zdenka Cenci?; Darinka Von?ina, Brodnjak; Novi?, Marjana; Poto?nik, Uroš



Blood clot formation under flow: the importance of factor XI depends strongly on platelet count.  


A previously validated mathematical model of intravascular platelet deposition and tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation under flow is extended and used to assess the influence on thrombin production of the activation of factor XI (fXI) by thrombin and of the activation of factor IX (fIX) by fXIa. It is found that the importance of the thrombin-fXIa-fIXa feedback loop to robust thrombin production depends on the concentration of platelets in the blood near the injury. At a near-wall platelet concentration of ~250,000/?L, typical in vessels in which the shear rate is <200 s(-1), thrombin activation of fXI makes a significant difference only at low densities of exposed TF. If the near-wall platelet concentration is significantly higher than this, either because of a higher systemic platelet count or because of the redistribution of platelets toward the vessel walls at high shear rates, then thrombin activation of fXI makes a major difference even for relatively high densities of exposed TF. The model predicts that the effect of a severe fXI deficiency depends on the platelet count, and that fXI becomes more important at high platelet counts. PMID:22225793

Fogelson, Aaron L; Hussain, Yasmeen H; Leiderman, Karin



Blood Clot Formation under Flow: The Importance of Factor XI Depends Strongly on Platelet Count  

PubMed Central

A previously validated mathematical model of intravascular platelet deposition and tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation under flow is extended and used to assess the influence on thrombin production of the activation of factor XI (fXI) by thrombin and of the activation of factor IX (fIX) by fXIa. It is found that the importance of the thrombin-fXIa-fIXa feedback loop to robust thrombin production depends on the concentration of platelets in the blood near the injury. At a near-wall platelet concentration of ?250,000/?L, typical in vessels in which the shear rate is <200 s?1, thrombin activation of fXI makes a significant difference only at low densities of exposed TF. If the near-wall platelet concentration is significantly higher than this, either because of a higher systemic platelet count or because of the redistribution of platelets toward the vessel walls at high shear rates, then thrombin activation of fXI makes a major difference even for relatively high densities of exposed TF. The model predicts that the effect of a severe fXI deficiency depends on the platelet count, and that fXI becomes more important at high platelet counts. PMID:22225793

Fogelson, Aaron L.; Hussain, Yasmeen H.; Leiderman, Karin



Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  


In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori



[Extreme increase in the blood erythroblast count in a patient with iron-deficiency anemia and asplenia].  


Bone marrow stress can provoke the presence of high erythroblast count in peripheral blood of patients with splenectomy, but is very rare in patients with normal spleen. Hypoxia occurring in patients with severe ferropenic anaemia could originate the occasional presence of erythroblasts in peripheral blood. An associated pathology should be excluded if there is a high normoblast count. We present the case of a 40 years old woman with ferropenic anaemia and a very high normoblast count. Hyperplastic polips were found in the gastric tissue as the cause for her anaemia. The absence of spleen explained the presence of erytroblasts. Further studies excluded the possibility of hemoglobinopathy and bone marrow studies were normal. Treatment with iron was successfully in correcting the hemoglobin levels and the normoblasts disappeared from peripheral blood also. A careful examination of the peripheral blood film and, specially the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies is the cornerstone of the possible diagnosis confirmed with the appropriate radiological studies. PMID:8779038

Ramos Fernández de Soria, R; Martín Núñez, G



Microfluidic-based measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate for biophysical assessment of blood in an in vivo malaria-infected mouse.  


This study suggests a new erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement method for the biophysical assessment of blood by using a microfluidic device. For an effective ESR measurement, a disposable syringe filled with blood is turned upside down and aligned at 180° with respect to gravitational direction. When the blood sample is delivered into the microfluidic device from the top position of the syringe, the hematocrit of blood flowing in the microfluidic channel decreases because the red blood cell-depleted region is increased from the top region of the syringe. The variation of hematocrit is evaluated by consecutively capturing images and conducting digital image processing technique for 10?min. The dynamic variation of ESR is quantitatively evaluated using two representative parameters, namely, time constant (?) and ESR-area (AESR). To check the performance of the proposed method, blood samples with various ESR values are prepared by adding different concentrations of dextran solution. ? and AESR are quantitatively evaluated by using the proposed method and a conventional method, respectively. The proposed method can be used to measure ESR with superior reliability, compared with the conventional method. The proposed method can also be used to quantify ESR of blood collected from malaria-infected mouse under in vivo condition. To indirectly compare with the results obtained by the proposed method, the viscosity and velocity of the blood are measured using the microfluidic device. As a result, the biophysical properties, including ESR and viscosity of blood, are significantly influenced by the parasitemia level. These experimental demonstrations support the notion that the proposed method is capable of effectively monitoring the biophysical properties of blood. PMID:25379099

Kang, Yang Jun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Joon



Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies  

PubMed Central

Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi



The impact of low erythrocyte density in human blood on the fitness and energetic reserves of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Background Anaemia is a common health problem in the developing world. This condition is characterized by a reduction in erythrocyte density, primarily from malnutrition and/or infectious diseases such as malaria. As red blood cells are the primary source of protein for haematophagous mosquitoes, any reduction could impede the ability of mosquito vectors to transmit malaria by influencing their fitness or that of the parasites they transmit. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of differences in the density of red blood cells in human blood on malaria vector (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) fitness. The hypotheses tested are that mosquito vector energetic reserves and fitness are negatively influenced by reductions in the red cell density of host human blood meals commensurate with those expected from severe anaemia. Methods Mosquitoes (An. gambiae s.s.) were offered blood meals of different packed cell volume (PCV) of human blood consistent with those arising from severe anaemia (15%) and normal PCV (50%). Associations between mosquito energetic reserves (lipid, glucose and glycogen) and fitness measures (reproduction and survival) and blood meal PCV were investigated. Results The amount of protein that malaria vectors acquired from blood feeding (indexed by haematin excretion) was significantly reduced at low blood PCV. However, mosquitoes feeding on blood of low PCV had the same oviposition rates as those feeding on blood of normal PCV, and showed an increase in egg production of around 15%. The long-term survival of An. gambiae s.s was reduced after feeding on low PCV blood, but PCV had no significant impact on the proportion of mosquitoes surviving through the minimal period required to develop and transmit malaria parasites (estimated as 14 days post-blood feeding). The impact of blood PCV on the energetic reserves of mosquitoes was relatively minor. Conclusions These results suggest that feeding on human hosts whose PCV has been depleted due to severe anaemia does not significantly reduce the fitness or transmission potential of malaria vectors, and indicates that mosquitoes may be able exploit resources for reproduction more efficiently from blood of low rather than normal PCV. PMID:23374331



Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.



Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

Thompson, Joselyn H.


What's Blood?  


... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...


Methotrexate pharmacokinetics in age-fractionated erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age fractionation of erythrocytes is useful for further studies of the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX) in red blood cells. We separated erythrocytes from five blood donors and four patients at different time points after MTX infusions, using discontinuous Percoll gradients consisting of four solutions with a difference of 3% in density among them. The procedure yielded five distinct fractions of

Henrik Schrøder



Platelet count  


A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the ... The number of platelets in your blood can be affected by many ... Platelets may be counted to monitor or diagnose diseases, or ...


Observational study of erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening test for detecting low lead exposure in children: Impact of lowering the blood lead action threshold  

SciTech Connect

We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.

Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))



Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.  


Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal. PMID:22494981

Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E



A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid



Dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal blood typing and cross-matching by gel column technique  

PubMed Central

Background Testing for canine blood types other than dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 (DEA 1.1) is controversial and complicated by reagent availability and methodology. Objectives The objectives of this study were to use available gel column technology to develop an extended blood-typing method using polyclonal reagents for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal and to assess the use of gel columns for cross-matching. Methods Dogs (43–75) were typed for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Methods included tube agglutination (Tube) using polyclonal reagents, a commercially available DEA 1.1 gel column test kit (Standard-Gel) using monoclonal reagent, and multiple gel columns (Extended-Gel) using polyclonal reagents. Blood from 10 recipient and 15 donor dogs was typed as described above and cross-matched using the gel column technique. Results Of 43 dogs typed for DEA 1.1, 23, 25, and 20 dogs were positive using Standard-Gel, Extended-Gel, and Tube, respectively. Typing for DEA 1.2 was not achievable with Extended-Gel. For 75 dogs typed for DEA 3, 4, and 7, concordance of Extended-Gel with Tube was 94.7%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Dal, determined only by Extended-Gel, was positive for all dogs. Post-transfusion major cross-matches were incompatible in 10 of 14 pairings, but none were associated with demonstrable blood type incompatibilities. Conclusions Gel column methodology can be adapted for use with polyclonal reagents for detecting DEA 1.1, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Agglutination reactions are similar between Extended-Gel and Tube, but are more easily interpreted with Extended-Gel. When using gel columns for cross-matching, incompatible blood cross-matches can be detected following sensitization by transfusion, although in this study incompatibilities associated with any tested DEA or Dal antigens were not found. PMID:20727123

Kessler, Rebecca J.; Reese, Jessica; Chang, Denise; Seth, Mayank; Hale, Anne S.; Giger, Urs



Revisiting the white blood cell count: immature granulocytes count as a diagnostic marker to discriminate between SIRS and sepsis - a prospective, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21?days and ended with the patients’ discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. Results We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P?count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48?hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. Conclusions The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections. PMID:23398965



Refined medullary blast and white blood cell count based classification of chronic myelomonocytic leukemias.  


Since 2001, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is classified by the WHO as myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic neoplasm. Herein we tried to better describe CMML patients with regard to hematological characteristics and prognosis using data of the Duesseldorf registry. We created 6 CMML subgroups, by dividing dysplastic and proliferative CMML at the cut-off of white blood cell count of 13,000/?L and splitting these two groups into 3 subgroups: CMML 0 with <5% blasts (n=101), CMML I with 5-9% blasts (n=204) and CMML II with 10-19% blasts (n=81). For comparison we included patients with RCMD, RAEB I and II. The newly created CMML 0 group had better prognosis than CMML I and II, median survival times were 31 months (ms), 19ms and 13ms, respectively (p<0.001). Median survival times between the corresponding dysplastic and proliferative subgroups 0 and 1 differed significantly: CMML 0 dysplastic 48ms and CMML 0 proliferative 17ms (p=0.03), CMML I dysplastic 29ms and CMML I proliferative 15ms (p=0.008), CMML II dysplastic 17ms and CMML II proliferative 10ms (p=0.09). Outcome of CMML patients worsens with increasing medullary blasts and when presenting as proliferative type. Therefore it is justified to separate CMML with <5% medullary blasts. PMID:25444076

Schuler, E; Schroeder, M; Neukirchen, J; Strupp, C; Xicoy, B; Kündgen, A; Hildebrandt, B; Haas, R; Gattermann, N; Germing, U



Blood Components  


... of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Red cells Red cells, or erythrocytes , carry oxygen from the lungs ... frozen plasma. Transfusable Blood Components Summary Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF ...


Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.



[The red blood system in men during long-term head-down bed rest].  


Red blood was analyzed in six 25 to 40 yr. old male volunteers in a 120-d head-down bedrest (HDBR) study. The hematological investigation included morphological analyses (erythrocyte count and hemoglobin), and determination of iron turnover, erythrocyte IgA, IgG and IgM, metabolism, lipids and phospholipids, and lipid peroxidation rate (LPO). At the beginning of HDBR (day 7), the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content were found increased w/o any visible changes in the other parameters. Further exposure to HDBR (days 50-100) resulted in modification of intracellular metabolism in erythrocytes, increases in serum iron, and serum and erythrocyte ferritin. On HDBR days 50 and 100, and post-HDBR day 9, cholesterol was increased, LPO intensified and antioxidant activities inhibited, which suggested destabilization of the cell membrane. Hematological shifts in the bedrested volunteers were of the type and pattern similar to those in cosmonauts who fulfilled extended space missions. PMID:16536028

Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Levina, A A; Kozinets, G I



[Microvzor-2: a system for automated dry blood smear analysis].  


Upgraded system Microvzor-2 for investigation of blood morphology in space flight is composed of soft- and hardware for dry smear image analysis. Ground-based testing showed that it could be utilized to investigate a broad spectrum of blood parameters in space flight, including erythrocytes, hemoglobin content in erythrocytes, volumetric erythrocyte distribution, diagnostics of anisocytosis, and poikilocytosis, leukocytes and leukocyte count. Analyzed are smears prepared from a fixed volume of finger blood. The process consists of smear scanning, input of the vision field images in the spacecraft computer and ensuing automated identification and counting. Information is stored in a dedicated database. Results of analysis are displayed as forms and cell galleries. PMID:12572126

Verdenskaia, N V; Vinogradov, A G; Gusev, A A; Ivanova, I A; Ivanova, S M; Kozharinov, V I; Kozinets, G I; Pogorelov, V M; Sazonov, V V



An automated reticulocyte counting method: preliminary observations.  


We evaluated the counting of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood with a newly developed flow cytometer type of automated counter that performs a single test within 60 s. The volume of sample needed is 100 microliters and the cells are stained with auramine-O in the counter. The mean within-run reproducibility was 4.66% (CV, n = 50), and dilution of blood gave highly linear results with an r value of 0.996. Correlation was good between manual reticulocyte counts and those performed with the counter (r = 0.893). Samples with large numbers of leucocytes, erythrocytes, or platelets did not interfere with the automated reticulocyte counting, and provided accurate and precise data. PMID:2687609

Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Kojima, K; Niri, M; Setoguchi, K



Decreased erythrocyte deformability in glycogen storage disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver glycogen storagen diseases (GSG) are disorders associated with severe dyslipidaemia which can induce cell membrane alterations and possibly reduced cell deformability. Since decreased erythrocyte deformability is known to disturb blood flow in capillaries and may promote ischaemic diseases, this study was designed to investigate erythrocyte deformability using a new filtration system, the Cell Transit Analyser (CTA), and to examine

K. Keddad; Seyed M. Razavian; Ch. Baussan; A. Abella; J. Chalas; J. Levenson; A. Simon; N. Moatti; A. Legrand



Assessing the environmental genotoxicity risk in the Baltic Sea: frequencies of nuclear buds in blood erythrocytes of three native fish species.  


Nuclear bud (NB) formation was investigated in blood erythrocytes of 1892 flounder Platichthys flesus, herring Clupea harengus, and eelpout Zoarces viviparus specimens that were collected at 82 sites representing different regions of the Baltic Sea in 2009-2011. This is the first attempt to evaluate the baseline levels of NB and rank the genotoxicity risk for native fish species. NB levels were compared to the previously published micronuclei (MN) data from the same individual fish specimens in order to compare the two methods of genotoxicity assessment and investigate the relationship between MN as the cytogenetic measure of genotoxicity and the DNA damage reflecting NB. In 2009-2011, elevated NB levels in 89.4% of flounder sampling groups indicated high and extremely high genotoxicity risk levels. Herring and eelpout sampling groups showed elevated levels of NB, 74.6 and 45.7%, respectively. In general, herring and eelpout NB measure was more sensitive as the genotoxicity biomarker than MN. PMID:25384369

Baršien?, Janina; Butrimavi?ien?, Laura; Michailovas, Aleksandras; Grygiel, Wlodzimierz



Blood (For Parents)  


... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes) ... used in this way. Back Continue Diseases of Red Blood Cells Most of the time, blood functions ...


Human blood B lymphocytes with receptors for sheep erythrocytes--their relevance in techniques to obtain T cells depleted of mature B cells.  


After B lymphocyte depletion, blood lymphocytes (PBMC) from certain individuals will generate substantial quantities of immunoglobulin (Ig) when cultured with pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The present investigations were aimed at analysing the cell subset in these T cell preparations, that was responsible for Ig production especially since the quantity of Ig generated was disproportionate to numbers of contaminating sIg-bearing B cells. Ficoll-Hypaque PBMC from 17 individuals were subjected to overnight sheep erythrocyte rosetting. Rosetted cells were subjected to very slow (100 X g) density gradient centrifugation to isolate T rosettes (and deplete PBMC of B cells). In 6 of these 17 individuals, such enriched T cells repeatedly generated substantial quantities of plasmacytoid cells after an 8-day culture in the presence of PWM and helper factors. Mean values for plasmacytoid cells per 1000 cells recovered were as follows: T cells 168.16 +/- 96.7 SD, B cells 226.67 +/- 161.1, PBMC 225.67 +/- 78.9. In further experiments, contaminating surface immunoglobulin (sIg)-positive B cells (less than 2% sIg-positive) were removed from the T cell preparations by the "panning" method, i.e. layering T cells on plates precoated with antisera specific for human Ig (polyvalent), and lysis of B cells with a monoclonal antibody BA-1. In these 6 individuals, removal of B cells by both these techniques completely abolished generation of plasmacytoid cells, thus confirming that it is a contaminating B cell subset which is responsible for Ig production in these T cell preparations. These data indicate that in certain individuals there are B cells that separate out with T cells during the E-rosette isolation procedure. With double immunofluorescence techniques, it became apparent that 4.8 +/- 1.3% of TRITC-labeled sIgM-bearing B cells were also labeled with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibody to the sheep erythrocyte receptor. Kuritani and Cooper have previously demonstrated that PWM-responsive B cell precursors of IgM, IgG, or IgA plasmacytoid cells lack sIgD and, hence, comprise about 10-15% of the total B cells in PBMC. Our data would indicate that in certain individuals, about half this subset forms E-rosettes, which may explain why both E-rosette separated T cells and enriched B cells make similar quantities of plasmacytoid cells. PMID:6389700

Lobo, P I



Studies on metabolically depleted erythrocytes.  


Erythrocytes kept outside the blood circulation undergo progressive changes in metabolism, shape and function, which was the topic of this study. For that purpose, blood anticoagulated with either heparin, citrate or EDTA was incubated at temperatures of 5°C, 22°C or 37°C for 0 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. A temperature- and time-dependent decrease of glucose and ATP and increase of lactate and LDH were observed. An erythrocyte swelling and echinocytic shape transformation, which was also time- and temperature-dependent, was seen. Density-separated young and old erythrocytes behaved similarly. The degree of echinocytic shape transformation correlated with the increase in blood viscosity at high shear rate. Echinocytosis was partially reversible when erythrocytes were suspended in buffer containing 0.2% albumin. This phenomenon is specific for albumin, since molecules with a similar molecular weight (dextran 70, heat shock protein, protein C) had no effect. These finding may have an impact on blood banking and transfusion medicine. PMID:23370160

Reinhart, S A; Schulzki, T; Bonetti, P O; Reinhart, W H



Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)



Detection of G6PD and pyruvate kinase deficiencies in reticulocytosis by reference to erythrocyte creatine.  


Erythrocyte activities of G6PD and PK, referenced to creatine content, are presented as a means to detect enzyme deficiencies despite the presence of variable proportions of young erythrocytes in the assayed cell population. Lysate enzyme activities, creatine and hemoglobin concentrations, and whole blood reticulocyte counts were determined on 110 samples from 87 patients with a variety of anemias, including two pyruvate kinase deficient, three G6PD deficient, and four proven G6PD heterozygotes. Highest correlations were obtained between log of G6PD activity/g hemoglobin and lysate creatine, and between PK activity/g hemoglobin and lysate creatine. Ninety-five percent limits for this population are presented for creatine concentrations to 28 mg/dl, corresponding to 20% reticulocyte count. In addition to providing reference intervals appropriate to the suspect patient population, the data afford greater confidence in detecting partial enzyme deficiencies concomitant with other hemolytic processes, such as hemoglobinopathies. PMID:7296823

Brewster, M A; Berry, D H



White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the relation between platelets and inflammation. PMID:21546503

Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia



White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl


The platelet count in EDTA-anticoagulated blood from patients with thrombocytopenia may be underestimated when measured in routine laboratories.  


Spuriously low platelet counts (PCs) can be observed in normal blood samples anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)and, much less frequently, with citrate-tris-pyridossalphosphate (CPT),due to time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination. Accuracy in PC determination is essential as PC is one of the parameters that usually guides treatment for thrombocytopenic patients. PCs of 93 thrombocy to penic patients were measured in EDTA- or CPT-anticoagulated blood samples immediately after sampling (t0) and 90 min (t90) after storage at room temperature. The presence of platelet agglutinates in blood samples was determined by examining blood smears using optical microscopy.PCs decreased at t90 with both anticoagulants. Platelet agglutinates were present at t90 in 27% of EDTA-samples vs. 2% of CPT-samples with decreased PCs (P < 0.001). Based on PCs in EDTA-samples, 15 patients (16%) shifted from a lower bleeding risk at t0 to a higher bleeding risk category at t90 (P 5 0.019), compared to 5 (5%) patients, based on PCs in CPT-samples. Therefore, time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination in EDTA-blood samples may cause underestimation of PCs in thrombocytopenic patients, possibly leading to improper management. PMID:22674424

Podda, Gian Marco; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Mezzasoma, Anna Maria; Gresele, Paolo; Carpani, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Marco



Complete Blood Count Alterations after Six Months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Patients with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The cardiovascular complications caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decrease after continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). Mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and red cell distribution width (RDW) are newly recognized tools for assessing cardiovascular risk. Methods: From a selection of patients with symptoms of nocturnal snoring and/or excessive daytime sleepiness, 36 males with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 30/h and 22 age-matched normal male controls with AHI < 5/h were included. Patients with OSA underwent another night of CPAP titration, and 11 patients were excluded at the 6-month evaluation due to poor compliance with the home CPAP therapy. Complete blood count parameters of compliant patients and the control group were evaluated. Results: Compared to controls, MPV values were significantly higher (p = 0.025) in OSA patients, but no significant differences in PDW or RDW were found (p > 0.05). Six months of CPAP therapy resulted in significantly lower MPV values but increased values of PDW and RDW in patients with severe OSA (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that complete blood count parameters in OSA patients such as MPV, PDW and RDW change significantly after CPAP therapy. Citation: Sökücü SN, Özdemir C, Dalar L, Karasulu L, Ayd?n ?, Alt?n S. Complete blood count alterations after six months of continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):873-878. PMID:25126033

Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Özdemir, Cengiz; Dalar, Levent; Karasulu, Levent; Ayd?n, ?enay; Alt?n, Sedat



White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.  


Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George



The Influence of Age and Sex on the Cell Counts of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations in Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques are the favorable models for preclinical study of potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. Little is known about the normal levels of leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques. To obtain these data, 100 blood samples from Chinese rhesus macaques were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), were quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry through BD trucount tubes. The influence of age and sex on the cell counts of leukocyte subpopulations was analyzed. The counts of CD3+T cells, CD3+CD4+T cells, CD3+CD8+T cells and B cells decreased with age, but those of monocytes, mDCs and pDCs had no significant correlation with age. Significant differences existed in the cell counts of most leukocyte subpopulations between the male and female groups except pDCs. Furthermore the values of the females were higher than those of the males. The study provided basic information about the leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques, and it may be valuable for immunobiological study of Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:20003819

Xia, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zheng, Yong-Tang



Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth, as they contain abundant nutrients. However, the relationship between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes remains unclear. We analyzed interactions between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes, and found that iron ion present in human erythrocytes supported the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, another major Gram-positive sepsis pathogen, while it partially inhibited pneumococcal growth by generating free radicals. S. pneumoniae cells incubated with human erythrocytes or blood were subjected to scanning electron and confocal fluorescence microscopic analyses, which showed that the bacterial cells adhered to and invaded human erythrocytes. In addition, S. pneumoniae cells were found associated with human erythrocytes in cultures of blood from patients with an invasive pneumococcal infection. Erythrocyte invasion assays indicated that LPXTG motif-containing pneumococcal proteins, erythrocyte lipid rafts, and erythrocyte actin remodeling are all involved in the invasion mechanism. In a neutrophil killing assay, the viability of S. pneumoniae co-incubated with erythrocytes was higher than that without erythrocytes. Also, H2O2 killing of S. pneumoniae was nearly completely ineffective in the presence of erythrocytes. These results indicate that even when S. pneumoniae organisms are partially killed by iron ion-induced free radicals, they can still invade erythrocytes. Furthermore, in the presence of erythrocytes, S. pneumoniae can more effectively evade antibiotics, neutrophil phagocytosis, and H2O2 killing. PMID:24194877

Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Mori-Yamaguchi, Yuka; Domon, Hisanori; Sakaue, Yuuki; Yagi, Tetsuya; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nizet, Victor; Kawabata, Shigetada



Sex Differences in Step Count-Blood Pressure Association: A Preliminary Study in Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWalking and cardiovascular mortality are inversely associated in type 2 diabetes, but few studies have objectively measured associations of walking with individual cardiovascular risk factors. Such information would be useful for “dosing” daily steps in clinical practice. This study aimed to quantify decrements in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) per 1,000 daily step increments.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTwo hundred and one subjects

Priya Manjoo; Lawrence Joseph; Louise Pilote; Kaberi Dasgupta; Conrad P. Earnest



Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.  


The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco



Some selected peripheral blood and haemopoietic system indices in Wistar rats with chronic vanadium intoxication.  


1. Wistar rats of both sexes received vanadium in drinking water in the amount of 23-29 mg/kg body weight in the form of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) for a period of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. 2. Animals treated in this way ate less food and drank less AMV solution as compared with the amount of water consumed by the controls; they suffered from diarrhoea, and owing to this the increment in body weight was reduced. 3. Vanadium decreased erythropoiesis and maturation of red blood cells, which was expressed by a reduced erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level and increased reticulocyte and polychromatophilic erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood. 4. The composition percentage of the bone marrow cells and the peripheral blood leukocyte count did not undergo noticeable changes under the influence of vanadium. PMID:2567224

Zaporowska, H; Wasilewski, W



Targeting glutathione by dimethylfumarate protects against experimental malaria by enhancing erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling.  


The balance between GSH-levels and oxidative stress is critical for cell survival. The GSH-levels of erythrocytes are dramatically decreased during infection with Plasmodium spp. We therefore investigated the consequences of targeting GSH for erythrocyte and Plasmodium survival in vitro and in vivo using dimethylfumarate (DMF) at therapeutically established dosage. We first show that noninfected red blood cells (RBC) exposed to DMF undergo changes typical of apoptosis or eryptosis, such as cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with subsequent phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. DMF did not induce appreciable hemolysis. DMF-triggered PS exposure was mediated by intracellular GSH depletion and reversed by the antioxidative N-acetyl-l-cysteine. DMF treatment controlled intraerythrocyte DNA amplification and in vitro parasitemia of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBC. In vivo, DMF treatment had no effect on RBC count or GSH levels in noninfected mice. Consistent with its effects on infected RBC, DMF treatment abrogated parasitemia and enhanced the survival of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei from 0% to 60%. In conclusion, DMF sensitizes the erythrocytes to the effect of Plasmodium infection on PS exposure, thus accelerating the clearance of infected erythrocytes. Accordingly, DMF treatment favorably influences the clinical course of malaria. As DMF targets mechanisms within the host cell, it is not likely to generate resistance of the pathogen. PMID:20631250

Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Bobbala, Diwakar; Wieder, Thomas; Koka, Saisudha; Brück, Jürgen; Fehrenbacher, Birgit; Röcken, Martin; Schaller, Martin; Lang, Florian; Ghoreschi, Kamran



Evaluation of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters to identify three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, inflammation, and hemoglobinopathies as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous ?-thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic erythrocytes, hypochromic erythrocytes, and the levels of hemoglobin in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating anemia. Results There was no difference between the groups of iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency for any of the parameters. The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was the best parameter to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909 with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic erythrocyte count minus hypochromic erythrocyte count was very accurate to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from heterozygous ?-thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005 with a sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices are moderately good to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25818816

Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf



Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042



Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes.  


Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042

Finstad, Oystein Wessel; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Lindholm, Tone Hæg; Nyman, Ingvild Berg; Løvoll, Marie; Wallace, Christian; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Storset, Anne K; Rimstad, Espen



Erythrocyte survival in patients with porcine xenograft aortic and mitral valves.  


Ten patients with porcine xenograft aortic and mitral valve prostheses were studied three to 36 months (mean 15 months) postoperatively for evidence of hemolysis. Studies included complete blood count, reticulocyte count, red cell indices, percentage of schistocytes on blood smears, bilirubin concentration, lactic dehydrogenase, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, haptoglobin, serum folate and vitamin B12 levels, Coombs' test, methemoglobin reduction test, autologous 51Cr erythrocyte survival, and urinary examination for iron and hemosiderin. All patients were hemodynamically stable. Nine patients had normal valve function and no evidence of hemolysis. One patient with paravalvular aortic regurgitation had mechanical hemolytic anemia with a negative Coombs' test. Porcine valve xenografts do not seem to be associated with hemolysis unless complicated by a paravalvular leak. PMID:7063904

Rao, K R; Patel, A R; Patel, R N; Kumaraiah, V; Towne, W D



Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson



Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...



Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige



Recombinant glycosylated human interleukin-6 accelerates peripheral blood platelet count recovery in radiation-induced bone marrow depression in baboons.  


This report was aimed at confirming the potential clinical use for a genetically engineered glycosylated human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) in hematopoiesis. Its tolerance and efficacy were assessed on hematopoietic restoration after neutron radiation-induced bone marrow injury on baboons, which represent an adequate model of parallelism for studying hematology in the human. The particular neutron radiation absorption pattern in the body allows the preservation of underexposed bone marrow areas that mimics an autotransplantation-like situation. An initial dose finding study (1 microgram up to 20 micrograms/kg/d for 8 consecutive days) in normal baboons established a dose-dependent response regarding the peripheral platelet count (range of increase, 1.5- to 4-fold). A significant elevation in white blood cell (WBC) count, as well as a substantial reversible normochromic normocytic anemia, were observed for the highest doses only (10 and 20 micrograms/kg/d). All rhIL-6 administered doses were clinically well tolerated. In myelosuppressed baboons, a selected dose of 10 micrograms/kg/d of rhIL-6 for 13 consecutive days significantly lessened the degree of induced thrombocytopenia as compared with the control group (P = .01) and shortened the time to occurrence of the nadir, showing that the onset of recovery occurs much earlier, ie, an average of 5 days (P = .003), in the treated group. Moreover, this accelerated platelet recovery is evidenced by an 8-day shorter mean time back to baseline values (P = .03) in the rhIL-6--treated animals. At this dose no effect was observed on the WBC recovery pattern. Importantly rhIL-6 did not accentuate the radiation-induced anemia and was clinically well tolerated. All tested monkeys recovered from their induced pancytopenia and no animal loss was recorded. IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-1 blood measurements are reported. In conclusion, rhIL-6 is a potent thrombopoietic factor for the treatment of induced thrombocytopenia in nonhuman primates at a clinically well-tolerated dose. PMID:1638022

Herodin, F; Mestries, J C; Janodet, D; Martin, S; Mathieu, J; Gascon, M P; Pernin, M O; Ythier, A



The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  


Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W



Urea movement across erythrocyte membrane during artificial kidney treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea movement across erythrocyte membrane during artificial kidney treatment. Previous work by other investigators indicates that erythrocyte urea and creatinine in uremic whole blood leaving the hemodialyzer do not move down the concentration gradients established by loss of these solutes across the dialyzer membrane. This puzzling disequilibrium is at odds with work indicating ready movement of both solutes across the

Alfred K Cheung; Michael F Alford; Marcella M Wilson; John K Leypoldt; Lee W Henderson



A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data  

PubMed Central

Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook



Osmotic properties of bovine erythrocytes aged in vivo.  


The osmotic properties of bovine erythrocytes aged in vivo were studied by the modified microhematocrit method. The osmotic fragility of older red cells decreases due to their larger relative osmotically non-active volume. Relative critical cell volume of bovine erythrocytes does not alter significantly with cell age. The age dependent change in the osmotic fragility of human red blood cells, the reverse of that found for bovine erythrocytes, is due to a different alteration of the critical cell volume during intravascular erythrocyte aging. PMID:3396851

Mosior, M; Gomu?kiewicz, J



Brucella melitensis invades murine erythrocytes during infection.  


Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric



Brucella melitensis Invades Murine Erythrocytes during Infection  

PubMed Central

Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques



Prognostic effect of peripheral blood cell counts in advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP-like chemotherapy: A single institution analysis  

PubMed Central

The primary objective of the present study was to correlate blood cell counts (lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts) with early disease relapse following the attainment of complete remission (CR) by the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP)-like regimen in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In total, 30 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up period of 43 months. All the participating patients attained CR. In total, eight patients experienced relapse within two years of the diagnosis, and the three-year overall survival rate was recorded as 77%. The peripheral counts for lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets, and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, all of which have been reported to be prognostic in DLBCL, were assessed. None of these parameters were correlated with the incidence of early relapse or with the prognosis. The lymphocyte count was higher in the patients with durable remission than in those who relapsed, however, no significant differences were identified. Thus, the present study concluded that early disease relapse was not predicted by peripheral blood cell counts in advanced DLBCL that reached CR using the R-CHOP-like regimen. PMID:25621059




Effect of lead on erythrocyte membranes.  


The effect of blood lead on erythrocyte membrane proteins was studied in 28 workers from a scrap lead refining factory and in 18 controls working in railway construction. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the polypeptides in the erythrocyte membrane showed that bands 3 and 4.1 had significantly decreased while bands 2.3, 6, and 7 had significantly increased in the lead workers compared with the controls. For the lead workers, the correlation coefficients between blood lead and bands 2.3 and 3 were r = 0.545 (p less than 0.01) and r = -0.51 (p less than 0.01) respectively. These results suggest that the decrease in erythrocyte membrane permeability results from a decrease in the membrane transfer protein responsible for band 3. PMID:6830722

Fukumoto, K; Karai, I; Horiguchi, S



Stimulators of tumour necrosis factor production released by damaged erythrocytes.  


We sought to characterize factors released by sonicated human erythrocytes that stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to release tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). This response is not inhibited by polymyxin B, indicating that contaminating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is not responsible. When erythrocyte lysates are fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography using a gradient of n-propanol on Sep-Pak C18 cartridges, the TNF-inducing activity elutes as a single peak. The erythrocyte-derived TNF-inducing activity is unaffected by digestion with proteases but is destroyed by mild base hydrolysis or digestion by lipases, indicating that compounds containing ester-linked acyl chains may be essential. These properties are similar to those of TNF stimulators that we have previously identified in erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites, except that the TNF-inducing activity per cell is about 200 times higher in parasitized erythrocytes than in uninfected erythrocytes. Lipase-digested erythrocyte lysates inhibit the TNF-inducing factors of both normal and malaria-infected erythrocytes, suggesting that lipase digestion creates partial structures which compete with active components for macrophage receptors. Such receptors may recognize a common structure that contains an inositol monophosphate (IMP)-like component, as IMP also inhibits the TNF response to erythrocyte-derived factors and to parasite lysates whereas it does not affect the response to LPS. We conclude that lysed erythrocytes release specific cytokine-inducing factors that may contribute to the fever response to non-infectious tissue injury. PMID:7835944

Bate, C A; Kwiatkowski, D P



Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular risk in non-affective psychoses.  


Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:25542737

Miller, Brian J; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter



Vomiting blood  


... What medicines do you take? Do you drink alcohol or smoke? Tests that may be done include: Blood work, such as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy ( ...


[Kinetics of cu crossing human erythrocyte membrane].  


This study was aimed to investigate various factors influencing the proceduction of Cu(II) crossing human erythrocyte membrane, including concentration of Cu²?, pH value of the medium, temperature and time of incubation, and to derive kinetic equation of Cu(II) crossing human erythrocyte membrane. Suspension red blood cells were incubated by Cu²?, then content of Cu²? crossed human erythrocyte membrane was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry under various conditions after digestion. The results showed that content of Cu²? crossed human erythrocyte membrane increased with the increase of extracellular Cu²? and enhancement of incubation temperature, and the content of Cu²? crossed human erythrocyte membrane showed a increasing tendency when pH reached to 6.2-7.4, and to maximum at pH 7.4, then gradually decreased at range of pH 7.4-9.2. It is concluded that the Cu²? crossing human erythrocyte has been confirmed to be the first order kinetics characteristics within 120 min, and the linear equation is 10³ × Y = 0.0497t +6.5992. PMID:25543501

Dun, Zhu Ci Ren



Complete Blood Count  


... or chronic bleeding RBC destruction (e.g., hemolytic anemia , etc.) Nutritional deficiency (e.g., iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency) Bone marrow disorders or damage Chronic inflammatory disease Kidney failure Known as polycythemia Dehydration Lung (pulmonary) disease ...


Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.  


Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

Minasyan, Hayk A



Erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure in ?-thalassemia.  


[ABS]Phospholipid asymmetry is well maintained in erythrocyte (RBC) membranes with phosphatidylserine (PS) exclusively present in the inner leaflet. Eryptosis, the suicidal death of RBCs, is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipids scrambling with PS exposure at the cell surface. Erythrocytes exposing PS are recognized, bound, engulfed, and degraded by macrophages. Eryptosis thus fosters clearance of affected RBCs from circulating blood, which may aggravate anemia in pathological conditions. Thalassemia patients are more sensitive to the eryptotic depletion and osmotic shock which may affect RBC membrane phospholipid asymmetry. We aimed in this work to determine the RBC PS exposure in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients and correlate it with the clinical presentation and laboratory data. RBCs were stained for annexin V to detect phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in 46 ?-TM patients (27 splenectomized and 19 nonsplenectomized) compared to 17 healthy subjects as a control group. We observed a significant increase in RBC PS exposure in ?-TM patients compared to control group (P = .0001). Erythrocyte PS exposure was significantly higher in splenectomized ?-TM patients compared with nonsplenectomized ?-TM patients (P = .001). No correlation was found between RBC PS exposure and clinical or hematological data of ?-TM patients, but there was a positive correlation between RBC PS exposure and ferritin level in ?-TM patients have higher levels of RBC PS exposure, and splenectomy was shown to aggravate RBC PS exposure without aggravation of anemia. PMID:25000947

Ibrahim, Hamdy A; Fouda, Manal I; Yahya, Raida S; Abousamra, Nashwa K; Abd Elazim, Rania A



Alemtuzumab Treatment of Intermediate-1 Myelodysplasia Patients Is Associated With Sustained Improvement in Blood Counts and Cytogenetic Remissions  

PubMed Central

Purpose Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and progression to leukemia. Clinical and experimental evidence suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology in some patients, in whom immunosuppressive therapy (IST) with horse antithymocyte globulin (h-ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA) can be effective. Because of the toxicities associated with h-ATG/CsA, we investigated an alternative regimen with alemtuzumab in MDS. Patients and Methods We conducted a nonrandomized, off-label, pilot, phase I/II study of alemtuzumab monotherapy in patients with MDS who were judged likely to respond to IST based on the following criteria: HLA-DR15–negative patients whose age plus the number of months of RBC transfusion dependence (RCTD) was less than 58; and HLA-DR15–positive patients whose age plus RCTD was less than 72. In total, 121 patients with MDS were screened, of whom 32 met eligibility criteria to receive alemtuzumab 10 mg/d intravenously for 10 days. Primary end points were hematologic responses at 3, 6, and 12 months after alemtuzumab. Results Seventeen (77%) of 22 evaluable intermediate-1 patients and four (57%) of seven evaluable intermediate-2 patients responded to treatment with a median time to response of 3 months. Four of seven evaluable responders with cytogenetic abnormalities before treatment had normal cytogenetics by 1 year after treatment. Five (56%) of nine responding patients evaluable at 12 months had normal blood counts, and seven (78%) of nine patients were transfusion independent. Conclusion Alemtuzumab is safe and active in MDS and may be an attractive alternative to ATG in selected patients likely to respond to IST. PMID:21041705

Sloand, Elaine M.; Olnes, Matthew J.; Shenoy, Aarthie; Weinstein, Barbara; Boss, Carol; Loeliger, Kelsey; Wu, Colin O.; More, Kenneth; Barrett, A. John; Scheinberg, Phillip; Young, Neal S.



White Blood Cell Count, C-Reactive Protein and Incident Heart Failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To testthe hypothesis that inflammation measured by white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated positively with incident heart failure (HF). METHODS Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we conducted separate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for WBC (measured 1987 to 1989) and CRP (measured 1996 to 1998) in relation to subsequent heart failure occurrence. A total of 14,485 and 9,978 individuals were included in the WBC and CRP analyses, respectively. RESULTS There were 1647 participants that developed HF during follow up after WBC assessment and 613 developed HF after CRP assessment. After adjustment for demographic variables and traditional HF risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI)for incident HF across quintiles of WBC was 1.0, 1.10 (0.9-1.34), 1.27(1.05-1.53), 1.44(1.19-1.74), and 1.62(1.34-1.96) (p trend <0.001); hazard ratio across quintiles of CRP was 1.0, 1.03 (0.68-1.55), 0.99 (0.66-1.51), 1.40 (0.94-2.09) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) (p trend 0.002). Granulocytes appeared to drive the relation between WBCs and heart failure [hazard ratios across quintiles: 1.0, 0.93(0.76-1.15), 1.26 (1.04-1.53), 1.67(1.39-2.01) and 2.19 (1.83-2.61) (p trend <0.0001)], while lymphocytes or monocytes were not related. CONCLUSIONS Greater levels of WBC (especially granulocytes) and CRP are associated with increased risk of heart failure in middle-aged adults, independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:21784657

Bekwelem, Wobo; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Astor, Brad C.; Guild, Cameron; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Folsom, Aaron R.



The in vivo distribution of methotrexate between plasma and erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The concentration of methotrexate in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes was measured in three patients receiving 250 mg methotrexate by continuous intravenous infusion over 12 h for different malignant diseases.2.Methotrexate was measured using a double-antibody radioimmunoassay which facilitated drug monitoring for 1–2 weeks.3.The concentration of methotrexate in plasma was much higher than that in whole blood and erythrocytes during the

W. H. Steele; J. F. B. Stuart; J. R. Lawrence; C. A. McNeill



Comparative assessment of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility and of haematological and plasma biochemical values in the Nigerian white Fulani and N'dama breeds of cattle.  


The blood profiles of the Nigerian White Fulani and N'dama breeds of cattle were compared. The White Fulani cattle had a significantly higher haemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (p < 0.05), plasma sodium (p < 0.02), total protein (p < 0.01), albumin (p < 0.01) and globulin (p < 0.02), but lower neutrophil counts (p < 0.01) and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes than the N'dama cattle. The plasma potassium, calcium, bicarbonate, inorganic phosphate, albumin/globulin ratio, urea, creatinine, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular volume, and the erythrocyte, leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and monocyte counts were similar in the two breeds. PMID:12094673

Olayemi, F O; Oyewale, J O



Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.  


Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5?h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18?h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18?h PE), number of neutrophils (2?h PE) and monocytes (18?h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals. PMID:24517839

Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert



[Genetic polymorphism of blood group and erythrocyte enzymes in three ethno-territorial groups of the northern European part of Russia].  


Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056). PMID:11771313

Evseeva, I V; Spitsyn, V A; Makarov, S V; Bychkovskaia, L S; Paé, G V



Eosinophil count - absolute  


An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.




... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...




... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...


Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.  


Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid



C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain.  


The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging.Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations.A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8?×10/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-16) versus (9.3?×10/L; IQR 7.2-12.1) and (46?mg/L; IQR 12-100 versus 10?mg/L; IQR 7-26) (P?50?mg/L and WBC count >15?×10/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed.A high CRP level (>50?mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15?×10/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48?hours). PMID:25738473

Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A



Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results.  


This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds. PMID:25477546

Grimes, Carolyn N; Fry, Michael M



Lack of adenosine A3 receptors causes defects in mouse peripheral blood parameters.  


The role of the adenosine A3 receptor in hematopoiesis was studied using adenosine A3 receptor knockout (A3AR KO) mice. Hematological parameters of peripheral blood and femoral bone marrow of irradiated and untreated A3AR KO mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts were investigated. Irradiation of the mice served as a defined hematopoiesis-damaging means enabling us to evaluate contingent differences in the pattern of experimentally induced hematopoietic suppression between the A3AR KO mice and WT mice. Defects were observed in the counts and/or functional parameters of blood cells in the A3AR KO mice. These defects include statistically significantly lower values of blood neutrophil and monocyte counts, as well as those of mean erythrocyte volume, mean erythrocyte hemoglobin, blood platelet counts, mean platelet volume, and plateletcrit, and can be considered to bear evidence of the lack of a positive role played by the adenosine A3 receptor in the hematopoietic system. Statistically significantly increased values of the bone marrow parameters studied in A3AR KO mice (femoral bone marrow cellularity, granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells, and erythrocyte progenitor cells) can probably be explained by compensatory mechanisms attempting to offset the disorders in the function of blood elements in these mice. The pattern of the radiation-induced hematopoietic suppression was very similar in A3AR KO mice and their WT counterparts. PMID:24763970

Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, Ladislav; Hoferová, Zuzana; Kom?rková, Denisa



Differential counting of blood leukocytes using automated microscopy and a decision support system based on artificial neural networks--evaluation of DiffMaster Octavia.  


The morphological appearance of blood cells has an established association to clinical conditions. A novel system, DiffMaster Octavia for differential counting of blood leukocytes, has been evaluated. The system consisted of a microscope, 3-chip color charge coupled device (CCD) camera, automated motorized stage holder, electronic hardware for motor and light control and software for automatic cell location and image processing for preclassification of blood cells using artificial neural networks. The DiffMaster test method, was evaluated on 322 routine blood samples (400 cells per sample) using manual microscopy as reference method. The results showed a correlation of determination (r(2)) of 0.8-0.98 for the normal cell classes and blast cells. The DiffMaster correctly preclassified 89% of all leukocytes with a good reproducibility. After verification of the cell classes, the agreement between the test and reference method was 91% whether the sample was abnormal or normal. The clinical sensitivity was 98% and specificity 82%. The sensitivity to identify blast cells was slightly higher with the DiffMaster than manual microscopy. Similar levels of short-term imprecision for the two methods were found for all cell classes. In conclusion this study shows that the DiffMaster can provide a decision support system which, together with a qualified morphologist, can generate leukocyte differential count reports of high quality. PMID:12755789

Swolin, B; Simonsson, P; Backman, S; Löfqvist, I; Bredin, I; Johnsson, M



Erythrocytic oxidative damage in crossbred cattle naturally infected with Babesia bigemina.  


This study aimed to determine the erythrocytic lipid peroxidation and haemoglobin oxidation as contributory factors causing anaemia in cattle (Friesian x Egyptian native breed) infected with Babesia bigemina. Blood was collected from 32 cows infected with B. bigemina along with 18 healthy cows as controls for determination of erythrocytic malondialdehyde (MDA), blood methaemoglobin (MetHb), plasma free haemoglobin (PHb), corpuscular osmotic fragility (COF), red blood cell count (RBC), total haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV). Percentage of parasitaemia varied from 14% to 36%. MDA, MetHb, COF and PHb were significantly increased (P<0.001) in infected cows versus controls. Parasitaemia was positively correlated (P<0.001) with MDA, MetHb, COF and PHb. MDA was positively correlated (P<0.001) with COF and PHb and negatively correlated (P<0.001) with RBC, Hb and PCV. MetHb was negatively correlated (P<0.001) with RBC, Hb and PCV and positively correlated (P<0.001) with COF. In conclusion, B. bigemina infection in cattle is associated with a parasitic burden-dependent corpuscular oxidative damage as indicated by membrane lipid peroxidation and methaemoglobin formation, which are contributed to COF and intravascular haemolysis. PMID:18599097

Saleh, Mostafa A



Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1.  


In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B(+) but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B(+) but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population. PMID:19279206

Mayer, D C Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H; Miller, Louis H



[Gerasimov effect of an alternating magnetic field on clinical characteristics of peripheral blood from women suffering tuboperitoneal infertility of inflammatory origin].  


The influence of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) on the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood cell count, and pH values in peripheral blood was studied in 15 woman volunteers suffering tuboperitoneal infertility (TPI) of inflammatory origin. They were found to have a significantly (p < 0.05) lower number of erythrocytes, absolute number of stab neutrophils, and relative number of segmented neutrophils compared with the respective normal values. In addition, their blood pH values were decreased. The above changes are characteristic of hypoxic conditions supposed "to train" tissues for chronic inflammation; such training may underlie the mechanism of therapeutic effect of alternating magnetic field in women with tubuloperitoneal infertility. PMID:20017383

Sumarova, A V; Tedeeva, T A; Gerasimov, I G



Effect of chronic intake of arsenic-contaminated water on blood oxidative stress indices in cattle in an arsenic-affected zone.  


This study aimed to determine the hemato-biochemical picture and blood oxidative stress in zebu cattle in an arsenic-contaminated zone. Significant decline in total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein was observed in cattle of that area in comparison to uncontaminated zone. There was significant elevation of plasma enzyme activities of both alanine aminotransaminase and aspertate aminotransaminase. Increased corpuscular osmotic fragility also proved to be a mechanism for deviation from normal functioning of erythrocytes. Cattle in the affected zone showed a significantly higher arsenic burden in blood. Those animals further showed decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase activities of erythrocytes, and plasma nitrite level, but increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl level. Our finding concluded that cattle of the arsenic-contaminated zone is suffering from a subclinical form of arsenic toxicity, which is proved through altered hemato-biochemical indices and a certain extent of oxidative stress with higher arsenic concentration in blood. PMID:20655591

Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; Pan, Diganta; Kumar Das, Subrata



Ribavirin induced anaemia: the effect of vitamin D supplementation on erythropoietin and erythrocyte indices in normal Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To measure the effect of vitamin D3 (VitD) supplementation on erythrocyte indices, serum and kidney erythropoietin (EPO) in normal rats treated with Pegylated interferon-? (Peg-INF-?) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided equally into 8 groups. ‘Control’; ‘P’: only received Peg-INF-?; ‘PD’: Peg-INF-?/VitD; ‘PR’: Peg-INF-?/RBV; ‘PRD’: Peg-INF-?/RBV/VitD; ‘R’: only received RBV; ‘RD’: RBV/VitD and ‘VitD’: only received vitamin D3. Peg-INF-?-2a was injected subcutaneously (6 µg/rat/week) for 4 weeks. RBV (4 mg/rat/day) and VitD (500 IU/rat/day) were given orally for 5 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure erythrocyte indices and serum 25(OH) vitamin D. EPO was measured in serum samples and kidney specimens by ELISA. Results: Peg-INF-? alone did not affect the RBCs count, haemoglobin, serum and kidney EPO compared to control (P > 0.05). RBV significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and EPO levels in kidney and serum, either individually (R group) or combined with Peg-INF-? (PR group), compared to ‘Control’ and ‘P’ groups. VitD prevented the development of anaemia and significantly increased the concentrations of EPO at serum and kidney levels in the ‘RD’ and ‘PRD’ groups compared to ‘R’ and ‘PR’ groups. There was a significant positive correlation between blood levels of VitD with serum and kidney EPO, Red cell count and haemoglobin concentrations. Conclusion: VitD could have a potential beneficial role in the prevention of ribavirin-induced anaemia by promoting endogenous EPO. Further studies are needed to explore the role of vitamin D in the prevention of ribavirin associated anaemia. PMID:25356124

Refaat, Bassem; Ashour, Tariq Helal; El-Shemi, Adel Galal



Effects of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean on blood glucose and lipid concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We divided patients into two groups and fed them, respectively, a basal diet (control group) and a basal diet with 69 g/d of soybean (soybean group) for 4 weeks. Pills with roasted soybean powder were provided to the soybean supplementation group three times a day. Macronutrients intake except dietary fiber was similar between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in dietary intakes or body weight before and after the supplementation. Energy composition ratio of C:F:P was 65:19:16 in the control group, 64:20:16 in the soybean group. The blood parameters of subjects before supplementation, such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HbA(1)C were not different between the two groups. After supplementation, fasting blood glucose (p<0.001), postprandial glucose level (p<0.001) and serum triglyceride level (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the soybean group in comparison with the control group. The total cholesterol level was not significantly different between the control and the supplemented group after 4 weeks of treatment. TBARS levels of the soybean group were not significantly different from those of the control group. The activities of catalase (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05) were significantly higher in the soybean group compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that soybean supplementation would be helpful to control blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic patients. Also, soybean showed an antioxidant activity that may contribute to enhance the effect of antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to protection against oxidative damage in type 2 DM patients. Soybean may have potential use in the disease management of patients with DM. PMID:20126600

Chang, Ji Ho; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Tae Wha; Lee, Sang Sun



Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.



Erythrocyte membrane ATPase and calcium pumping activities in porcine malignant hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

To investigate possible abnormalities in erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities in the pharmacogenetic disorder MH, membrane ATPase activities have been examined in erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells of MHS and normal swine. While no differences were noted in Mg2+-ATPase activities, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity of MHS erythrocyte ghosts was less than that of normal ghosts. Ca2+-ATPase activity exhibited low- and high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites in both types of erythrocyte ghost. While the Km for Ca2+ was greater for normal than for MHS erythrocyte ghosts at the high-affinity Ca2+-binding site, the reverse was true at the low-affinity Ca2+-binding site. Irrespective of the type of calcium binding site occupied, the Vmax for normal erythrocyte ghost Ca2+-ATPase activity was greater than that for MHS ghosts. In the presence of calmodulin, there was now no difference between MHS and normal erythrocyte ghosts in either the Km for Ca2+ or the Vmax of the Ca2+-ATPase activity. To determine if the calcium pumping activity of intact MHS and normal pig erythrocytes differed, calcium efflux from the /sup 45/Ca-loaded erythrocytes was determined; this activity was significantly greater for MHS than for normal erythrocytes. Thus, the present study confirms that there are abnormalities in the membranes of MHS pig red blood cells. However, we conclude that these abnormalities are unlikely to result in an impaired ability of MHS erythrocytes to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration.

Thatte, H.S.; Mickelson, J.R.; Addis, P.B.; Louis, C.F.



Peripheral Erythrocytes Decrease upon Specific Respiratory Challenge with Grass Pollen Allergen in Sensitized Mice and in Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). Methods and Results BALB/c mice (n?=?20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n?=?10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n?=?10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n?=?42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Conclusion Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate for hypoxia is a possible explanation for these findings. PMID:24466205

Schmutz, René; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlböck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, René; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika



Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel



Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia



Scanning electron-microscopic and light-optic investigations of erythrocytes in toxic anaemia.  

PubMed Central

Detailed assessment of the peculiarities of erythrocyte morphology by applying scanning electron microscopy and light-optics methods gives valuable information on the age characteristics, functional failures of the erythrocyte, pathogenesis of anaemia, and also diagnosis. In toxic anaemia caused by the chronic effect of lead and chlorobenzene there is accumulation of aging erythrocytes in blood that are spherical with rough and folded surfaces, fragmented with protuberances, processes, crypt-like hollows, and holes. In lead intoxication there is increased destruction of erythrocytes; anaemia caused by chlorobenzene is mainly due to a decreased entry of the young forms of the erythrocyte into the blood. Light-optics investigation combined with scanning electron microscopy allows a quantitative calculation of erythrocytes with abnormalities of form and surfaces. This may be used as an additional diagnostic test as part of the haematological examination of patients with anaemia. Images PMID:7470405

Arutjunov, V D; Batsura JuD; Gribova, I A; Kruglikov, G G



Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). PMID:24790773

Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele



Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.



New optical method for investigation of kinetics of nonspecific transmembrane transport into erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical method based on measurements of kinetics of the oxygenation and deoxygenation of erythrocytes in various functional states is developed. The new optic device, modeling the conditions of the system of circulation of the blood in organisms and allowing us to measure continuously the absolute values of degree of blood saturation by oxygen in the process of oxygenation (deoxygenation) and change of the mean erythrocyte volume, was elaborated. The analysis of obtained kinetic curves allowed us to determine the amount of hemoglobin capable to reverse association with oxygen (the active hemoglobin) in investigated sample and discover the pathology forms of hemoglobin. The new method allows us to investigate nonspecific erythrocyte membrane permeability. The rates of oxygen and glucose penetration to erythrocytes in various functional states was measured. It was discovered that erythrocyte membrane permeability for oxygen periodically considerably changes in the process of oxygenation and deoxygenation of the blood. It was found that the functional state of erythrocyte depends on the functional and structure state of erythrocyte membrane. The rate of glucose penetration to erythrocytes in various functional states was measured. The influence of external affects (physical and chemical, for example used in medicine surface-active substances) on function of the erythrocyte membrane was studied. Obtained results allow us to offer the elaborated device and methods of measurement as for scientific so for clinical investigations.

Fok, Michail V.; Zaritskaya, Galina A.; Zaritskii, Aleksandr R.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.



Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...


Survival of carrier erythrocytes in splenectomized calves.  


Carrier erythrocyte survival was investigated in intact and splenectomized calves. Survival curves for both were biphasic, with a characteristic early loss of 10% to 15% of the carrier cells in intact calves followed by a half-life of 22 to 24 days. In splenectomized calves, 50% to 75% of the carrier cells disappeared from circulation in the first 24 hours. The 2nd phase of survival showed a 44-day half-life for the remaining carrier cells. Erythrocytes from splenectomized calves appeared to be permeable to [14C]sucrose and were more susceptible to irreversible hemolysis from the dialysis encapsulation procedure. Blood volume determination showed a 22% decrease after splenectomy. PMID:6869977

DeLoach, J R; Wagner, G G



Evaluation of the T helper 17 cell specific genes and the innate lymphoid cells counts in the peripheral blood of patients with the common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients. PMID:25002891

Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Yazdani, Reza; Sherkat, Roya; Homayouni, Vida; Masjedi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Mohsen



A Receptor for the Malarial Parasite Plasmodium vivax: The Erythrocyte Chemokine Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the major causes of human malaria, except in sub-Saharan Africa where people lack the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for P. vivax. Duffy negative human erythrocytes are resistant to invasion by P. vivax and the related monkey malaria, P. knowlesi. Several lines of evidence in the present study indicate that the Duffy

Richard Horuk; Chetan E. Chitnis; Walter C. Darbonne; Timothy J. Colby; Anne Rybicki; Terence J. Hadley; Louis H. Miller



Some aspects of erythrocyte metabolism in insulin-treated diabetic dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (iddm) is a common metabolic disease often complicated by a number of pathological conditions among which are haematological changes and alterations in blood cell function. Human and feline diabetes mellitus patients have been reported to be associated with oxidative stress that can lead to membrane alterations and to reduced erythrocyte life-span. Erythrocyte function in dogs affected by

S. Comazzi; S. Paltrinieri; V. Spagnolo; P. Sartorelli



White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi



Vital transfusion in patients with multiple antibodies against common erythrocyte antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfusion of blood components could be needed in certain types of surgical procedures. Blood type components and the requested number of units will depend on the estimated loss of blood, type of surgery, surgical technique to be employed and risk factors for bleeding. Problems can appear when multiple antibodies against common erythrocyte antigens are detected in blood samples and

Joan-Ramon Grífols; Alfons Serrano; Anna Ester; Jordi Juncà; Eduard Muñiz



Clinical usefulness of the hematopoietic progenitor cell counts in predicting the optimal timing of peripheral blood stem cell harvest.  

PubMed Central

Although enumeration of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood (PB) on the day of apheresis predicts the quantity of those cells collected, the flow cytometric techniques used are complex and expensive, and several hours are required to obtain the result in the clinical practice setting. The Sysmex SE-9000 automated haematology analyzer provides an estimate of immature cells, called hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of HPC in predicting the optimal timing of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) harvest. Studies were performed on 628 aphereses from 160 patients with hematologic or solid malignancies. Spearman's rank statistics was used to assess correlation between HPC, WBC, mononuclear cells (MNC), and CD34+ cells. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn for cutoff value of HPC, and predictive values of the chosen cutoff value of HPC for different target CD34+ cell collections were calculated. The PB HPC had a stronger correlation (rho=0.592, p<0.001) with collected CD34+ cells than did PB WBC and PB MNC. The ROC curve showed that the best cutoff value of HPC was 50 x 10(6)/L for the target CD34+ cells > or =1 x 10(6)/kg with sensitivity of 75%. Positive and negative predictive values of HPC > or =50 x 10(6)/L for CD34+ cells > or =1 x 10(6)/kg were 59.7% and 81.1%, respectively. In the clinical practice setting, applying variable cutoff values of HPC would be a useful tool to predict the optimal timing of PBPC collection. PMID:12589083

Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Sung-Bae; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Shin; Kim, Woo-Kun; Lee, Jung-Shin; Park, Keon Uk; Suh, Cheolwon



Association of abnormal erythrocyte morphology with oxidative stress and inflammation in metabolic syndrome.  


In carrying out their role of free radical scavenging, erythrocytes become damaged due to oxidation of membrane lipids and proteins. Such damage may change the morphology of the erythrocytes. The present study aims to demonstrate change in erythrocyte morphology in MetS and associate the changes with increased oxidative stress and inflammation that were shown in our recent study. One hundred participants were recruited from a rural town of Australia. Whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability, lipid profile and blood sugar level, oxidative stress markers (erythrocyte reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, urinary isoprostanes) and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured. Erythrocyte morphological study was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Recruited participants were classified into MetS and non-MetS following the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS 20 software. The mean percentages of biconcave cells were decreased whereas acanthocytes, stomatocytes and echinocytes were increased in MetS group compared to healthy controls. Morphologically abnormal erythrocytes were significantly correlated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation markers. Free radicals generated in increased concentration in MetS seem to damage erythrocyte changing its morphology which possibly could affect other hemorheological parameters. PMID:25616368

Gyawali, Prajwal; Richards, Ross S; Bwititi, Phillip T; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba



Biophysical Properties of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes from Novel Analysis of the Flicker Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infectious processes often modulate the intrinsic properties of vertebrate cells. We studied the modulation of human erythrocyte flicker during the intra-erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using video microscopy imaging and a data analysis system of our design to extract flicker spectra and lateral cell edge undulations of individual erythrocytes at various stages of infection. The total flicker power, the power weighted mean flicker frequency, the mode amplitudes of lateral undulations, and the time correlation of translation mode was quantified by infectious stage and modeled theoretically. Our results suggest that malaria-infected erythrocytes become increasingly more rigid following infection and provide an insight into the modulation of erythrocyte cytoplasmic viscosity by the parasites. These studies of malaria-infected erythrocytes elucidate the kinetics of both membrane and cellular changes that are relevant to blood microcirculation and improve our understanding of the malaria disease process.

Arie, Takayuki; Jin, Albert; Dvorak, James



Updated role of nitric oxide in disorders of erythrocyte function.  


Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that plays a critical role in disorders of erythrocyte function. Sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and banked blood preservation are three conditions where nitric oxide is intimately related to dysfunctional erythrocytes. These conditions are accompanied by hemolysis, thrombosis and vasoocclusion. Our understanding of the interaction between nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and the vasculature is constantly evolving, and by defining this role we can better direct trials aimed at improving the treatments of disorders of erythrocyte function. Here we briefly discuss nitric oxide's interaction with hemoglobin through the hypothesis regarding Snitrosohemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and myoglobin as nitrite reductases. We then review the current understanding of the role of nitric oxide in sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and banked blood, and discuss therapeutics in development to target nitric oxide in the treatment of some of these disorders. PMID:23534951

Kahn, Marc J; Maley, Jason H; Lasker, George F; Kadowitz, Philip J



Updated Role of Nitric Oxide in Disorders of Erythrocyte Function  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that plays a critical role in disorders of erythrocyte function. Sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and banked blood preservation are three conditions where nitric oxide is intimately related to dysfunctional erythrocytes. These conditions are accompanied by hemolysis, thrombosis and vasoocclusion. Our understanding of the interaction between nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and the vasculature is constantly evolving, and by defining this role we can better direct trials aimed at improving the treatments of disorders of erythrocyte function. Here we briefly discuss nitric oxide’s interaction with hemoglobin through the hypothesis regarding S-nitrosohemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and myoglobin as nitrite reductases. We then review the current understanding of the role of nitric oxide in sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and banked blood, and discuss therapeutics in development to target nitric oxide in the treatment of some of these disorders. PMID:23534951

Kahn, Marc J.; Maley, Jason H.; Lasker, George F.; Kadowitz, Philip J.



Effect of peroxynitrite on erythrocytes.  


The action of peroxynitrite on human erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes was studied. Peroxynitrite (0.1-2 mM) induced a transient decrease of intracellular reduced glutathione, oxidized membrane protein -SH groups, initiated membrane lipid peroxidation and inactivated erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase and ATPase activities. Membranes exposed to peroxynitrite showed aggregation and nitration of proteins and changes in protein organization detectable with a maleimide spin label. PMID:8898870

Soszy?ski, M; Bartosz, G



Expression of cryptantigen Th on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes in association with a hemolytic exacerbation.  

PubMed Central

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) erythrocytes lack complement regulatory membrane proteins and are susceptible to complement. Although the critical role of complement in intravascular hemolysis in PNH is accepted, the precise mechanism of complement activation in vivo is unknown. Accordingly, in a PNH patient who was suffering from a hemolytic precipitation soon after a common cold-like upper respiratory infection, we analyzed the erythrocytes with lectins and by flow cytometry to detect membrane alteration that lead to complement activation. The lectin reactivity of erythrocytes showed the expression of cryptantigen Th. The patient serum at the time of the hemolysis induced the expression of Th on erythrocytes from PNH patients and from healthy volunteers in vitro, whereas neither the patient serum after recovery from the hemolysis nor blood type-matched control serum from healthy donor showed this activity. Moreover, autologous serum selectively hemolyzed Th+ PNH erythrocytes, but not Th- PNH erythrocytes, or Th+ control erythrocytes. Hemolysis was not observed either in complement-inactivated serum or in blood type-matched cord blood serum, which lacks natural antibodies to cryptantigens. These findings indicate that the immunoreaction of infection-induced Th with natural antibody on PNH erythrocytes is a trigger of the complement activation, leading to intravascular hemolysis. Images PMID:7542278

Nakakuma, H; Hidaka, M; Nagakura, S; Nishimura, Y; Iwamoto, N; Horikawa, K; Kawaguchi, T; Kagimoto, T; Takatsuki, K



Counting Craze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.



Blood profile of pigeons (Columba livia) during growth and breeding.  


Changes in the blood profile of domestic pigeons (Columba livia) were studied during growth and breeding cycle. Counts of erythrocytes and leucocytes, and values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood volume, plasma volume (BV), width of erythrocytes, and length, width and volume of erythrocyte nuclei of squabs almost reached adult values by the 4th week of age. During courtship and mating, while the level of plasma glucose increased, those of albumin, potassium, cholesterol, calcium and uric acid decreased. At nest-building, plasma albumin and plasma calcium increased significantly. The initial phase of incubation showed an elevation in plasma calcium and a decline in cholesterol and sodium, whereas mid-phase of incubation indicated a marked rise in cholesterol and uric acid. Terminal phase of incubation had significantly low plasma protein level. During feeding and brooding period, a significant rise in sodium, protein and glucose levels and a fall in calcium were observed. Following egg-laying, there was a significant rise in calcium and a drop in protein, haemoglobin, cholesterol, sodium and MCH values. Concomitant with the phenomenal rate of growth of squabs, their haematological indices neared adult values by the 4th week of age and during breeding activity significant changes in blood values occurred. PMID:15275653

Gayathri, K L; Shenoy, K B; Hegde, S N



[Quantitative morphology of periferal erythrocytes and bone marrow erythrokaryocytes in acute leukemia and hemopoietic depressions].  


Morphology of peripheral blood erythrocytes was studied in patients with acute leukemia and aplastic anemia by a Russian cytoanalyzer Mekos-C. Twenty-eight patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia, 15 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 11 with aplastic anemia were examined. Erythrocytes (n = 500) were examined in fixed non-stained blood smears. Hemoglobin content and morphometric parameters of each cell were studied and automatic classification of cells was carried out. The data of computer morphodensitometry are compatible with the data of cytochemical studies of the bone marrow erythroid cells (PAS reaction after McManus). The results indicate circulation of erythrocyte subpopulations differing by shape and other signs (hemoglobin content, section area, shape factor) in the blood of patients with acute leukemia and aplastic anemia. The share of pathological erythrocytes in the peripheral blood reflects failure of erythropoiesis. PMID:10876688

Sokolinski?, B Z; Piatnitski?, A M; Betrozova, M V; Diagileva, O A; Pogorelov, V M; Kozinets, G I



Erythrocyte-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate stabilizes basal hydraulic conductivity and solute permeability in rat microvessels  

PubMed Central

Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator in blood, attenuates acute microvascular permeability increases via receptor S1P1 to stabilize the endothelium. To evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes as an endogenous source of S1P to the regulation of basal permeability, we measured permeability coefficients in intact individually perfused venular microvessels of rat mesentery. This strategy also enabled the contributions of other endogenous S1P sources to be evaluated. Apparent permeability coefficients (PS) to albumin and ?-lactalbumin and the hydraulic conductivity of mesenteric microvessels were measured in the presence or absence of rat erythrocytes or rat erythrocyte-conditioned perfusate. Rat erythrocytes added to the perfusate were the principal source of S1P in these microvessels. Basal PS to albumin was stable and typical of blood-perfused microvessels (mean 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s) when erythrocytes or erythrocyte-conditioned perfusates were present. When they were absent, PS to albumin or ?-lactalbumin increased up to 40-fold (over 10 min). When exogenous S1P was added to perfusates, permeability returned to levels comparable with those seen in the presence of erythrocytes. Addition of SEW 2871, an agonist specific for S1P1, in the absence of red blood cells reduced PSBSA (40-fold reduction) toward basal. The specific S1P1 receptor antagonist (W-146) reversed the stabilizing action of erythrocytes and increased permeability (27-fold increase) in a manner similar to that seen in the absence of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are a primary source of S1P that maintains normal venular microvessel permeability. Absence of erythrocytes or conditioned perfusate in in vivo and in vitro models of endothelial barriers elevates basal permeability. PMID:22865384

Clark, J. F.; Adamson, R. H.



An assay of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in erythrocytes.  


Measurement of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD; EC activity in erythrocytes is useful in distinguishing between familial porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), in which UROD activities are low, and acquired PCT, in which UROD activity is normal. In this method for measuring UROD, pentacarboxylic acid porphyrinogen I (PPI) is used as substrate. A sample of the patient's whole blood is incubated with PPI at 37 degrees C for 30 min at pH 6.0. The reaction is stopped by adding trichloroacetic acid/dimethyl sulfoxide containing mesoporphyrin (internal standard). The coproporphyrin so produced is measured directly by high-performance liquid chromatography, with fluorescence detection. Our values by this method for healthy subjects and non-PCT patients ranged from 1.8 to 4.0 U/L. The CV for the assay was 10% at 1.1 U/L and 9% at 2.4 U/L. Twelve of 42 patients with PCT had low erythrocyte UROD activities. In each of six families of patients with low UROD activity we found at least one other family member with a low UROD activity in erythrocytes. PMID:3180434

McManus, J; Blake, D; Ratnaike, S



Packing of human erythrocytes in a centrifugal field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of packing of human erythrocytes in whole blood and washed ones in aqueous suspension was investigated in a centrifugal field of 250 g. The Voigt-Kelvin rheological model was found to be well suited to describe the packing process. The ratio of the elastic modulus to viscosity was evaluated from this model. Its value suggests that the flexibility of

Vasile V. Morariu; Titus Simplaceanu; Mircea Ionica; Petre T. Frangopol



RESEARCH Open Access Avian erythrocytes have functional mitochondria,  

E-print Network

to fuel life-sustaining metabolic processes via the production of energy as adenosine triphosphate (ATP of oxygen consumption by erythrocytes in response to the addition of respiratory chain substrates of respiratory activities and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, since blood oxidative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Vital transfusion in patients with multiple antibodies against common erythrocyte antigens.  


The transfusion of blood components could be needed in certain types of surgical procedures. Blood type components and the requested number of units will depend on the estimated loss of blood, type of surgery, surgical technique to be employed and risk factors for bleeding. Problems can appear when multiple antibodies against common erythrocyte antigens are detected in blood samples and this situation worsens if blood units are requested as quickly as possible. We report a case of a patient with a non frequent erythrocytic phenotype where multiple antibodies acting against high-frequency antigens were detected and who required urgent surgery. PMID:19233727

Grífols, Joan-Ramon; Serrano, Alfons; Ester, Anna; Juncà, Jordi; Muñiz, Eduard



Congenital erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies.  


Congenital hemolytic anemias resulting from PK, PFK, and G6PD enzyme deficiencies have been reported in domestic animals. Dogs with PFK deficiency may have episodes of intravascular hemolysis with hemoglobinuria in addition to a persistent compensated hemolytic anemia. Patients with mild G6PD deficiency are not anemic but may show increased susceptibility to oxidant-induced erythrocyte injury. Persistent methemoglobinemia has been reported in dogs and cats with methemoglobin reductase enzyme deficiency. Affected animals have cyanotic-appearing mucous membranes but show no or only mild clinical signs attributable to hypoxemia. Enzyme assays are usually done after acquired causes of hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia have been ruled out. PMID:8863387

Harvey, J W



Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. PMID:17360346

Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra



Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.  


Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis. PMID:21301875

Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E



Plasmodium vivax Pre-Erythrocytic–Stage Antigen Discovery: Exploiting Naturally Acquired Humoral Responses  

PubMed Central

The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy? individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic–stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy? donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

Molina, Douglas M.; Finney, Olivia C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing



The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in induced canine anemia  

E-print Network

to their physiological needs, Exsanguination was accomplished aseptically by )ugular veni- puncture at a rate apprcncimating 10 mQ1Qiters per pound of body weight each day for three successive days. Prior to the initial bleeding, separate laboratory determinations... of erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and eryttuocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were made for each animal to establish normals for each. Post-bleeding values for each of these laboratory findings were determined seven to fourteen days...

Gowing, Gene M



Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.



A Unique Feature of Iron Loss via Close Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Host Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia is an extra-stomach disease experienced in H. pylori carriers. Individuals with type A blood are more prone to suffering from H. pylori infection than other individuals. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying H. pylori-associated anemia, we collected erythrocytes from A, B, O, and AB blood donors and analyzed morphology, the number of erythrocytes with H. pylori colonies attached to them, and iron contents in erythrocytes and H. pylori (NCTC11637 and SS1 strains) by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation soft X-ray imaging. The number of type A erythrocytes with H. pylori attached to them was significantly higher than that of other erythrocytes (P<0.05). Far more iron distribution was observed in H. pylori bacteria using dual energy analysis near the iron L2, 3 edges by soft X-ray imaging. Iron content was significantly reduced in host erythrocytes after 4 hours of exposure to H. pylori. H. pylori are able to adhere more strongly to type A erythrocytes, and this is related to iron shift from the host to the bacteria. This may explain the reasons for refractory iron deficiency anemia and elevated susceptibility to H. pylori infection in individuals with type A blood. PMID:23185604

Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Zhi; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Bingya; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Qiulan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan



Complete blood count - series (image)  


... may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock ... Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema


[Red blood function in systematic exposure to +Gz g-forces].  


In 8 healthy men exposed within a year to systematic +Gz accelerations with cycles of 2-month work on centrifuge followed by a month rest the functional state of the red blood cells was studied repeatedly and once in 26 fighter pilots. The blood was tested for such indices as hemoglobin, reticulocyte and erythrocyte counts; the functional state of erythrocyte pool was tested using a modified method of acidic erythrograms enabling one to record kinetic parameters of hemolysis: maximum rate of hemolysis and time of its development. Intensity of loads in the cycles of centrifuging was estimated from the Barton index. It is indicated that one of the effects of systematic exposure to +Gz accelerations is an accelerated destruction of the cells with reduced resistivity a function of exposure intensity. The destructive processes induced by accelerations trigger for a short time the mechanism of compensatory activation of the red blood system. Analysis of diagrams of percentage distribution of the parameters of the erythrocyte function after centrifuge runs of various intensity, and in the pilots revealed a significant compensatory activation of the red blood system only in 25% of pilots. The criterion validity of the indices tested for the system of individual control of the adaptive processes strain in the body is discussed. PMID:8012297

Dlusskaia, I G; Kiseleva, R K; Vartbaronov, R A; Khomenko, M N; Kozinets, G I; Bondarenko, R A; Bukhtiiarov, I V



Retention of radiolead by human erythrocytes in vitro  

SciTech Connect

An in vitro method was developed to assess human erythrocyte lead uptake and release directly, rapidly, and reproducibly; the technique requires small aliquots of blood and uses silicone fluid to separate erythrocytes from their suspending media. Uptake occurred rapidly and was directly related to temperature. Increasing quantities of available elemental lead were associated with increasing absolute quantities but decreasing percentages of uptake. Low values of pH diminished the uptake and enhanced the release of radiolead by erythrocytes, and could be correlated with diminished lead-hemoglobin binding para-Chloromecuribenzoate increased and dithiothreitol inhibited radiolead uptake but neither compound affected lead release, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are important for lead binding to the erythrocyte. Cyanamide and N-ethylmaleimide did not significantly affect the net uptake or release of radiolead. Calcium disodium EDTA, penicillamine, and dimercaprol significantly reduced lead uptake, although only incubation with dimercaprol resulted in a net removal of lead from erythrocytes. Iron and ceruloplasmin significantly decreased radiolead uptake, but inorganic metal cations other than iron, hyperosmolarity, human serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin had no significant effect on uptake or release.

Barton, J.C.



Origins and function of 3-ribosylurate in bovid erythrocytes.  


3-Ribosylurate is a dominant feature on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of acid extracts of erythrocytes from cows and buffalo, but is HPLC-undetectable in acid extracts of erythrocytes from all other species examined to date. Various aspects of this unique low molecular weight substance remain unexplored since it was first identified. In this study, the mutation(s) responsible for the appearance of ribosylurate in these cells is shown to be specific to members of both tribes of the Bovinae subfamily (Bovidae family), being detectable in the erythrocytes of both the cow and the buffalo (Bovini tribe) as well as in the kudu (Strepsicerotini tribe), but not in representative species from the other subfamilies of the Bovidae family. More specifically, expression of the mutation(s) seems to be restricted to the erythrocyte lineage of these species, ribosylurate being undetectable in cow white blood cells and primary cultures of fibroblasts. Novel evidence is presented that ribosylurate has antioxidant activity. Accumulation of high levels specifically within the haemoglobin-rich milieu of circulating erythrocytes may serve to protect perfused tissues by removing pathophysiological levels of hydrogen peroxide from plasma. Maintenance of ribosylurate levels may be important in conditions associated with oxidative stress in Bovinae. PMID:21820923

Davids, V; Blackhurst, D M; Katz, A A; Harley, E H



21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and total blood volume). (b) Classification....



Counting Quail  

E-print Network

Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean



Oxidative stress in gill, erythrocytes, liver and kidney of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) from a polluted site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between some pro- and antioxidant parameters in erythrocyte, gill, liver and kidney of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus from a fish farm (Control group) and from a polluted site in the Billings Reservoir (Reservoir group) was done. No hematological alterations were observed in blood of Billings fish. The erythrocyte oxidative stress was characterized by increased oxygen uptake and decreased

Afonso C. D. Bainy; Erika Saito; Paulo S. M. Carvalho; Virgínia B. C. Junqueira



Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.



Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Ms. Popwell



Enhanced suicidal erythrocyte death in mice carrying a loss-of-function mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene  

PubMed Central

Abstract Loss-of-function mutations in human adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) lead to multiple colonic adenomatous polyps eventually resulting in colonic carcinoma. Similarly, heterozygous mice carrying defective APC (apcMin/+) suffer from intestinal tumours. The animals further suffer from anaemia, which in theory could result from accelerated eryptosis, a suicidal erythrocyte death triggered by enhanced cytosolic Ca2+ activity and characterized by cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. To explore, whether APC-deficiency enhances eryptosis, we estimated cell membrane scrambling from annexin V binding, cell size from forward scatter and cytosolic ATP utilizing luciferin–luciferase in isolated erythrocytes from apcMin/+ mice and wild-type mice (apc+/+). Clearance of circulating erythrocytes was estimated by carboxyfluorescein-diacetate-succinimidyl-ester labelling. As a result, apcMin/+ mice were anaemic despite reticulocytosis. Cytosolic ATP was significantly lower and annexin V binding significantly higher in apcMin/+ erythrocytes than in apc+/+ erythrocytes. Glucose depletion enhanced annexin V binding, an effect significantly more pronounced in apcMin/+ erythrocytes than in apc+/+ erythrocytes. Extracellular Ca2+ removal or inhibition of Ca2+ entry with amiloride (1 mM) blunted the increase but did not abrogate the genotype differences of annexin V binding following glucose depletion. Stimulation of Ca2+-entry by treatment with Ca2+-ionophore ionomycin (10 ?M) increased annexin V binding, an effect again significantly more pronounced in apcMin/+ erythrocytes than in apc+/+ erythrocytes. Following retrieval and injection into the circulation of the same mice, apcMin/+ erythrocytes were more rapidly cleared from circulating blood than apc+/+ erythrocytes. Most labelled erythrocytes were trapped in the spleen, which was significantly enlarged in apcMin/+ mice. The observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of apcMin/+ erythrocytes, which contributes to or even accounts for the enhanced erythrocyte turnover, anaemia and splenomegaly in those mice. PMID:21781276

Qadri, Syed M; Mahmud, Hasan; Lang, Elisabeth; Gu, Shuchen; Bobbala, Diwakar; Zelenak, Christine; Jilani, Kashif; Siegfried, Alexandra; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian



Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.



Nigella sativa oil reduces aluminium chloride-induced oxidative injury in liver and erythrocytes of rats.  


The present study was planned to investigate the protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) supplementation against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats. Simultaneously, a preliminary phytochemical study was affected in order to characterize the bioactive components containing in the NSO using chemical assays. The antioxidant capacities of NSO were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that NSO was found to contain large amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into two groups, in which group A received standard diet, whereas group B treated daily with an oral gavage dose of 2 ml NSO/kg body weight. After 5 weeks pretreatment, both groups were divided again into two subgroups (A and B) of six animals each and treated for other 3 weeks. Therefore, subgroup A1 was served as a control which received standard diet, but subgroup A2 received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw mixed with food). Subgroup B1 received both AlCl3 and NSO; however, subgroup B2 received NSO only. Results showed that AlCl3 exhibited an increase in white blood cell counts and a marked decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content. Plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin concentration were higher in AlCl3 group than those of the control, while albumin and total protein concentration were significantly lower. Compared to the control, a significant raise of hepatic and erythrocyte malondialdehyde level associated with a decrease in reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, activities of AlCl3 treated rats. However, the administration of NSO alone or combined with AlCl3 has improved the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that AlCl3 has induced the oxidative stress, altered the biochemical parameters and the hepatic histological profile, but the supplementation of NSO has alleviated such toxicity. PMID:25164035

Bouasla, Ihcene; Bouasla, Asma; Boumendjel, Amel; Messarah, Mahfoud; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; El Feki, Abdelfattah



Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.



Age-related carbonyl stress and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation.  


Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have been widely used as indicators of oxidative stress. However, the associations of carbonyl stress with aging process and biochemical alteration of erythrocyte are still poorly understood. Fresh blood samples in vacutainer tubes containing sodium heparinate were obtained from 874 volunteers who were divided into young, adult and old groups based on their age. Plasma RCS and thiols concentrations between different age groups and erythrocyte membrane protein carbonylation in the adult group were detected within 24h of the blood sampling. Results showed that the plasma thiols concentration decreased gradually during aging process, and the p-values between all three groups are less than 0.05. The plasma RCS concentration in different age groups showed a nonlinear association with age. The levels in the young group were slightly higher than the adult group (not significant) and lower than the old group (p < 0.01). The protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane was positively correlated with plasma RCS concentration (p < 0.01), but not plasma thiols concentration. We conclude that higher levels of RCS, not lower levels of thiols, in plasma are a direct risk factor for the protein carbonylation of erythrocyte membrane. Owing to the decrease of thiols levels and increase of RCS levels during aging process, a shift from RCS-related redox allostasis to carbonyl stress would contribute to age-related biological dysfunction and even aging process. PMID:21187579

Li, Guolin; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Zhao, Qiong; Xie, Fuxia; Chen, Keke; Liu, Shenglin; Chen, Yaqin; Shi, Wang; Yin, Dazhong



The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.



Erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies assessed with a miniature centrifugal analyzer.  


Methods for assaying 16 erythrocyte enzymes have been adapted to the miniature centrifugal analyzer. Less than 15 micro L of whole blood is required for all 16 assays. Variation attributable to temporal effects, rotor effects, and random residual error is minor. Initial population studies of blood from adults and cord-blood samples suggest a CV of less than 12% for 12 of the 16 enzymes; thus it should be possible to identify the heterozygous deficient individual. Preliminary data suggest that three such individuals, with enzyme activity (adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase) about half the expected, have been identified, as well as two individuals deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. PMID:162438

Fielek, S; Mohrenweiser, H W



The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01857e

He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo



Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death  

PubMed Central

Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

Lang, Elisabeth



BASIGIN is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved1-4 are required in all parasite strains suggesting that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways5. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, BASIGIN, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth6. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble BASIGIN or by BASIGIN knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-BASIGIN antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a?) erythrocytes, which express a BASIGIN variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, exhibited reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for novel anti-malarial therapies. PMID:22080952

Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y.; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Bei, Amy K.; Theron, Michel; Uchikawa, Makoto; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndir, Omar; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Rayner, Julian C.; Wright, Gavin J.



Basigin is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum.  


Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved are required in all parasite strains, indicating that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, basigin, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble basigin or by basigin knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-basigin antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a-) erythrocytes, which express a basigin variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, had reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for new anti-malarial therapies. PMID:22080952

Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Bartholdson, S Josefin; Bei, Amy K; Theron, Michel; Uchikawa, Makoto; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndir, Omar; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Rayner, Julian C; Wright, Gavin J



Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of ?eff=7.6 ?B per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for ?eff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

Sakhnini, Lama



[Low doses of ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic nature of erythrocyte hemolysis].  


It is established that exposure of the red blood cells of the rats to low doses of ionizing radiation (0.04; 0.08; 0.16; 0.25 and 0.33 mGr) leads to non-linear changes in the processes of lipid peroxidation in the membrane of erythrocytes, their electrophoretic mobility, osmotic resistance. In a dose range from 0.08 to 0.16 mGr with ionizing radiation apoptosis that determines a temporary slowing of the process of hemolysis and stabilization of erythrocytes that is confirmed by morphological changes in erythrocytes is most likely triggered. PMID:25868347



On the influence of pentoxifylline on the permeability of rat erythrocytes for methyl-O-glucose.  


In a series of experiments it was established that in the presence of pentoxifylline (Trental), methyl-O-glucose permeates rat erythrocyte membrane significantly more than in untreated control experiments. Pentoxifylline itself, apparently does not permeate erythrocyte membrane. It is possible that some of the therapeutic effects of pentoxifylline can be related to the facilitation of red blood cell membrane permeability for glucose. PMID:582974

Stefanovich, V; Porsche, E; Müller, E



Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation  

PubMed Central

The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng



Temperature-dependent binding of cyclosporine to an erythrocyte protein  

SciTech Connect

In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of (/sup 3/H)CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA.

Agarwal, R.P.; Threatte, G.A.; McPherson, R.A.



Microfluidic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counters for point-of-care HIV diagnostics using whole blood.  


Roughly 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV; disease burden is highest in resource-limited settings. One important diagnostic in HIV disease management is the absolute count of lymphocytes expressing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) receptors. The current diagnostic instruments and procedures require expensive equipment and trained technicians. In response, we have developed microfluidic biochips that count CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in whole blood samples, without the need for off-chip sample preparation. The device is based on differential electrical counting and relies on five on-chip modules that, in sequence, chemically lyses erythrocytes, quenches lysis to preserve leukocytes, enumerates cells electrically, depletes the target cells (CD4 or CD8) with antibodies, and enumerates the remaining cells electrically. We demonstrate application of this chip using blood from healthy and HIV-infected subjects. Erythrocyte lysis and quenching durations were optimized to create pure leukocyte populations in less than 1 min. Target cell depletion was accomplished through shear stress-based immunocapture, using antibody-coated microposts to increase the contact surface area and enhance depletion efficiency. With the differential electrical counting method, device-based CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts closely matched control counts obtained from flow cytometry, over a dynamic range of 40 to 1000 cells/?l. By providing accurate cell counts in less than 20 min, from samples obtained from one drop of whole blood, this approach has the potential to be realized as a handheld, battery-powered instrument that would deliver simple HIV diagnostics to patients anywhere in the world, regardless of geography or socioeconomic status. PMID:24307694

Watkins, Nicholas N; Hassan, Umer; Damhorst, Gregory; Ni, Hengkan; Vaid, Awais; Rodriguez, William; Bashir, Rashid



Regular Article Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer and  

E-print Network

, and sickle cell anemia (Popel and Johnson, 2005).The underlying mechanism of RBC aggregation is still underRegular Article Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer February 2009 Keywords: Red blood cells Blood flows Cell free layer Microcirculation Hemodynamics

Popel, Aleksander S.


Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte  

E-print Network

(Mohandas and Evans, 1994) in such cases as sickle cell anemia (Platt, 1995) and malaria (Cooke et al., 2001-dimensional computational study of whole-cell equilibrium shape and deformation of human red blood cell (RBC) using spectrin. INTRODUCTION The deformation of the human erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) has been the topic of detailed

Dao, Ming


Cellular level near-wall unsteadiness of high-hematocrit erythrocyte flow using confocal PIV  

E-print Network

Page 1 Cellular level near-wall unsteadiness of high-hematocrit erythrocyte flow using confocal, and micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV). The near-wall red blood cell (RBC) motion of physiologic high-hematocrit, Shah et al. 2006). The sluggish blood flow associated with very high abnormal hematocrit (>55

Pekkan, Kerem


[Analysis of erythrocytes in the MEKOS-C system].  


Quantitative cytofluorimetric analysis of red cells by the MEKOS-C device provides complete information about peripheral blood erythrocytes, which cannot be obtained by other methods and equipment. An analysis is cheap and sensitive, this recommending it for practical hematology, toxicology, and narcology. The MEKOS-C device permits the preclinical diagnosis of a number of diseases and monitoring their treatment. The device is cheap and available for therapeutic and diagnostic institutions of all levels. PMID:9417328

Piatnitski?, A M; Sokolinski?, B Z; Betrozova, M V; Medovy?, V S; Kozinets, G I



Clot contraction: compression of erythrocytes into tightly packed polyhedra and redistribution of platelets and fibrin  

PubMed Central

Contraction of blood clots is necessary for hemostasis and wound healing and to restore flow past obstructive thrombi, but little is known about the structure of contracted clots or the role of erythrocytes in contraction. We found that contracted blood clots develop a remarkable structure, with a meshwork of fibrin and platelet aggregates on the exterior of the clot and a close-packed, tessellated array of compressed polyhedral erythrocytes within. The same results were obtained after initiation of clotting with various activators and also with clots from reconstituted human blood and mouse blood. Such close-packed arrays of polyhedral erythrocytes, or polyhedrocytes, were also observed in human arterial thrombi taken from patients. The mechanical nature of this shape change was confirmed by polyhedrocyte formation from the forces of centrifugation of blood without clotting. Platelets (with their cytoskeletal motility proteins) and fibrin(ogen) (as the substrate bridging platelets for contraction) are required to generate the forces necessary to segregate platelets/fibrin from erythrocytes and to compress erythrocytes into a tightly packed array. These results demonstrate how contracted clots form an impermeable barrier important for hemostasis and wound healing and help explain how fibrinolysis is greatly retarded as clots contract. PMID:24335500

Cines, Douglas B.; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Hayes, Vincent; Massefski, Walter; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Rauova, Lubica; Lowery, Thomas J.



HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature  

E-print Network

LABORATORY FINDINGS · M:E ratio decreased · Increased Reticulocytes · Nucleated RBC in peripheral blood HEMOLYISIS · Within the Macrophages of the Spleen, liver, or BM · Causes · Inherited RBC Defects · Acquired Nocturnal Hemoglobinurea · Enzyme Disorders · Embden-Meyerhof Pathway Enzymes Deficiencies · Hexose


Physiologically aged red blood cells undergo erythrophagocytosis in vivo but not in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The lifespan of red blood cells is terminated when macrophages remove senescent red blood cells by erythrophagocytosis. This puts macrophages at the center of systemic iron recycling in addition to their functions in tissue remodeling and innate immunity. Thus far, erythrophagocytosis has been studied by evaluating phagocytosis of erythrocytes that were damaged to mimic senescence. These studies have demonstrated that acquisition of some specific individual senescence markers can trigger erythrophagocytosis by macrophages, but we hypothesized that the mechanism of erythrophagocytosis of such damaged erythrocytes might differ from erythrophagocytosis of physiologically aged erythrocytes. Design and Methods To test this hypothesis we generated an erythrocyte population highly enriched in senescent erythrocytes by a hypertransfusion procedure in mice. Various erythrocyte-aging signals were analyzed and erythrophagocytosis was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Results The large cohort of senescent erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice carried numerous aging signals identical to those of senescent erythrocytes from control mice. Phagocytosis of fluorescently-labeled erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice injected into untreated mice was much higher than phagocytosis of labeled erythrocytes from control mice. However, neither erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice, nor those from control mice were phagocytosed in vitro by primary macrophage cultures, even though these cultures were able to phagocytose oxidatively damaged erythrocytes. Conclusions The large senescent erythrocyte population found in hypertransfused mice mimics physiologically aged erythrocytes. For effective erythrophagocytosis of these senescent erythrocytes, macrophages depend on some features of the intact phagocytosing tissue for support. PMID:22331264

Gottlieb, Yehonatan; Topaz, Orit; Cohen, Lyora A.; Yakov, Liat David; Haber, Tom; Morgenstern, Abigail; Weiss, Avital; Chait Berman, Karen; Fibach, Eitan; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.



Erythrocyte deformability and nitric oxide mobilization under pannexin-1 and PKC dependence.  


The erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is utilised for protein phosphorylation and exported through the pannexin 1 hemichannel (Px1) in the microcirculation. The physiological stimuli for ATP release are dependent of blood shear rate level and of the tissue oxygen content. The deoxygenated and oxygenated states of haemoglobin are respectively bound and unbound to N terminal domain of the protein band 3 of the erythrocyte membrane in dependence of its degree of phosphorylation. The protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) contribute to the phosphorylation degree of band 3 and are modulated by protein kinase C (PKC). Chelerythrine (Che) is a competitive inhibitor of ATP for PKC and a negative modulator of erythrocyte deformability. The aim of this study was to assess the mobilization of nitric oxide (NO) in erythrocyte in absence and presence of Che and Px1 inhibitor (carbenoxolone). Erythrocyte deformability was evaluated in presence of carbenoxolone (Carb). Regarding the effects observed in the erythrocyte by presence of Che or Carb, the values of efflux of NO and the concentration of nitrosogluthatione are similar and with no changes in relation to their absence. Px1inhibition by Carb 10 ?M ameliorates the erythrocyte deformability at a shear force of 0.6 and 1.2 Pa. The PKC inhibitor shows similar effects to the Carb on the mobilization of nitric oxide in erythrocyte. The blockage of ATP release by Carb from erythrocytes suggests a possible benefit to develop in ischemia reperfusion or in inflammatory response where will be needed to rescue the excess of NO present and ameliorate the red blood cell deformability at low shear rates. PMID:24595130

Silva-Herdade, A S; Freitas, T; Almeida, J Pedro; Saldanha, C



Hemolytic anemias due to erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies.  


Red blood cells can only fulfil their functions over the normal period of approximately 120 days with 1.7 x 10(5) circulatory cycles efficiently if they withstand external and internal loads. This requires ATP and redox equivalents, which have to be permanently regenerated by the energy and redox metabolism. These pathways are necessary to maintain the biconcave shape of the cells, their specific intracellular cation concentrations, the reduced state of hemoglobin with a divalent iron and the sulfhydryl groups of enzymes, glutathione and membrane components. If an enzyme deficiency of one of these metabolic pathways limits the ATP and/or NADPH production, distinct membrane alterations result causing a removal of the damaged cells by the monocyte-macrophage system. Most metabolic needs of erythrocytes are covered by glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), the glutathione cycle, nucleotide metabolism and MetHb reductase. Hereditary enzyme deficiencies of all these pathways have been identified; those that cause non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia are listed in Table 4. Their frequencies differ markedly both with respect to the affected enzyme and geographic distribution. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymopathies (G6PD) are with more than 400 million cases by far the most common deficiency. The highest gene frequency has been found with 0.7 among Kurdish Jews. G6PD deficiencies are furthermore prevalent with frequencies of about 0.1 among Africans, Black Americans, and populations of Mediterranean countries and South East Asia. In Middle and Northern Europe the frequency of G6PD is much lower, and with approximately 0.0005, comparable with the frequency of pyruvate kinase (PK) enzymopathies, the most frequent enzyme deficiency in glycolysis in this area (Luzzatto, 1987; Beutler and Kuhl, 1990). The relationship between the degree of enzyme deficiency and the extent of metabolic dysfunction in red blood cells and other tissues depend on several factors: on the importance of the affected enzyme; its expression rate; the stability of the mutant enzyme against proteolytic degradation and functional abnormalities; the possibility to compensate the deficiency by an overexpression of the corresponding isoenzyme or by the use of an alternative metabolic pathway. Difficulties in estimating the quantitative degree of disorder in severe cases are due to the fact that these populations contain many reticulocytes, which generally have higher enzyme activities and concentrations of intermediates than erythrocytes. An alternative approach to predict metabolic changes is the analysis by mathematical modeling. Mathematical modeling of the main metabolic pathways of human erythrocytes has reached an advanced level (Rapoport et al., 1976; Holzhütter et al., 1985; Schuster et al., 1988). Models have been successfully employed to describe stationary and time-dependent metabolic states of the cell under normal conditions as well as in the presence of enzyme deficiencies. Figure 5 shows computational results of erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies. This analysis is based on the comprehensive mathematical model of the energy and redox metabolism for human erythrocyte presented in Fig. 6. Stationary states of the cell metabolism have been calculated by varying the activity of each of the participating enzymes by several orders of magnitude. To predict consequences of enzyme deficiencies a performance function has been introduced (Schuster and Holzhütter, 1995). It takes into account the homeostasis of three essential metabolic variables: the energetic state (ATP), the reductive capacity (reduced glutathione) and the osmotic state. From the data given in Fig. 5 one can conclude that generally the metabolic impairment resulting in deficiencies occurs earlier for enzymes with high control coefficients than for those catalyzing equilibrium reactions. On the other hand the flux curves of latter enzymes decrease more steeply below a critica PMID:8813716

Jacobasch, G; Rapoport, S M



Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Ms. Bunn



High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru



[Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].  


The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield. PMID:24611298

Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassi?, A B



Ceramide in the regulation of eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death.  


Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane leading to phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. As eryptotic erythrocytes are rapidly cleared from circulating blood, excessive eryptosis may lead to anemia. Moreover, eryptotic erythrocytes may adhere to the vascular wall and thus impede microcirculation. Stimulators of eryptosis include osmotic shock, oxidative stress and energy depletion. Mechanisms involved in the stimulation eryptosis include ceramide formation which may result from phospholipase A2 dependent formation of platelet activating factor (PAF) with PAF dependent stimulation of sphingomyelinases. Enhanced erythrocytic ceramide formation is observed in fever, sepsis, HUS, uremia, hepatic failure, and Wilson's disease. Enhanced eryptosis is further observed in iron deficiency, phosphate depletion, dehydration, malignancy, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficiency. Moreover, eryptosis is triggered by osmotic shock and a wide variety of xenobiotics, which are again partially effective by enhancing ceramide abundance. Ceramide formation is inhibited by high concentrations of urea. As shown in Wilson's disease, pharmacological interference with ceramide formation may be a therapeutic option in the treatment of eryptosis inducing clinical disorders. PMID:25637185

Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian



Normal band 3-cytoskeletal interactions are maintained on tanktreading erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Normal nonnucleated erythrocytes subjected to continuous hydrodynamic shear exhibit membrane deformation or "tanktreading," a process important for reduction of the bulk viscosity of circulating blood. To characterize the effect of this unique process on the erythrocyte membrane we have measured the lateral diffusion of band 3 during tanktreading. Band 3 is normally constrained through interactions with the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton, therefore, any significant disruption of these interactions would result in alterations in band 3 dynamics. Band 3 of human erythrocytes was labeled with dichlorotriazinyl amino fluorescein. After laser photobleaching of an equatorial stripe, fluorescence images were recorded from cells in the presence or absence of shear. The amplitude of induced nonuniformity in the surface distribution of fluorescence was calculated directly from images of unsheared cells. In shear the bleached line rotated with the tanktreading motion of the cells. The surface integral of fluorescence oscillated with this motion. For this case, the amplitude of photobleaching-induced nonuniformity was defined as the amplitude at the fundamental frequency of fast Fourier transforms in time of the oscillations. Shear stress-induced membrane flow did not interrupt the linkage of band 3 with the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Diffusion coefficient and mobile fraction (1.5 +/- 0.5 x 10(-10) cm2/s and 54 +/- 11%, respectively) were unaffected by shear. The rate of fluorescence recovery of cells in shear was also similar at the centers and at the edges, where in-plane shear forces are maximal. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 PMID:2275961

Weaver, F E; Polster, H; Febboriello, P; Sheetz, M P; Schmid-Schonbein, H; Koppel, D E



Inaccuracy and imprecision of reticulocyte counting.  


Reticulocyte count is an essential clinical test to detect erythropoietic activity. The test has been done manually with the use of one of three dyes: new methylene blue, brilliant cresyl blue, and azure B. When reticulocyte counts with the different dyes were compared, correlation was good. When reticulocyte counts obtained by use of the dyes were compared with the count obtained by an automated counter, correlation was high. In a sampling study, the specimen prepared by a spinner method gave smaller variations than a wedge method. Intertechnologist bias was higher than inter-specimen or intra-specimen bias: The variation of the reticulocyte count was examined with from 200 to 2,000 cells; with 1,000 cells or more, variation was low. From these results, we concluded that more than 1,000 erythrocytes on one slide prepared by the spinner method should be analyzed. Clear standards for cell identification are also needed. PMID:2473434

Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Yokomatsu, Y; Im, T S; Niri, M; Furota, A



42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...blood cell differential Erythrocyte count Hematocrit (excluding spun microhematocrit) Hemoglobin...samples. Erythrocyte count Target ±6%. Hematocrit (Excluding spun hematocrits) Target ±6%. Hemoglobin Target...



42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...blood cell differential Erythrocyte count Hematocrit (excluding spun microhematocrit) Hemoglobin...samples. Erythrocyte count Target ±6%. Hematocrit (Excluding spun hematocrits) Target ±6%. Hemoglobin Target...



42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...blood cell differential Erythrocyte count Hematocrit (excluding spun microhematocrit) Hemoglobin...samples. Erythrocyte count Target ±6%. Hematocrit (Excluding spun hematocrits) Target ±6%. Hemoglobin Target...



42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...blood cell differential Erythrocyte count Hematocrit (excluding spun microhematocrit) Hemoglobin...samples. Erythrocyte count Target ±6%. Hematocrit (Excluding spun hematocrits) Target ±6%. Hemoglobin Target...



42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...blood cell differential Erythrocyte count Hematocrit (excluding spun microhematocrit) Hemoglobin...samples. Erythrocyte count Target ±6%. Hematocrit (Excluding spun hematocrits) Target ±6%. Hemoglobin Target...



Changes in Age Distribution of Erythrocytes during Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate age distribution of erythrocytes longitudinally throughout pregnancy. Serial estimates of density distribution of cells (DDC), reticulocyte count, red cell distribution width (RDW), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in a group of healthy pregnant women at 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks gestation and during the latent phase of labor (39.04

Samuel Lurie



Post hoc analysis of the relationship between baseline white blood cell count and survival outcome in a randomized Phase III trial of decitabine in older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background In a Phase III trial, 485 patients (?65 years) with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia received decitabine 20 mg/m2 intravenously for 5 days every 4 weeks or a treatment choice (supportive care or cytarabine 20 mg/m2 subcutaneously for 10 days every 4 weeks). Materials and methods We summarized overall and progression-free survival by baseline white blood cell count using two analyses: <1, 1–5, >5×109/L; ?10 or >10×109/L. Results There were 446 deaths (treatment choice, n=227; decitabine, n=219). Median overall survival was 5.0 (treatment choice) versus 7.7 months (decitabine; nominal P=0.037). Overall survival differences between white blood cell groups were not significant; hazard ratios (HRs) favored decitabine. Significant progression-free survival differences favored decitabine for groups 1–5×109/L (P=0.005, HR =0.67), greater than 5×109/L (P=0.027, HR =0.71), and up to 10×109/L (P=0.003, HR =0.72). Conclusion There was a trend toward improved outcome with decitabine, regardless of baseline white blood cell count. PMID:25678833

Arthur, Christopher; Cermak, Jaroslav; Delaunay, Jacques; Mayer, Ji?í; Mazur, Grzegorz; Thomas, Xavier; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Jones, Mark M; Berrak, Erhan; Kantarjian, Hagop



Fluoxetine Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death  

PubMed Central

The antidepressant fluoxetine inhibits ceramide producing acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramide is in turn known to trigger eryptosis the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ceramide is effective through sensitizing the erythrocytes to the pro-eryptotic effect of increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). In nucleated cells, fluoxetine could either inhibit or stimulate suicidal death or apoptosis. The present study tested whether fluoxetine influences eryptosis. To this end cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. As a result, a 48 h exposure of erythrocytes to fluoxetine (?25 µM) significantly decreased forward scatter, increased annexin V binding and enhanced [Ca2+]i. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, fluoxetine stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. PMID:23860350

Jilani, Kashif; Enkel, Sigrid; Bissinger, Rosi; Almilaji, Ahmad; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian



?-Thalassemia does not seem to influence erythrocyte deformability in sickle cell trait carriers.  


Studies dealing with rheological red blood cell (RBC) behavior in sickle cell trait carriers are scarce. Moreover, the association with ?-thalassemia (?-thal), which also modifies erythrocyte behavior, has not always been taken into account. We analyzed erythrocyte deformability by means of a shear stress diffractometer, along with hematological and biochemical parameters (glucose and plasma lipids), given their possible influence on erythrocyte deformability, in 14 sickle cell trait carriers and 23 healthy controls. Nine patients were also ?-thal carriers and five were not. Among the thalassemia carriers, eight were heterozygous and one was homozygous. When compared with controls, sickle cell trait carriers showed no differences for any of the biochemical parameters analyzed (p?>?0.05), but significantly lower hemoglobin (Hb) (p?=?0.003), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (p?erythrocyte deformability were observed at any of the shear stresses tested (p?>?0.05). When comparing sickle cell trait carriers, with and without ?-thal, no differences in erythrocyte deformability were observed (p?>?0.05), in spite of the former showing lower MCV and MCH (p??T] levels (p?=?0.013) than non carriers. The existence of a compensating mechanism seems reasonable because, despite presenting lower erythrocyte indices, which could worsen erythrocyte deformability, this rheological property improves when the percentage of Hb S is lower. PMID:24601859

Vayá, Amparo; Collado, Susana; Alis, Rafael; Vera, Belen; Romagnoli, Marco; Barragán, Eva



FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and ?N-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.



Counting carbohydrates  


Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...


Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Ms. McDuffee



Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics



A microfluidic device for separating erythrocytes polluted by lead (II) from a continuous bloodstream flow.  


To sort and separate erythrocytes contaminated by lead (II) from whole bloodstream flow, the first step is to use a microchannel to transport the blood cells into a microdevice. Within the device, polluted erythrocytes can be separated from the bloodstream by applying local dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. Exploiting the fact that Pb(2+) ions attach to the membranes of the erythrocytes, we utilize the microfluidic DEP device to perform property-based fractionation of the blood samples and to separate the polluted erythrocytes from the continuous bloodstream flow. Atomic absorption spectrometer analysis reveals that, to remove lead-polluted erythrocytes, the most effective driving velocity was less than 0.1 cm/s through our microfluidic DEP device, based on an applied power of 10 V(peak-peak) and a frequency of 15.5 MHz AC field. We were able to remove 80% of the polluted erythrocytes. Using gentle DEP manipulating techniques to efficiently sort unique cells within a complex biological sample may potentially allow biological sorting to be performed outside of hospitals, in facilities without biological analyzing equipment. PMID:22522535

Wang, Ming-Wen



Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.  


Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela



Use of the TIMI frame count in the assessment of coronary artery blood flow and microvascular function over the past 15 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its introduction, the TIMI frame count method has contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary\\u000a artery disease. In this article, the evolution of the TFC method and its applicability in the assessment of various therapeutic\\u000a modalities are described.

Vijayalakshmi Kunadian; Caitlin Harrigan; Cafer Zorkun; Alexandra M. Palmer; Katherine J. Ogando; Leah H. Biller; Erin E. Lord; Scott P. Williams; Michelle E. Lew; Lauren N. Ciaglo; Jacqueline L. Buros; Susan J. Marble; William J. Gibson; C. Michael Gibson



Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah



A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature.

Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua



CUPRAC-BCS and antioxidant activity assays as reliable markers of antioxidant capacity in erythrocytes.  


Objective The CUPRAC-BCS and antioxidant activity (AOA) assays have been developed as indirect methods to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC). We examined these assays as markers, in erythrocytes, under oxidative stress (induced by storage) and with antioxidants - vitamin C, L-carnitine, and curcumin. Methods Antioxidants were added to blood samples, stored and assayed for TAC and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results Vitamin C at lower concentrations and L-carnitine and curcumin at higher concentrations proved beneficial to the erythrocytes. Discussion CUPRAC-BCS and AOA effectively determined TAC of stored erythrocytes. This was in accordance with the levels of ROS, and hence, CUPRAC-BCS and AOA can be used as reliable markers of TAC, in erythrocytes during oxidative stress. PMID:24992363

Soumya, Ravikumar; Vani, Rajashekharaiah



Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander



Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.  


Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality. PMID:19322506

Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P



Interactions of Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes with complement.  


Incubation of radioactively labeled parasitized (Plasmodium berghei) erythrocytes (PE) with adherent peritoneal exudate cells in the presence of 10% (v/v) fresh mouse serum (NMS) resulted in the uptake of a proportion of radioactive material (PE). Inactivation of the added serum by heat or zymosan treatment resulted in diminished uptake of radioactivity. These results suggest that PE activated complement. Incubation of fresh NMS with PE reduced the hemolytic complement level of the serum as shown by its subsequent decreased ability to lyse antibody-coated rabbit red blood cells. No such effect was found when uninfected erythrocytes from either infected or uninfected blood were preincubated with fresh NMS. Thus, PE or PE-derived material activated complement. Addition of EGTA during incubation of fresh NMS with PE did not inhibit the decrease in complement level. This indicated that complement was activated by the alternative pathway. Complement levels decreased even when fresh NMS and PE were incubated in the presence of EDTA (which inhibits both classical and alternative pathway activation), suggesting that a complement activating factor (or a complement inhibitor) was released from the PE. However, lysis of PE after incubation with either fresh rabbit or guinea pig serum did not occur unless anti-mouse erythrocyte antibody was added. The production of a complement-activating factor by PE might explain part of the decreasing complement levels during infection and might enable the parasite to escape from a complement-mediated defense mechanism of the host. PMID:3925133

Schetters, T P; Van Lent, P; Van Zon, A A; Eling, W M



N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase in Human Serum and Erythrocyte Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the presence of an N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase in human serum and in erythrocyte membranes. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine from UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine to a mucin receptor and 2'-fucosyllactose that have blood group H activity and may be responsible, therefore, for blood group A antigenicity. It was present in the serum of individuals with blood group A or AB

Young S. Kim; Jose Perdomo; Agustin Bella; Judith Nordberg



Metabolic compensation for profound erythrocyte adenylate kinase deficiency. A hereditary enzyme defect without hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed Central

A child with hemolytic anemia was found to have severe erythrocyte adenylate kinase (AK) deficiency, but an equally enzyme-deficient sibling had no evidence of hemolysis. No residual enzyme activity was found in erythrocytes by spectrophotometric methods that could easily have detected 0.1% of normal activity. However, concentrated hemolysates were shown to have the capacity to generate small amounts of ATP and AMP from ADP after prolonged incubation. Hemolysates could also catalyze the transfer of labeled gamma-phosphate from ATP to ADP. Intact erythrocytes were able to transfer phosphate from the gamma-position of ATP to the beta-position, albeit at a rate substantially slower than normal. They could also incorporate 14C-labeled adenine into ADP and ATP. Thus, a small amount of residual AK-like activity representing about 1/2,000 of the activity normally present could be documented in the deficient erythrocytes. The residual activity was not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, which completely abolishes the activity of the normal AK1 isozyme of erythrocytes. The minute amount of residual activity in erythrocytes could represent a small amount of the AK2 isozyme, which has not been thought to be present in erythrocytes, or the activity of erythrocyte guanylate kinase with AMP substituting as substrate for GMP. Peripheral blood leukocytes, cultured skin fibroblasts, and transformed lymphoblasts from the deficient subject manifested about 17, 24, and 74%, respectively, of the activity of the concurrent controls. This residual activity is consistent with the existence of genetically independent AK isozyme, AK2, which is known to exist in these tissues. The cause of hemolysis in the proband was not identified. Possibilities include an unrelated enzyme deficiency or other erythrocyte enzyme defect and intraction of another unidentified defect with AK deficiency. PMID:6308059

Beutler, E; Carson, D; Dannawi, H; Forman, L; Kuhl, W; West, C; Westwood, B



Quantitation of protein 3 content of circulating erythrocytes at the single-cell level  

SciTech Connect

The density and size of human erythrocytes has been roughly correlated with cell age, with the denser and smaller cells being older. Observations of this type have led to a hypothesis that the membranes of circulating erythrocytes are dynamic with respect to composition and that material is lost from the membrane during cell maturation and circulation. In this study, flow cytofluorimetry was used to investigate the distribution of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (protein 3) in heterogeneous samples of circulating red cells. We verified that protein 3 can be specifically and quantitatively labeled in intact human erythrocytes with eosin-5-maleimide, a luminescent probe. Individual cells were accordingly analyzed for size by forward light scattering and for protein 3 content by quantitation of eosin fluorescence. Initial results indicated that the smallest erythrocytes had a protein 3 content equal to that of the largest circulating erythrocytes. This result was independently verified by light scatter-activated cell sorting; direct measurement of cell diameters by microscopy verified that the cell sizes of erythrocytes showing the 10% greatest and 10% smallest light-scattering signal were indeed distinct. Independent analysis of the size-sorted erythrocytes for protein 3 content was accomplished by gel electrophoresis of stroma from 150,000 large and small erythrocytes. Quantitative scanning densitometry of silver-stained gels of prepared stroma showed that protein 3 content of each set of fractionated cells was equal and did not vary as a function of cell size. Taken in combination with the reported correlation between increasing red blood cell age and decreasing cell size, these results indicate that any loss of membranous material during the cell aging process is not random.

Jennings, L.K.; Brown, L.K.; Dockter, M.E.



Maturation of Plasmodium falciparum in multiply infected erythrocytes and the potential role in malaria pathogenesis.  


Erythrocytes containing two or more parasites, referred to here as multiply infected erythrocytes (MIEs), are common in the blood of humans infected by Plasmodium falciparum. It is necessary to study these cells closely because the excess numbers of parasites they contain suggest that they could be overloaded with virulence factors. Here, microscopic examinations of blood smears from patients showed that up to seven merozoites can successfully invade an erythrocyte and mature to ring stage. However, in vitro culture showed that only up to three parasites can mature to late schizont stage. These observations were made by culturing the parasites in erythrocytes containing hemoglobin AA (HbAA), HbAS, and HbSS. Biochemical analysis of saponin-concentrated culture suggests that more hemozoin is produced in a MIE than in a singly infected erythrocyte (SIE). Studies have shown that ingestion of excessive hemozoin destroys monocytes and neutrophils, which could impair the immune system. Cultured parasites were also examined by transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that the quantity of knobs was dramatically increased on the membranes of erythrocytes containing multiple schizonts, compared to those containing only one schizont. Knobs contain, among other things, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) complex which mediates sequestration and promotes severe malaria. These findings suggest that P. falciparum increases its virulence by producing MIEs. On sexual life cycle of the parasite, microphotographs are presented in this report showing, for the first time, that two gametocytes can develop in one erythrocyte; they are referred to here as twin gametocytes. It is not known whether they can infect mosquitoes. PMID:25120031

Orjih, Augustine U



Lymphocyte percentage and counts provided by Coulter Counter S+II: comparison with optical method and three automatical leukocyte analyzers (Hemalog D, H 6000, Diff 3).  


The Coulter Counter Model S+II is an automatic analyzer designed to measure the routine hematological parameters and to carry out distribution curve analysis of platelets, erythrocytes and leukocytes. The leukocyte histogram analysis is used as a basis for calculation of both lymphocyte percentages and absolute counts. In this study, we compared the differential count obtained by light microscopy studies of 2355 blood smears with the percentage of lymphocytes in the leukocyte population as determined by the S+II. A comparison was also performed between the S+II and Hemalog D, H 6000, and Diff 3 System on a smaller sample number. There was a good correlation between lymphocyte percentages and counts given by the S+II and other methods. Furthermore, reproducibility studies, performed with the Coulter Counter Model S+II, suggested that the lymphocyte percentage given by this instrument was accurate, except for extreme values. Lack of calculation of lymphocyte parameters by the instrument was often found to correspond to spontaneous platelet aggregation and/or to abnormalities of differential counts. It is suggested that lymphocyte analysis provided by the S+II may be used as a basis for a new approach to white blood cell (WBC) analysis, which could exclude differential counts in most routine cases. PMID:6709496

Forestier, F; Amirault, P; Carré, C; Sassier, P; Potron, G; Guinebretière, J; Therme, J P



Homeostasis of Extracellular ATP in Human Erythrocytes*  

PubMed Central

We explored the intra- and extracellular processes governing the kinetics of extracellular ATP (ATPe) in human erythrocytes stimulated with agents that increase cAMP. Using the luciferin-luciferase reaction in off-line luminometry we found both direct adenylyl cyclase activation by forskolin and indirect activation through ?-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol-enhanced [ATP]e in a concentration-dependent manner. A mixture (3V) containing a combination of these agents and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor papaverine activated ATP release, leading to a 3-fold increase in [ATP]e, and caused increases in cAMP concentration (3-fold for forskolin + papaverine, and 10-fold for 3V). The pannexin 1 inhibitor carbenoxolone and a pannexin 1 blocking peptide (10Panx1) decreased [ATP]e by 75–84%. The residual efflux of ATP resulted from unavoidable mechanical perturbations stimulating a novel, carbenoxolone-insensitive pathway. In real-time luminometry experiments using soluble luciferase, addition of 3V led to an acute increase in [ATP]e to a constant value of ?1 pmol × (106 cells)?1. A similar treatment using a surface attached luciferase (proA-luc) triggered a rapid accumulation of surface ATP levels to a peak concentration of 2.4 pmol × (106 cells)?1, followed by a slower exponential decay (t½ = 3.7 min) to a constant value of 1.3 pmol × (106 cells)?1. Both for soluble luciferase and proA-luc, ATP efflux was fully blocked by carbenoxolone, pointing to a 3V-induced mechanism of ATP release mediated by pannexin 1. Ecto-ATPase activity was extremely low (?28 fmol × (106 cells min)?1), but nevertheless physiologically relevant considering the high density of erythrocytes in human blood. PMID:21921036

Montalbetti, Nicolas; Leal Denis, Maria F.; Pignataro, Omar P.; Kobatake, Eiry; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.



Haematology and blood chemistry values for several flamingo species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values for some haematological and plasma chemical values in four species of clinically normal adult flamingos were established for use in avian medicine. The following variables were studied in rosy, greater, Chilean and lesser flamingos: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leucocyte counts, haematimetric indices, erythrocyte dimensions, glucose, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, creatinine, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline

V. I. Peinado; F. J. Polo; G. Viscor; J. Palomeque



Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines: identifying the targets  

PubMed Central

Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines target Plasmodium during its sporozoite and liver stages, and can prevent progression to blood-stage disease, which causes a million deaths each year. Whole organism sporozoite vaccines induce sterile immunity in animals and humans and guide subunit vaccine development. A recombinant protein-in-adjuvant pre-erythrocytic vaccine called RTS,S reduces clinical malaria without preventing infection in field studies and additional antigens may be required to achieve sterile immunity. Although few vaccine antigens have progressed to human testing, new insights into parasite biology, expression profiles and immunobiology have offered new targets for intervention. Future advances require human trials of additional antigens, as well as platforms to induce the durable antibody and cellular responses including CD8+ T cells that contribute to sterile protection. PMID:23176657

Duffy, Patrick E; Sahu, Tejram; Akue, Adovi; Milman, Neta; Anderson, Charles



Erythrocyte-platelet interaction in uncomplicated pregnancy.  


Maternal and fetal requirements during uncomplicated pregnancy are associated with changes in the hematopoietic system. Platelets and erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)], and especially their membranes, are involved in coagulation, and their interactions may provide reasons for the changed hematopoietic system during uncomplicated pregnancy. We review literature regarding RBC and platelet membrane structure and interactions during hypercoagulability and hormonal changes. We then study interactions between RBCs and platelets in uncomplicated pregnancy, as their interactions may be one of the reasons for increased hypercoagulability during uncomplicated pregnancy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study whole blood smears from 90 pregnant females in different phases of pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific interaction was seen between RBCs and platelets. Typically, one or more platelets interacted through platelet spreading and pseudopodia formation with a single RBC. However, multiple interactions with RBCs were also shown for a single platelet. Specific RBC-platelet interaction seen during uncomplicated pregnancy may be caused by increased estrogen and/or increased fibrinogen concentrations. This interaction may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with healthy and uncomplicated pregnancy and may also play a fundamental role in gestational thrombocytopenia. PMID:25470019

Swanepoel, Albe C; Pretorius, Etheresia



Heritability of erythrocyte sodium permeability: a possible genetic marker for hypertension.  


Individuals genetically susceptible to hypertension may have preexisting membrane defects influencing cell sodium permeability. Fourteen Minnesotan families of Northern European descent were selected as having one or both progenitors with either high (HP) or low (LP) erythrocyte sodium permeability. We earlier found that over one-half of the (22)Na(+) influx into HP erythrocytes can be inhibited by micromolar amounts of furosemide, which has no apparent effect on LP erythrocytes. In these families, we find a significant midpoint parent/offspring correlation in the furosemide-sensitive component of erythrocyte (22)Na(+) flux rates (p <0.001). The relationship between parents and children in this metric trait is most consistent with a single locus, 2-allele system with variable expression, which suggests that enhanced furosemide-sensitive (22)Na(+) influx may be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Individuals with HP erythrocytes tend to have increased blood pressure and/or a family history of hypertension. The results were confirmed in these family samples with HP and LP (22)Na(+) influx (mmol/L RBC/hr): 0.404 +/- 0.03 vs 0.232 +/- 0.01 (p < 0.001); systolic blood pressure (mm Hg): 136 +/- 4 vs 108 +/- 4 (p < 0.001); and diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg): 89 +/- 2 vs 69 +/- 2 (p <0.001). These results may help to identify inherited factors involved in salt sensitive hypertension. PMID:19667408

Lee, Jong Y; Prineas, Ronald J; Eaton, John W



doi:10.1182/blood-2012-04-424184 Prepublished online August 23, 2012;  

E-print Network

;2 Abstract Dense, dehydrated red blood cells (DRBCs) are a characteristic feature of sickle- cell disease clinical manifestations and hemolysis Erythrocyte density in sickle cell syndromes is associated in "Blood 2012;120(15):3136-41" DOI : 10.1182/blood-2012-04-424184 #12;1 Erythrocyte density in sickle cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Count On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.


Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.



Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen



Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College,


Long-term physiological effects of enhanced O/sub 2/ release by inositol hexaphosphate-loaded erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

A continuous lysing and resealing procedure with erythrocytes permitted incorporation in these cells of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP/sub 6/), a strong allosteric effector of Hb. This leads to significant rightward shifts of the HbO/sub 2/ dissociation curves with in vitro P/sub 50/, values increasing from 32.2 +/- 1.8 torr for control erythrocytes to 86 +/- 60 torr. The shape of the dissociation curve was still sigmoidal, although the Hill coefficient was decreased. The life span of InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes equaled that of control erythrocytes. Erythrocyte-survival studies were done using /sub 51/Cr labeling of cells. The long-term physiological effects of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes on piglets were increased O/sub 2/ release and reduced cardiac output. The reduced O/sub 2/ affinity of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes was still effective 20 days after transfusion in awake piglets. The electrolyte concentration appeared stable over the 5-day observation period except for a transient, but significant, hyperkalemia immediately after transfusion. The reductions in the O/sub 2/ affinity of Hb reported here are large compared with previously reported values. Introduction of InsP/sub 6/ into viable erythrocytes improves tissue oxygenation when, for any reason, normal blood flow is impaired.

Teisseire, B.; Ropars, C.; Villereal, M.C.; Nicolau, C.



Erythrocytes oxidative damage and hematological effects of 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone in rats.  


The effects of subchronic exposure to tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone (TCDS) on hematological parameters [white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrite (Ht) levels] were examined. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes was also assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and enzyme antioxidant activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. TCDS was administered orally, dissolved in water, ad libitum to 12 female rats at 28.9 mg/kg/day for 6 or 12 weeks. Results showed that TCDS induced significant decreases in RBC, Hb, and Ht. Whereas MCV, MCH, and MCHC remain unchanged and WBC increased only in the second period of the study. Moreover erythrocyte TBARS level increased, and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx, and CAT) activities decreased. We concluded that TCDS intoxication promotes erythrocyte oxidative damage and disrupt hematological constituents in rats. PMID:20382005

Badraoui, Riadh; Abdelmoula, Nouha B; Rebai, Tarek



Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K. [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India); Das, Mukul [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India)], E-mail:



Chlorella is an effective dietary source of lutein for human erythrocytes.  


Chlorella contains a high amount of carotenoids, especially lutein, and has received attention as a possible dietary source for improving carotenoid levels in human blood. In the present study, we performed a 2-month single arm human study, and investigated the efficacy of Chlorella supplementation (9 g Chlorella/day; equivalent to 32 mg lutein/day) on lutein and other carotenoid concentrations in plasma as well as erythrocytes of 12 healthy subjects. Following Chlorella supplementation, lutein was the predominant carotenoid in erythrocytes, showing a 4-fold increase (from 14 to 54 pmol/mL packed cells). After the one month without Chlorella ingestion, erythrocyte lutein then decreased to a basal level (17 pmol/mL packed cells). Erythrocyte carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-carotene, and ?-carotene) levels were proportional to plasma carotenoid levels. The results suggest the transfer of Chlorella carotenoids, especially lutein, from plasma lipoprotein particles to the erythrocyte membrane. Chlorella intake would be effective for improving and maintaining lutein concentrations in human erythrocytes. PMID:24088514

Miyazawa, Taiki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Nakashima, Yuya; Maruyama, Isao; Higuchi, Ohki; Miyazawa, Teruo



Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.  


In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz



Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.  


To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20month-old bulls was supplemented with 10g/day of an AM for 30days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation. PMID:25817802

Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A



Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...




Mechanism of endurance training-induced erythrocyte deformability in rats involves erythropoiesis.  


Higher erythrocyte deformability may reduce the risk of circulatory diseases by enhancing oxygen delivery and reducing the load on the cardiovascular system. The effect of endurance training on erythrocyte deformability is not clear. This study explored the impact of endurance training on erythrocyte deformation and shape and investigated the underlying mechanisms of hemorheological alterations. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: sedentary (S; n = 21) and exercised (E; n = 19). Hematological indices and erythrocyte shape were measured at the end of the 11th week. The gene expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and the Epo receptor (EpoR) was quantified using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and Epo protein expression was analyzed using Western blotting. Endurance training significantly decreased the abnormality ratio of erythrocyte shape (P < 0.01). The deformability indicator (DI) of red blood cells was lower in the E group than in the S group (P < 0.01). Eleven weeks of endurance training increased Epo mRNA and protein expression in the kidney (P < 0.01), EpoR mRNA expression in the bone marrow (P < 0.05), and relative circulating Epo (P < 0.01) compared to the sedentary group. The decrease in the erythrocyte morphological index and the maximum of deformability indicator were associated with an increase in relative circulating Epo. In conclusion, 11 weeks of endurance training increased erythrocyte deformability. Epo and EpoR may contribute to the decreased morphological index and deformability indicator in erythrocytes during endurance training in rats. PMID:22495316

Zhao, Jiexiu; Tian, Ye; Cao, Jianmin; Jin, Li; Ji, Lili



Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer  

PubMed Central

The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60?mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10?mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5?ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes



Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

Cicuta, Pietro


The effect of atorvastatin on erythrocyte membranes and serum lipids in patients with type-2 hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The beneficial effects of statins on clinical events may involve mechanisms that modify endothelial dysfunction, plaque stability, thrombus formation, and inflammatory responses. To determine the effect of atorvastatin on blood rheology in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), we prospectively studied serum lipid concentration, red cell cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. The aim of this paper was

M. Koter; M. Broncel; J. Chojnowska-Jezierska; K. Klikczynska; I. Franiak



Simulation of Platelet, Thrombus and Erythrocyte Hydrodynamic Interactions in a 3D Arteriole with In Vivo  

E-print Network

Simulation of Platelet, Thrombus and Erythrocyte Hydrodynamic Interactions in a 3D Arteriole of America Abstract Cylindrical blood vessels, ellipsoid platelets and biconcave-shaped deformable hydrodynamic interactions between the thrombus shape, RBCs and platelets. It was found that at certain azimuth

Freund, Jonathan B.


Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient  

E-print Network

techniques [6]. Studies using filtration [7] or ektacytometry [8] have revealed that the sickle RBCsOptical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell July 2012 Available online 20 July 2012 Keywords: Sickle cell disease Red blood cell Cell biomechanics

Dao, Ming



EPA Science Inventory

A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...


Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.



On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.




Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen patients with familial hypercholesterolemia treated with lovastatin (40 mg\\/day) for three months were studied to find out whether the expected changes in plasma lipids are accompanied by modifications in the lipid composition of the erythrocyte membrane and whether these in turn induce changes in the rheological behavior of the red blood cell.Our results demonstrate the efficacy of lovastatin in

Marcial Martínez; Amparo Vayá; Roberto Martí; Lorenzo Gil; Irene Lluch; Rafael Carmena; Justo Aznar



Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens  

E-print Network

Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens selected, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The greatest for the booster challenge as well. Separation of lines and dwarf-normal genotypes for plasma thyroid hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Relationship between fermented papaya preparation supplementation, erythrocyte integrity and antioxidant status in pre-diabetics.  


Erythrocytes and their membranes are favorable models to study the relationship between diabetes and susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress damage. The recommendation for the use of fermented papaya preparation (FPP) as a functional food for dietary management of type 2 diabetes was evaluated by assessing its effect on the human antioxidant status and erythrocyte integrity on a multi-ethnical pre-diabetic population. The in vivo effect of FPP was compared with its in vitro free radical scavenging potentials. FPP exhibited potent in vitro free radical scavenging activities thought to be attributed to residual phenolic or flavonoid compounds. Low doses of FPP significantly reduced the susceptibility of human erythrocytes to undergo free radical-induced hemolysis. The intake of 6g FPP/day for a period of 14weeks was observed to significantly reduce the rate of hemolysis and accumulation of protein carbonyls in the blood plasma of pre-diabetics. That FPP consumption on a daily basis can strengthen the antioxidant defense system in vivo was clearly demonstrated by the marked increase of total antioxidant status in the FPP-supplemented pre-diabetics. That FPP maintains the integrity of erythrocytes could benefit the strategies to improve the quality of future blood products. PMID:24316314

Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan; Aruoma, Okezie I



Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation promotes erythrocyte antioxidant defense and reduces protein nitrosative damage in male athletes.  


The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long-term docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and oxidative balance in soccer players after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male athletes (age 20.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to a placebo group that consumed an almond-based beverage (n = 6), or to an experimental group that consumed the same beverage enriched with DHA (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken in resting conditions at the beginning and after 8 weeks of nutritional intervention and training in resting and in post-exercise conditions. Oxidative damage markers (malonyldialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes) and the activity and protein level of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase) were assessed. The results showed that training increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes. The experimental beverage increased DHA from 34.0 ± 3.6 to 43.0 ± 3.6 nmol/10(9) erythrocytes. DHA supplementation increased the catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 10.5 ± 0.35 pkat/10(9) erythrocytes, and brought about a reduction in peroxidative damage induced by training or exercise. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DHA changed the erythrocyte membrane composition, provided antioxidant defense and reduced protein peroxidative damage in the red blood cells of professional athletes after an 8-week training season and acute exercise. PMID:25503390

Martorell, M; Capó, X; Bibiloni, Mdel M; Sureda, A; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Batle, J M; Llompart, I; Tur, J A; Pons, A



Erythrocyte antigens in Norwegian goats: serological and genetic studies.  


Goat alloantisera and bovine blood typing reagents were used to characterize eight erythrocyte antigen specificities in Norwegian goats by cluster analysis, absorption and family studies. Most of the goat sera were produced by injecting dams once or twice with blood cells or blood from their own kids. The characterized specificities were designated N1-N8. The two specificities N5 and N8 were recognized both by goat alloantisera and by reagents against the bovine factors E'1 and E'2 (N5) and I (N8), which are allelic factors in the bovine B-system. In goat families, the two specificities also behaved as alleles. Consequently, the locus or gene system coding for these specificities was called the B-system of goats. The six other erythrocyte antigens were provisionally assigned to six separate loci. In addition, a bovine anti-sheep R factor reagent reacted with cells from 3.3% of the goats tested, whereas a monoclonal antibody against the Forssman antigen reacted with all the goats tested. PMID:1702589

Nesse, L L



Malaria parasite pre-erythrocytic stage infection: Gliding and Hiding  

PubMed Central

Summary Malaria is caused by red blood cell-infectious forms of Plasmodium parasites resulting in illness and possible death of infected hosts. The mosquito-borne sporozoite stage of the parasite and the initial infection in the liver, however cause little pathology and no symptoms. Nevertheless, these pre-erythrocytic parasite stages are attracting passionate research efforts not least because they are the most promising targets for malaria vaccine development. Here, we review how the infectious sporozoite makes its way to the liver, subsequently develops in hepatocytes and the factors, both parasite and host, involved in the interactions that occur during this ‘silent’ phase of infection. PMID:18779047

Vaughan, Ashley M.; Aly, Ahmed S. I.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.




EPA Science Inventory

Rates of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of splenectomized individuals can be used as an index of genetic damage to erythrocyte recursor cells in the bone marrow. his is in contrast to non-splenectomized humans, whose micronucleated erythrocytes are removed by...


Erythrocyte Phospholipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition in Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans. Methodology and Principal Findings We performed lipidomic analyses on red blood cell membranes from controls and mainly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy. The fatty acid composition of erythrocytes was determined by gas chromatography and the phospholipid structure was determined by liquid chromatography equipped with an electrospray ionisation source and coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS/MS). A significant decrease in levels of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in erythrocytes of diabetic patients with or without retinopathy was observed. The origin of this decrease was a loss of phosphatidyl-ethanolamine phospholipids esterified with these LCPUFAs. In diabetic patients without retinopathy, this change was balanced by an increase in the levels of several phosphatidyl-choline species. No influence of diabetes nor of diabetic retinopathy was observed on the concentrations of plasmalogen-type phospholipids. Conclusions and Significance Diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were associated with a reduction of erythrocyte LCPUFAs in phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. The increase of the amounts of phosphatidyl-choline species in erythrocytes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy might be a compensatory mechanism for the loss of LC-PUFA-rich phosphatidyl-ethanolamines. PMID:25188352

Berdeaux, Olivier; Isaïco, Rodica; Grégoire, Stéphane; Cabaret, Stéphanie; Bron, Alain M.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P.; Bretillon, Lionel; Acar, Niyazi



[Effect of sodium succinate on oxidative stress in erythrocytes during physical loading].  


On the basis of model experiments in vitro with application of sodium succinate which is the basic constituent of dietary supplementation "YantarIn-Sport", possibility of correction of the structurally-functional state of red blood cell membranes is well-proven. It is show that prooxidative-antioxidative balance in washed erythrocytes is normalized with the accumulation of recovered glutathione from 2.34 to 3.12 x 10(-12) mM in one erythrocyte, and their sorption ability (from 35.6 to 27.1% as well as red blood cells permeability (from 4.61 to 3.98 conditional units) are decreased. In vivo research the positive influence of sodium succinate on descriptions of red blood cells of skilled sportsmen is confirmed, that is founding for application of succinic acid derivatives with the purpose of sporting anaemia' warning as well as improvement of microcirculation processes and increase of speed blood flow. PMID:22420162

Hunina, L M



MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN)  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN): A Viral Infection of the Atlantic Cod and Other. In this study, we have investigated PEN in the Atlantic cod, herring, and other marine and anadromous species of PEN-infected erythrocytes were irregular in outline, often appearing fragmented. Electron microscopy


Comparative erythrocyte metabolism in marsupials and monotremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of ATP and DPG, activities of 10 enzymes and the glycolytic rates were measured in the erythrocytes of 11 species of marsupials and two species of monotremes. Mean DPG concentrations were greater in the erythrocytes of marsupials than those of eutherian mammals. The opposite is true of ATP. Significant findings from the results of enzyme activities were: high activity

A. L. Parkinson; A. T. Whittington; P. B. S. Spencer; G. Grigg; L. Hinds; C. Gallagher; P. Kuchel; N. S. Agar



Red blood cell mechanics and capillary blood rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood contains a high vol fraction of erythrocytes (red blood cells), which strongly influence its flow properties. Much is\\u000a known about the mechanical properties of red cells, providing a basis for understanding and predicting the rheological behavior\\u000a of blood in terms of the behavior of individual red cells. This review describes quantitative theoretical models that relate\\u000a red cell mechanics to

T. W. Secomb



Thalassemic erythrocytes release microparticles loaded with hemichromes by redox activation of p72Syk kinase  

PubMed Central

High counts of circulating microparticles, originated from the membrane of abnormal erythrocytes, have been associated with increased thrombotic risk in hemolytic disorders. Our studies indicate that in thalassemia intermedia patients the number of circulating microparticles correlates with the capability of the thalassemic erythrocytes to release microparticles. The microparticles are characteristically loaded with hemichromes formed by denatured ?-chains. This finding was substantiated by the positive correlation observed in thalassemia intermedia patients between the amount of hemichromes measured in erythrocytes, their capability to release microparticles and the levels of plasma hemichromes. We observed that hemichromes, following their binding to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3, induce the formation of disulfide band 3 dimers that are subsequently phosphorylated by p72Syk kinase. Phosphorylation of oxidized band 3 appears to be relevant for the formation of large hemichromes/band 3 clusters that, in turn, induce local membrane instability and the release of microparticles. Proteomic analysis of microparticles released from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes indicated that, besides hemichromes and clustered band 3, the microparticles contain a characteristic set of proteins that includes catalase, heat shock protein 70, peroxiredoxin 2 and carbonic anhydrase. High amounts of immunoglobulins and C3 have also been found to be associated with microparticles, accounting for their intense phagocytosis. The effect of p72Syk kinase inhibitors on the release of microparticles from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes may indicate new perspectives for controlling the release of circulating microparticles in hemolytic anemias. PMID:24038029

Ferru, Emanuela; Pantaleo, Antonella; Carta, Franco; Mannu, Franca; Khadjavi, Amina; Gallo, Valentina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Graziadei, Giovanna; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Turrini, Francesco



Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.


Effect of Thioridazine on Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background: Thioridazine, a neuroleptic phenothiazine with antimicrobial efficacy is known to trigger anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activation of p38 kinase. The present study explored, whether thioridazine elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i has been estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, and hemolysis from hemoglobin release. Results: A 48 hours exposure to thioridazine was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i (30 µM), decrease of forward scatter (30 µM), and increase of annexin-V-binding (?12 µM). Nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ and p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 (2 µM) significantly blunted but did not abolish annexin-V-binding following thioridazine exposure. Conclusions: Thioridazine stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and activation of p38 kinase. PMID:24152992

Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Arnold, Markus; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian



Comparison of pre-cryopreserved and post-thaw-and-wash-nucleated cell count on major outcomes following unrelated cord blood transplant in children.  


Engraftment and OS after umbilical CBT is highly dependent on the TNC. The contribution of the wash step to cell loss and ultimately the dose of cells available for transplant is not well described. To investigate the amount of cell loss after washing and its impact on major outcomes compared to pre-cryopreserved TNC, we analyzed data from patients prospectively enrolled on a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute sponsored cord blood transplant study between 1999 and 2003. There were 310 patients ?18 yr of age with malignant (N = 218) or non-malignant (N = 92) disease enrolled on this trial. Only single CBU were used. All CBU were thawed and washed using an identical process. The median TNC after thawing and washing (PTW) was 5.43 × 10(7) /kg (79% recovery of cells). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was significantly higher in patients receiving a PTW TNC ?2.5 × 10(7) /kg (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidence of TRM was higher among patients receiving post-thaw-and-wash TNC <2.5 × 10(7) /kg (p = 0.039). In conclusion, receiving a PTW TNC of <2.5 × 10(7) /kg resulted in worse neutrophil engraftment and increased transplant-related mortality compared to a PTW TNC of ?2.5 × 10(7) /kg. PMID:22533817

McManus, Meghann Pine; Wang, Li; Calder, Cassie; Manes, Becky; Evans, Misty; Bruce, Kathryn; Ho, Richard H; Domm, Jennifer; Frangoul, Haydar



Short communication: evaluation of an automated in-house hematology analyzer for bovine blood.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the V-Sight hematology analyzer (A. Menarini Pharma GmbH, Vienna, Austria) for bovine blood by a comparison with a reference device (Advia 2120i, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). In total, 97 blood samples were obtained from 75 dairy cows. Analyzed parameters included counts of white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells (RBC), and platelets (PLT), as well as hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume (MPV), and plateletcrit (PCT). Based on Passing-Bablok regression, the V-Sight provided accurate and precise results for MCH and MCHC only. The PCT results were comparable to the reference method, but precision was inconclusive. Significant proportional differences were detected for monocytes, granulocytes, HCT, and PLT. For all other analytes, significant proportional and systemic differences were observed. The WBC and lymphocyte results from the V-Sight were characterized by poor accuracy, poor precision, and a high number of false positive outliers. Bland-Altman analysis indicated negative biases for all WBC parameters, the erythrocyte indices, and PLT. Positive biases were observed for RBC, HGB, HCT, MPV, and PCT. Correlation coefficients of >0.9 between the V-Sight and the reference method were found only for RBC, HGB, HCT, and MPV. Intraassay precision of the V-Sight analyzer was acceptable (coefficient of variation <5%) for granulocytes, the erythrocyte indices, and MPV. It was unacceptable (coefficient of variation ?5%) for WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes, as well as RBC, and inconclusive for HGB, HCT, PLT, and PCT. Sensitivity was high for all RBC counts and indices as well as PLT, but low for monocytes, granulocytes, and MPV. Specificity was high for monocytes and granulocytes, but low for RBC, HCT, MCH, and MCHC. With accurate and precise results for only 2 out of 13 parameters, the V-Sight cannot be recommended for analysis of bovine blood. PMID:24997670

Roland, L; Drillich, M; Fidlschuster, B; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M



Red blood cell microparticles and blood group antigens: an analysis by flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background The storage of blood induces the formation of erythrocytes-derived microparticles. Their pathogenic role in blood transfusion is not known so far, especially the risk to trigger alloantibody production in the recipient. This work aims to study the expression of clinically significant blood group antigens on the surface of red blood cells microparticles. Material and methods Red blood cells contained in erythrocyte concentrates were stained with specific antibodies directed against blood group antigens and routinely used in immunohematology practice. After inducing erythrocytes vesiculation with calcium ionophore, the presence of blood group antigens was analysed by flow cytometry. Results The expression of several blood group antigens from the RH, KEL, JK, FY, MNS, LE and LU systems was detected on erythrocyte microparticles. The presence of M (MNS1), N (MNS2) and s (MNS4) antigens could not be demonstrated by flow cytometry, despite that glycophorin A and B were identified on microparticles using anti-CD235a and anti-MNS3. Discussion We conclude that blood group antigens are localized on erythrocytes-derived microparticles and probably keep their immunogenicity because of their capacity to bind specific antibody. Selective segregation process during vesiculation or their ability to elicit an immune response in vivo has to be tested by further studies. PMID:22890266

Canellini, Giorgia; Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Crettaz, David; Lion, Niels; Tissot, Jean-Daniel



Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.  


Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z



Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples

Laia Quirós; Xavier Ruiz; Carolina Sanpera; Lluis Jover; Benjamin Piña



In vitro erythrocytic membrane effects of dibenzyl trisulfide, a secondary metabolite of Petiveria alliacea.  


We investigated the in vitro effect of dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS), a secondary metabolite of Petiveria alliacea, on erythrocyte elasticity, relaxation time and membrane morphology. Blood samples from 8 volunteers with hemoglobin AA were exposed to 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 ng/ml of DTS respectively and the elasticity and relaxation time measured. There were statistically significant, dose-dependent increases in elasticity and relaxation times. The changes in membrane morphology observed also increased with increased concentration of DTS. This suggests that DTS interaction with membrane protein resulted in increased elasticity, relaxation time and deformation of the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:20627119

Pepple, D J; Richards, A A; Lowe, D A; Reid, W A; Younger, N O; Williams, L A D



A combined system for the study of glutathione metabolism in erythrocytes.  


A combined system for measuring glutathione stability, hexose monophosphate pathway activity, glutathione synthesis, glucose consumption and lactate formation in erythrocytes has been devised. By this method the results were obtained from the blood samples of six glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies, one glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency and two pyruvate kinase deficiencies. These results indicate that one abnormal enzyme may exert its influence on the other several enzyme systems and that it is valuable to investigate the metabolism of erythrocytes using this system in different erythroenzymopathies as well as different variants of one enzyme deficiency. PMID:7440224

Ishida, Y; Miwa, S



[The influence of extracorporeal laser radiation on structural indices of erythrocytes].  


Object of the research was to study the diffractometric indices of erythrocytes, while 1 ml of the blood of the experimental animals was irradiated extracorporally by helium-neon laser. For this purpose 1 ml blood was taken from normal weight, (1200 gr) grown up shinshila rabbits, that we divided into 7 groups and irradiated with 10 vat helium-neon laser during 0.5-1 minutes. After irradiation blood was injected back to the organism of rabbits. After 2-6 hours from irradiation blood was taken from veins, to study by electronic microscope and later to be processed by diffractometric analysis method. The examinations testify that after extracorporeal irradiation diffractometric characteristics of erythrocytes' membranes are lower than after general irradiation, which indicates to the different energetic possibilities of laser. The extracorporeal irradiation, performed by laser and input of radiated blood back to organism is considered to be a shock therapy from the side of erythrocytes, which promote the defense function of the organism itself. The base for the shock therapy should be important factors such as homeostasis, compensative-adaptive mechanisms and so on. Exactly this above mentioned should be manifested after the sensitized cells are led back to the body (1 ml of blood) and with their existence they should promote display of the defense mechanisms. PMID:25693223

Khetsuriani, R; Aladashvili, L; Arabuli, M; Tophuria, D; Tchlikadze, N



AMPD3-deficient mice exhibit increased erythrocyte ATP levels but anemia not improved due to PK deficiency.  


AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes AMP to IMP and plays an important role in energy charge and nucleotide metabolism. Human AMPD3 deficiency is a type of erythrocyte-specific enzyme deficiency found in individuals without clinical symptoms, although an increased level of ATP in erythrocytes has been reported. To better understand the physiological and pathological roles of AMPD3 deficiency, we established a line of AMPD3-deficient [A3(-/-)] mice. No AMPD activity and a high level of ATP were observed in erythrocytes of these mice, similar to human RBC-AMPD3 deficiency, while other characteristics were unremarkable. Next, we created AMPD3 and pyruvate kinase (PK) double-deficient [PKA(-/-,-/-)] mice by mating A3(-/-) mice with CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice [PK(-/-)], a spontaneous PK-deficient strain showing hemolytic anemia. In PKA(-/-,-/-) mice, the level of ATP in red blood cells was increased 1.5 times as compared to PK(-/-) mice, although hemolytic anemia in those animals was not improved. In addition, we observed osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in A3(-/-) mice under fasting conditions. In contrast, the ATP level in erythrocytes was elevated in A3(-/-) mice as compared to the control. In conclusion, AMPD3 deficiency increases the level of ATP in erythrocytes, but does not improve anemia due to PK deficiency and leads to erythrocyte dysfunction. PMID:23078545

Cheng, Jidong; Morisaki, Hiroko; Toyama, Keiko; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Morisaki, Takayuki



Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.




Blood lipids and rheological modifications in glycogen storage disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Hyperlipidemia is a feature of liver glycogen storage disease (GSD). Recent studies have suggested that rheological mechanisms such as elevated erythrocyte aggregation may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic syndromes associated with hyperlipidemia.Design and Methods: We investigated erythrocyte aggregation, lipids, and circulatory proteins in the blood of 24 patients affected with GSD, aged from 1 to 23 years

Karim Keddad; Seyed Mahmoud Razavian; Christiane Baussan; Jacqueline Chalas; Annie Abella; Jaime Levenson; Alain Simon; Nicole Moatti; Alain Legrand



Triggering of programmed erythrocyte death by alantolactone.  


The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (?20 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 ?M), ceramide abundance (60 ?M) and DCFDA fluorescence (?40 ?M). The effect of alantolactone (60 ?M) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian



Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.



Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing.  

E-print Network

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing. Indicate the blood type of each of the four samples you tested. Sample 1 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 4 Part 2. Red & White Blood Cell Counts. Write down of white blood cells you would expect to see in this same sample of blood. 2. Using the information

Loughry, Jim


Estimation of serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations in the New Zealand adult population within a background of voluntary folic acid fortification.  


National data on the blood folate status of New Zealand adults is lacking. The objective of this study was to describe the blood folate status and examine the predictors of blood folate status in a national sample of adults from New Zealand, a country with voluntary folic acid fortification. The 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey was a nationwide multistage systematic random cross-sectional survey. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured by microbiologic assay. The survey included 4721 participants aged ?15 y, 3359 of whom provided a nonfasting blood sample. Biochemical folate status was measured in 3277 participants. The median serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 23 and 809 nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency, defined as plasma folate <6.8 nmol/L or erythrocyte folate <305 nmol/L, was 2%. Having breakfast daily compared with never eating breakfast was associated with 53% higher serum and 25% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations; consumers of fortified yeast extract spread had 17% higher serum and 14% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations than nonconsumers; daily users of folate-containing supplements compared with nonusers had 48% higher serum and 28% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in New Zealand adults is low. Participants who ate breakfast more frequently, consumed folate-fortified yeast, or used a daily folate supplement had higher blood folate concentrations. PMID:24174623

Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Brown, Rachel C; Parnell, Winsome; Skeaff, C Murray



Alcohol and the calcium-dependent potassium transport of human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

In vitro exposure of human red blood cells to ethanol (100 and 400 mM) was found to increase the initial rate of calcium-dependent potassium efflux through the red cell membrane. This effect of ethanol was apparently not due to an elevation of the intracellular free calcium but rather to a direct action of the drug on the transport process as, (1) intracellular calcium concentrations were tightly buffered with EGTA, (2) ethanol did not alter the efflux of UVCa from the cells, and (3) dantrolene, which has been proposed to counteract the effect of ethanol on intracellular calcium levels in the erythrocyte, did not inhibit the stimulatory action of ethanol. The efflux of potassium from erythrocytes obtained from chronic alcoholics was not different from that of erythrocytes from non-alcoholic individuals. The relationship of these findings to neuronal potassium transport is discussed.

Harris, R.A.; Caldwell, K.K.



Hemoglobins S and C interfere with actin remodeling in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes.  


The hemoglobins S and C protect carriers from severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we found that these hemoglobinopathies affected the trafficking system that directs parasite-encoded proteins to the surface of infected erythrocytes. Cryoelectron tomography revealed that the parasite generated a host-derived actin cytoskeleton within the cytoplasm of wild-type red blood cells that connected the Maurer's clefts with the host cell membrane and to which transport vesicles were attached. The actin cytoskeleton and the Maurer's clefts were aberrant in erythrocytes containing hemoglobin S or C. Hemoglobin oxidation products, enriched in hemoglobin S and C erythrocytes, inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and may account for the protective role in malaria. PMID:22075726

Cyrklaff, Marek; Sanchez, Cecilia P; Kilian, Nicole; Bisseye, Cyrille; Simpore, Jacques; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Lanzer, Michael



Capsid Region Involved in Hepatitis A Virus Binding to Glycophorin A of the Erythrocyte Membrane  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) has previously been reported to agglutinate human red blood cells at acidic pHs. Treatment of erythrocytes with different enzymes and chemical reagents indicated that HAV attachment is mediated through an interaction with sialylglycoproteins. HAV hemagglutination could be blocked by incubating the virus with glycophorin A, indicating that this sialylglycoprotein is the erythrocyte receptor. The number of receptors used was estimated to be around 500 per cell. At the same time, HAV-induced hemagglutination could also be blocked by either monoclonal antibody H7C27 or an anti-VP3(102-121) ascitic fluid, indicating that lysine 221 of VP1 and the surrounding VP3 residues lining the capsid pit are involved in HAV binding to erythrocytes. PMID:15331714

Sánchez, Glòria; Aragonès, Lluís; Costafreda, M. Isabel; Ribes, Enric; Bosch, Albert; Pintó, Rosa M.



A plant-like kinase in Plasmodium falciparum regulates parasite egress from erythrocytes.  


Clinical malaria is associated with the proliferation of Plasmodium parasites in human erythrocytes. The coordinated processes of parasite egress from and invasion into erythrocytes are rapid and tightly regulated. We have found that the plant-like calcium-dependent protein kinase PfCDPK5, which is expressed in invasive merozoite forms of Plasmodium falciparum, was critical for egress. Parasites deficient in PfCDPK5 arrested as mature schizonts with intact membranes, despite normal maturation of egress proteases and invasion ligands. Merozoites physically released from stalled schizonts were capable of invading new erythrocytes, separating the pathways of egress and invasion. The arrest was downstream of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (PfPKG) function and independent of protease processing. Thus, PfCDPK5 plays an essential role during the blood stage of malaria replication. PMID:20466936

Dvorin, Jeffrey D; Martyn, Derek C; Patel, Saurabh D; Grimley, Joshua S; Collins, Christine R; Hopp, Christine S; Bright, A Taylor; Westenberger, Scott; Winzeler, Elizabeth; Blackman, Michael J; Baker, David A; Wandless, Thomas J; Duraisingh, Manoj T



Influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF injections on selected blood parameters relevant for monitoring programmes in sports drug testing.  


The use of growth factors in sports is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC). While the beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on erythropoiesis and therefore its performance-enhancing properties have been well documented and established for decades, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relevance of the cytokine G-CSF in a doping control context, particularly concerning its influence on selected blood parameters representing central aspects of the Athlete Biological Passport. For that purpose, the effect of repeated subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections in therapeutic dosages (10 µg/kg/d) on white blood cells, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and percent reticulocytes was analyzed by using commonly employed fluorescence flow cytometry-based approaches. A total of 20 people were tested (14 male, 6 female) and both white blood cell count and reticulocyte percentages were found to significantly increase following a 5-day treatment with G-CSF. Simultaneously, all other volume-dependent parameters (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) slightly but significantly decreased. Due to the relevance of these measurands for the validity of blood tests for doping controls and the anecdotal evidence of G-CSF being potentially misused by elite athletes, G-CSF analyses might be indicated in case of unusually altered blood profiles. PMID:23047806

Walpurgis, Katja; Slijepcevic, Mirjana; Wenzel, Folker; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Franz, Stefan; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario



The Functional Significance of the Rho/Rho-Kinase Pathway in Human Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Erythrocyte deformability, which can be influenced by various intracellular signaling mechanisms, such as nitric oxide, cAMP, cGMP, and protein kinases, is the most important physiological factor providing the blood flow in microcirculation. However, the functional significance of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway, which contributes cell shape changes and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, has yet to be explored in erythrocytes. Therefore, we examined the influence of several activators and inhibitors of Rho/Rho-kinase signaling on human erythrocyte deformability. Materials and Methods: RhoA and ROCK-2 proteins were studied by western blotting. Influences of 2 Rho-kinase inhibitors, fasudil and Y-27632 (both 10-7 to 10-4 M), on erythrocyte deformability was determined by ektacytometer at various shear stresses (0-30 Pa) in the presence or absence of a known Rho activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 10-5 to 5x10-5 M, 1-15 min). Results: LPA incubation reduced deformability with concomitant RhoA-GTP inhibition. Y-27632 and fasudil also decreased deformability, but had no effect on LPA-induced reduction of deformability. Rho inhibitor C3 had no effect on RhoA activation. Reduction in RhoA activation was induced by sub-hemolytic mechanical stress. Conclusion: Our findings may indicate that the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway could contribute to the regulation of deformability of human erythrocytes. PMID:25035675

Tiftik, R. Nalan; Ba?kurt, O?uz K.; Kul, Seval; Büyükaf?ar, Kansu



Quercetin protected isolated human erythrocytes against mancozeb-induced oxidative stress.  


Mancozeb is a fungicide belonging to the ethylene-bisdithiocarbamate group and is widely used in agriculture. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of quercetin (QRN) against oxidative stress induced by mancozeb in human erythrocytes. In order to verify this, 5 ml of venous blood was collected and the erythrocytes were separated and divided into equal parts. One part was incubated with different concentrations of mancozeb (0, 10, 30, 100 µM) for 4 h at 37°C. The other part was preincubated with QRN (40 and 80 ?M) for 30 min, followed by mancozeb (0, 10, 30, 100 µM) incubation for 4 h. We found reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) in erythrocytes incubated with 30 and 100 µm of mancozeb. Pre-incubation with QRN (80 ?M) reversed oxidative stress induced by mancozeb (30 ?M) and inhibited LPO induced at 100 ?M by 64.36%. QRN also reduced the haemolytic effect on erythrocytes but could not prevent the induction of haemolysis by mancozeb. Therefore, these results suggest that QRN may play a role in preventing the oxidative stress induced by mancozeb in human erythrocytes. PMID:23024109

Balaji, Bhaskar; Rajendar, Bandi; Ramanathan, Muthiah



Hemoglobin degradation in malaria-infected erythrocytes determined from live cell magnetophoresis  

PubMed Central

During intra-erythrocytic development, malaria trophozoites digest hemoglobin, which leads to parasite growth and asexual replication while accumulating toxic heme. To avoid death, the parasite synthesizes insoluble hemozoin crystals in the digestive vacuole through polymerization of ?-hematin dimers. In the process, the heme is converted to a high-spin ferriheme whose magnetic properties were studied as early as 1936 by Pauling et al. Here, by magnetophoretic cell motion analysis, we provide evidence for a graduated increase of live cell magnetic susceptibility with developing blood-stage parasites, compatible with the increase in hemozoin content and the mechanism used by P. falciparum to avoid heme toxicity. The measured magnetophoretic mobility of the erythrocyte infected with a late-stage schizont form was m = 2.94 × 10?6 mm3 s/kg, corresponding to the net volume magnetic susceptibility (relative to water) of ?? = 1.80 × 10?6, significantly higher than that of the oxygenated erythrocyte (?0.18×10?6) but lower than that of the fully deoxygenated erythrocyte (3.33×10?6). The corresponding fraction of hemoglobin converted to hemozoin, calculated based on the known magnetic susceptibilities of hemoglobin heme and hemozoin ferriheme, was 0.50, in agreement with the published biochemical and crystallography data. Magnetophoretic analysis of live erythrocytes could become significant for antimalarial drug susceptibility and resistance determination. PMID:16461330

Moore, Lee R.; Fujioka, Hisashi; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Grimberg, Brian; Zimmerman, Peter; Zborowski, Maciej



The acceleration of the propagation phase of thrombin generation in patients with steady-state sickle cell disease is associated with circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles.  


Sickle cell disease (SCD) is linked to hypercoagulability and is characterised by high concentrations of erythrocyte-derived microparticles (Ed-MPs). However, the impact of procoagulant cell-derived microparticles on the thrombin generation process remains unclear. We analysed the alterations of each phase of thrombin generation (TG) in relation to the concentration of erythrocyte- or platelet-derived microparticles (Ed-MPs and Pd-MPs) in a cohort of patients with steady-state SCD. We studied 92 steady-state SCD patients, 19 of which were under treatment with hydroxyurea, and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. TG was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram. Ed-MP and Pd-MP expressing or not phosphatidylserine (PS) were determined by means of flow cytometry. Procoagulant phospholipid-dependent activity in the plasma was evaluated by the Procoag-PPL assay. Levels of thrombomodulin and haemoglobin in the plasma as well as red blood cell and reticulocyte counts were measured. SCD patients, independently of the administration of hydroxyurea, were marked by a significant acceleration in the propagation phase of TG which correlated with the Ed-MP/PS+ concentration. TG was significantly attenuated in hydroxyurea-treated patients. In conclusion, the acceleration of the propagation phase of TG, driven by Ed-MP/PS+, is a major functional alteration in blood coagulation in patients with steady-state SCD. Treatment with hydroxyurea, in addition to the regulation of haemolysis, lowers Ed-MPs and attenuates thrombin generation. The thrombogram could be a useful tool for the diagnosis of hypercoagulability and optimisation of the treatment in patients with SCD. PMID:22535498

Gerotziafas, Grigoris T; Van Dreden, Patrick; Chaari, Mourad; Galea, Vassiliki; Khaterchi, Amir; Lionnet, Francois; Stankovic-Stojanovic, Katice; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Woodhams, Barry; Maier-Redelsperger, Micheline; Girot, Robert; Hatmi, Mohamed; Elalamy, Ismail



Targeted Disruption of py235ebp-1: Invasion of Erythrocytes by Plasmodium yoelii Using an Alternative Py235 Erythrocyte Binding Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium yoelii YM asexual blood stage parasites express multiple members of the py235 gene family, part of the super-family of genes including those coding for Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and Plasmodium falciparum RH proteins. We previously identified a Py235 erythrocyte binding protein (Py235EBP-1, encoded by the PY01365 gene) that is recognized by protective mAb 25.77. Proteins recognized by a

Solabomi A. Ogun; Rita Tewari; Thomas D. Otto; Steven A. Howell; Ellen Knuepfer; Deirdre A. Cunningham; Zhengyao Xu; Arnab Pain; Anthony A. Holder



Erythrocyte disorders in the perinatal period.  


Anemia is a commonly encountered problem in the fetal and neonatal period, and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Intrinsic disorders of the erythrocyte, such as the hemoglobinopathies, enzyme deficiencies, and membrane defects are common causes of neonatal anemia. Genetic diseases that lead to decreased erythrocyte production, such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, and Congential Dyserythropoietic Anemia, are rare causes of perinatal anemia, but are important to recognize as they are often associated with other congenital abnormalities and require specialized treatment. This review focuses on the perinatal presentation and management of intrinsic erythrocyte disorders, as well as on the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions leading to erythrocyte underproduction. PMID:17825683

Steiner, Laurie A; Gallagher, Patrick G




EPA Science Inventory

Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...


Erythrocytes under osmotic stress - modeling considerations.  


Various modeling approaches have been applied to describe structural changes of the erythrocyte constituents under osmotic stress. The constituents: (1) the lipid bilayer, (2) the actin-spectrin cortex, (3) the trans-membrane protein band 3, (4) the intracellular hemoglobin contribute to the relaxation phenomenon. Cells response includes the successive sub-bioprocesses: (1) erythrocyte swelling, (2) lifetime of the lipid structural integrity and the rearrangements of trans-membrane protein band 3, (3) the reversible hemolytic hole formation and hemoglobin release to surrounding solution. Herein, an attempt is made to discuss and connect various modeling approaches on various time scales which have been proposed in the literature in order to shed further light to this complex phenomenon which induces the erythrocyte to ghost phase transition. The results indicate that the erythrocyte swelling rate represents the key control factor for the structural ordering of the cell parts which induces anomalous nature of energy dissipation. PMID:25433233

Pajic-Lijakovic, Ivana



The plasma membrane of erythrocytes plays a fundamental role in the transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and in the maintenance of the reduced state of the heme iron.  


Here we review new insights into the role of the erythrocyte membrane and the implications of its architecture on the several functions accomplished by the red blood cells. The picture which emerges highlights the capability of Hb and band 3 to modulate erythrocyte metabolism and to meet the needs of the cell. PMID:17573207

De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Galtieri, Antonio; Scatena, Roberto; Giardina, Bruno



In vitro studies regarding the feasibility of bovine erythrocyte xenotransfusion.  


Pigs are considered the most likely source of organs and tissues should the barriers to xenotransplantation be overcome. The use of animal blood for transfusion, xenotransfusion, would have advantages over blood from random human donors with respect to supply and infection control. Large animals such as cows would be more suitable than pigs for blood donation because of easier venous access and large volume phlebotomy. Blood from 12 Holstein cows was typed and then tested for hemagglutination assay (HA), complement mediated lysis (CML), human IgM and IgG antibody binding, anti-human globulin augmented clinical cross-match and osmotic fragility with normal human serum. Results were compared with porcine erythrocytes (pRBC) and with human type O controls (hRBC). The frequency of ultra-low xenoantigen expressors was tested in a larger herd of various breeds using HA and CML. Median HA and CML titers were one of six (no HA-one of 64) and one of 26 (no CML-one of 64), respectively for bovine erythrocytes (bRBC). Hemagglutination titer was significantly higher for pRBC at one of 170 (one of four-one of 1024). HA and CML were lowest with bovine blood group J. Repeated HA and CML were negative with bRBC from one cow that also tested negative by anti-human globulin augmented cross-match with seven of nine random human sera representing the different blood groups. However, flow cytometry showed that bRBC from all cows bound human IgM and IgG. IgM mean channel fluorescence (MCF) was positively correlated with HA titer. The mean corpuscular fragility of pRBC, bRBC, and hRBC was 0.56, 0.48 and 0.41%, respectively. The frequency of HA-negative and CML-negative cows were 20 and 35%, respectively in herds of 49 animals. Bovine RBC elicit variable in vitro responses from human serum but these are uniformly much less than those seen with pRBC. Bovine RBC is more robust than pRBC. These characteristics including the potential ease and volume of blood collection make the cow a more suitable blood donor than the pig. PMID:14962288

Johnstone, James E; MacLaren, Leslie A; Doucet, Jay; McAlister, Vivian C



Comparative Biochemistry of Marsupial Erythrocytes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Although extensive studies have been performed on human erythrocytes, there is a shortage of information on marsupial erythrocytes.\\u000a Studies on haematology and biochemistry are useful in the ecomanagement of these animals especially those in wildlife parks\\u000a and zoos. The present review summarises our findings from ?30 species of marsupials. As marsupials show great diversity in\\u000a physical and behavioural characteristics,

N. S. Agar; N. B. Reinke; I. R. Godwin; P. W. Kuchel



Pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in erythrocytes in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intraerythrocytic levels of folate and methotrexate were measured in 25 patients on long-term methotrexate therapy for recalcitrant psoriasis. The mean steady state concentration of methotrexate in erythrocytes was 85 nmol\\/l and the mean erythrocyte folate concentration was 729 nmol\\/l. A linear correlation was not observed between these parameters, but the greatest methotrexate accumulation was found in cells at the

J. Hendel; A. Nyfors



Laser interference microscopy in erythrocyte study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the laser interference microscopy (LIM) technique, one can measure phase height of cells—a variable proportional to the cell thickness and the difference in the refractive indices of the cell and the surrounding medium. This makes functional optical cell imaging possible, and estimation of shape, thickness, and area of erythrocytes feasible. In this paper, we studied changes in erythrocyte shape and volume with osmolarity and pH. Obtained from the LIM technique, erythrocyte phase heights and area values, as well as the hematocrit-measured erythrocyte volume, were used to estimate changes in the refractive index with osmolarity and pH. A comparison between the estimated refractive index with the refractive index, calculated in the assumption that it can only depend on the hemoglobin concentration in the cell, indicates that these two estimates are identical in the range of osmolarity (250-1000 mOsm) and pH (4.5-10.0) values. Thus, refractive index changes result exclusively from the changes in hemoglobin concentration with the changes in erythrocyte volume. Under these conditions, it is possible to estimate the amount of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte from its phase height and area, obtained from LIM.

Yusipovich, A. I.; Parshina, E. Yu.; Brysgalova, N. Yu.; Brazhe, A. R.; Brazhe, N. A.; Lomakin, A. G.; Levin, G. G.; Maksimov, G. V.



Microfluidic impedance cytometry of tumour cells in blood.  


The dielectric properties of tumour cells are known to differ from normal blood cells, and this difference can be exploited for label-free separation of cells. Conventional measurement techniques are slow and cannot identify rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in a realistic timeframe. We use high throughput single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry to measure the dielectric properties of the MCF7 tumour cell line (representative of CTCs), both as pure populations and mixed with whole blood. The data show that the MCF7 cells have a large membrane capacitance and size, enabling clear discrimination from all other leukocytes. Impedance analysis is used to follow changes in cell viability when cells are kept in suspension, a process which can be understood from modelling time-dependent changes in the dielectric properties (predominantly membrane conductivity) of the cells. Impedance cytometry is used to enumerate low numbers of MCF7 cells spiked into whole blood. Chemical lysis is commonly used to remove the abundant erythrocytes, and it is shown that this process does not alter the MCF7 cell count or change their dielectric properties. Combining impedance cytometry with magnetic bead based antibody enrichment enables MCF7 cells to be detected down to 100 MCF7 cells in 1?ml whole blood, a log 3.5 enrichment and a mean recovery of 92%. Microfluidic impedance cytometry could be easily integrated within complex cell separation systems for identification and enumeration of specific cell types, providing a fast in-line single cell characterisation method. PMID:25553198

Spencer, Daniel; Hollis, Veronica; Morgan, Hywel



Effect of L-propionyl carnitine on some properties of erythrocytes and leukocytes of alcohol abusers.  


The effect of L-propionyl carnitine, the carnitine derivative utilized as a more effective drug for membrane protection, on Na-K ATPase activity of erythrocyte ghosts of alcohol-dependent patients and blood donors has been investigated. The effect of L-propionyl carnitine on leukocyte chemotaxis and cytochrome c reduction, a measure of superoxide ion production was also studied. It has been in fact observed that alcohol is immunotoxic on both the non-specific and the specific immune response. In alcohol-dependent erythrocytes, a significant higher value of the 1H-NMR spin lattice relaxation time (T1) was observed as compared to blood-donor erythrocytes. The in-vitro addition of ethanol increases the T1 values of blood donor erythrocytes, whereas it is without effect on the T1 value of alcohol-dependent erythrocytes. The Na-K ATPase activity is higher in alcohol-dependent erythrocyte ghosts as compared to blood-donor ghosts. A non-significant increase of the Na-K ATPase activity of blood-donor ghosts was observed with the increasing of L-propionyl carnitine concentrations (from 0.2 to 5.0 mM), whereas the Na-K ATPase activity of alcohol-dependent ghosts decreases. From these combined effects the differences of Na-K ATPase activity progressively decrease with the increasing of L-propionyl carnitine concentration, and no significant differences are observed between the two groups at L-propionyl carnitine concentrations higher than 0.5 mM. The in-vitro addition of ethanol increases the enzyme activity to a greater extent in blood-donor ghosts as compared to alcohol-dependent ghosts. This in-vitro activation by ethanol is decreased by the addition of L-propionyl carnitine. The chemotaxis induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine and the superoxide anion production stimulated by zymosan is significantly lower in alcohol-dependent neutrophils. L-Propionyl carnitine increases, in a dose-dependent way, both chemotaxis and superoxide anion production of alcohol-dependent neutrophils, and no significant difference was observed between the two groups at 5 mM L-propionyl carnitine. These experimental results suggest that L-propionyl carnitine administration may be useful for reducing some acute and chronic damages due to alcohol ingestion. The protective and modulatory actions of L-propionyl carnitine may be even more evident in cells and tissues different from those investigated in this study and in which ethanol determines several biochemical damages. PMID:7499061

Conte, A; Bianchi, I; Guazzelli, M; Taponeco, G; Bertelli, A; Ronca, G



Some aspects of erythrocyte metabolism in insulin-treated diabetic dogs.  


Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a common metabolic disease often complicated by a number of pathological conditions among which are haematological changes and alterations in blood cell function. Human and feline diabetes mellitus patients have been reported to be associated with oxidative stress that can lead to membrane alterations and to reduced erythrocyte life-span. Erythrocyte function in dogs affected by IDDM has been investigated during insulin therapy, paying attention to antioxidant status, membrane resistance, enzyme activities and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3DPG) concentration. Thirteen diabetic and 36 healthy dogs were bled and haematology and blood chemistry assays were performed to evaluate the degree of compensation. Osmotic fragility, the activities of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and pyruvate-kinase (PK) and the concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and 2,3DPG were evaluated in the erythrocytes. Diabetic dogs did not differ from controls in terms of haematological parameters, except for higher numbers of platelets. Higher values of fructosamine, glucose, protein, plasma potassium and calculated osmolality were detected in the plasma from diabetic dogs. No differences were detected in osmotic fragility, GSH concentration and PK activity between the two groups but 2,3DPG concentration and G6PD activity were statistically significantly higher in the diabetic group. The results indicate minimal alterations in erythrocyte functions occur in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. This contrasts with what has been reported for IDDM humans and cats. PMID:12002634

Comazzi, S; Paltrinieri, S; Spagnolo, V; Sartorelli, P



The pathologic cascade of cerebrovascular lesions in SHRSP: is erythrocyte accumulation an early phase?  


Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is associated with vessel wall changes, microbleeds, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbances, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). As spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD, we aimed to identify whether those changes occur in definite temporal stages and whether there is an initial phenomenon beyond those common vascular alterations. Groups of 51 SHRSP were examined simultaneously by histologic (Hematoxylin-Eosin, IgG-Immunohistochemistry, vessel diameter measurement) and imaging methods (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 201-Thallium-Diethyldithiocarbamate/99m-Technetium-HMPAO Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography conducted as pilot study) at different stages of age. Vascular pathology in SHRSP proceeds in definite stages, whereas an age-dependent accumulation of erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles represents the homogeneous initial step of the disease. Erythrocyte accumulations are followed by BBB disturbances and microbleeds, both also increasing with age. Microthromboses, tissue infarctions with CBF reduction, and disturbed potassium uptake represent the final stage of vascular pathology in SHRSP. Erythrocyte accumulations--we parsimoniously interpreted as stases--without cerebral tissue damage represent the first step of vascular pathology in SHRSP. If that initial phenomenon could be identified in patients, these erythrocyte accumulations might be a promising target for implementing prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in human CSVD. PMID:21878945

Schreiber, Stefanie; Bueche, Celine Z; Garz, Cornelia; Kropf, Siegfried; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Juergen; Neumann, Jens; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Goertler, Michael; Reymann, Klaus G; Braun, Holger



Association of centrioles with the marginal band of a molluscan erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

Continuous circumferential bundles of microtubules, or marginal bands (MBs), are best known as a prominent structural feature of all nonmammalian vertebrate erythrocytes and mammalian blood platelets. Since their discovery in the late 19th century, MBs have been thought to play a cellular morphogenetic role, but no cytological clues to the mechanism of MB biogenesis have been reported. In previous work we have established the presence of MBs in serveral invertebrate blood cell types, including amebocytes and coelomocytes of certain Arthropod species and erythrocytes of a Sipunculan. We report here the occurrence of MBs in erythrocytes of the ark Anadara transversa (Mollusca) and four closely related species. The MBs of these arks have a striking structural feature; each is physically associated with a pair of centrioles. The centrioles are identified as such on the basis of morphological criteria: size, cylindrical shape, right-angle orientation, pairing, and 9-triplet ultrastructure. This intimate association between centrioles and MBs suggests that centrioles may be MB-organizing centers and invites comparative investigation of their possible role in vertebrate erythrocyte and platelet morphogenesis. PMID:7419578



Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.


ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) Test  


... acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen increases in the blood in response ... lower the ESR. ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP) are both markers of inflammation . Generally, ESR does ...


Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.



Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))



Improvement of major depression is associated with increased erythrocyte DHA.  


The aim of this study was to determine if changes in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status following tuna oil supplementation correlated with changes in scores of depression. A total of 95 volunteers receiving treatment for major depression were randomised to consume 8 × 1 g capsules per day of HiDHA (2 g DHA, 0.6 g EPA and 10 mg Vitamin E) or olive oil (placebo) for 16 weeks, whilst undergoing weekly counseling sessions by trained clinical psychologists using a standard empirically validated psychotherapy. Depression status was assessed using the 17 item Hamilton rating scale for depression and the Beck Depression Inventory by a psychodiagnostician who was blind to the treatment. Blood was taken at baseline and 16 weeks (n = 48) for measurement of erythrocyte fatty acids. With HiDHA supplementation, erythrocyte DHA content rose from 4.1 ± 0.2 to 7.9 ± 0.4 % (mean ± SEM, p < 0.001) of total fatty acids but did not change (4.0 ± 0.2 to 4.1 ± 0.2 %) in the olive oil group. The mean changes in scores of depression did not differ significantly between the two groups (-12.2 ± 2.1 for tuna oil and -14.4 ± 2.3 for olive oil). However, analysis of covariance showed that in the fish oil group there was a significant correlation (r = -0.51) between the change in erythrocyte DHA and the change in scores of depression (p < 0.05). Further study of the relationship between DHA and depression is warranted. PMID:23733443

Meyer, Barbara J; Grenyer, Brin F S; Crowe, Trevor; Owen, Alice J; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth M; Howe, Peter R C



Persistent Macrocytosis Assessed by Erythrocyte Subpopulation Analysis Following Erythrocyte Regeneration in Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial erythrocyte volume distribution curves were used to characterize changes in erythrocyte subpopulations fol- lowing the induction of Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats. Macrocytes produced in response to hemolysis were observed after loss of reticulum. After recovery from hemolysis. a gradual reduction in mean cell size resulted from a combination of macrocyte remodeling and produc- tion of normocytic cells.

M. G. Weiser; G. J. Kociba



Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss  

SciTech Connect

Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13, range 3.6-10.3 Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29, 1.2-14 comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31, 5.3-8.6 The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39, 2.08-39.35 Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.



Pre-erythrocytic antibody profiles induced by controlled human malaria infections in healthy volunteers under chloroquine prophylaxis.  


Complete sterile protection to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection mediated by pre-erythrocytic immunity can be experimentally induced under chloroquine prophylaxis, through immunization with sporozoites from infected mosquitoes' bites (CPS protocol). To characterize the profile of CPS induced antibody (Ab) responses, we developed a proteome microarray containing 809 Pf antigens showing a distinct Ab profile with recognition of antigens expressed in pre-erythrocytic life-cycle stages. In contrast, plasma from naturally exposed semi-immune individuals from Kenya was skewed toward antibody reactivity against asexual blood stage antigens. CPS-immunized and semi-immune individuals generated antibodies against 192 and 202 Pf antigens, respectively, but only 60 antigens overlapped between the two groups. Although the number of reactive antigens varied between the CPS-immunized individuals, all volunteers reacted strongly against the pre-erythrocytic antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and liver stage antigen 1 (LSA1). Well classified merozoite and erythrocytic antigens were strongly reactive in semi-immune individuals but lacking in the CPS immunized group. These data show that the antibody profile of CPS-immunized and semi-immune groups have quite distinct profiles reflecting their protective immunity; antibodies from CPS immunized individuals react strongly against pre-erythrocytic while semi-immune individuals mainly react against erythrocytic antigens. PMID:24351974

Felgner, Philip L; Roestenberg, Meta; Liang, Li; Hung, Christopher; Jain, Aarti; Pablo, Jozelyn; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Molina, Douglas; Teelen, Karina; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert



Molecular basis of erythrocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in diseases.  


Red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to endothelium can be studied in static and flow conditions. Increased RBC adhesion was first described in sickle cell disease. Several molecules were shown to be involved in this phenomenon: VCAM-1, ?4?1, Lu/BCAM, ICAM-4. In malaria, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein1 binds to ICAM-1, PECAM-1 and facilitates the parasite dissemination. In diabetes mellitus augmented RBC adhesion is correlated to the severity of vascular complications. Glycated RBC band3 reacts with the endothelial Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE). RAGE engagement induced endothelial cell dysfunction. In patients with Polycythemia Vera (PV), the most frequent myeloproliferative disorder, constitutive phosphorylation of RBC Lu/BCAM is responsible for an increased adhesion to endothelial cell laminin. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common cause of permanent visual loss. Spontaneous growth of erythroid precursors was observed in more than 25% of patients. RBC adhesion was enhanced and correlated to phosphatidyl serine (PS) expression on RBC. Anti-PS receptor blocked RVO RBC adhesion indicating that the counterpart of RBC PS is PS endothelial cell receptor. Erythrocyte adhesion is mediated by different molecule abnormalities in different diseases but is associated to a higher risk of thrombosis and vascular complications. PMID:22941965

Wautier, Jean-Luc; Wautier, Marie-Paule



In vitro effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on blood: a quantitative and morphologic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of the Neodymium: yttrium -aluminum -garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to recanalize stenosed arteries may require delivery of the beam through blood. To assess the degree of hemolysis and debris formation, 54 samples of citrated whole blood were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation of varying powers (10, 20 and 30 watts) and duration (1, 2.5 and 5 seconds). Compared to control samples which were not subjected to laser light, there was no significant decrease in hematocrit (41 to 40.5 +/- 5%), hemoglobin concentration (13.8 to 13.8 +/- .06 g/1OO ml), or increase in free hemoglobin concentration. Debris weight (from .45 +/- .002 to .45 +/- .002 mg), as well as the white blood cell count, was also not significantly changed (from 5,400 to 5,200 +/- 240 WBC/cm). Light microscopy examination of debris from samples of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma subjected to the laser at 30 watts for five seconds failed to demonstrate the presence of membrane denaturation of blood elements, as compared with the morphologic changes observed in whole blood samples exposed to a hot tip rather than Nd:YAG laser radiation. Nd:YAG laser can be used intravascularly without fear of hemolysis or debris micro-embolization up to a power of 30 watts for five seconds.

Borrero, E.; Rosenthal, D.; Otis, J.B.



Coenzyme Q 10 in plasma and erythrocytes: comparison of antioxidant levels in healthy probands after oral supplementation and in patients suffering from sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The membrane-associated antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or ubiquinone-10 is frequently measured in serum or plasma. However, little is known about the total contents or redox status of CoQ10 in blood cells. Methods: We have developed a method for determination of CoQ10 in erythrocytes. Total CoQ10 in erythrocytes was compared to the amounts of ubiquinone-10 and ubihydroquinone-10 in plasma using

Petra Niklowitz; Thomas Menke; Thomas Wiesel; Ertan Mayatepek; Johannes Zschocke; Jürgen G Okun; Werner Andler



Immune responses toPlasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic stage antigens in naturally exposed Duffy-negative humans: a potential model for identification of liver-stage antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duffy antigen is the receptor used by Plasmodium vivax to invade erythrocytes. Consequently, individuals lacking Duffy antigen (Fy(-)) do not develop blood-stage infections. We hypothesized that naturallyexposed Fy(-) humans maydevelopimmune responses mainly to pre-erythrocytic stages and could be used to study acquired immunity to P. vivax and to identify liver-stage antigens. We report here that antibody andIFN-cresponsestoknownsporozoiteantigensweresignificantlyinduced bynatural exposure in

Ruobing Wang; Myriam Arevalo-Herrera; Anilza Bonelo; Andres Gomez; Omaira Vera; Liliana Soto; Juana Vergara; Alexander Domingo; Socrates Herrera