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Sample records for blood count erythrocyte

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  3. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  4. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  5. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez-Alonso, Jos; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 0.5 and 15.8 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterialvenous (av) O2 difference (r2 = 0.890.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules. PMID:16439430

  6. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  7. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Mouth and Throat Sores Pain ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  8. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Blood Test: Complete Blood Count KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation The Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results ...

  9. A multicentre study of reference intervals for haemoglobin, basic blood cell counts and erythrocyte indices in the adult population of the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nordin, G; Mårtensson, A; Swolin, B; Sandberg, S; Christensen, N J; Thorsteinsson, V; Franzson, L; Kairisto, V; Savolainen, E-R

    2004-01-01

    Eight haematological quantities were measured in EDTA anticoagulated venous blood specimens collected from 1826 healthy male and female individuals between 18 and 90 years of age in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). The samples, collected between November 1999 and November 2001 as part of the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP), were analysed on 12 different types of modern automated haematology instruments currently in use among the 60 laboratories participating in the study. Non-parametric reference intervals (between 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles) have been calculated for B-Haemoglobin (females 117-153 g/L, males 134-170 g/L), B-Erythrocytes (females 3.94-5.16 x 10(12)/L, males 4.25-5.71 x 10(12)/L), B-EVF (females 0.348-0.459, males 0.395-0.500), B-MCV (82-98 fL), Erc-MCH (27.1-33.3 pg), Erc-MCHC (317-357 g/L), B-Trc (females 165-387 x 10(9)/L, males 145 x 348 x 10(9)/L) and B-Lkc (3.5-8.8 x 10(9)/L). Partitioning of data according to age and gender was done according to a standardized procedure. For most variables the calculated reference intervals corresponded well with older and less well-defined reference intervals. The mean concentration of B-Haemoglobin increased by 0.08 g/L per year of age in women, and decreased by 0.1 g/L per year of age in men. B-Haemoglobin increased with body mass index in both men and women. Smoking increased the mean of B-Lkc by 1.1 x 10(9)/L and regular use of alcohol increased the mean of B-MCV by 0.8 fL. The influence of these factors was small overall and did not promote specific reference intervals. PMID:15223702

  10. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  11. Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

  12. Investigation of erythrocyte aggregation and blood sedimentation by optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempczyński, A.; Grzegorzewski, B.

    2005-08-01

    The blood sedimentation process is studied by means of the imaging system. This method allows to investigate the blood sediment behavior in whole sample. The blood was taken from healthy donors. From the normal and glutaraldehyde hardened erythrocytes the blood samples of three haematocrits (5%, 40%, 60%) in autologous plasma and dextran were prepared. Phases of the blood sediment that appear in the course of the process were recognized. We have shown that this method permits the analysis of traces of settling aggregates. Especially it is shown that the method can be useful in the study of the influence of cellular as well as plasmatic factors on erythrocyte aggregation and blood sedimentation.

  13. Blood oxygen consumption and erythrocyte types in embryonic and postnatal chicken.

    PubMed

    Grima, M; Girard, H; Dejours, P

    1983-01-01

    In an extension of previous work showing that oxygen consumption (MO2) of chick blood cells declines from 5 to 14-15 days incubation age, declines more steeply to hatching, rises abruptly up to 4-6 posthatch days, and declines thereafter, we investigated the succession of embryonic and posthatch erythrocytic types by performing differential erythrocyte (RBC) counts. MO2 of RBC groups separated by density gradients and fractionation into younger and older RBC populations were measured in 1- to 22-day-old posthatch chicks. The embryonic MO2 decline can be attributed to the appearance of erythrocytic types with successively lower metabolism. The MO2 slope change at 14-15 days incubation coincides with the predominance of definitive erythrocytes with oval nuclei over other cell types. The posthatch MO2 rise is due to a temporary invasion of immature RBC, especially postnatal polychromatic erythroblasts. MO2 then decreases as these cells mature. PMID:6849377

  14. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  15. Morphofunctional characteristics of the glutathione cycle in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with a history of cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation during gestation.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A; Kutepova, O L

    2014-06-01

    We studied factors influencing peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection during gestation. Cytomegalovirus infection was associated with a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and glutathione peroxidase, which leads to H2O2 accumulation in the blood. Exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection was associated with reduction of glutathione reductase and SOD activities. Erythrocyte antioxidant function and the peripheral blood discocyte count decreased. Accumulation of degenerative erythrocytes is fraught with the risk of anemia in pregnant women. PMID:24952498

  16. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

  17. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  18. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Lee, Kristine E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations of components of the complete blood count with retinal vessel diameters. Methods The data are from the 1988–1990 baseline examination of the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort (n=4730). Blood pressure was measured, a medical history including questions on smoking was obtained, and fundus photographs centered on the optic disc were taken and digitized. Retinal arteriole and venule diameters were measured using computer-assisted software. The central retinal arteriole equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venule equivalent (CRVE) were computed. A complete blood count was done. Results In age and sex adjusted analyses, red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC) count were all statistically significantly associated with CRVE and CRAE, while platelet count was associated only with CRVE. These relationships persisted in more fully adjusted models, except platelet count became statistically significantly associated with both CRAE and CRVE. Conclusions Blood components as measured in a complete blood count are significant correlates of retinal vessel diameters and should be considered in analyses where retinal blood vessel diameters are outcomes. PMID:21482874

  19. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  20. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  4. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  5. Complete blood count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can reflect problems with fluid volume (such as dehydration) or loss of blood. It can show abnormalities ... for example, burns) A high hematocrit may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock

  6. Effect of adriamycin on the morphology of the erythrocytes and blood parameters of the toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A; Osman, S I; Daabees, A Y; Toulan, B A

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the anticancer drug adriamycin on the morphology of the erythrocytes as well as some blood parameters were studied in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Injecting the toads subcutaneously in the dorsal lymph sac with adriamycin at a dose level of 2 mg/kg body weight once every three weeks for 12 weeks induced the formation of abnormalities in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the erythrocytes. Its administration also caused severe anaemia, since the number of red blood corpuscles, haemoglobin content and haematocrit values were obviously decreased throughout the whole experimental period. The total leucocytic count was also diminished. On the other hand, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased all over the experiment. PMID:1490008

  7. Changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes resulting from blood storage.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-08-01

    The storage of blood for 24 h at 10 degrees C caused significant changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes of pigeons, peafowls, domestic fowls, lizards and toads. Significant decreases in fragility were seen with pigeon and peafowl erythrocytes. However, the osmotic fragility of domestic fowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased significantly. PMID:7863738

  8. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  9. Proposal of a Deformable Erythrocyte Model and Numerical Analysis of Shear Flow of Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Kawabata, Nobuyoshi; Tachibana, Motoyoshi

    Blood flow in a large artery is commonly analyzed by means of constitutive equations. However, it is not appropriate to use constitutive equations for small arteries because of the heterogeneity of the blood. In this paper, a new method to model an erythrocyte using beads and springs is proposed as an alternative way to analyze the blood flow, which is called a deformable erythrocyte model. The behavior of a single erythrocyte is computed under a constant shear field. The rotating attitude of the erythrocyte model and rheological property of the blood are discussed. The results show that the deformable erythrocyte model can appropriately simulate the tank tread motion of an erythrocyte and the shear-thinning property under high-shear-rate conditions. It is, therefore, considered that the present model is able to consistently express the blood flow characteristics.

  10. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, D.W.; Knoll, J.H.M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Flint, A.F. ); Pizzimenti, M.F. ); Latt, S.A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1990-05-01

    Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, they were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations.

  11. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975

  12. Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research. PMID:23467296

  13. Hemoperfusion effect on oxygen-carrying function of preserved donor blood and erythrocytic mass.

    PubMed

    Khodas MYa; Belkin, A L; Mosolova, L A; Povzhitkova, M S; Leonova, S F; Penkrak, K A; Grischenko, M N; Pyatnitskaya, G K

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the preserved (7-21 days) donor blood and erythrocytic mass, following perfusion through hemosorbent SKN-D. After the sorption the oxygen-transport function of erythrocytes was found to improve considerably (oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve was shifted to the right on average by 4-4.2 mm Hg). The energy supply became better (ATP level was increased by 38-59%). In view of the above, long-preserved blood and erythrocytic mass following their perfusion through SKN-D hemosorbent can be considered a sufficiently valid transfusion medium. PMID:2718544

  14. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for resource poor settings.

  15. [Antioxidant activity of blood serum amd erythrocytes in patients with refractory anemia].

    PubMed

    Levina, A A; Andreeva, A P; Tsvetaeva, N V; Tsibul'skaia, M M; Minaeva, L M; Tokarev, Iu N

    1991-07-01

    Iron metabolism was studied in patients with refractory anemia. It is shown that continuous transfusions of erythrocytes result in a sharp rise of iron reserves that plays an important role in the development of hemosiderosis. To prevent iron oxidative action it is recommended that the patients should be subjected to therapy with chelating agents and antioxidants simultaneously with transfusions of erythrocytes. A relationship has been noted between blood antioxidant capacity decrease and iron-overloading. PMID:1936880

  16. Biophotonics of the interaction of low-intensity laser radiation with blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blood erythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.

  17. Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 85.1 and 5.9 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 9.0 and 0.8 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ?13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely. PMID:24734183

  18. Influence of erythrocyte iodothyronine-binding proteins on radioimmunoassay of thyroxin in dried blood spots

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, W.A.; Lynskey, C.P.

    1982-01-01

    Three erythrocyte proteins, one identified as hemoglobin, bind thyroid hormones. Using a dextran/charcoal radioimmunoassay for thyroxin in dried blood spots, we demonstrate that such binding differs with the buffer used. Barbital, phosphate, and borate buffers significantly enhance the binding more than glycine and tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine buffers. Binding is not affected by agents commonly used to inhibit thyroxin binding to serum proteins. A highly significant nonlinear direct relationship between sample storage (temperature and duration) and increased thyroxin-erythrocyte binding is documented, together with an associated decrease in assayed concentrations of thyroxin. However, concomitant serial measurement of thyroxin with polyethylene glycol and combined double-antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassays produced no evidence of interference by erythrocyte proteins in the radioimmune reaction. We conclude that erythrocyte proteins act only as low-affinity secondary binders in radioimmunoassay for thyroxin.

  19. Local defects in the nanostructure of the membrane of erythrocytes upon ionizing radiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, E. K.; Sergunova, V. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Boreyko, A. V.; Zavialova, A. V.; Kozlov, A. P.; Chernysh, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate local topological defects in the erythrocyte membranes resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of blood in vitro. Biological effects in the erythrocytes after exposure to UV radiation at a wavelength of 254 nm are equivalent to those after γ radiation. It has been shown that oxidative processes developing in a suspension upon UV radiation result in the disruption of the nanostructure of the membranes of erythrocytes. In the experiments, typical topological defects in the membrane nanostructure were observed. The parameters of the defects differed from the characteristics of the nanostructure of the control cell membrane without irradiation. The characteristic dimensions of the topological defects are commensurate with the size of the spectrin matrix. As a result of the exposure to the UV radiation, polymorphism of the erythrocytes was observed.

  20. Erythrocyte-Derived Microparticles Supporting Activated Protein C-Mediated Regulation of Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Livaja Koshiar, Ruzica; Somajo, Sofia; Norström, Eva; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived microparticle surface is suitable for the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system, which may be important to balance the initiation and propagation of coagulation in vivo. PMID:25136857

  1. Detection and segmentation of erythrocytes in blood smear images using a line operator and watershed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Khajehpour, Hassan; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri; Taghizad, Hossein; Khajehpour, Esmat; Naeemabadi, Mohammadreza

    2013-07-01

    Most of the erythrocyte related diseases are detectable by hematology images analysis. At the first step of this analysis, segmentation and detection of blood cells are inevitable. In this study, a novel method using a line operator and watershed algorithm is rendered for erythrocyte detection and segmentation in blood smear images, as well as reducing over-segmentation in watershed algorithm that is useful for segmentation of different types of blood cells having partial overlap. This method uses gray scale structure of blood cell, which is obtained by exertion of Euclidian distance transform on binary images. Applying this transform, the gray intensity of cell images gradually reduces from the center of cells to their margins. For detecting this intensity variation structure, a line operator measuring gray level variations along several directional line segments is applied. Line segments have maximum and minimum gray level variations has a special pattern that is applicable for detections of the central regions of cells. Intersection of these regions with the signs which are obtained by calculating of local maxima in the watershed algorithm was applied for cells' centers detection, as well as a reduction in over-segmentation of watershed algorithm. This method creates 1300 sign in segmentation of 1274 erythrocytes available in 25 blood smear images. Accuracy and sensitivity of the proposed method are equal to 95.9% and 97.99%, respectively. The results show the proposed method's capability in detection of erythrocytes in blood smear images. PMID:24672764

  2. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  3. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells. PMID:26554882

  4. Translating plasma and whole blood fatty acid compositional data into the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Stark, Ken D; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Metherel, Adam H; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specific blood levels of eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, wt% of total) in erythrocytes or "the omega-3 index" have been recommended for cardio-protection, but fatty acids are often measured in different blood fractions. The ability to estimate the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from the fatty acid composition of other blood fractions would enable clinical assessments of omega-3 status when erythrocyte fractions are not available and increase the ability to compare blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids across clinical studies. The fatty acid composition of baseline plasma, erythrocytes and whole blood samples from participants (n=1104) in a prospective, multicenter study examining acute coronary syndrome were determined. The ability to predict the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from other blood fractions were examined using bivariate and multiple linear regression modelling. Concordance analysis was also used to compare the actual erythrocytes EPA+DHA values to values estimated from other blood fractions. EPA+DHA in erythrocytes was significantly (p<0.001) correlated EPA+DHA in plasma (r(2)=0.54) and whole blood (r(2)=0.79). Using multiple linear regression to predict EPA+DHA in erythrocytes resulted in stronger coefficients of determination in both plasma (R(2)=0.70) and whole blood (R(2)=0.84). Concordance analyses indicated agreement between actual and estimated EPA+DHA in erythrocytes, although estimating from plasma fatty acids appears to require translation by categorization rather than by translation as continuous data. This study shows that the fatty acid composition of different blood fractions can be used to estimate erythrocyte EPA+DHA in a population with acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26802936

  5. Blood lead and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase levels in Manchester taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Flindt, M L; King, E; Walsh, D B

    1976-05-01

    Among 40 Manchester taxi drivers the mean blood lead was 1.10 mumol/1 (22.8 mug per 100 ml). The mean erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity among 34 of them was 30.1 units. No significant association was found between the blood lead levels and erythrocyte ALAD activity in these 34 men. No significant association was found between either blood lead elvels or erythrocyte ALAD activity and duration of service or weekly mileage as a taxi driver or with drinking or smoking habits, or age. The mean blood lead of those with homes in the north east quadrant of the city was higher than of those living elsewhere but the difference was not statistically significant. Although there was no correlation between blood lead levels and the source of domestic water, the mean blood lead of those with lead domestic plumbing was appreciably higher than the level of those with copper plumbing. There was no indication that, by virtue of their occupation, the taxi drivers were liable to greater lead absorption than their fellow-citizens. PMID:58665

  6. Evaluation of erythrocyte flow at a bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Sakota, Daisuke; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulatory support. In the blood pump, a spiral groove bearing was adopted for a thrust bearing. In the spiral groove bearing, separation of erythrocytes and plasma by plasma skimming has been postulated to occur. However, it is not clarified that plasma skimming occurs in a spiral groove bearing. The purpose of this study is to verify whether plasma skimming occurs in the spiral groove bearing of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. For evaluation of plasma skimming in the spiral groove bearing, an impeller levitation performance test using a laser focus displacement meter and a microscopic visualization test of erythrocyte flow using a high-speed microscope were conducted. Bovine blood diluted with autologous plasma to adjust hematocrit to 1.0% was used as a working fluid. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the spiral groove bearing was estimated using image analysis. As a result, hematocrits on the ridge region with gaps of 45 μm, 31 μm, and 25 μm were calculated as 1.0%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Maximum skimming efficiency in this study was calculated as 70% with a gap of 25 μm. We confirmed that separation of erythrocyte and plasma occurred in the spiral groove bearing with decrease in bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. PMID:26736252

  7. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206

  8. Erythrocyte rheology.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J

    1985-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was formerly measured by its contribution to whole blood viscosity. It is now more commonly measured by filtration of erythrocytes through, or aspiration into, pores of 3-5 microns diameter and by the measurement of shear induced erythrocyte elongation using laser diffractometry. Recent improvements in the technology for erythrocyte filtration have included the removal of acute phase reactants from test erythrocyte suspensions, ultrasonic cleaning and reuse of filter membranes, awareness of the importance of mean cell volume as a determinant of flow through 3 microns diameter pores, and the ability to detect subpopulations of less deformable erythrocytes. Measurements of erythrocyte elongation by laser diffractometry, using the Ektacytometer, are also influenced by cell size and need to be corrected for mean cell volume. These advances have greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of rheological methods for measuring the deformability of erythrocytes and for investigating the mode of action of rheologically active drugs. Images PMID:3900147

  9. Hemolytic activity of crystalline silica--separated erythrocytes versus whole blood.

    PubMed

    Hadnagy, Wolfgang; Marsetz, Barbara; Idel, Helga

    2003-03-01

    Whole blood and 1% erythrocyte suspensions were treated with crystalline silica (quartz DQ12, Min-U-Sil5) at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/ml. Quartz DQ12 and Min-U-Sil5 revealed a strong dose-dependent hemolytic activity in the 1% erythrocyte suspension reaching nearly total hemolysis (> 80%) at the highest tested concentration of 5 mg/ml. This effect may be ascribed to surface reactivity by silanol groups. In contrast, using whole blood cultures the tested silica dusts caused no or only minor hemolytic activity (< 4%). The mechanism by which the hemolytic activity is prevented in whole blood cultures can be attributed to a number of factors such as the presence of metal binding proteins and free radical scavenger, antioxidant mechanisms and to coating of the silica surface by proteins, antibodies and complement. In contrast to separated erythrocytes whole blood represents an independent physiological compartment with functions of host defence and regulatory functions against cell damaging effects produced by oxidative stress. PMID:12708231

  10. Enhanced erythrocytic lipid peroxides and reduced plasma ascorbic acid, and alteration in blood trace elements level in dairy cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Naresh, R; Patra, R C

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated in several inflammatory conditions and incriminated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, little information is available on the status of plasma antioxidant levels, essential components of important antioxidant enzymes such as copper, zinc and selenium in blood, and the end product of oxidative damage to the erythrocytic polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory udder conditions. Blood samples were collected from three groups of dairy cows, with 21 in each group: animals with healthy udder, clinical mastitis, and subclinical mastitis. These animals were randomly selected from a herd on the basis of the California mastitis test, somatic cell count and total bacterial count. The mean plasma ascorbic acid concentration was significantly lower in cows with subclinical (p = 0.004) and clinical mastitis (p = 0.000) and the erythrocytic lipid peroxide levels were significantly (p = 0.000) higher in clinical mastitis as compared to controls. There was a significant decrease in mean blood zinc concentration in subclinical (p = 0.005) and clinical mastitis (p = 0.000), but an increase in mean blood copper level in the clinical mastitis group. It was concluded that the blood antioxidant status declines in inflammatory udder conditions, suggesting that incorporation of antioxidants may help in better management of mastitis in dairy cows. PMID:15727289

  11. Effect of blood storage on erythrocyte/wall interactions: implications for surface charge and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Godin, C; Caprani, A

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode whose charge density ranges from -15 to +27 microC/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode. Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by impedance measurement of the microelectrode. Effects of aging induced by storage of whole blood at 4 degrees C show that the surface charge of erythrocytes rapidly decreases when blood is stored for more than 6 days under our experimental conditions. In comparison with trypsin-treated erythrocytes, an eight day storage induces a 60% decrease in the surface charge of red cells. After two weeks of storage, red cells are no longer negatively charged, presumably because of removal of sialic acid. Cells rigidity is significant after 6 days of storage and influences the electrical contact. Membrane rigidity increase could arise from the surface charge decrease. Finally the surface charge decrease could be importance in the use of stored blood. PMID:9232845

  12. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  13. Erythrocyte Concentrates Recovered from Under-Collected Whole Blood: Experimental and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Min-Hui; Liu, Yan-Chun; Cai, Li; Li, Zheng-Gang; Huang, Bing; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jun; Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although periodic blood shortages are widespread in major Chinese cities, approximately 1x105 U of whole blood are discarded yearly because of under-collection. To reduce the wastage of acid citrate dextrose solution B (ACD-B) anticoagulated under-collected whole blood (UC-WB), this study was performed to elucidate the effect of extracellular pH and holding time on erythrocyte quality. Mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP) erythrocyte concentrates (UC-RBCs) were prepared with UC-WB to assess the safety and efficacy of this component. Methods The effect of the different extracellular pH levels and storage times on erythrocytes was assessed by fluorescent probes, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. In vitro properties of 34 UC-RBCs that were prepared with UC-WB at different times after collection were analyzed and compared to normal RBCs during 35 days of storage. The results of transfusion with UC-RBCs and the incidence of adverse reactions in 49 patients were determined. Results 1) Low extracellular pH levels and long storage time induced increases in RBC fluorescence polarization and mean microviscosity, changes in membrane fluidity, band 1, 2 and 3 protein expression, and erythrocyte morphology. 2) During storage for 35 days, difference in between-subjects effects of K+, hemolysis and supernatant erythrocyte membrane protein (EMP) were statistically significant (P = 0.041, 0.007 and 0.002, respectively), while the differences between these parameters in the 4 h group and comparable controls were less significant. 3) Clinical data from 49 patients confirmed that transfusions with UC-RBCs were satisfactory with no adverse reactions. Conclusion These results suggest that it is feasible to prepare RBCs with ACD-B anticoagulated UC-WB at a minimum of 66% volume of the labeled collection. It was effective and safe to transfuse the UC-RBCs prepared within 4 h after collection and stored within 7 days. The use of UC-WB would be a welcome addition to limited blood resources in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003967 PMID:25706725

  14. Effect of erythrocytes oscillations on dielectric properties of human diabetic-blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.

    2011-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the erythrocytes (RBCs) oscillate during their tank-treading motion with high-frequency oscillations. This oscillatory motion drastically affects the dielectric and electrical properties of RBCs. Moreover, the glucose level in blood affects the electrical and dielectric properties of blood. It has been, also, shown that the frequency of these oscillations exponentially decrease from 1.2 MHz down to 0.85 MHz with variation of glucose level from 85 mg/dL up to 346.1 mg/dL. It is expected that these oscillations strongly affect the general physiological properties of blood and would stimulate the curiosity of scientists and bioengineers to present new, more efficient, rapid, safe and viable diagnostic and/or therapeutic methods for blood disorders; in particular diabetes.

  15. Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

  16. Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli are protected from leukocyte phagocytosis by binding to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Ole-Lars; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Christiansen, Dorte; Fure, Hilde; Castellheim, Albert; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Pharo, Anne; Lindstad, Julie Katrine; Bergseth, Grethe; Leslie, Graham; Lambris, John D.; Brandtzaeg, Petter; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    The initial interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with erythrocytes and its implications on leukocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human whole blood were examined. Alexa-labeled Escherichia coli, wild-type H44/76 Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) and the H44/76lpxA lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant were incubated with whole blood using lepirudin as anticoagulant which has no adverse effects on complement. Bacteria free in plasma, bound to erythrocytes or phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The effects of the C3 inhibitor compstatin, a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRa) and a complement receptor 1 (CR1)-blocking antibody (3D9) were examined. Most bacteria (80%) immediately bound to erythrocytes. The binding gradually declined over time, with a parallel increase in phagocytosis. Complement inhibition with compstatin reduced erythrocyte binding and bacterial C3 opsonization. In contrast, the C5aRa efficiently reduced phagocytosis, but did not affect the binding of bacteria to erythrocytes. The anti-CR1 blocking mAb dose-dependently reduced bacterial binding to erythrocytes to nil, with subsequent increased phagocytosis and oxidative burst. LPS had no effect on these processes since similar results were obtained using an LPS-deficient N. meningitidis mutant. In vivo experiments in a pig model of sepsis showed limited binding of bacteria to erythrocytes, consistent with the facts that erythrocyte CR1 receptors are absent in non-primates and that the bacteria were mainly found in the lungs. In conclusion, complement-dependent binding of Gram-negative bacteria to erythrocyte CR1 decreases phagocytosis and oxidative burst by leukocytes in human whole blood. PMID:21839519

  17. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  18. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM’s captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  19. Regulation of blood flow distribution in skeletal muscle: role of erythrocyte-released ATP

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Mary L; Sprague, Randy S

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate tissue O2 levels in skeletal muscle is vital for normal physiology and requires a well regulated and appropriately distributed convective O2 supply. Inherent in this fundamental physiological process is the requirement for a mechanism which both senses tissue O2 need and locally adjusts flow to appropriately meet that need. Over the past several years we and others have suggested that, in skeletal muscle, O2 carrying erythrocytes participate in the regulation of total blood flow and its distribution by releasing ATP. Importantly, the release of this vasoactive molecule must be both rapid and well controlled if it is to serve an important physiological role. Here we provide insights into three distinct regulated signalling pathways within the erythrocyte that are activated by exposure to reduced O2 tension or in response to binding of agonists to the prostacyclin or β-adrenergic receptors. Although much has been learned about the role of the erythrocyte in perfusion of skeletal muscle, much remains to be understood. However, what is clear is that the long established passive carrier of O2 also contributes to the regulation of the distribution of microvascular perfusion in skeletal muscle by virtue of its capacity to release ATP. PMID:22586223

  20. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  1. The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humans.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

    2014-01-01

    Lead-induced oxidative stress has been identified as the essential factor in lead poisoning pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the association between occupational lead exposure and blood rheological parameters with respect to malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product), lipofuscin, and glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. In brief, 129 workers were classified as the low-exposure group, while the high-exposure group was composed of 154 workers. The mean blood levels of lead and zinc-protoporphyrin and the mean urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid were used as exposure markers. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male administrative workers. Whole blood viscosity was elevated in both exposure subgroups compared with the control group. Erythrocyte aggregability increased significantly; although the increase was greater in the low exposure group. Erythrocyte deformability decreased in both subgroups. The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin were significantly elevated, whereas the glutathione content decreased. In conclusion, occupational exposure to lead may induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes. This stress elevates whole blood viscosity and disturbs erythrocyte aggregability and deformability. There is a dose-effect relationship between lead levels and blood rheological parameters. PMID:23370159

  2. Biodynamic parameters of micellar diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sidorkin, Vladimir A.; Fomin, Alexander S.; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu.; Dykman, Lev A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895

  3. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/μL3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  4. Erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as potential drug vehicles: Isolation by gradual hypotonic hemolysis and biochemical and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Ivana T; Ilić, Vesna Lj; Đorđević, Verica B; Bukara, Katarina M; Mojsilović, Slavko B; Nedović, Viktor A; Bugarski, Diana S; Veljović, Đorđe N; Mišić, Danijela M; Bugarski, Branko M

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of isolation process-gradual hypotonic hemolysis on chosen parameters of the erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) originating from bovine and porcine slaughterhouse blood. The estimation of the gradual hypotonic hemolysis as a drug loading procedure for the erythrocyte ghosts was performed as well. Based on the results derived from analysis of the osmotic properties of the erythrocytes, the gradual hemolysis was performed with high volume of erythrocytes and 35mM hypotonic sodium-phosphate/NaCl, enabling >90% of hemolysis for both types of erythrocytes. Detailed insight into ghosts' morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy revealed a distortion from erythrocyte shape and an altered surface texture with increased bilayer curvature for both samples. Compared to erythrocytes, an average diameter of ghosts from both type of erythrocytes decreased for only about 10%. The reported unidispersity of the isolated ghosts is of great importance for their potential application as vehicles of active compounds. Gradual hemolysis did not lead to substantial loss of cholesterol and membrane/cytoskeleton proteins. This result indicated the ghosts' possibility to mimic the chemical and structural anisotropic environment of in vivo cell membranes, which is of significance for drug diffusion and partition coefficients. Induced shift of phosphatidylserine to external surface of the ghosts demonstrated their potential application as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to cells of reticuloendothelial system. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a drug model - dexamethasone-sodium phosphate, and its interaction with structural components in both types of erythrocyte ghosts. PMID:25051307

  5. Microfluidic-based speckle analysis for sensitive measurement of erythrocyte aggregation: A comparison of four methods for detection of elevated erythrocyte aggregation in diabetic rat blood

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical alterations in the plasma and red blood cell (RBC) membrane of diabetic blood lead to excessive erythrocyte aggregation (EA). EA would significantly impede the blood flow and increase the vascular flow resistance contributing to peripheral vascular diseases. In this study, a simple microfluidic-based method is proposed to achieve sensitive detection of hyperaggregation. When a blood sample is delivered into the device, images of blood flows are obtained with a short exposure time for a relatively long measuring time. A micro-particle image velocimetry technique was employed to monitor variation of the flow rate of blood as a function of time. Given that EA formation in the channel creates clear speckle patterns, the EA extent can be estimated by calculating a speckle area (ASpeckle) through a normalized autocovariance function. The hematocrit effect is assessed by comparing optical images transmitted through blood samples. EA variations caused by dextran treatment are quantitatively evaluated using characteristic time (λSpeckle) obtained by fitting the variations of ASpeckle. Other indices including number of RBCs in an aggregate (NRBC), characteristic time of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (λESR), and aggregation index estimated from ultrasound signals (AIEcho) are determined under different EA conditions using conventional techniques. The four different methods are applied to diabetic blood samples to compare their indices under hyperaggregation conditions. It is found that the proposed method can detect variation of EA reasonably, compared with conventional measurement techniques. These experimental demonstrations support the notion that the proposed method is capable of effectively monitoring the biophysical properties of diabetic blood. PMID:25945136

  6. Effect of Occupational Exposure on Blood Cell Counts, Electrocardiogram and Blood Pressure in Rice Mill Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aithala, Manjunatha; Das, Kusal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems interact to regulate the heart rate of about 70 beats per minute. Activation of sympathetic nervous system by emotional or physical stress increases heart rate and the force of heart beat. There are many factors which alter the heart rate. The chemical and mechanical stimulation of receptors can also cause change in blood pressure through autonomic nervous system. Exposure to dust also causes alteration in blood cell counts. This can be due to allergic reactions and inflammation which in turn evoked by dust entering the lungs. Objectives Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and cardiovascular parameters of rice mill workers by analysing Blood Cell Counts, ECG and Blood Pressure. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried on 134 rice mill workers and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individual. The blood cell counts were determined by automated cell counter machine, ECG was recorded by using ECG machine and Blood Pressure was measured by using mercurial sphygmomanometer. Results Neurtrophil, Eosinophil and Lymphocyte count among haematological parameters were significantly increased in exposed individuals. Marked variation was seen in ECG and Blood pressure among cardiovascular parameters of exposed individuals compared with control group. Conclusion The findings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. It is due to high oxidative stress. There are abnormalities seen in cardiovascular system. PMID:26674852

  7. Erythrocyte-Bound Apolipoprotein B in Relation to Atherosclerosis, Serum Lipids and ABO Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    Klop, Boudewijn; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Bovenberg, Sarah A.; van der Meulen, Noëlle; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Birnie, Erwin; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; van Miltenburg, Addy; Jukema, J. Wouter; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB) are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. Methods Subjects with and without CVD were included (N = 398). Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ≤0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was determined as a measure of (subclinical) atherosclerosis. Results Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80±0.09 mm, N = 140) compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57±0.08 mm, N = 258) (P = 0.007, adjusted P<0.001). CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman’s r: –0.116, P = 0.021). A total of 55 subjects (13.6%) were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04–3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85–2.82). Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56±0.94 a.u.) when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89±1.15 a.u), blood group B (0.73±0.1.12 a.u.) or blood group AB (0.69±0.69 a.u.) (P-ANOVA = 0.002). Conclusion Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant. PMID:24069429

  8. Decreased blood dendritic cell counts in type 1 diabetic children.

    PubMed

    Vuckovic, Slavica; Withers, Geoff; Harris, Mark; Khalil, Dalia; Gardiner, Damien; Flesch, Inge; Tepes, Sonia; Greer, Ristan; Cowley, David; Cotterill, Andrew; Hart, Derek N J

    2007-06-01

    In this study DC numbers, phenotype and DC responses to the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 ligand, poly I:C, were examined in new-onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (ND) and in established T1D patients (ED). Absolute blood myeloid DC (MDC) and plasmacytoid DC (PDC) numbers were decreased in ND and ED patients compared to age-matched controls. The decrease in MDC and PDC counts was less evident in patients with a combination of T1D and coeliac disease (CD) or CD alone. The age-dependent decline in blood DC numbers, found in control children, was not evident in ND patients, such that 2-10 years old ND children had similar MDC and PDC numbers to 15-17 years old controls. In ED patients the t-score of MDC and PDC numbers related to the age of diagnosis but not to disease duration. Blood DC in T1D patients were not distinguished from those of controls by the levels of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 expression or the percentage of DC expressing cytokines, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, in responses to poly I:C. If low DC numbers are shown to contribute to the autoimmunity in T1D, interventions aimed to increase DC numbers may mitigate against beta-cell loss. PMID:17462956

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Novel In-Clinic Automated Hematology Analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for Canine Erythrocyte Indices, Leukogram, Platelet Counts and Reticulocyte Counts

    PubMed Central

    FUJINO, Yasuhito; NAKAMURA, Yoichi; MATSUMOTO, Hideaki; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

  10. Cisplatin combined with hyperthermia kills HepG2 cells in intraoperative blood salvage but preserves the function of erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-ting; Tang, Li-hui; Liu, Yun-qing; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-ju; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    The safe use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery remains controversial. Here, we investigated the killing effect of cisplatin combined with hyperthermia on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and erythrocytes from IBS in vitro. HepG2 cells were mixed with concentrated erythrocytes and pretreated with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) alone at 37 °C for 60 min and cisplatin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia at 42 °C for 60 min. After pretreatment, the cell viability, colony formation and DNA metabolism in HepG2 and the Na+-K+-ATPase activity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, free hemoglobin (Hb) level, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, and blood gas variables in erythrocytes were determined. Pretreatment with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability, and completely inhibited colony formation and DNA metabolism when the HepG2 cell concentration was 5×104 ml−1 in the erythrocyte (P<0.01). Erythrocytic Na+-K+-ATPase activity, 2,3-DPG level, phosphatidylserine externalization, and extra-erythrocytic free Hb were significantly altered by hyperthermia plus high concentrations of cisplatin (100 and 200 μg/ml) (P<0.05), but not by hyperthermia plus 50 μg/ml cisplatin (P>0.05). In conclusion, pretreatment with cisplatin (50 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min effectively eliminated HepG2 cells from IBS but did not significantly affect erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:25990057

  11. Cisplatin combined with hyperthermia kills HepG2 cells in intraoperative blood salvage but preserves the function of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ting; Tang, Li-hui; Liu, Yun-qing; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-ju; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    The safe use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery remains controversial. Here, we investigated the killing effect of cisplatin combined with hyperthermia on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and erythrocytes from IBS in vitro. HepG2 cells were mixed with concentrated erythrocytes and pretreated with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) alone at 37 °C for 60 min and cisplatin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia at 42 °C for 60 min. After pretreatment, the cell viability, colony formation and DNA metabolism in HepG2 and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, free hemoglobin (Hb) level, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, and blood gas variables in erythrocytes were determined. Pretreatment with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability, and completely inhibited colony formation and DNA metabolism when the HepG2 cell concentration was 5×10(4) ml(-1) in the erythrocyte (P<0.01). Erythrocytic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-DPG level, phosphatidylserine externalization, and extra-erythrocytic free Hb were significantly altered by hyperthermia plus high concentrations of cisplatin (100 and 200 μg/ml) (P<0.05), but not by hyperthermia plus 50 μg/ml cisplatin (P>0.05). In conclusion, pretreatment with cisplatin (50 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min effectively eliminated HepG2 cells from IBS but did not significantly affect erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:25990057

  12. Spectral dependence of resolving power of optical method of detection of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of human blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Dvoretski, K. N.; Dolmashkin, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    The spectral dependence of the resolving power of an acoustooptic method of monitoring agglutination of human blood erythrocytes is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, in principle, the resolving power of this method can be increased by several dozen times. The results of the work can be used to create instruments for determining the human blood type in the AB0 system and in the Rhesus system.

  13. Lipid composition of blood platelets and erythrocytes of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) and antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella).

    PubMed

    Fayolle, C; Leray, C; Ohlmann, P; Gutbier, G; Cazenave, J P; Gachet, C; Groscolas, R

    2000-05-01

    Erythrocyte and blood platelet phospholipid compositions were studied in three elephant seals and two fur seals, two species of marine mammals living in the Subantarctic region feeding on preys rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results were compared with those reported for related species and humans. In erythrocytes, the phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CHOL) contents were lower in pinnipeds than in humans. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels were higher in elephant seals than in fur seals, with a reverse trend for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Both species had lower SM/PC ratios and PE plasmalogen concentrations than human. Erythrocytes were richer in (n-3) fatty acids (FA) in pinnipeds than in humans. In platelets, the PL content was lower and the CHOL content higher in elephant seals than in humans or in other phocid seal species studied to date. The SM/PC ratio was much higher than in other seal species or in man. In both species, the proportion of PE plasmalogens was higher in platelets than in erythrocytes. PL were more saturated in elephant seals than in fur seals. These results suggest that the erythrocytes and platelets of wild marine mammals may prove useful models to study the influence of dietary lipids on the structure and hemostatic function of these cells. PMID:10825663

  14. Flow cytometry analysis using sysmex UF-1000i classifies uropathogens based on bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens among patients with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Tor; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/μl), leukocyte (median, 348/μl), and erythrocyte (median, 23/μl) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  15. Flow Cytometry Analysis Using Sysmex UF-1000i Classifies Uropathogens Based on Bacterial, Leukocyte, and Erythrocyte Counts in Urine Specimens among Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rydén, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/μl), leukocyte (median, 348/μl), and erythrocyte (median, 23/μl) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  16. Interactions of dendritic glycopolymer with erythrocytes, red blood cell ghosts and membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Maly, Jan

    2015-12-30

    Interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s (95% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI A; 33% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI B) and red blood cells (RBCs) and between red blood cell membranes were investigated. We monitored the degree of hemolysis, the change in cell shape, the influence of polymers on the fluidity of the cell membrane and some cell membrane enzymes to determine their possible cytotoxic impact on them. To observe the extent of hemolysis, the RBCs were incubated with different concentrations of Mal-PEIs. The first significant lysis of RBCs was observed after 6h of incubation. Prolongation of the incubation time increased the number of ruptured cells. Moreover, we observed that Mal-PEI B was more hemolytic than Mal-PEI A in buffer solution. In contrast, an incubation of RBCs with Mal-PEIs in human plasma significantly decreased the hemolytic process and showed higher hemolytic property of Mal-PEI A compared to Mal-PEI B. Also several changes in the shape of the RBCs occurred after incubation with Mal-PEIs. Some of the erythrocytes shrank (echinocytes), but their morphology generally remained unchanged during the incubation. As shown by fluorescence experiments, both polymers induced the increase of fluidity of RBCs membranes. In summary, both types of hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s were practically non-hemolytic even at high polymer concentrations. Mal-PEI B was slightly more noxious than the Mal-PEI A in a buffer solution, while in blood plasma, the situation was opposite. Decrease of Na+/K+ ATPase and total ATPase enzymes activity was related with molecule size and number of maltose groups on the surface of molecule. The low hemolytic properties only observed at higher concentration (100μM and 400μM) indicated that Mal-PEIs are promising macromolecules in the area of drug delivery systems. PMID:26498371

  17. Preliminary Discussion On The Three Dimensional Space Quantitative Analysis Of Erythrocytes By SEMP And Some Applications On The Clinic And Research Of Blood Disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian-Huang, Lu; Wen-Meng, Tong; Zhi-Jun, Zhang; Gui-Huan, He; Su-Hui, Huan

    1989-04-01

    The abnormity of the quality and quantity for erythrocytes is one of the important changes of blood disease. It shows the abnormal blood-making function of human body. Therefore, the study of the change of shape of erythrocytes is the indispensible and important basis of reference in the clinic, diagnose and research of blood disease. In this paper, a preliminary discussion is made on the acquisition of scanning stereographs for erythrocytes, the application of the theory of photographic measurement on the three dimensional space quantitative analysis of erythrocytes, drawings of isoline map and section map of various erythrocytes for normal persons, paroxysmal nocturanal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and aplastic anemia patients, study of the shape characteristics of normal erythrocytes and various abnormal erytnrocytes and the applications in clinic, diagnose and research. This research is a combination of microphotogrammetry and erythrocyte morphology. It is polssible to push fotward the study of erythrocyte morphology from LM, SEM to a higher stage of scanning electron micrographic photogrammetry(SEMP) for stereograpic observationand three diamensional quantitative analysis to explore a new path for the further study of the shape of erthrocytes.

  18. The effects of hypocalcaemia due to a 4-hour infusion of Na2EDTA solution on various blood and urine analytes in dairy cows and a comparison of these effects between cows with high and low erythrocyte potassium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, D C; Daniel, R C

    1992-01-01

    Six HK (high erythrocyte potassium) and 7 LK (low erythrocyte potassium) dairy cows were subjected to a 4-h intravenous infusion of 4.7% Na2EDTA solution to induce and maintain hypocalcaemia. Blood samples taken immediately before infusion, hourly for 7 h, and at 24 h after commencement of infusion were subjected to determination of concentration (or count) of 16 analytes. The mean changes in concentrations (or counts) of the various blood analytes were calculated for the periods 0-4, 4-7, 7-24, and 0-24 h after commencement of the infusion for all cows combined, and then separately for the HK and LK groups of cows. Plasma Ca(PCa), plasma inorganic phosphorus (PiP) and plasma potassium (PK) showed significant decreases during the 4-h infusion period and were still below pretreatment levels 24 h later. AST, CPK, PCVs and white cell-counts (WCCs) showed significant early increases which were still significantly elevated 24 h later. Plasma magnesium (PMg) and erythrocyte Na(ENa) and K(EK) all showed delayed changes which still persisted 24 h later. Significant between-group differences were present for PCVs which increased significantly more in the LK than the HK group during the infusion period, for PCa which showed a greater increase in the HK cows than the LK cows during the 4-7 h early clinical recovery period, and for plasma bilirubin (PBil) which showed a greater increase from 0 to 24 h in the HK group than in the LK group. Urine samples, collected before infusion, 4-7 h and 24 h after commencement of the infusion, were subjected to analysis for glucose, protein, pH, 'blood' and ketones. Most cows showed increases in urinary glucose, protein and 'blood'. PMID:1498642

  19. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID:26555819

  20. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID:26555819

  1. Whole blood lead concentration and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in selected canine populations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Kontos, V S; Koutinas, A F; Papasteriades, A

    1994-12-01

    In a total number of 275 dogs of various ages, sex and breed, blood lead concentrations (BLC) and erythrocyte ALAD activity were measured. Sixty-six of the dogs were living in lead mining areas (Group A), 157 in urban areas (Group B) and 52 in rural areas (Group C) of Greece. Mean BLC differed significantly (P < 0.05) between locations and were 326,97 and 68 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean ALAD activity was significantly different (P < 0.05) only between Groups A and B as between groups A and C. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation existed between BLC and ALAD activity. A normal range of erythrocyte ALAD activity of 807-992 mumol/PBG/LRBC/h was established for dogs. None of the 33 Group A dogs and 2 of the Group B dogs that had a BLC of 350 micrograms/L presented clinical signs indicating acute or chronic lead intoxication. No erythrocyte basophilic stippling or large number of nucleated red blood cells were seen in the 30 dogs of Group A with BLC > 350 micrograms/L. PMID:7599513

  2. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  3. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood compartments under basal conditions and during hyperemia. PMID:20542745

  4. The effect of osmotic swelling and hemolysis of erythrocytes on the transmission spectra of radiation by a layer of diluted blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, E. K.; Davydovskii, A. G.

    2010-08-01

    We study how the degree of violation of osmotic equilibrium affects the spectral characteristics of radiation scattered by erythrocyte suspensions in media of various osmolarity. The transmission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 450-860 nm for blood samples diluted with NaCl water solutions of various concentration. From an analysis of numerical simulation results and experimental data, we show that measuring the light scattering characteristics constitutes the basis of a new optical method for determining erythrocyte osmotic resistance. The method excludes the necessity of strong action on erythrocytes, differs in its simplicity and expressivity, and can be implemented using standard spectrometers.

  5. Erythrocyte deformability in workers exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, S; Matsumura, S; Fukumoto, K; Karai, I; Endo, G; Teramoto, K; Shinagawa, K; Kiyota, I; Wakitani, F; Takise, S

    1991-11-01

    Erythrocyte deformability and other hematological indicators were determined in 17 male workers exposed to lead at a secondary lead refinery and 13 controls. Blood lead, urine lead, urine coproporphyrin, delta-aminolevulinic acid and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin were determined to evaluate the degree of lead exposure in the lead workers above. For the measurement of erythrocyte deformability, the microfilter method was used. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The mean values of blood lead, urine lead, urine coproporphyrin, urine delta-aminolevulinic acid and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers were 53.5 micrograms/100g, 141.4 micrograms/l, 115.9 micrograms/l, 12.0 mg/l and 68.9 micrograms/dl respectively, suggesting a moderate influence of lead exposure. 2. The mean values of erythrocyte count, hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly lower in lead workers than those in controls. No significant differences were found in the mean values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and corpuscular natrium and potassium between lead workers and controls. 3. Erythrocyte deformability was significantly reduced in lead workers compared with controls. PMID:1792066

  6. Blood pressure, hematologic and erythrocyte fragility changes in children suffering from sickle cell anemia following ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jaja, S I; Ikotun, A R; Gbenebitse, S; Temiye, E O

    2002-12-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation (100 mg/day for 6 weeks) on blood pressure, packed cell volume, irreversibly sickled cells, per cent fetal hemoglobin, hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility was assessed in children suffering from sickle cell anemia. Fifteen children whose ages ranged from 4 to 11 years (7.5 +/- 0.75 years) were studied. Ascorbic acid supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure by 10.9 +/- 3.4 mmHg (p < 0.01), diastolic blood pressure by 7.3 +/- 2.0 mmHg (p < 0.01) and mean arterial pressure by 9.4 +/- 2.6 mmHg (p < 0.01). It significantly increased packed cell volume (p < 0.001), hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001) and per cent fetal hemoglobin (p < 0.001), but reduced per cent irreversibly sickled cells (p < 0.001). Ascorbic acid supplementation also abolished the long tail of the erythrocyte osmotic fragiligram and increased the resistance of the cells to lysis. PMID:12521281

  7. [Fatty acid composition of the lipids in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes during simulation of extravehicular activities of cosmonauts].

    PubMed

    Skedina, M A; Katuntsev, V P; Buravkova, L B; Na?dina, V P

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of the lipoacidic content of total plasma lipids and erythtocyte membranes was studied in 32 experiments with ten apparently healthy male subjects aged 27 to 41 years who were exposed to repeated decompression from the normal ground down to 40-35 kPa. For two hours of exposure to lowered pressure the subjects were breathing pure oxygen in mask and performing incremental physical work mimicking loading of the upper extremities of cosmonauts doing extravehicular activities (EVA) at the energy cost of 3 kcal/min. Decompression sessions were repeated with intervals from 3 to 5 days. In seven experiments, the subjects developed symptoms of the decompression sickness (DCS). Penetration of gas bubbles (GB) into the pulmonary artery was registered in 27 cases (84.4%). In 24 cases maximal intensity of the US signals from GB reached 3 to 4 Spencer's points. No changes in the lipidoacidic content of blood plasma or erythrocyte membranes were determined following the first exposure to decompression. BY the onset of repeated decompression, total number of lipids in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 to 40.4 mg% in the group of subjects who had not displayed DCS symptoms (n = 5) and from 51.2 to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) in the group of subjects with DCS symptoms (n = 5). In the subjects with DCS, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2) tended to decrease against the upward trend of saturated fatty acids (16:0, 18:0). In these subjects, arachidonic acid in erythrocyte membranes (20:4) decreased following each decompression exposure and significantly increased (p < 0.05) in-between. In both groups, blood plasma showed slight fluctuations in the lipoacidic contents. These data suggest that exposure to the variety of the EVA-simulating factors may entail quite distinct but reversible modifications in the lipid metabolism in blood and the structural/functional state of erythrocyte membranes. The most marked alterations were observed in the subjects with the DCS symptoms during high intensity of US signals from GB in the venous blood flow. PMID:9883330

  8. Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane lesion is a serious diabetic complication. A number of studies suggested that n-3 fatty acid could reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate ?- or ?-tocopherol contents in membrane of erythrocytes. However, evidence regarding the protective effects of flaxseed oil, a natural product rich in n-3 fatty acid, on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity and membrane deformation of erythrocytes exposed to high glucose is limited. Methods Human peripheral blood erythrocytes were isolated and treated with 50?mM glucose to mimic hyperglycemia in the absence or presence of three different doses of flaxseed oil (50, 100 or 200??M) in the culture medium for 24?h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and L-glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC and LC/MS respectively. The phospholipids symmetry and membrane fatty acid composition of human erythrocytes were detected by flow cytometry and gas chromatograph (GC). The morphology of human erythrocyte was illuminated by ultra scanning electron microscopy. Results Flaxseed oil attenuated hyperglycemia-induced increase of MDA and decrease of GSH in human erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes treated with flaxseed oil contained higher C22:5 and C22:6 than those in the 50?mM glucose control group, indicating that flaxseed oil could reduce lipid asymmetric distribution and membrane perturbation. The ultra scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometer have also indicated that flaxseed oil could protect the membrane of human erythrocytes from deformation at high glucose level. Conclusion The flaxseed oil supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia. PMID:22768971

  9. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.

    1978-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high (6-8 ppm) and moderate (1.5 ppm) amounts of ozone (O3) for various time periods. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone was monitored with red blood cell potassium (rubidium) influx studies, with storage stress combined with ultrastructural studies and with levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Erythrocytes of rats exposed to O3 showed no significant changes either in their potassium influx or in their glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to controls. Erythrocyte differential counts on O3-exposed animals showed significant changes initially as well as following storage stress compared to controls. Rats exposed to 8 ppm O3 for 4 h showed a marked increase in echinocytes. These consistent transformations from discocytes to echinocytes following O3 exposure suggest latent erythrocyte damage has occurred.

  10. Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in Pregnancies with Idiopathic Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Kaveh, Mahbod; Nemati, Somayeh; Javadian, Pouya; Salmanian, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR. Materials and methods Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups. Results NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001). pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusion Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention. PMID:24971139

  11. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  12. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R

    2015-12-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging ("epigenetic clock") to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1x10-3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0x10-9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4x10-6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6x10-5 in Caucasians, p=4.5x10-5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  13. Oxidative stress-dependent oligomeric status of erythrocyte peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) during storage under standard blood banking conditions.

    PubMed

    Rinalducci, Sara; D'Amici, Gian Maria; Blasi, Barbara; Zolla, Lello

    2011-05-01

    Although biochemical properties of 2-Cys peroxiredoxins have been extensively studied in various cell lines and organisms, redox-induced structural transitions of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) in human erythrocytes certainly warrant further investigation. In this work, cytosol and membrane ghosts of both fresh erythrocytes (cells obtained just after blood collection) and 28-day stored erythrocytes were analyzed by proteomics tools. We demonstrated that in fresh red blood cells PrxII exhibits four different oligomeric states in cytosol, whereas no PrxII complexes are in the membrane. The highest molecular weight PrxII protein complex (440 kDa) was proven to derive from the association between tetrameric catalase (CAT, 232 kDa) and decameric PrxII, whereas oligomers at 140, 100 and 67 kDa resulted to be homo-polymeric complexes composed of variable copies of PrxII monomeric subunits. Interestingly, the 440 kDa complex contained both reduced and oxidized (disulphide-linked dimers) PrxII decamers. Upon oxidative stress (28-day storage), the PrxII oligomers at 100 kDa in the cytosol disappeared and the CAT-PrxII hetero-oligomeric complex at 440 kDa is converted to a higher molecular weight structure (480 kDa) due to the presence therein of cross-linked species of PrxII and hemoglobin. More interestingly, oxidized red cell membranes contained the CAT-PrxII complex detected in 0-day cytosol as a consequence of protein recruitments induced by oxidative stress, however it showed a greater percentage of PrxII dimers. Finally, since the adoption of distinct PrxII structures is known to be closely related to different functions, peroxidase activity assays were performed demonstrating a positive reaction for oligomers at 440 kDa (both in cytosol and membrane compartment) and at 140 kDa. Our results contribute to clarify structural and functional switching of peroxiredoxin II in erythrocytes, thus possibly opening new scenarios in the biological roles played by this protein in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, especially with the reference to red cell storage lesions. PMID:21354257

  14. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC = 0.691; AUC = 0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC = 0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity. PMID:24758172

  15. Macroscopic changes seen in human erythrocytes heated in a suspension and the resulting effect on their blood group activity.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Tanaka, N; Fukui, H; Nakaya, T; Nagano, T

    1989-08-01

    Changes in the macroscopic appearance and in the activity of various erythrocyte antigens were observed by heating human erythrocytes of known blood groups at 60-260 degrees C for 15, 30, and 60 min in a suspension that was sealed in an airtight test tube. While the erythrocytes underwent severe hemolysis after heating at 60 degrees C, this phenomenon was not macroscopically observed on heating at 80 and 100 degrees C and the cellular sludge in the tested became brown in color. With further temperature increases, the supernatant became pale yellow at 120-140 degrees C, brown at 160 degrees C and dark brown at 180 degrees C and above, whereas the sediment hardened and became darker in tone. Both A and B activity in the cellular sludge remained active until a 30-min heating at 240 degrees C, as did the O(H) activity until a 15-min heating at 220 degrees C. Both Lewis type activity was detected until a 30-min heating at 200 degrees C and a 15-min heating at 220 degrees C. The P1 activity remained specific after a 30-min heating at 180 degrees C and false-positive reactions were observed after 60 min at 180 degrees C. Among the Rh antigen activity, D activity remained until a 60-min heating at 140 degrees C, C and E until a 30-min heating at 140 degrees C, c until a 15-min heating at 140 degrees C and e until a 30-min heating at 100 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2585817

  16. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  17. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  18. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  19. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  20. A switch in infected erythrocyte deformability at the maturation and blood circulation of Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages

    PubMed Central

    Tibúrcio, Marta; Niang, Makhtar; Deplaine, Guillaume; Perrot, Sylvie; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Silvestrini, Francesco; Khattab, Ayman; Milon, Geneviève; David, Peter H.; Hardeman, Max; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Preiser, Peter R.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Buffet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Achievement of malaria elimination requires development of novel strategies interfering with parasite transmission, including targeting the parasite sexual stages (gametocytes). The formation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the human host takes several days during which immature gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIEs) sequester in host tissues. Only mature stage GIEs circulate in the peripheral blood, available to uptake by the Anopheles vector. Mechanisms underlying GIE sequestration and release in circulation are virtually unknown. We show here that mature GIEs are more deformable than immature stages using ektacytometry and microsphiltration methods, and that a switch in cellular deformability in the transition from immature to mature gametocytes is accompanied by the deassociation of parasite-derived STEVOR proteins from the infected erythrocyte membrane. We hypothesize that mechanical retention contributes to sequestration of immature GIEs and that regained deformability of mature gametocytes is associated with their release in the bloodstream and ability to circulate. These processes are proposed to play a key role in P falciparum gametocyte development in the host and to represent novel and unconventional targets for interfering with parasite transmission. PMID:22517905

  1. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  2. The Positive Association between Peripheral Blood Cell Counts and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwa Young; Park, In Young; Choi, Jin Man; Kim, Min; Jang, Ho Jin; Hwang, Se-Min

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Accumulating evidence has shown a close connection between hematopoiesis and bone formation. Our aim was to evaluate the association between peripheral blood cell counts and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods Three hundreds thirty eight healthy postmenopausal women who underwent BMD measurement during their health check-up were investigated. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray asorptiometry at L1-L4 spine, femoral neck and total proximal femur. BMD was expressed as a T-score: among T-scores obtained from three different sites (L1-L4 spine, femoral neck and total proximal femur), the lowest T-score was considered to be the subject's T-score. Results The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis diagnosed by T-score in the study participants were 49.4% (167/338) and 5.0% (17/338), respectively. Peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts had significant positive correlations with T-scores (p<0.001) upon simple linear regression analysis. A multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling of confounders including age, body weight, systolic blood pressure, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine, showed that WBC (β=0.127; standard error=0.043; p=0.014), RBC (β=0.192; standard error=0.139; p<0.001) and platelet (β=0.097; standard error=0.001; p=0.050) counts still had significant positive association with T-scores. Conclusion The study results showed a positive relationship between blood cell counts and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, supporting the idea of a close connection between hematopoiesis and bone formation. The study results also suggest that blood cell counts could be a putative marker for estimating BMD in postmenopausal women. PMID:21786437

  3. Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Westman, Julia S; Benktander, John; Storry, Jill R; Peyrard, Thierry; Hult, Annika K; Hellberg, sa; Teneberg, Susann; Olsson, Martin L

    2015-07-24

    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/P(k)-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosyl-ceramide 3-?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAc?3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1 (k) phenotype and whose pretransfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry were used to show that the naturally occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognize x2 and sialylated forms of x2, whereas x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase, neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1 (k) or P2 (k) erythrocyte units are preferentially selected for transfusion to P(k) patients because p erythrocytes may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels. PMID:26055721

  4. Genetic influences on peripheral blood cell counts: a study in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Mahaney, Michael C.; Brugnara, Carlo; Lease, Loren R.; Platt, Orah S.

    2005-01-01

    Interperson differences in peripheral blood cell counts in healthy individuals result from genetic and environmental influences. We used multivariate genetic analyses to assess the relative impact of genes and environment on baseline blood cell counts and indices using a pedigreed colony of baboons, an animal with well-documented analogies to human blood physiology. After accounting for age, sex, and weight, we found that genetic influences explain a significant proportion of the remaining variability, ranging from a low of 13.7% for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) to a high of 72.4% for red blood cell (RBC) number. Genes influence 38.5% of the variation in baseline white blood cell (WBC) count, a characteristic that correlates with mortality in both the general human population and clinically defined subgroups such as individuals with sickle-cell disease. We examined the interaction between pairs of traits and identified those that share common genetic influences (pleiotropy). We unexpectedly observed that the same gene or group of genes influences both WBC count and mean platelet volume (MPV). We anticipate that this approach will ultimately lead to discovery of novel insights into the biology of related traits, and ultimately identify important genes that affect hematopoiesis. PMID:15870178

  5. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  6. A comparison of 2 white blood cell count devices to aid judicious antibiotic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Casey, Janet R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2009-04-01

    A low or normal white blood cell (WBC) count is usually associated with viral illnesses. This study evaluated the reliability of a new point-of-care, inexpensive, WBC count device which requires only 10 microL (1 drop) of whole blood from a finger stick to an automated Cell-Dyn counter in a busy office practice setting and assessed its reliability to assist in avoiding antibiotic prescribing. A total of 120 acutely ill children and potential antibiotic recipients were studied from October 2007 to March 2008. The mean WBC count was 7.4x10(9)/L and 8.1x10( 9)/L for the new WBC device and the automated Cell-Dyn counter, respectively. The correlation between the 2 devices was high (r=.988, P=.005). A total of 88 children (73%) did not receive antibiotics and mean WBC was 7.2x10(9)/L. In all, 32 children (27%) received an antibiotic and 1 (3%) returned for a follow-up office visit for the same or a related illness. Of the 88 children with a low blood count who did not receive an antibiotic, 3 (3%) had return visit within 30 days and received an antibiotic. A simple and quick point-of-care WBC count device produces similar results as achievable with a Cell-Dyn counter for total WBCs and may assist in judicious antibiotic prescribing. PMID:19050231

  7. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    PubMed

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology. PMID:20640439

  8. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³⁷Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors. PMID:24064533

  9. Evaluation of blood platelet count and function in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Akdemir, F; Okulu, E; Ener, K; Ozayar, A; Gudeloglu, A

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated and compared blood total platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) values of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and control subjects. A total 57 male patients (mean age 49.7 ± 12 years) with ED and 59 control men (mean age 49.7 ± 10.7 years) were included in the study. All patients were evaluated using medical history with International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, physical examination and routine blood analysis. Total blood count, including white blood cell (WBC), total platelet counts, MPV and PDW parameters, were recorded in both groups. MPV values were detected to be significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 10.7 ± 1 and 9.72 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.001). Similarly, PDW values were significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 14.6 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 1.9, respectively (P = 0.001). However, mean platelet and mean WBC counts were similar in both groups (P = 0.45). We demonstrated that MPV and PDW values significantly increased in patients with ED compared with the control group. According to these findings, platelet function might play an important role in patients with ED that warrants further research. PMID:25923175

  10. The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed. PMID:25562022

  11. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S.; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M. S. E.; Ackermann, Teresa F.; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk−/−) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk+/+). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk−/− and msk+/+ mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk−/− mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk−/− and msk+/+ erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk−/− erythrocytes than in msk+/+ erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk−/− erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk−/− mice. The spleens from msk−/− mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk+/+ mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  12. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ackermann, Teresa F; Fller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P; Arthur, J Simon C; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk(+/+)). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk(-/-) mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk(-/-) erythrocytes than in msk(+/+) erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk(-/-) erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk(-/-) mice. The spleens from msk(-/-) mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk(+/+) mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  13. Parathyroid hormone ablation alters erythrocyte parameters that are rescued by calcium-sensing receptor gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jose R; Youte, Rodeler; Brown, Edward M; Pollak, Martin R; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Pong, Lie-Chin; Chien, Lawrence; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Rivera, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) produces anemia are unclear. Parathyroid hormone secretion is regulated by the extracellular Ca2+ -sensing receptor. We investigated the effects of ablating PTH on hematological indices and erythrocytes volume regulation in wild-type, PTH-null, and Ca2+ -sensing receptor-null/PTH-null mice. The erythrocyte parameters were measured in whole mouse blood, and volume regulatory systems were determined by plasma membrane K+ fluxes, and osmotic fragility was measured by hemoglobin determination at varying osmolarities. We observed that the absence of PTH significantly increases mean erythrocyte volume and reticulocyte counts, while decreasing erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These changes were accompanied by increases in erythrocyte cation content, a denser cell population, and increased K+ permeability, which were in part mediated by activation of the K+ /Cl- cotransporter and Gardos channel. In addition we observed that erythrocyte osmotic fragility in PTH-null compared with wild-type mice was enhanced. When Ca2+ -sensing receptor gene was deleted on the background of PTH-null mice, we observed that several of the alterations in erythrocyte parameters of PTH-null mice were largely rescued, particularly those related to erythrocyte volume, K+ fluxes and osmotic fragility, and became similar to those observed in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ -sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone are functionally coupled to maintain erythrocyte homeostasis. PMID:23528155

  14. Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

    2005-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

  15. Endurance training alters basal erythrocyte MCT-1 contents and affects the lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells in T2DM men following maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Opitz, David; Lenzen, Edward; Opiolka, Andreas; Redmann, Melanie; Hellmich, Martin; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Chronic elevated lactate levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, lactacidosis plays a role in limiting physical performance. Erythrocytes, which take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins, may help transport lactate within the blood from lactate-producing to lactate-consuming organs. This study investigates whether cycling endurance training (3 times/week for 3 months) alters the basal erythrocyte content of MCT-1, and whether it affects lactate distribution kinetics in the blood of T2DM men (n = 10, years = 61 ± 9, body mass index = 31 ± 3 kg/m(2)) following maximal exercise (WHO step-incremental cycle ergometer test). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that basal erythrocyte contents of MCT-1 protein were up-regulated (+90%, P = 0.011) post-training. Erythrocyte and plasma lactate increased from before acute exercise (= resting values) to physical exhaustion pre- as well as post-training (pre-training: +309%, P = 0.004; +360%, P < 0.001; post-training: +318%, P = 0.008; +300%, P < 0.001), and did not significantly decrease during 5 min recovery. The lactate ratio (erythrocytes:plasma) remained unchanged after acute exercise pre-training, but was significantly increased after 5 min recovery post-training (compared with the resting value) (+22%, P = 0.022). The results suggest an increased time-delayed influx of lactate into erythrocytes following an acute bout of exercise in endurance-trained diabetic men. PMID:25844530

  16. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  17. Brain, blood, and iron: Perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C.M.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J.; Verhaag, Esther M.; Jan J, Vonk; Margolis, Russell L.; Walker, Ruth H.

    2012-01-01

    The terms “neuroacanthocytosis” (NA) and “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation” (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

  18. Erythrocyte rheology in acute cerebral thrombosis. Effects of ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D A; Ghitescu, M; Marcu, I; Xenakis, A

    1979-11-01

    Within a few hours after a cerebral thrombosis in 220 patients, the flow-properties of the red blood cells (RBC) were analyzed by a filtration test that expresses quantitatively the deformability and aggregability of the RBC by the filtration indexes pT. Abnormal deformability of the RBC washed clean of plasma was found in 27.5% of the patients. Aggregability disorders, caused by the plasma trapped between the unwashed RBC, were found in 78.6% of the patients: computation of correlation coefficients between pT indexes and fibrinogen, which was found abnormally high in 88.2% of cases, demonstrated significantly that in the patients with A and B blood groups these aggregability disorders were due to fibrinogen and that they were caused by other components of plasma in patients with O and AB blood groups. All these disorders can account for blood hyperviscosity. PMID:508955

  19. Concise Review: Stem Cell-Derived Erythrocytes as Upcoming Players in Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeuner, Ann; Martelli, Fabrizio; Vaglio, Stefania; Federici, Giulia; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements. PMID:22644674

  20. Daily trends in white blood cell count and temperature after subarachnoid hemorrhage from aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Weir, B; Disney, L; Grace, M; Roberts, P

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of the cases of 173 patients operated on for aneurysms and admitted to a neurosurgical service early after subarachnoid hemorrhage was conducted with respect to white blood cell (WBC) count and highest daily temperature. Daily trends for the development of clinically significant vasospasm (VSP) as well as mortality during the hospitalization were analyzed. An admission WBC count greater than 15 x 10(9)/l was associated with 55% mortality as opposed to 25% mortality for those with a lower WBC count. The mortality of those with a temperature greater than 37.5 degrees C on Day 0 was 60%, compared with 35% for those with a lower temperature. A WBC count greater than 15 x 10(9)/l on Day 0 was associated with a VSP rate of 40%; a lower WBC count was associated with a VSP rate of 30% Day 0 temperatures greater than 37.5 degrees C were associated with a VSP rate of 40%, while patients with lower temperature had a VSP rate of 30%. By Day 6, the patients with temperatures greater than 37.5 degrees C had a VSP rate of 60%, double that of the VSP rate of those with temperatures less than 37.5 degrees C. WBC count was apparently more closely linked to the chance of dying than the chance of developing VSP. The development of fever after a few days is related to both increased mortality and increased chance of developing VSP. PMID:2770982

  1. Differences in Rat and Human Erythrocytes Following Blood Component Manufacturing: The Effect of Additive Solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SilveiraCavalcante, Luciana; Acker, Jason P.; Holovati, Jelena L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small animal models have been previously used in transfusion medicine studies to evaluate the safety of blood transfusion products. Although there are multiple studies on the effects of blood banking practices on human red blood cells (RBCs), little is known about the effect of blood component manufacturing on the quality of rat RBCs. Methods Blood from Sprague-Dawley rats and human volunteers (n = 6) was collected in CPD anticoagulant, resuspended in SAGM or AS3, and leukoreduced. In vitro quality was analyzed, including deformability, aggregation, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, percent hemolysis, ATP, 2,3-DPG, osmotic fragility, and potassium concentrations. Results Compared to human RBCs, rat RBCs had decreased deformability, membrane rigidity, aggregability, and microvesiculation after component manufacturing process. Rat RBCs in SAGM showed higher hemolysis compared to human RBCs in SAGM (rat 4.70 0.83% vs. human 0.34 0.07%; p = 0.002). Rat RBCs in AS3 had greater deformability and rigidity than in SAGM. The number of microparticles/l and the percentage PS expression were lower in rat RBCs in AS3 than in rat RBCs in SAGM. Hemolysis was also significantly lower in AS3 compared to SAGM (2.21 0.68% vs. 0.87 0.39%; p = 0.028). Conclusion Rat RBCs significantly differ from human RBCs in metabolic and membrane-related aspects. SAGM, which is commonly used for human RBC banking, causes high hemolysis and is not compatible with rat RBCs. PMID:26195928

  2. [49 day storage of erythrocyte concentrates in blood bags with the PAGGS-mannitol solution].

    PubMed

    Walker, W H; Netz, M; Gänshirt, K H

    1990-01-01

    The red cell preservation solution PAGGS-Mannitol differs from the well documented PAGGS-Sorbitol only by the exchange from Sorbitol in Mannitol. In a clinical investigation with volunteers, up to 21 of the pure PAGGS-Mannitol solution were infused within 4 h. Blood and urine parameters were determined. The solution was well tolerated, no unexpected change of blood and urine parameters was found. The 24 h red cell in vivo survival rate of PAGGS-Mannitol was found to be 74.5 +/- 4.4%, after 49 days storage, a value which was described for PAGGS-Sorbitol before. In vitro data on storage of red cell concentrates with and without buffy coat were determined for hemolysis, 2,3-DPG and ATP using a blood bag system with DEHP and TOTM plastisized PVC. If 1% hemolysis is regarded as acceptable, red cell concentrates can be stored in PAGGS-Mannitol with a TOTM plastisized blood bag system up to 42 days. Under these conditions the amount of plastisizer in the red cell concentrate was found to be only 1% of the amount determined in a standard DEHP plastisized PVC blood bag system. PMID:1703901

  3. The Effects of Short-Term and Long-Term Testosterone Supplementation on Blood Viscosity and Erythrocyte Deformability in Healthy Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Eric; Vogel, Johannes; Li, Michelle; Peng, Liming; Pencina, Karol; Serra, Carlo; Sandor, Nicolae L.; Jasuja, Ravi; Montano, Monty; Basaria, Shehzad; Gassmann, Max; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone treatment induces erythrocytosis that could potentially affect blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk. We thus investigated the effects of testosterone administration on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability using mouse models. Blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and hematocrits were measured in normal male and female mice, as well as in females and castrated males after short-term (2 wk) and long-term (5–7 mo) testosterone intervention (50 mg/kg, weekly). Castrated males for long-term intervention were studied in parallel with the normal males to assess the effect of long-term testosterone deprivation. An additional short-term intervention study was conducted in females with a lower testosterone dose (5 mg/kg). Our results indicate no rheological difference among normal males, females, and castrated males at steady-state. Short-term high-dose testosterone increased hematocrit and whole-blood viscosity in both females and castrated males. This effect diminished after long-term treatment, in association with increased erythrocyte deformability in the testosterone-treated mice, suggesting the presence of adaptive mechanism. Considering that cardiovascular events in human trials are seen early after intervention, rheological changes as potential mediator of vascular events warrant further investigation. PMID:25774550

  4. The effects of short-term and long-term testosterone supplementation on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability in healthy adult mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Vogel, Johannes; Li, Michelle; Peng, Liming; Pencina, Karol; Serra, Carlo; Sandor, Nicolae L; Jasuja, Ravi; Montano, Monty; Basaria, Shehzad; Gassmann, Max; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone treatment induces erythrocytosis that could potentially affect blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk. We thus investigated the effects of testosterone administration on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability using mouse models. Blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and hematocrits were measured in normal male and female mice, as well as in females and castrated males after short-term (2 wk) and long-term (5-7 mo) testosterone intervention (50 mg/kg, weekly). Castrated males for long-term intervention were studied in parallel with the normal males to assess the effect of long-term testosterone deprivation. An additional short-term intervention study was conducted in females with a lower testosterone dose (5 mg/kg). Our results indicate no rheological difference among normal males, females, and castrated males at steady-state. Short-term high-dose testosterone increased hematocrit and whole-blood viscosity in both females and castrated males. This effect diminished after long-term treatment, in association with increased erythrocyte deformability in the testosterone-treated mice, suggesting the presence of adaptive mechanism. Considering that cardiovascular events in human trials are seen early after intervention, rheological changes as potential mediator of vascular events warrant further investigation. PMID:25774550

  5. MULTICOMPARTMENT KINETIC MODEL FOR LEAD. PART 3. LEAD IN BLOOD PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...

  6. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  7. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  8. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals' absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  9. Neutropenia Prediction Based on First-Cycle Blood Counts Using a FOS-3NN Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Elize A.; Korenberg, Michael J.; Madarnas, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Background. Delivery of full doses of adjuvant chemotherapy on schedule is key to optimal breast cancer outcomes. Neutropenia is a serious complication of chemotherapy and a common barrier to this goal, leading to dose reductions or delays in treatment. While past research has observed correlations between complete blood count data and neutropenic events, a reliable method of classifying breast cancer patients into low- and high-risk groups remains elusive. Patients and Methods. Thirty-five patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer under the care of a single oncologist are examined in this study. FOS-3NN stratifies patient risk based on complete blood count data after the first cycle of treatment. All classifications are independent of breast cancer subtype and clinical markers, with risk level determined by the kinetics of patient blood count response to the first cycle of treatment. Results. In an independent test set of patients unseen by FOS-3NN, 19 out of 21 patients were correctly classified (Fisher's exact test probability P < 0.00023 [2 tailed], Matthews' correlation coefficient +0.83). Conclusions. We have developed a model that accurately predicts neutropenic events in a population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the first cycle of a 6-cycle treatment. PMID:22454638

  10. White blood cell count and clustered features of metabolic syndrome in Japanese male office workers.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, N; Suzuki, K; Tatara, K

    2002-06-01

    We assessed the association of white blood cell (WBC) count with different components of metabolic syndrome (MS)-obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, hypertriglyceridemia, high fasting plasma glucose levels and hyperuricemia-in 5275 Japanese male office workers aged 23-59 years. After controlling for age, smoking and alcohol intake, the relative risks for the presence of 1, 2, 3, 4 and > or =5 features of MS compared with the lowest quintile of WBC count increased in a dose-dependent manner as WBC count increased (P for trend < 0.001 for all) and the increased relative risks for clustered features of MS were more pronounced as the number of features of MS increased. The WBC count increments in subjects with 1, 2, 3, 4 and > or =5 features of MS were 0.28, 0.45, 0.68, 0.76 and 1.40 x10(9) cells/l, respectively, compared with the subjects without features of MS (P for trend < 0.001). These findings indicate a strong association between WBC count and clustered features of MS in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:12091587

  11. Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell count as markers of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takayuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Go; Arai, Shinpei; Sugano, Mitsutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell (WBC) count are routine laboratory tests used to assess neutrophil state, which depends on supply from the bone marrow and consumption in the tissues. If WBC count is constant, the presence of left shift indicates an increase of neutrophil consumption that is equal to an increase of production. A decrease in WBC count indicates that neutrophil consumption surpasses supply. During a bacterial infection, large numbers of neutrophils are consumed. Thus, from onset of infection to recovery, dynamic changes occur in WBC count and left shift data, reflecting the mild to serious condition of the bacterial infection. Although various stimuli in healthy and pathological conditions also cause left shift, a change as sudden and significant is only seen in bacterial infection. Left shift does not occur in the extremely early or late phases of infection; therefore, assessing data from a single time point is unsuitable for diagnosing a bacterial infection. We argue that time-series data of left shift and WBC count reflect real-time neutrophil consumption during the course of a bacterial infection, allowing more accurate evaluation of patient condition. PMID:27034055

  12. Analysis of nitric oxide consumption by erythrocytes in blood vessels using a distributed multicellular model.

    PubMed

    El-Farra, Nael H; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Liao, James C

    2003-03-01

    Multiple sets of experimental data have shown that the red blood cell (RBC) consumes nitric oxide (NO) about 600-1000-fold slower than the equivalent concentration of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb). Diffusion barriers of various sources have been suggested to explain this observation. In this work, a multicellular, spatially distributed, two-dimensional model, that describes the production, transport, and consumption of NO in blood vessels and the surrounding tissue, is developed. The model is used to assess the relative significance of NO transport barriers that reduce the rate of NO consumption in the blood. Unlike previous models of this system, the model developed here accounts explicitly for the presence of, and interactions among, a population of RBCs inside the lumen of the blood vessel and is, therefore, better suited to analyze, quantitatively, the contribution of each transport barrier as NO diffuses from its site of synthesis to the interior of the RBCs where it interacts with Hb. The model, which uses experimentally derived parameters, shows that extracellular unstirred boundary layer diffusion alone cannot account for the reduced NO consumption by RBC compared to an equivalent concentration of cell-free Hb. Since this result is reached using a two-dimensional representation of the RBCs, which overestimates the importance of the boundary layer diffusion resistance, it would be expected that in the real three-dimensional case, diffusion through the extracellular boundary layer would contribute even less to the overall mass transfer resistance. Consistent with recent experimental findings, the results of our model suggest that, under physiological conditions, transmembrane (membrane and its associated cytoskeleton layer) diffusion limitations in RBCs represent a key source of resistance for NO uptake by RBCs. PMID:12680727

  13. [Importance of non-Newtonian rheologic properties of blood in erythrocyte transport].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Stoltz, J F

    1994-01-01

    The authors studied the global transport of red blood cells (RBC) in a stationary cylindrical tube flow. The human blood was considered as homogeneous fluid. For geometric and dynamic conditions fixed, the quantity of transported RBC was calculated using different models of constitutive equation: i) Newtonian model with apparent viscosity measured at 128 sec-1; ii) Landel's model for rigidified RBC suspension; iii) three non-Newtonian models (Casson law, power law and a relationship of Sisko). We showed that there was an optimum hematocrit for every model for which the quantity of transported RBC was maximum. The values of optimum hematocrit obtained for the non-Newtonian models varied in function of the tube radius and the pressure drop. It was equally observed that the optimum hematocrit was very small when the red blood cells were rigid. These theoretical results merit experimental studies and open the way to investigations of mechanical transport of RBC (global oxygen transport) under different types of flow conditions. PMID:8077863

  14. Stem cell-derived erythrocytes as upcoming players in blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is current standard-of-care for genetic forms of anemia that would be otherwise lethal and allows implementation of aggressive cytotoxic/surgical therapies developed for numerous types of cancer. In developed countries the blood supply is adequate and sporadically even in excess. However, difficulties exist in finding blood with rare phenotypes to treat alloimmunized patients and the progressive ageing of the human population predicts that blood will become scarce by 2050. These considerations establish the need for the development of techniques to generate cultured red blood cell (cRBCs) as transfusion products. Materials and Methods Recent progress in cell culture techniques is revolutionizing organ replacement therapies. Two new disciplines, cell therapy and tissue engineering, have been developed to generate in vitro therapeutic products for a variety of applications ranging from skin grafts to organ-function repairs. It is currently believed that these advances will eventually allow ex-vivo production of various cell types in numbers so great that, in the case of red cells, would be clinically adequate for transfusion. Results Proof-of-principle in animal models indicate that cRBCs generated from murine embryonic stem cells protect mice from lethal anemia. Conditions to generate small amounts of clinical grade cRBCs have been established and the first-in-man administration of autologous cRBCs perfomed. The results of this trial indicate that cRBCs survive in vivo at least as long as their natural counterpart. Discussion These ground-breaking reports have raised great excitement for clinical evaluation of cRBCs for transfusion. However, skepticism still persist that production of cRBCs in numbers sufficient for transfusion will ever be possible. This paper will discuss diagnostic and clinical goals pursuable with numbers of cRBCs that may be generated with current technology. Conclusion We are confident that development of relevant clinical goals achievable with current technologies will not only improve clinical care in transfusion medicine but will also foster studies to overcome scientific and technical barriers that render transfusion with cRBCs of the general population impractical today. PMID:26229549

  15. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions. PMID:24138476

  16. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and blood pressure in relation to overweight and obese Thai in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Viroonudomphol, D; Pongpaew, P; Tungtrongchitr, R; Phonrat, B; Supawan, V; Vudhivai, N; Schelp, F P

    2000-06-01

    The specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, [eg superoxide dismutases (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT)], anthropometric measurements, including waist/hip ratio of 48 male and 167 female overweight persons (body mass index (BMI) > or = 25.0 kg/m2) compared with a 26 male and 80 female control group (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) of Thai volunteers who attended the Out-patient Department, General Practice Section, Rajvithi Hospital, Bangkok, for a physical check-up during March-October, 1998, were investigated. There was a slightly significant difference between the median age of the sexes. The medians of height, weight, and waist/hip ratio in males were significantly higher than those in female overweight and obese subjects. The median of arm circumference (AC), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) in males was significantly higher than those in female overweight and obese subjects (p < 0.05). The prevalences of hypertension based on systolic and diastolic blood pressure of > or = 160/> or = 95 mmHg, were 8.3% and 37.5% for males and 5.4% and 18.6% for females, respectively. There was no significant difference between the median of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX and CAT) between the sexes. No significant differences in the antioxidant enzymes in male overweight/obese persons and normal controls were presented, whereas antioxidant enzymes in female overweight/obese persons were statistically lower than in control females (p < 0.05). A significantly higher SOD, GPX, and CAT status was observed in normal subjects compared with overweight/obese subjects (p < 0.01). A higher prevalence of SOD < or = 2,866 U/gHb, GPX (< or = 15.96 U/gHb in females was found, compared with males. A high percentage of lower catalase (CAT < or = 19.2x10(4) IU/gHb) was found in both sexes (64.5% in males and 64.5% in females). In obese subjects (BMI > or = 30.0 kg/m2), there were significantly positive relationships between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and waist/hip ratio, and SOD could be related to weight, BMI as well as GPX and CAT, whereas the opposite result was observed for age and SOD. PMID:11127334

  17. White Blood Cells Count and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Association between white blood cell (WBC) count and diabetes risk has been recently suggested. We assessed whether WBC count is an independent risk factor for diabetes incidence among young healthy adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS WBC count was measured in 24,897 young (mean age 30.8 ± 5.36 years), normoglycemic men with WBC range of 3,000 to 12,000 cells/mm3. Participants were periodically screened for diabetes during a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. RESULTS During 185,354 person-years of follow-up, diabetes was diagnosed in 447 subjects. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, and fasting glucose and triglyceride levels revealed a 7.6% increase in incident diabetes for every increment of 1,000 cells/mm3 (P = 0.046). When grouped in quintiles, a baseline WBC count above 6,900 cells/mm3 had an independent 52% increase in diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.52 [95% CI 1.06–2.18]) compared with the lowest quintile (WBC <5,400 cells/mm3). Men at the lowest WBC quintile were protected from diabetes incidence even in the presence of overweight, family history of diabetes, or elevated triglyceride levels. After simultaneous control for risk factors, BMI was the primary contributor of the variation in multivariate models (P < 0.001), followed by age and WBC count (P < 0.001), and family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels (P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS WBC count, a commonly used and widely available test, is an independent risk factor for diabetes in young men at values well within the normal range. PMID:22961572

  18. Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Haugen, T; Scott, C S

    2001-10-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks are required to implement control procedures, and the determination of platelet counts in particular is necessary to confirm that the quality of platelet unit production meets the standards defined by national or international guidelines. Apart from linearity analysis and comparisons of platelet counts given by different instruments, there has been no systematic standardisation of platelet counting methods in blood bank practice because to date there has been no suitable reference method for counting platelets in citrate anticoagulants. The recent introduction of an automated immunoplatelet procedure on the Cell-Dyn CD4000 provides a means of determining a true platelet count that is unaffected by changes induced either by storage or anticoagulant. The CD4000 in its routine configuration also provides simultaneous impedance and optical platelet counts and this study was therefore undertaken in order to compare all three different platelet counting methods in parallel with a representative series of platelet units. Platelet counts determined after sub-sampling of platelet units into EDTA vs plain non-anticoagulated tubes revealed no differences in impedance or immunoplatelet counts but generally lower optical counts when aliquoted into tubes that did not contain EDTA. This study therefore routinely used EDTA for platelet unit sub-samples. Comparative results of platelet counts for buffy coat platelet units (n = 36) aliquoted into EDTA indicated that the impedance count was higher than the reference immunoplatelet count by a mean factor of 1.25 while the optical count was lower by a mean factor of 0.87. The degree of impedance count overestimation was particularly consistent while the optical count underestimation was more variable. Linearity studies of 10 fresh platelet units showed no deviation in the range 0-2305 x 10(9) l(-1) for impedance and 0 to 1420 x 10(9) l(-1) for the optical counts, and the relative numerical relationships between impedance and optical counts were conserved throughout the range of dilutions tested. In the CD4000 optical analysis, blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA showed a distinctive elliptical population distribution that fell within the system thresholds. In contrast, the optical pattern observed for platelet units (in CPD) and ACD-anticoagulated venous blood showed a wider 90 degrees scatter with a population of platelet events above the upper parallel discriminator. As these were excluded from the optical count (but were still identified as platelets by the immunoplatelet method) it meant that the optical counts of samples in citrate-based anticoagulants were systematically lower than immunoplatelet counts. Platelet units (n = 15) analysed daily over a seven day period of storage revealed that the greatest decline in platelet counts was with the optical measurement while the most stable value was obtained by impedance analysis. The results of the immunoplatelet analysis further suggested a progressive increase in small platelets with increasing storage time. The use in this study of a standardised immunoplatelet reference method to examine the question of analyser suitability for determining platelet counts/yields of platelet units thus provided a number of important findings. An impedance platelet counting method is utilised by the great majority of haematology instruments in current use, and in common with the CD4000 analyser, a correction factor is employed to take account of RBC/platelet coincidence. This study found that when analysed samples such as platelet units were RBC-free, that an inappropriate correction factor was applied. Consequently, the CD4000 impedance platelet count will provide reliable platelet counts, irrespective of the day of platelet unit storage, when a factor of 1.25 is applied to the system-reported result. By comparison, optical methods are more likely to be affected by subtle morphological changes that may result from anticoagulants or progressive storage time. The method limitations documented by this study may well affect many other analysers and mean that the implementation of process control statistics related to platelet counts may be less reliable than previously assumed. It is suggested that standardisation could be much better achieved if there was some form of system cross-calibration that was referenced to an independent method such as an immunoplatelet assay. It is proposed that studies of this type should be extended to a wide assessment of platelet count accuracy of blood bank instruments in order to standardise data within national organisations. If consistent inter-instrument correction factors such as those documented here can be identified, it would considerably increase the relevance of determining platelet counts in production control processes. PMID:11761280

  19. Subunit structure of hemoglobins from erythrocytes of the blood clam, Anadara broughtonii.

    PubMed

    Furuta, H; Ohe, M; Kajita, A

    1977-12-01

    Intracellular hemoglobins of the sea blood clam Anadara broughtonii consist of HbI dimer (33%) and HbII tetramer (60%). The molecular weights of globins of HbI and HbII were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-gel electrophoresis to be 15,500 and 16,500, respectively. The existence of two dissimilar chains, alpha and beta, in globin from HbII tetramer was confirmed electrophoretically and the chains were separated by CM-cellulose chromatography in 8 M urea. In contrast, globin from HbI dimer showed a single band on two types of electrophoresis. The NH2-terminus and the COOH-terminus of HbI were determined to be proline and leucine, respectively. From the results of finger-printing, the alpha and beta chains from HbII were considered to have a rather similar profile, whereas globin from HbI was very different. The results obtained by amino acid analysis of each chain also supported the above findings. It was thus shown that HbII has an alpha2beta2 subunit structure, which is rare among invertebrate hemoglobins. On the other hand, HbI seems to have two identical subunits, designated as "gamma", and to exist as a "gamma2" dimer structure. Both Anadara Hb's appear to have no functional groups relating to the Bohr effect and to be unable to form a binding site for organic phosphates. PMID:599153

  20. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  1. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  2. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  3. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

  4. Influence of intermittent hypoxia interval training on exercise-dependent erythrocyte NOS activation and blood pressure in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ladage, Dennis; Braunroth, Christian; Lenzen, Edward; Berghöfer, Sandra; Graf, Christine; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara

    2012-12-01

    NOS-activation in erythrocytes (eryNOS) is impaired in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of physical exercise on eryNOS activation and whether 6 week hypoxia interval training may alter this process. Male patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM, n = 12; age, 61.3 ± 8.4 years; BMI, 29.8 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) underwent physical exercise training before and after 6 week hypoxia interval training. Training was conducted 4 times per week for 90 min at 15.4-12.7 Vol% of inspired oxygen. Vital parameters were recorded. Before hypoxia intervention, eryNOS phosphorylation at serine(1177) decreased significantly during exercise (basal 17.4 ± 12.0 compared with exercise 8.4 ± 9.2 arbitrary grey values (arGV); P < 0.05). After 6 weeks of hypoxia intervention, eryNOS-pSer(1177) (2.2 ± 2.5 arGV) was significantly lower at baseline. Ergometry showed an increase (7.6 ± 3.0 arGV; P < 0.05) followed by a decrease to almost baseline levels after 30 min (3.8 ± 1.5 arGV). Maximal exercise capacity and O(2)-uptake ([Formula: see text]  max) increased significantly. The effects were independent from exercise-induced elevation of blood pressure. Exercise-dependent eryNOS phosphorylation at serine(1177) was increased similar to that described for the endothelium in diabetic patients. EryNOS dysregulation was partially restored after intermittent hypoxia training. PMID:23210438

  5. Erythrocyte Hb-S Concentration AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE LOW OXYGEN AFFINITY OF BLOOD IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Seakins, M.; Gibbs, W. N.; Milner, P. F.; Bertles, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The blood in sickle cell anemia has a very low oxygen affinity and, although 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) is increased, there is doubt as to whether this is the only factor responsible. In this study of 15 patients with sickle cell anemia (Hb SS) no correlation was found between oxygen affinity (P50 at pH 7.13) and 2,3-DPG in fresh venous blood. Whole populations of Hb SS erythrocytes were therefore separated, by an ultracentrifuge technique, into fractions of varying density. The packed red cell column was divided into three fractions; a bottom fraction rich in deformed cells or irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), with a very high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); a middle fraction containing cells with the highest content of fetal hemoglobin; and a top fraction containing reticulocytes and discoid cells but free of deformed cells. Oxygen affinity was shifted to the right in all layers (mean P50 (pH 7.13)±1SD: top 46.3±2.9 mm Hg: middle 49.8±4.9 mm Hg; bottom 61.0±5.8 mm Hg) compared with normal blood (top 32.1±0.7 mm Hg: bottom 30.1±0.5 mm Hg). 2.3-DPG was increased in the top fraction, but was low or normal in the bottom fraction (top 21.8±3.4 μmol/g Hb: middle 17.7±2.2 μmol/g Hb; bottom 13.8±3.1 μmol/g Hb; normal whole blood 14.3±1.2 μmol/g Hb). The level of 2,3-DPG in top fractions could not account for the degree of right shift of P50, and in the middle and bottom fractions the even greater right shifts were associated with lower levels of 2,3-DPG. Top fraction cells depleted of 2,3-DPG had a higher, but still abnormally low, oxygen affinity. A strong relationship was found between oxygen affinity and MCHC. The fractions with the greatest right shift in P50 had the highest MCHC (top 32.4±2.0; middle 36.2±3.1; bottom 44.6±3.2 g/100 ml, respectively) and the plot of P50 vs. MCHC showed a positive correlation (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). The red cell population in sickle cell anemia is not homogeneous but contains cells of widely varying Hb F content, 2,3-DPG, and hemoglobin concentration. Paradoxically, the cells with the lowest O2 affinity have the lowest 2,3-DPG, but they also have the highest concentration of Hb S. The dense, deformed cell called the ISC is but the end stage in a process of membrane loss and consequent increase in hemoglobin concentration. The P50 of Hb SS blood is, to a large extent, determined by the presence of these cells (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). Increased concentration of Hb S in the cell favors deoxygenation and crystallization even at relatively high Po2. Lowered affinity for oxygen appears to be closely associated with Hb S concentration and not with 2,3-DPG content. PMID:4683881

  6. White blood cell count can aid judicious antibiotic prescribing in acute upper respiratory infections in children.

    PubMed

    Casey, Janet R; Marsocci, Steven M; Murphy, Marie Lynd; Francis, Anne B; Pichichero, Michael E

    2003-03-01

    Fifty percent or more of children with upper respiratory infections (URIs) and nonspecific febrile illnesses (e.g., children febrile, anorexic, decreased activity, irritable) receive unnecessary antibiotics from community-based physicians. This study was undertaken to show that white blood cell (WBC) count testing can aid physicians in avoiding antibiotic prescribing when managing children with URIs, and nonspecific febrile illnesses. A prospective, 3-year study was conducted in a community-based pediatric practice. A weekly convenience sample (Tuesdays) of acute URI and febrile patients ages 3 months to 21 years was studied. Data collected on enrollment included: age, gender, duration of illness, recent/current antibiotic use, temperature, symptoms, signs, laboratory testing (WBC count, cultures), diagnosis and treatment. Similar data on any illness visits in the previous 2 weeks and the subsequent 2 weeks after enrollment were collected. Viral culture specimens were obtained on a subset. The use of the WBC count was assessed, including obviating antibiotic prescription, frequency of related follow-up visits, and the occurrence of subsequent bacterial infections. Of 1,956 patients with respiratory or febrile illness enrolled, 1,219 (62%) had a diagnosis established by history and examination (e.g., acute otitis media) and 737 (38%) did not. Of the 737 patients without an established diagnosis, 386 (52%) did not receive an antibiotic because they did not appear particularly ill, their temperature was less than 101 degrees F, and parents were not demanding antibiotics, leaving 351 (48%) patients who appeared ill, had a temperature greater than 101 degrees F, and parents were demanding an antibiotic or physicians were inclined to give an antibiotic. A WBC count was performed on these 351 children; 337 children (96%) had a WBC count less than 15,000/mm3, and 14 (4%) had a WBC 15,000/mm3 or greater. An antibiotic was prescribed for 13 of the 14 children with a WBC count greater than 15,000/mms. With this approach, return office visits in the following 2 weeks were infrequent (13% of 737 patients), and no child had significant bacterial illness that was missed. With selective use of WBC count testing PMID:12659383

  7. Vildagliptin in addition to metformin improves retinal blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – results from an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Numerous rheological and microvascular alterations characterize the vascular pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated effects of vildagliptin in comparison to glimepiride on retinal microvascular blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in T2DM. Fourty-four patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy were included in this randomized, exploratory study over 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or glimepiride individually titrated up to 4 mg in addition to ongoing metformin treatment. Retinal microvascular blood flow (RBF) and the arteriolar wall to lumen ratio (WLR) were assessed using a laser doppler scanner. In addition, the erythrocyte elongation index (EI) was measured at different shear stresses using laserdiffractoscopy. Both treatments improved glycaemic control (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; respectively). While only slight changes in RBF and the WLR could be observed during treatment with glimepiride, vildagliptin significantly increased retinal blood flow and decreased the arterial WLR (p < 0.05 vs. baseline respectively). The EI increased during both treatments over a wide range of applied shear stresses (p < 0.05 vs. baseline). An inverse correlation could be observed between improved glycaemic control (HbA1c) and EI (r = −0.524; p < 0.0001) but not with the changes in retinal microvascular measurements. Our results suggest that vildagliptin might exert beneficial effects on retinal microvascular blood flow beyond glucose control. In contrast, the improvement in erythrocyte deformability observed in both treatment groups, seems to be a correlate of improved glycaemic control. PMID:23565740

  8. Normalizing counts and cerebral blood flow intensity in functional imaging studies of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Arndt, S; Cizadlo, T; O'Leary, D; Gold, S; Andreasen, N C

    1996-06-01

    Image intensity normalization is frequently applied to eliminate or adjust for subject or injection global blood flow (gCBF) and other sources of nuisance variation. Normalization has several other positive effects on the analysis of PET images. However, the choice of an intensity normalization technique affects the statistical and psychometric properties of the image data. We compared three normalization procedures, the ratio approach (regional (r)CBF/gCBF), histogram equalization, and ANCOVA, on both PET count and flow data sets. The ratio method presents the proportional increase of regions, the histogram equalization method offers the relative ranking of intensities over the image, and the ANCOVA method provides statistical deviations from an expected linear model of regional values from the subject's gCBF. The original study used 33 normal subjects in a standard subtraction paradigm. The normalization methods were evaluated on their ability to remove extraneous error variation, induce homogeneity of intersubject variation, and remove unwanted dependencies. In general, the normalization modified the subtraction image more than the individual condition images. All three methods worked well at removing the dependency of rCBF on gCBF in count and flow images. For count data, the three methods also reduced the amount of error variation equally well, improving the signal to noise ratio. For flow data, the histogram equalization and ratio methods worked best at reducing statistical error. All three methods dramatically stabilized the variance over the image. PMID:9345488

  9. Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.E.; Ignacio, L.; Houghton, A.

    1995-10-15

    Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed to identify which patients are at risk for cytopenia and require close monitoring. Low CBC levels during radiation therapy are likely to be the result of other medical problems that cancer patients face. Regional irradiation with small field sizes (<40% of total body marrow) typically used in clinical radiotherapy is unlikely to be the cause of marrow depression significant enough to warrant medical intervention. Blood levels taken during the first week of treatment (Week 1) can be used to determine risks of developing critical nadirs. Localized breast and prostate cancer patients are unlikely to require routine CBCs if initial levels are normal. Routine CBC levels on all radiation oncology patients without other reasons for hematopoietic depression requires reevaluation, as millions of dollars are spent on unnecessary testing. If weekly CBC blood levels are avoided in localized breast and prostate cancer patients, this alone could potentially results in a savings of as much as $40 million a year nationally. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase activity associates with white blood cell count in myeloid leukemias.

    PubMed

    Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Jantunen, Esa; Mäntymaa, Pentti; Mustjoki, Satu; Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne

    2014-07-01

    The metabolism of polyamines, the cationic small molecules essential for cell proliferation and differentiation, is altered in cancer cells and can be exploited in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), which regulates intracellular levels of polyamines by catabolizing spermidine and spermine, has a controversial role in the development of cancers. In this study, the polyamine metabolism and function of SSAT were characterized in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute lymphoid leukemia patient samples. Also, mice overexpressing SSAT and having a myeloproliferative phenotype were analyzed for their response to decitabine and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. The presence of epigenetic factors in the bone marrow cells of SSAT mice was analyzed. Elevated levels of spermidine and spermine, as well as increased activity of SSAT, were detected in AML, CML, and acute lymphoid leukemia patients compared with the controls. However, we found SSAT activity to be associated with white blood cell count only in AML and CML patients. Decitabine treatment brought the peripheral blood and bone marrow cell counts of SSAT mice to the level of wild-type mice. Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase mice had increased histone methylation and an increased level of histone deacetylase 1 in their bone marrow cells. The study suggests that SSAT influences the development of myeloid malignancies, and epigenetic factors partly contribute to the SSAT overexpression-induced myeloproliferative disease in mice. PMID:24607957

  11. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    CSENDES J., Attila; MUÑOZ Ch., Andrea; BURGOS L., Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Background The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. Aim To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. Methods This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. Results Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. Conclusions Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD. PMID:25626929

  12. Comparative rheology of nucleated and non-nucleated red blood cells. I. Microrheology of avian erythrocytes during capillary flow.

    PubMed

    Gaehtgens, P; Schmidt, F; Will, G

    1981-06-01

    Deformation and dynamic flow behaviour of nucleated duck erythrocytes were compared to those of nonnucleated human cells during steady flow (at wall shear stresses up to 3 N.m-2) through glass capillaries (diameter between 5 micrometer and 12 micrometer). While the deformation process of both cell species is qualitatively similar, significant quantitative differences demonstrate a lower deformability of the nucleated erythrocytes. In comparison to human cells, the avian red cells exhibit significantly lower stability of orientation during capillary flow. Viscometric measurements show that, in contrast to human red cell suspensions, the relative viscosity of nucleated cell suspensions does not decrease with increasing suspending medium viscosity. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic disturbance caused by avian erythrocytes in the flow of the suspending fluid is more pronounced than that of the mammalian cells. This is due to their lower ability to adapt to local shear forces. PMID:7196028

  13. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

  14. Effect of transmission intensity and age on subclass antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Jansen, Paul; Vulule, John M; Park, Gregory S; Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; John, Chandy C

    2015-02-01

    Cytophilic immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG3) to Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from malaria, yet the relative importance of transmission intensity and age in generation of subclass responses to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens have not been clearly defined. We analyzed IgG subclass responses to the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, LSA-1, and TRAP and the blood-stage antigens AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-1 in asymptomatic residents age 2 years or older in stable (n=116) and unstable (n=96) transmission areas in Western Kenya. In the area of stable malaria transmission, a high prevalence of cytophilic (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies to each antigen was seen in all age groups. Prevalence and levels of cytophilic antibodies to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens increased with age in the unstable transmission area, yet IgG1 and IgG3 responses to most antigens for all ages in the unstable transmission area were less prevalent and lower in magnitude than even the youngest age group from the stable transmission area. The dominance of cytophilic responses over non-cytophilic (IgG2 and IgG4) was more pronounced in the stable transmission area, and the ratio of IgG3 over IgG1 generally increased with age. In the unstable transmission area, the ratio of cytophilic to non-cytophilic antibodies did not increase with age, and tended to be IgG3-biased for pre-erythrocytic antigens yet IgG1-biased for blood-stage antigens. The differences between areas could not be attributed to active parasitemia status, as there were minimal differences in antibody responses between those positive and negative for Plasmodium infection by microscopy in the stable transmission area. Individuals in areas of unstable transmission have low cytophilic to non-cytophilic IgG subclass ratios and low IgG3:IgG1 ratios to P. falciparum antigens. These imbalances could contribute to the persistent risk of clinical malaria in these areas and serve as population-level, age-specific biomarkers of transmission. PMID:25446174

  15. Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Wallace Hayes, A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Flouris, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the acute effects of a 1-h exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) on complete blood count (CBC) markers in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment. Nineteen adult never-smokers completed a 1-h .exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels, and a 1-h exposure to normal room air. Blood samples were collected at the baseline at 30 min during each exposure, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after each exposure. The values of white blood cells (WBC) at 1 h (p = 0.010), 3 h (p = 0.040), and 4 h (p = 0.008) following SHS were significantly increased compared with the baseline values. Also, there was a positive association between the WBC and cotinine levels (r = 0.28, p = 0.007). A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels significantly increased the WBC for at least 4 h following the exposure time. This effect of SHS on WBC has dose-response characteristics and should be considered to prescribing CBC. PMID:23544435

  16. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  17. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia. PMID:26802490

  18. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  19. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression.

  20. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  1. Red blood cell count as an indicator of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhan-Sheng; Song, Zhan-Chun; Bai, Jing-Hui; Li, Fei; Wu, Tao; Qi, Ji; Hu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheological disorders of red blood cells (RBC) and decreased RBC deformability have been involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM. Methods This study involved 369 patients with T2DM: 243 with one or more microvascular complications and 126 without microvascular complications. Anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed in an automated blood cell counter. The presence of risk factors for microvascular complications was determined. Results The proportion of patients with microvascular complications increased as the RBC count decreased (P < 0.001). After adjustment for known risk factors for microvascular complications by logistic regression analysis, lower quartiles of RBC count were associated with a higher risk of microvascular complications compared with the reference group composed of the highest quartile (first quartile, odds ratio 4.98, 95% confidence interval 1.54–6.19, P = 0.008; second quartile, odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17–5.28, P = 0.024). Conclusion A decreased RBC count is associated with microvascular complications in Chinese patients with T2DM. The RBC count is a potential marker to improve further the ability to identify diabetic patients at high risk of microvascular complications. PMID:23690689

  2. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  3. Associations between white blood cell count and features of the metabolic syndrome in Japanese male office workers.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Noriyuki; Sato, Mitsuru; Shirai, Kokoro; Nakajima, Kazue; Murakami, Shigeki; Takatorige, Toshio; Suzuki, Kenji; Tatara, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    We assessed the association of white blood cell (WBC) count with different components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 5275 Japanese male office workers aged 23-59 years. There was a significantly crude correlation between WBC count and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (negative), triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and uric acid (all P<0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted means of WBC count were significantly higher in subjects with each feature of the MS (obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, hypertriglyceridemia, high fasting plasma glucose levels, and hyperuricemia) (all P<0.005). The adjusted WBC count increments in subjects with 1, 2, 3, 4, and > or = 5 features of the MS were 0.28, 0.45, 0.68, 0.76, and 1.40 x 10(9) cells/l, respectively, compared with the subjects without features of the MS (P for trend<0.001). The adjusted means of WBC count increased significantly with the increasing number of features of the MS in both non-smokers and smokers (both P<0.001). These data indicate a strong association between WBC count and a number of disorders characterizing the MS independent of cigarette smoking among Japanese men. PMID:12141376

  4. A case of myeloproliferative neoplasm with a normal complete blood cell count: A novel problem of the JAK2 era

    PubMed Central

    YE, XIU-PENG; BAO, SHEN; GAO, HUAN-MIN; GUO, YING; WEI, YU-PING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported a case of a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in a patient with a normal complete blood cell count. Bone marrow biopsy showed bone marrow hyperplasia, an elevated megakaryocyte count, megakaryocytic dysplasia and pleomorphic changes, multiple megakaryocyte clusters and focal reticulin fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the patient was positive for the JAK2-V617F mutation, and negative for the JAK2 exon 12 and 13 mutations and the BCR-ABL (p210) fusion gene. The patient's condition was basically stable and at the time of writing, the patient remained in a stable condition with no specific symptoms of disease. The present study also analyzed the diagnostic and clinical features of MPNs, and a literature review was performed. MPN with a normal complete blood cell count is a rare disease, and attention should be focused on this entity in the clinic. PMID:26998136

  5. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  6. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    PubMed

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  7. Refined medullary blast and white blood cell count based classification of chronic myelomonocytic leukemias.

    PubMed

    Schuler, E; Schroeder, M; Neukirchen, J; Strupp, C; Xicoy, B; Kündgen, A; Hildebrandt, B; Haas, R; Gattermann, N; Germing, U

    2014-12-01

    Since 2001, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is classified by the WHO as myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic neoplasm. Herein we tried to better describe CMML patients with regard to hematological characteristics and prognosis using data of the Duesseldorf registry. We created 6 CMML subgroups, by dividing dysplastic and proliferative CMML at the cut-off of white blood cell count of 13,000/μL and splitting these two groups into 3 subgroups: CMML 0 with <5% blasts (n=101), CMML I with 5-9% blasts (n=204) and CMML II with 10-19% blasts (n=81). For comparison we included patients with RCMD, RAEB I and II. The newly created CMML 0 group had better prognosis than CMML I and II, median survival times were 31 months (ms), 19ms and 13ms, respectively (p<0.001). Median survival times between the corresponding dysplastic and proliferative subgroups 0 and 1 differed significantly: CMML 0 dysplastic 48ms and CMML 0 proliferative 17ms (p=0.03), CMML I dysplastic 29ms and CMML I proliferative 15ms (p=0.008), CMML II dysplastic 17ms and CMML II proliferative 10ms (p=0.09). Outcome of CMML patients worsens with increasing medullary blasts and when presenting as proliferative type. Therefore it is justified to separate CMML with <5% medullary blasts. PMID:25444076

  8. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase to White Blood Cell Count Ratio Predicting Postoperative Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yongqin; Liao, Yan; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-04-01

    Effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatectomy is urgently needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of the preoperative peripheral aspartate aminotransferase to white blood cell count ratio (AWR) for the prognostication of patients with HCC.Clinical data of 396 HCC patients who underwent radical hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the low-AWR group (AWR ≤5.2) and the high-AWR group (AWR >5.2); univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression were conducted, respectively.The results showed that AWR was associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor size, Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HCC. AWR > 5.2, AFP > 100 ng/mL, size of tumor >6 cm, number of multiple tumors, B-C of BCLC stage, PVTT, and distant metastasis were predictors of poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Except for recurrence, which was an independent predictor for OS only, AWR >5.2, size of tumor >6 cm, and PVTT were independent predictors of both DFS and OS.We concluded that preoperative AWR > 5.2 was an adverse predictor of DFS and OS in HCC after hepatectomy, AWR might be a novel prognostic biomarker in HCC after curative resection. PMID:27057915

  9. Binary release of ascorbic acid and lecithin from core-shell nanofibers on blood-contacting surface for reducing long-term hemolysis of erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term anti-hemolytic capability. To obtain such biomaterials, we coaxially electrospin [ascorbic acid (AA) and lecithin]/poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) core-shell nanofibers onto the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) that has been grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains. Our strategy is based on that the grafted layers of PEG render the surface hydrophilic to reduce the mechanical injure to red blood cells (RBCs) while the AA and lecithin released from nanofibers on blood-contacting surface can actively interact with RBCs to decrease the oxidative damage to RBCs. We demonstrate that (AA and lecithin)/PEO core-shell structured nanofibers have been fabricated on the PEG grafted surface. The binary release of AA and lecithin in the distilled water is in a controlled manner and lasts for almost 5 days; during RBCs preservation, AA acts as an antioxidant and lecithin as a lipid supplier to the membrane of erythrocytes, resulting in low mechanical fragility and hemolysis of RBCs, as well as high deformability of stored RBCs. Our work thus makes a new approach to fabricate blood-contacting biomaterials with the capability of long-term anti-hemolysis. PMID:25437061

  10. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-quare test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC. PMID:25567613

  11. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  12. Application of an intracellular assay for determination of tenofovir-diphosphate and emtricitabine-triphosphate from erythrocytes using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Hua; Rower, Caitlin; McAllister, Kevin; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Klein, Brandon; Meditz, Amie; Guida, L Anthony; Kiser, Jennifer J; Bushman, Lane R; Anderson, Peter L

    2016-04-15

    This communication describes the application of an existing intracellular methodology to the quantitation of tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and emtricitabine-triphosphate (FTC-TP) from erythrocytes using dried blood spots (DBS). Concentrations were determined from a 3mm DBS punch extracted into a 70:30 methanol:water solution (lysed cellular matrix). This extraction solution was then subjected to a previously validated analytical procedure for lysed cellular matrix. Experiments for DBS validation used replicate samples from study participants to demonstrate acceptable reproducibility with spot volumes ranging from 10-50μL and punch location either from the edge or center of the spot. Analysis of paired DBS with purified red blood cells showed that a 3mm DBS punch contained an average of 11.9 million cells for the observed hematocrit range of the participants (35-50%). Numerous stability tests were completed showing that whole blood in an EDTA vacutainer could sit for 24h at room temperature prior to spotting, and DBS could remain at room temperature for up to five days including shipment at ambient using 2-days delivery. DBS stability in storage was acceptable up to 18 months at -20°C or -80°C and DBS could undergo 4 Freeze/Thaw cycles. The described method was applied to HIV prophylaxis studies, demonstrating powerful associations with HIV acquisition through its ability to discriminate gradients of adherence. PMID:26829517

  13. Effect of pronase on high-incidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reid, M E; Greeen, C A; Hoffer, J; Øyen, R

    1996-01-01

    Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient's blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the Cromer and Lutheran blood group systems and the JMH antigen were sensitive to pronase treatment of RBCs. Antigens in the Dombrock blood group system and Sc1 were either sensitive to or markedly weakened by pronase treatment of RBCs. The following high-incidence antigens were resistant to treatment of RBCs with pronase: AnWj, Ata, Coa, Co3, Dib, EnaFR, Era, Fy3, Jk3, Jra, k, Kpb, Jsb, K14, Lan, Oka, Rh17, U, Vel, and Wrb. Over half of the serum samples from normal blood donors contained antibodies to pronase-treated RBCs. When testing human serum against pronase-treated RBCs, it is essential either to use an autocontrol or to perform the testing with an eluate. PMID:15387724

  14. Plasma ascorbic acid level and erythrocyte fragility in preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ozan, H; Esmer, A; Kolsal, N; Copur, O U; Ediz, B

    1997-01-01

    An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the circulation is blamed to cause preeclampsia and eclampsia. In this study plasma ascorbic acid level was analysed in 13 eclamptic, 14 mild preeclamptic, 12 severe preeclamptic and 20 uncomplicated pregnancies to see whether there is any correlation with blood pressure, proteinuria, serum triglyceride level, erythrocyte fragility and leukocyte count. Plasma ascorbic acid level was normal and had no significant difference among the groups. Fasting serum triglyceride level was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group but it did not differ among the three study groups. Erythrocyte fragility was found to be increased in all three study groups. Blood leukocyte count was increased in the study groups, especially in the eclampsia group. However, plasma ascorbic acid level and erythrocyte fragility were found to have no significant correlation with blood pressure and proteinuria. It was concluded that though the ascorbic acid levels were normal in both the study and the control groups, erythrocyte fragility increased probably due to an elevation in peroxide and free radical levels in preeclampsia and eclampsia groups, but without any correlation with the severity of the clinical picture. PMID:9031958

  15. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    PubMed Central

    Alhussien, Mohanned; Kaur, Mandheer; Manjari, Pasumarti; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Dang, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM), and 8 clinically mastitis (CM) groups of Karan Fries (KF) cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05) decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA) of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows. PMID:27047156

  16. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  17. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  18. Relationship between serum cholesterol and indices of erythrocytes and platelets in the US population[S

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Rose, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanmei; Jaramillo, Renee; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest versus highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/?l versus 281,000/?l, respectively (adjusted model, P < 0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 20072008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components. PMID:23999863

  19. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  20. Transcriptomic landscape for lymphocyte count variation in poly I:C-induced porcine peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hou, Y; Guo, J; Chen, H; Liu, X; Wu, Z; Zhao, S; Zhu, M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphocyte count is an important phenotypic metric that has been reported to be related to the individual antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. To date, aside from information regarding several genes and pathways, little is known about the mechanism by which gene expression affects variation in lymphocyte count. In this work, we investigated the lymphocyte count variation after poly I:C stimulation and compared the transcriptomes of pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts before and after poly I:C stimulation. Pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts were designated as extreme response (ER) and moderate response (MR) pigs respectively. Lymphocyte counts in all animals were observed to decline after poly I:C stimulation. Transcriptomic analysis identified 1121 transcripts (981 differentially expressed genes) in MR pigs and 1045 transcripts (904 differentially expressed genes) in ER pigs. We found that the majority of the differentially expressed genes were involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the innate immune response of ER pigs was more rapid than that of MR pigs. Results indicated that the activation of signaling pathways associated with cell death, cytotoxicity and apoptosis may contribute to the poly I:C-induced decrease of lymphocyte counts in the periphery. Moreover, the differential expression patterns of chemokines and FAS either totally or partially provided an interpretation for the different degrees of decrease in the lymphocyte counts between MR and ER pigs. Overall, our study will provide further understanding of the molecular basis for the antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. PMID:26607402

  1. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-11-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children. PMID:26558306

  2. Characterization of recombinant alpha-galactosidase for use in seroconversion from blood group B to O of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A; Leng, L; Monahan, C; Zhang, Z; Hurst, R; Lenny, L; Goldstein, J

    1996-03-15

    Alpha-Galactosidase (alpha-GAL) purified from green coffee bean cleaves the terminal galactose residues from the surface of group B erythrocytes, thereby converting these cells serologically to group O cells. Such enzymatically converted red cells have been transfused into group A and O recipients as part of the first phase of FDA-approved clinical trials. Recently we expressed the recombinant alpha-GAL (r)alpha-GAL) in large quantities in a methylotrophic yeast strain Pichia pastoris and purified the protein to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on a macro prep S50 column. Purified (r)alpha-GAL, migrating as a single band of 41 kDa on a SDS-PAGE, appears to be identical to its native counterpart in specific activity (32 U/mg) and kinetic parameters (K(m) =0.363 mM and V(max) = 46.9 U/mg). Both enzymes demonstrate the same pH profile in the pH range from 2 to 9, with an optimal pH at 6.4 when tested with the substrate p-nitrophenol-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. Furthermore, as with its native counterpart, (r)alpha-GAL specifically cleaves alpha-linked terminal galactose residues from group B red cells without affecting other major antigens on the red cell surface. In addition, we developed a method for using RT-PCR to detect possible DNA contamination in the purified protein preparation, which is one of the concerns for in vivo studies. Thus, with a simple procedure for over-expression and purification of (r)alpha-GAL from P. pastoris culture, one can readily obtain the enzyme needed for large-scale sero-conversion of red cells. PMID:8619622

  3. Accuracy of a New Platelet Count System (PLT-F) Depends on the Staining Property of Its Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Atsushi; Takagi, Yuri; Kono, Mari; Morikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet count is essential for the diagnosis and management of hemostasis abnormalities. Although existing platelet count methods installed in common hematology analyzers can correctly count platelets in normal blood samples, they tend to miscount platelets in some abnormal samples. The newly developed PLT-F channel in the XN-Series hematology analyzer (Sysmex) has been reported to be a reliable platelet count system, even in abnormal samples. However, how the PLT-F platelet counting system achieves such accuracy has not been described in scientific articles. Methods Isolated platelets, erythrocytes, and fragmented erythrocytes were examined using an automated hematology analyzer. The samples were labeled by combining PLT-F reagents and anti-CD62p, CD63, Grp75, Calreticulin, CD41, or CD61 antibody, and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy or flow cytometry. Results The PLT-F system correctly discriminated platelets in erythrocytes. Its reagents strongly stained some intraplatelet organelles labeled with anti-Grp75, but only faintly stained the plasma membrane of both platelets and erythrocytes. Microscopic observation and flow cytometric examination revealed that all of these strongly stained cells were also labeled with platelet-specific anti-CD41 and anti-CD61 antibodies. Conclusions This study revealed that the staining property of the PLT-F reagents, by which platelets and fragmented erythrocytes are clearly distinguished, contributes to the platelet-counting accuracy of the PLT-F system. PMID:26496387

  4. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  5. Seasonal Variations of Complete Blood Count and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the US Population - Analysis of NHANES Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies reported seasonal differences in gene expression in white blood cells, adipose tissue, and inflammatory biomarkers of the immune system. There is no data on the seasonal variations of these biomarkers in the US general population of both children and adults. Then aim of this study is to explore the seasonal trends in complete blood count (CBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large non-institutionalized US population. Methods Seven cross-sectional data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 1999–2012 were aggregated; participants reporting recent use of prescribed steroids, chemotherapy, immunomodulators and antibiotics were excluded. Linear regression models were used to compare levels of CBC and CRP between winter-spring (November-April) and summer-fall (May-October), adjusting for demographics, personal behavioral factors, and chronic disease conditions. Results A total of 27,478 children and 36,644 adults (≥18 years) were included in the study. Levels of neutrophils, white blood cell count (WBC), and CRP were higher in winter-spring than summer-fall (p≤0.05). Red blood cell components were lower in winter-spring than in summer-fall, while the opposite was seen for platelets. Conclusions This large population-based study found notable seasonal variations in blood cell composition and inflammatory biomarkers, with a more pro-inflammatory immune system seen in winter-spring than summer-fall. The red blood cell patterns could have implications for the observed cardio-vascular seasonality. PMID:26544180

  6. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of erythrocyte membranes in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Morariu, V V; Petrov, L

    1986-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the apparent water diffusional exchange through erythrocyte membranes in cases of policitemia vera, chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis was measured by using a nuclear magnetic resonance method in the presence of Mn2+. The thermal transition shifted to lower temperatures in all cases, regardless of the stage of the disease, suggesting a structural alteration of the membrane. The shift of transition indirectly suggests a lower penetration of the erythrocytes by Mn2+. The water exchange time at 37 degrees C also increased, mainly in the blast crisis; it seems to have a prognostic value of some clinical interest. No simple correlation of the water exchange and the following clinical investigations was observed: the white count, the percentage of promyelocites and myeloblasts, the sedimentation rate of blood, the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, the total concentration of proteins, albumin and immunoglobulins, respectively, in plasma. PMID:3742482

  8. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 μL, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible. PMID:26496235

  9. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

  10. Effect of anionic amphophiles on erythrocyte properties.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D E; Utterback, N G; Wujek, J J

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary study describes effects of two pharmacologic agents on erythrocyte behavior. Increased erythrocyte aggregation has been proposed as important in the pathogenesis of a number of disorders, but the exact mechanism by which it plays a role in disease production remains unclear. Several anionic amphophiles have been reported to benefit diabetic vascular disease and atherosclerosis. If anionic amphophiles enter the erythrocyte plasma membrane they can increase its negative charge, reducing the energy of attraction between red blood cells and diminishing erythrocyte aggregation. Erythrocytes were studied after suspension in phosphate-buffered saline containing dextran as an aggregation-promoting agent. A marginal reduction of the suspension's viscosity was found at low shear rate when 2,5- dihydroxybenzene sulfonate was added. Additionally, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was marginally influenced. Both dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and acetylsalicylate protected human erythrocytes from hemolysis at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M. The removal of erythrocyte sialic acid using neuraminidase to reduce surface negative charge led to unequivocal interference with aggregation (MAI technique of CHIEN et al., J. Gen. Physiol., 1973) by both anionic amphophiles were studied. Dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and actylsalicylate reduced the aggregation propensity of sialic-free erythrocytes, suggesting that the effect on the low shear rate viscosity of sialic acid-containing erythrocytes, though modest, is real. PMID:6587820

  11. Erythrocyte deformability in peripheral occlusive arterial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, D; Lucas, G S; Caldwell, N M; Stone, P C; Baar, S; Stuart, J

    1985-01-01

    A rheological study of 32 patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD), compared with 32 matched healthy controls, has shown no loss of erythrocyte deformability as measured by filtration methods (using initial flow rate and positive pressure instruments, polycarbonate and silver membranes, and 3 microns and 5 microns diameter pores) or by viscometry (using laser visco-diffractometric and high shear rate viscosity methods). Erythrocyte ATP concentration in POAD was also normal. Patients with POAD showed a small (4 fl) increase in mean erythrocyte volume, associated with a raised serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase concentration, which correlated with erythrocyte filtration and viscometric measurements. Previous reports of impaired blood filterability in POAD probably reflect the effects of accompanying leucocytosis, plasma hyperfibrinogenaemia, or an increase in erythrocyte size, but not an intrinsic loss of erythrocyte deformability. PMID:2857183

  12. Diet of racing sled dogs affects erythrocyte depression by stress.

    PubMed

    Adkins, T O; Kronfeld, D S

    1982-09-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  13. Diet of Racing Sled Dogs Affects Erythrocyte Depression by Stress

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, T. O.; Kronfeld, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  14. The platelet count in EDTA-anticoagulated blood from patients with thrombocytopenia may be underestimated when measured in routine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Podda, Gian Marco; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Mezzasoma, Anna Maria; Gresele, Paolo; Carpani, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Spuriously low platelet counts (PCs) can be observed in normal blood samples anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)and, much less frequently, with citrate-tris-pyridossalphosphate (CPT),due to time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination. Accuracy in PC determination is essential as PC is one of the parameters that usually guides treatment for thrombocytopenic patients. PCs of 93 thrombocy to penic patients were measured in EDTA- or CPT-anticoagulated blood samples immediately after sampling (t0) and 90 min (t90) after storage at room temperature. The presence of platelet agglutinates in blood samples was determined by examining blood smears using optical microscopy.PCs decreased at t90 with both anticoagulants. Platelet agglutinates were present at t90 in 27% of EDTA-samples vs. 2% of CPT-samples with decreased PCs (P < 0.001). Based on PCs in EDTA-samples, 15 patients (16%) shifted from a lower bleeding risk at t0 to a higher bleeding risk category at t90 (P 5 0.019), compared to 5 (5%) patients, based on PCs in CPT-samples. Therefore, time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination in EDTA-blood samples may cause underestimation of PCs in thrombocytopenic patients, possibly leading to improper management. PMID:22674424

  15. A reliable screening protocol for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in pregnancy: an alternative approach to electronic blood cell counting.

    PubMed

    Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Changtrakul, Yossombat; Ukosanakarn, Uthai; Ussawaphark, Wichai; Schelp, Frank P

    2005-01-01

    Primary screening for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies usually involves an accurate blood count using an expensive electronic blood cell counter A cheaper alternative method was tested by using a modified osmotic fragility (OF) test and a modified dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP) test. Altogether 423 pregnant Thai women participated in this project. Hemoglobin patterns and globin genotypes were determined using an automated high-performance liquid chromatography analyzer and polymerase chain reaction analysis of alpha- and beta-globin genes. Among the 423 subjects, 264 (62.4%) carried thalassemia genes. The combined OF and DCIP tests detected all pregnant carriers of the 3 clinically important thalassemias, ie, alpha0-thalassemia, beta-thalassemia, and hemoglobin E with a sensitivity of 100.0%, specificity of 87.1%, positive predictive value of 84.5%, and negative predictive value of 100.0%, which show more effectiveness than these values for the standard method based on RBC counts. A combination of modified OF and DCIP tests should prove useful and applicable to prenatal screening programs for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in communities with limited facilities and economic resources. PMID:15762286

  16. Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-02-01

    The osmotic resistance of pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes at different temperatures and pH was studied. Erythrocytes from female pigeons showed greater osmotic resistance than those from males, but no sex difference appeared with erythrocytes from peafowls. Pigeon erythrocytes were more resistant and the red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were higher than those in peafowls. Although no significant differences appeared in their haematological values, erythrocytes from the lizard were more resistant than erythrocytes from the toad. At higher temperature, the osmotic resistance of pigeon, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased, while that of peafowl erythrocytes decreased. The resistance of toad erythrocytes decreased in acidic and alkaline solutions, but that of peafowl erythrocytes increased in both solutions. However, with pigeon and lizard erythrocytes, the resistance was unaltered in alkaline solution and decreased in acidic solution. PMID:8085400

  17. Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Wilson, Andrew M; Chisholm, Alison; Rigazio, Anna; Burden, Anne; Thomas, Michael; King, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting. Patients and methods Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12–80 years from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990–2013, were examined for 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent blood eosinophil count. Baseline variables predictive (P<0.05) of exacerbation in the outcome year were compared between patients who had two or more exacerbations and those who had no exacerbation or only one exacerbation, using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Exacerbation was defined as asthma-related hospital attendance/admission (emergency or inpatient) or acute oral corticosteroid (OCS) course. Results Blood eosinophil count >400/µL (versus ≤400/µL) increased the likelihood of two or more exacerbations >1.4-fold (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 1.58); P<0.001). Variables that significantly increased the odds by up to 1.4-fold included increasing age (per year), female gender (versus male), being overweight or obese (versus normal body mass index), being a smoker (versus nonsmoker), having anxiety/depression, diabetes, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or rhinitis, and prescription for acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with treatment at British Thoracic Society step 2 (daily controller ± reliever), treatment at step 0 (none) or 1 (as-needed reliever) increased the odds by 1.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, and treatment at step 3, 4, or 5 increased the odds by 1.3-, 1.9-, or 3.1-fold, respectively (all P<0.05). Acute OCS use was the single best predictor of two or more exacerbations. Even one course increased the odds by more than threefold (OR: 3.75 [95% CI: 3.50, 4.01]; P<0.001), and three or more courses increased the odds by >25-fold (OR: 25.7 [95% CI: 23.9, 27.6]; P<0.001). Conclusion Blood eosinophil count and several other variables routinely available in patient records may be used to predict frequent asthma exacerbations. PMID:26793004

  18. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on blood cells of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Imam A; Mahmoud, Usama M; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the destructive effects of the 4-nonylphenol on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, namely African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were studied. Apoptosis, erythrocytes alterations, micronucleus test and blood parameters count were used as biological indicators to detect those effects. After exposure to sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1mg/l), apoptotic red blood cells with many malformations and micronucleated erythrocytes were recorded. Decrease in the blood parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), package cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes and increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), neutrophils, eosinophils indicated the negative effects of 4-nonylphenol. It was concluded that, the 4-nonylphenol caused genotoxicity in erythrocytes with many malformations in shape and number indicated with other blood parameters. PMID:21501852

  19. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  20. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  1. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Madden, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  2. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  3. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, David R; McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C; Crane, Paul K; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B; Carlson, Chris S; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-04-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e-55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy-/-). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn's disease. PMID:22037903

  4. Cord Blood Units with High CD3(+) Cell Counts Predict Early Lymphocyte Recovery After In Vivo T Cell-Depleted Single Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nerea; García-Cadenas, Irene; Díaz-Heredia, Cristina; Martino, Rodrigo; Barba, Pere; Ferrà, Christelle; Canals, Carme; Elorza, Izaskun; Olivé, Teresa; Badell, Isabel; Sierra, Jorge; Valcárcel, David; Querol, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Although high absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) early after transplantation is a simple surrogate for immune reconstitution, few studies to date have established the predictive factors for ALC after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We retrospectively studied the factors associated with early lymphocyte recovery and the impact of the ALC on day +42 (ALC42) of ≥300 × 10(6)/L on outcomes in 210 consecutive pediatric and adult patients (112 males; median age, 15 years; range, 0.3 to 60 years; interquartile range, 4 to 36 years) who underwent myeloablative in vivo T cell-depleted single UCBT between 2005 and 2014 for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. In a logistic multivariate regression model, factors favoring a higher ALC42 were higher infused CD3(+) cell dose (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.2; P = .004), lower antithymocyte globulin dose (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5; P = .01), and better HLA match (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.1; P = .03). In multivariate analysis, lower ALC42 was associated with higher nonrelapse mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.32; P = .001), whereas a higher ALC42 was associated with better disease-free survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.6; P < .001) and overall survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.6; P < .001). Our study suggests that the selection of better HLA-matched cord blood units containing higher CD3(+) cell counts and the use of conditioning regimens with lower ATG doses could improve immune reconstitution after UCBT. PMID:27038860

  5. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  6. Designing a Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-I) Diagnostic Model using the Complete Blood Count

    PubMed Central

    Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Pournik, Omid; Ghalichi, Leila; Kimiafar, Khalil; Razavi, Amir Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Infection caused by Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-I) can be observed in some areas of Iran in form of endemic. Most of the cases are asymptomatic, and few cases progress to malignancies and neural diseases. Designing and implementing a model to screen people especially in endemic regions can help timely detection of infected people and improve the prognosis of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, results of the complete blood count (CBC-diff) for 599 healthy people and the patients with different types of Leukemia and HTLV-I have been examined. Modeling was made using CHAID method. The final model was carried out based on the number of white blood cells (WBC), platelets, and percentages of eosinophils. Results: The accuracy of the final model was 91%. By applying this model to the CBC-diff results of people without symptoms or miscellaneous patients in endemic regions of our country, disease carriers can be identified and referred for supplementary tests. Conclusion: With regard to the prevalence of different complications in infected people, these individuals can be identified earlier, leading to the improvement of the prognosis of this disease and the increase of the health status especially in endemic regions. PMID:24470871

  7. Short-Chain PEG Mixed-Monolayer Protected Gold Clusters Increase Clearance and Red Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Carrie A.; Agrawal, Amanda C.; Balinski, Andrzej; Harkness, Kellen M.; Cliffel, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles have great potential as novel building blocks for the design of new drugs and therapeutics based on the easy ability to multifunctionalize them for biological targeting and drug activity. In order to create nanoparticles that are biocompatible in vivo, poly-ethylene glycol functional groups have been added to many previous multifunctionalized particles to eliminate non-specific binding. Recently, monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles with mercaptoglycine functionalities were shown to elicit deleterious effects on the kidney in vivo that were eliminated by incorporating a long-chain, mercapto-undecyl-tetraethylene glycol, at very high loadings into a mixed monolayer. These long-chain PEGs induced an immune response to the particle presumably generating an anti-PEG antibody as seen in other long-chain PEG-ylated nanoparticles in vivo. In the present work, we explore the in vivo effects of high and low percent ratios of a shorter chain, mercapto-tetraethylene glycol, within the monolayer using simple place-exchange reactions. The shorter chain PEG MPCs were expected to have better water solubility due to elimination of the alkyl chain, no toxicity, and long-term circulation in vivo. Shorter chain lengths at lower concentrations should not trigger the immune system into creating an anti-PEG antibody. We found that a 10% molar exchange of this short chain PEG within the monolayer met three of the desired goals: high water solubility, no toxicity, and no immune response as measured by white blood cell counts, but none of the short chain PEG mixed monolayer compositions enabled the nanoparticles to have a long circulation time within the blood as compared to mercapto-undecyl-ethylene glycol, which had a residence time of 4 weeks. We also compared the effects of a hydroxyl versus a carboxylic acid terminal functional group on the end of the PEG thiol on both clearance and immune response. The results indicate that short-chain length PEGs, regardless of termini, increase clearance rates compared to the previous long-chain PEG studies while carboxylated-termini increase red blood cell counts at high loadings. Given these findings, short-chain, alcohol-terminated PEG, exchanged at 10% was identified as a potential nanoparticle for further in vivo applications requiring short circulation lifetimes with desired features of no toxicity, no immune response, and high water solubility. PMID:21473648

  8. Erythrocytes Induce Proinflammatory Endothelial Activation in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, Alice; Das, Shonit R.; Emin, Memet; Sun, Li; Rifkind, Joseph M.; Bhattacharya, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Although exposure to ambient hypoxia is known to cause proinflammatory vascular responses, the mechanisms initiating these responses are not understood. We tested the hypothesis that in systemic hypoxia, erythrocyte-derived H2O2 induces proinflammatory gene transcription in vascular endothelium. We exposed mice or isolated, perfused murine lungs to 4 hours of hypoxia (8% O2). Leukocyte counts increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors, reactive oxygen species, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in freshly recovered lung endothelial cells (FLECs). These effects were inhibited by extracellular catalase and by the removal of erythrocytes, indicating that the responses were attributable to erythrocyte-derived H2O2. Concomitant nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor–1α stabilization in FLECs occurred only in the presence of erythrocytes. Hemoglobin binding to the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3, induced the release of H2O2 from erythrocytes and the p65 translocation in FLECs. These data indicate for the first time, to our knowledge, that erythrocytes are responsible for endothelial transcriptional responses in hypoxia. PMID:23043086

  9. [Erythrocyte function of rats under emotional stress].

    PubMed

    Vitrichenko, E E

    1985-12-01

    The effect of neurogenic stress of the conflict-of-afferent-excitations-type on the oxidizing erythrocyte properties and qualitative and quantitative red blood changes has been studied. Neurogenic stress was demonstrated to significantly affect the erythrocyte functional state in rats. Activation of free-radical oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids took place, provoking changes in their permiability and disorders of oxygen fixation and release. It is suggested that these changes may be the underlying mechanism of the developing tissue hypoxia and play a leading role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:4074867

  10. Haematological and erythrocyte membrane changes induced by amiodarone, in rats.

    PubMed

    Padmavathy, B; Devraj, N S; Devraj, H

    1992-10-01

    The effect of Amiodarone (AD), a cationic amphiphilic drug, on erythrocytes and leucocytes was studied. Treatment of rats with AD showed a significant decrease in the red cell count and the level of Hemoglobin. Amiodarone altered the fluidity of the erythrocyte membrane followed by a decrease in the activities of membrane bound enzymes like (Na+, K+)-ATPase, Acetylcholine esterase and NADH dehydrogenase. A slight increase in the leucocyte count was also observed in the treated animals. PMID:1337899

  11. Evaluation of nucleated red blood cell count by Sysmex XE-2100 in patients with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia and in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Buoro, Sabrina; Vavassori, Mauro; Pipitone, Silvia; Benegiamo, Anna; Lochis, Eleonora; Fumagalli, Sabina; Falanga, Anna; Marchetti, Marina; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Current haematology analysers have variable sensitivity and accuracy for counting nucleated red blood cells in samples with low values and in all those conditions characterised by altered sensitivity of red blood cells to the lysing process, such as in beta-thalassaemia or sickle-cell diseases and in neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the automated analyser XE-2100 at counting nucleated red blood cells in the above-mentioned three categories of subjects with potentially altered red blood cell lysis sensitivity and yet a need for accurate nucleated red blood cell counts. Materials and methods We measured nucleated red blood cell count by XE-2100 in peripheral blood samples of 187 subjects comprising 55 patients with beta-thalassaemia (40 major and 15 traits), 26 sickle-cell patients, 56 neonates and 50 normal subject. Results were compared with those obtained by optical microscopy. Agreement between average values of the two methods was estimated by means of Pearson’s correlation and bias analysis, whereas diagnostic accuracy was estimated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results The comparison between the two methods showed a Pearson’s correlation of 0.99 (95% CI; 0.98–0.99; p<0.001) and bias of −0.61 (95% CI, −1.5–0.3). The area under the curve of the nucleated red blood cell count in all samples was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.00; p<0.001). Sub-analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with thalassaemia, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with sickle cell anaemia, and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0–1.0) for neonates. Discussion XE-2100 has excellent performance for nucleated red blood cell counting, especially in critical populations such as patients with haemoglobinopathies and neonates. PMID:25761322

  12. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  13. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  14. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  15. The use of the chelating agent EDTA in the treatment of acute cadmium toxicity, tissue distribution and some blood parameters in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Hilmy, A M; el-Domiaty, N A; Daabees, A Y; Abou Taleb, E M

    1986-01-01

    Erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and cadmium accumulation in some organs and tissues were estimated in toads administered 6.2 mg Cd2+/kg i.m. for 4 days. EDTA therapy caused considerable decrease in all the blood parameters studied. A striking reduction in the cadmium content of all the organs and tissues studied except the kidneys was also observed after simultaneous treatment with EDTA. PMID:2877808

  16. Recommendations of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology for Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Anticoagulation of Blood for Blood Cell Counting and Sizing. International Council for Standardization in Haematology: Expert Panel on Cytometry.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Of the three ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts used for anticoagulation of blood specimens for hematologic testing, potassium salts are the most readily soluble. Tripotassium EDTA is dispensed as a liquid and thus causes a slight dilution of the specimen. This salt also has been shown to affect the red blood cell size more at increased concentrations and on storage than the dipotassium salt. Therefore, dipotassium EDTA is recommended as the anticoagulant of choice in specimen collection for blood cell counting and sizing. The amount of dipotassium EDTA used is 1.5-2.2 mg (3.7-5.4 mumol) per milliliter of blood. PMID:8213631

  17. Leflunomide-induced lung injury that developed after its withdrawal, coinciding with peripheral blood lymphocyte count decrease.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Takeshi; Koyama, Takako; Ohtani, Ryoko; Niiro, Hiroaki; Yoshizawa, Seiji; Harada, Mine; Inokuma, Shigeko

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year-old rheumatoid arthritis (RA) female with lung fibrosis was treated with leflunomide (LEF) for only 12 days, and responded well. Twenty-five days after the withdrawal of the drug, she had fever, dyspnea, and an elevated serum C-reactive protein level. Chest CT revealed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidations forming a mosaic pattern, in lung fields including the upper, anterior and central areas, and honeycomb patterns in the lung bases and backs. The level of plasma A771726, an active metabolite of LEF, was still as high as that usually noted under LEF therapy. After pulsed steroid and cholestyramine administration, A771726 was depleted and she recovered. The peripheral blood lymphocyte count that had been approximately 1,000/microL, decreased to 220/microL just at the onset of lung injury, and rapidly and steadily returned to the preinjury level preceding recovery from the injury. Serum albumin level decreased in association with lung injury, and gradually returned to the preinjury level. Special caution is necessary when prescribing leflunomide to elderly patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease, and remains necessary until at least 1 month after its withdrawal. PMID:18161003

  18. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content. PMID:26870978

  19. Effect of the addition of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC for up to 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Abushahla, Abdelnasser Kassem; Al-Sarraj, Heba Abd Allah

    2013-01-01

    Background The complete blood count is one of the most common routine tests. This study aimed to evaluate possible effects of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC over seven days. Methods Venous blood samples of 25 healthy males were distributed into two sets of tubes with each set of four tubes containing 50 µL of solutions with zero, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L taurine. The tubes were kept at room temperature or at 4ºC. Complete blood counts were performed on seven successive days. The mean percentage changes [Δ = (mean value - mean baseline value) / mean baseline value x 100] were calculated and compared. Results Complete blood count parameters exhibited different patterns of behavior which were affected by the storage temperature, time and taurine concentration. Taurine at room temperature significantly enhanced the stability of: the platelet count over seven days (Δ7 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 5.45, 6.11, and 5.80 x 109 cells/L, respectively); the red blood cell count over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 1.59, 2.79, and 1.98 x 1012 cells/L, respectively); mean corpuscular hemoglobin over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were -0.91,-1.52 and -0.84 fl respectively); and red cell distribution width over two days (Δ2 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 0.90%, 1.30% and -0.1%, respectively). No additional stabilizing effects of taurine were reported for the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and hemoglobin, while it negatively affected the white blood cell stability. Conclusion Complete blood count parameters exhibited variable stability patterns in respect to temperature, time and taurine concentration. PMID:23580884

  20. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapy Know as thrombocytosis: Cancer (lung, gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia) MPV (Not always ...

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... by bacteria and some viruses , less commonly by fungi or parasites Inflammation or inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis , vasculitis or inflammatory bowel disease Leukemia , myeloproliferative neoplasms Conditions that result in tissue ...

  2. Trilinolein improves erythrocyte deformability during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S K; Chan, P; Lee, T Y; Yung, J M; Hong, C Y

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro effect of trilinolein, a triglyceride with linoleic acid as the major fatty acid residue in the esterified positions of glycerol, on erythrocyte deformability was studied in blood samples collected from 12 patients before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Erythrocyte deformability was measured with a filtration method and expressed as red cell filtration rate (RFR). RFR was reduced after CPB and the reduction was time dependent. Trilinolein at a concentration of 10(-7) M significantly reversed the CPB-induced reduction of RFR when it was mixed with blood samples collected 30, 60 and 90 min from the start of CPB. This study confirmed the effect of CPB on erythrocyte deformability and showed that this damage could be significantly improved by mixing blood with trilinolein. PMID:8054252

  3. Effects of gold nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Aseichev, A V; Azizova, O A; Beckman, E M; Skotnikova, O I; Dudnik, L B; Shcheglovitova, O N; Sergienko, V I

    2014-02-01

    We studied hemolytic activity of gold nanoparticles added to the whole blood (ex vivo) and of nanoparticles coated and not coated with plasma components on erythrocytes in hypotonic medium (osmotic hemolysis) in vitro. Gold nanoparticles did not stimulate erythrocyte hemolysis after 4-h incubation with the whole blood ex vivo. Hemolysis tended to increase in the presence of small gold nanoparticles (5, 10, 20 nm) at the maximum concentration of 20 μM (by gold content) used in our study in comparison with the control. This tendency was detected during the 1st hour of the nanoparticles incubation with blood. Gold nanoparticles in the used concentrations (up to 20 μM of gold) coated with plasma components after preincubation with autologous plasma and nanoparticles without coating caused no osmotic hemolysis of erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:24771436

  4. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042

  5. Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  6. Favism: erythrocyte metabolism during haemolysis and reticulocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gaetani, G F; Mareni, C; Salvidio, E; Galiano, S; Meloni, T; Arese, P

    1979-09-01

    The reduced activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate; NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase; G6PF) in Mediterranean erythrocytes explains the precarious equilibrium of the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP) and the susceptibility of these cells to haemolytic agents. G6PD-deficient erythrocytes, in steady-state conditions, have a low NADPH/NADP+ ratio, thus allowing the HMP to operate at its maximal intracellular rate and to compensate the intrinsic erythrocyte enzyme deficiency. Studies started soon after accidental intake of fava beans by sensitive G6PD-deficient subjects demonstrate a decrease of both NADPH/NADP+ ratio and reduced glutathione. The metabolic effects induced by fava beans may be attributed to oxidative stress probably associated with an inhibitor effect of some unknown metabolite on the HMP. The availability of erythrocytes from subjects recovering from haemolysis with high reticulocyte counts and increased G6PD activity, provides new information on the rate of synthesis as well as on the in vivo decay of the mutant enzyme. Correlation of G6PD activity to reticulocyte count and extrapolation to an ideally homogenous population of reticulocytes reveal that the mutant enzyme is synthesized at a nearly normal rate. Furthermore, the present correlation allows an estimate of the in vivo half-life of Mediterranean G6PD. The rate of decline of about 8 d observed in this study well correlates to the intracellular metabolic aspects of G6PD Mediterranean erythrocytes. PMID:41565

  7. Determination of erythrocyte sodium sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Oberleithner, Hans; Wilhelmi, Marianne

    2013-10-01

    Sodium buffer capacity of vascular endothelium depends on an endothelial glycocalyx rich in negatively charged heparan sulfate. It has been shown recently that after the mechanical interaction of blood with heparan sulfate-depleted endothelium, erythrocytes also lose this glycocalyx constituent. This observation led to the conclusion that the vascular sodium buffer capacity of an individual could be derived from a blood sample. A test system (salt blood test (SBT)) was developed based upon the sodium-dependent erythrocyte zeta potential. Erythrocyte sedimentation velocity was measured in isosmotic, biopolymer-supplemented electrolyte solutions of different sodium concentrations. Erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS), inversely related to erythrocyte sodium buffer capacity, was expressed as the ratio of the erythrocyte sedimentation velocities of 150 mM over 125 mM Na(+) solutions (ESS = Na(+) 150/Na(+) 125). In 61 healthy individuals (mean age, 23 ± 0.5 years), ESS ranged between 2 and 8. The mean value was 4.3 ± 0.19. The frequency distribution shows two peaks, one at about 3 and another one at about 5. To test whether ESS reflects changes of the endothelial glycocalyx, a cultured endothelial monolayer was exposed for 3 hours to a rhythmically moving blood layer (drag force experiment). When applying this procedure, we found that ESS was reduced by about 21 % when the endothelium was pretreated for 4 days with the glycocalyx protective agent WS 1442. In conclusion, the SBT could possibly serve as an in vitro test system for the evaluation of erythrocyte/vascular salt sensitivity allowing follow-up measurements in the prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunctions. PMID:23686295

  8. Evaluation of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Fátima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gisélia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters to identify three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, inflammation, and hemoglobinopathies as: iron deficiency anemia (n = 42), anemia of chronic disease (n = 28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n = 22), and heterozygous β-thalassemia (n = 25). The percentage of microcytic erythrocytes, hypochromic erythrocytes, and the levels of hemoglobin in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating anemia. Results There was no difference between the groups of iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency for any of the parameters. The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was the best parameter to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease (area under curve = 0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.661–0.909 with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic erythrocyte count minus hypochromic erythrocyte count was very accurate to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from heterozygous β-thalassemia (area under curve = 0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.005 with a sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices are moderately good to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25818816

  9. Magnetic Nanosensor for Detection and Profiling of Erythrocyte-Derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Junsung; Chung, Jaehoon; Im, Hyungsoon; Liong, Monty; Shao, Huilin; Castro, Cesar M.; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2014-01-01

    During the course of their lifespan, erythrocytes actively shed phospholipid-bound, microvesicles (MVs). In stored blood, the number of these erythrocyte-derived MVs have been observed to increase over time, suggesting their potential value as a quality metric for blood products. The lack of sensitive, standardized MV assays, however, poses a significant barrier to implementing MV analyses into clinical settings. Here, we report on a new nanotechnology platform capable of rapid and sensitive MV detection in packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. A filter-assisted microfluidic device was designed to enrich MVs directly from pRBC units, and label them with target-specific magnetic nanoparticles. Subsequent detection using a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance system enabled accurate MV quantification as well as the detection of key molecular markers (CD44, CD47, CD55). By applying the developed platform, MVs in stored blood units could also be monitored longitudinally. Our results showed that MV counts increase over time, and thus could serve as an effective metric of blood aging. Furthermore, our studies found that MVs have the capacity to generate oxidative stress and consume nitric oxide. By advancing our understanding of MV biology, we expect that the developed platform will lead to improved blood product quality and transfusion safety. PMID:24295203

  10. Opioids and rat erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, D L; Wei, L X; Lin, E T; Rezvani, A; Way, E L

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was noted that opioids in vitro reduced human red blood cell deformability. The effect was found to be dose-dependent, naloxone reversible and preferentially selective kappa ligands exhibited the highest potency. To extend these findings studies were carried out using rat erythrocytes. The time required for erythrocytes to pass through a 5.0 um pore membrane was determined and used as an index of deformability. Opioids added in vitro produced inhibition of deformability in a dose-dependent, naloxone reversible manner. Injecting naive animals with morphine or nalbuphine also produced dose related reductions in red cell deformability. The degree of inhibition produced by nalbuphine correlated well with its plasma concentrations as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chronic morphine treatment by pellet implantation resulted in the development of tolerance as evidenced by a loss in the ability of morphine in vitro to inhibit red cell deformability. Addition of naloxone resulted in a decrease in filtration time. Thus, the data confirm and extend previous findings on human red blood cells. In as much as previous data from this laboratory demonstrated that opioids inhibit calcium flux from erythrocytes by inhibiting calcium-ATPase and calcium efflux is necessary for normal deformability, it is concluded that opioids act to reduce red cell deformability by inhibition of the calcium pump. PMID:3123933

  11. Effects of a diet high in fish oil (MaxEPA) on the formation of micronucleated erythrocytes in blood and on the number of atypical acinar cell foci Induced in rat pancreas by azaserine.

    PubMed

    Appel, Marko J; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2003-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the influence of fish oil on the genotoxic effects of azaserine, using the formation of micronucleated erythrocytes as a measure for the degree of initiating potency and the number and size of putative preneoplastic pancreatic atypical acinar cell foci (AACF) as a measure for the actual number of initiated cells. Male Wistar rats were treated twice i.p. with 30 mg azaserine per kg body weight to induce AACF. During the initiation/early promotion phase the rats were maintained on diets containing 5 wt% vegetable oil (safflower and high-oleic sunflower oil), 25 wt% vegetable oil, 25 wt% fat (15% vegetable oil + 10 wt% fish oil), or 25 wt% fat (5% vegetable oil + 20 wt% fish oil), respectively. One day after carcinogen treatment, the numbers of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were determined in blood smears obtained from 10 animals per group. Each high-fat diet resulted in higher percentages of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes than the low-fat diet. Dietary fish oil did not significantly influence the number of micronucleated cells. Two weeks after carcinogen treatment, the diets containing fish oil were replaced by the diet containing 25% vegetable oil, and the animals were further maintained for about 14 wk. Pancreatic tissue slides were microscopically evaluated for the number and size of AACF. Dietary fish oil caused an increase in the number and size of AACF, although a clear dose-effect relationship was absent. It was concluded that a high level of dietary fish oil, when given during the induction/early promotion phase, enhances azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats. PMID:14769538

  12. Circulating white blood cell count and measures of adipose tissue inflammation predict higher 24-h energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Le, Duc Son; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Scalise, Michael; Ferrante, Anthony W; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Energy expenditure (EE) and measures of inflammation increase with adiposity, and this obesity-induced chronic and subclinical inflammation was extensively reported to be a cause of insulin resistance. However, whether subclinical inflammation has a role in increasing EE, which may be at the cost of developing insulin resistance, is not clear. Methods We investigated the association between circulating white blood cell count (WBC) in a population of Native Americans (n=243) with measurement of EE in a respiratory chamber, and in a subset of the same population (n=34), with gene expression measures of inflammation in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT). All subjects were healthy on oral glucose tolerance test. Statistically, nonnormally distributed variables were logarithmically transformed before analyses to approximate normal distributions. Results WBC was associated with 24-h EE adjusted for age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass (r=0.13, P=0.04). In SAAT, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), shown as log10-transformed TNF-α (r=0.36, P=0.05), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), shown as log10-transformed PAI-1 (lPAI-1; r=0.41, P=0.02), expressions were also positively correlated with adjusted 24-h EE. lPAI-1 was also correlated with adjusted sleep EE (r=0.34, P=0.07). Conclusions In conclusion, circulating markers of inflammation (WBC) and markers of inflammation within adipose tissue (TNF-α and PAI-1) are positively associated with EE, indicating a role of chronic subclinical inflammation in the regulation of metabolic rate. PMID:19934269

  13. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    PubMed

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals. PMID:24517839

  14. Brucella melitensis Invades Murine Erythrocytes during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  15. Variations on Fibrinogen-Erythrocyte Interactions during Cell Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; de Oliveira, Sofia; Freitas, Teresa; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte hyperaggregation, a cardiovascular risk factor, is considered to be caused by an increase in plasma adhesion proteins, particularly fibrinogen. We have recently reported a specific binding between fibrinogen and an erythrocyte integrin receptor with a β3 or β3-like subunit. In this study we evaluate the influence of erythrocyte aging on the fibrinogen binding. By atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy measurements we found that increasing erythrocyte age, there is a decrease of the binding to fibrinogen by decreasing the frequency of its occurrence but not its force. This observation is reinforced by zeta-potential and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. We conclude that upon erythrocyte aging the number of fibrinogen molecules bound to each cell decreases significantly, due to the progressive impairment of the specific fibrinogen-erythrocyte receptor interaction. Knowing that younger erythrocytes bind more to fibrinogen, we could presume that this population is the main contributor to the cardiovascular diseases associated with increased fibrinogen content in blood, which could disturb the blood flow. Our data also show that the sialic acids exposed on the erythrocyte membrane contribute for the interaction with fibrinogen, possibly by facilitating its binding to the erythrocyte membrane receptor. PMID:21464904

  16. Correlation of serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and neutrophil percentage with histopathology findings in acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC) and Neutrophil percentage (NP) in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings. Materials and methods This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP. Results The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5%) patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5%) patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%). The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%), whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%). Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2%) had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of inflammation (p-value <0.05). CRP monitoring enhances the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis. The diagnostic accuracy of CRP is not significantly greater than WBC and NP. A combination of these three tests significantly increases the accuracy. We found that elevated serum CRP levels support the surgeon's clinical diagnosis. PMID:22866907

  17. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging.Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations.A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8 ×10/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-16) versus (9.3 ×10/L; IQR 7.2-12.1) and (46  mg/L; IQR 12-100 versus 10  mg/L; IQR 7-26) (P < 0.001).The highest positive predictive value (PPV) (85.5%) and lowest false positives (14.5%) were reached when cutoff values of CRP level >50  mg/L and WBC count >15 ×10/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed.A high CRP level (>50  mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15 ×10/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48  hours). PMID:25738473

  18. C-Reactive Protein and White Blood Cell Count as Triage Test Between Urgent and Nonurgent Conditions in 2961 Patients With Acute Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L.; Atema, Jasper J.; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R.; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging. Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations. A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8 ×109/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9–16) versus (9.3 ×109/L; IQR 7.2–12.1) and (46 mg/L; IQR 12–100 versus 10 mg/L; IQR 7–26) (P < 0.001). The highest positive predictive value (PPV) (85.5%) and lowest false positives (14.5%) were reached when cutoff values of CRP level >50 mg/L and WBC count >15 ×109/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed. A high CRP level (>50 mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15 ×109/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48 hours). PMID:25738473

  19. Association of White Blood Cell Count and Differential with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Misialek, Jeffrey R.; Bekwelem, Wobo; Chen, Lin Y.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Norby, Faye L.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although inflammation is involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the association of white blood cell (WBC) count and differential with AF has not been thoroughly examined in large cohorts with extended follow-up. Methods We studied 14,500 men and women (25% blacks, 55% women, mean age 54) free of AF at baseline (1987–89) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a community-based cohort in the United States. Incident AF cases through 2010 were identified from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge records and death certificates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AF associated with WBC count and differential. Results Over a median follow-up time of 21.5 years for the entire cohort, 1928 participants had incident AF. Higher total WBC count was associated with higher AF risk independent of AF risk factors and potential confounders (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase). Higher neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively associated with AF risk, while an inverse association was identified between lymphocyte count and AF (multivariable adjusted HRs 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.23; 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11; 0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.97 per 1-SD, respectively). No significant association was identified between eosinophils or basophils and AF. Conclusions High total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts were each associated with higher AF risk while lymphocyte count was inversely associated with AF risk. Systemic inflammation may underlie this association and requires further investigation for strategies to prevent AF. PMID:26313365

  20. Erythrocytes-the 'house elves' of photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Lars; Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence diagnosis (FD) are being developed for a number of clinical applications. Since fluorophores and photosensitising drugs are usually given systemically their effect on blood elements are of significant importance. Photodynamic effects on erythrocytes occur naturally in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP). Exposure to small fluences, as obtained by the erythrocytes when they pass capillaries in the skin, leads to transfer of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PP IX), from EPP erythrocytes to endothelial cells. Thus, the erythrocytes are partly protected while the endothelial cells suffer photodamage. During photodynamic therapy in vivo erythrocytes are regularly photosensitised. This side effect is partly intended but mostly unwanted, and a summary of this topic is given. Furthermore, the effect of UV-A on erythrocytes that is accompanied with the formation of bilirubin is reviewed. Erythrocytes serve as convenient model cells for experimental research. Such use of erythrocytes to screen new photosensitisers may be of limited value. A combination of photohaemolysis and haemoglobin oxygenation may become the basis for an assay for in vitro phototoxicity. Erythrocytes from birds are good model cells for exploration of physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in PDT. A potential mechanism of PDT induced behaviour resembling apoptosis in erythrocytes is provided.PDT for sterilisation of erythrocyte concentrates has a potential for medical use. Photodynamic effects on the erythrocytes themselves should be avoided. This is realised by choosing a virus-selective photosensitiser, low fluences and treatment of the concentrates with agents like dipyridamole and antioxidants. Future aspects of applications of photosensitisation of red blood cells are discussed. PMID:15570383

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Plateletworks® in the Measurement of Blood Cell Counts as compared to the Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800.

    PubMed

    McNair, Erick; Qureshi, A Mabood; Bally, Cara

    2015-06-01

    Prior to undergoing cardiac surgery many patients may have impaired platelet function due to platelet inhibition. Point of care testing (POCT) that produces quick results of platelet counts and function allow earlier clinician interpretation, diagnosis and treatment. Before being adopted for routine clinical use, a POCT device's performance must be evaluated by standard laboratory techniques to ensure high quality results. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of the Plateletworks?V BC 3200 automated hematology analyzer by correlating its precision, accuracy and linearity for the measurement of blood counts to our hospital central laboratory analyzer (Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800). The study utilizes well described methods for Within-Run and Day-to-Day precision, comparison of methods (bias), and linearity. Control samples from the manufacturer were used for the precision studies, blood samples from 115 cardiac surgical subjects were used for comparison of methods and accuracy, and pre-diluted control samples from the manufacturer were used for the linearity studies. The precision of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable. The overall coefficient of variation (CV) for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Within-Run precision was acceptable ranging from 0.65-6.4%. Likewise, the CV for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Day-to-Day precision was acceptable ranging from 1.45% to 6.7%. The correlation and accuracy between the two analyzers for the evaluated parameters (platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin) was acceptable. The linearity for the measured parameters was also acceptable with a range between 98-100%. The performance of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable for providing blood cell counts as compared to our central hospital laboratory analyzer. PMID:26405360

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Plateletworks® in the Measurement of Blood Cell Counts as compared to the Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Erick; Qureshi, A. Mabood; Bally, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Prior to undergoing cardiac surgery many patients may have impaired platelet function due to platelet inhibition. Point of care testing (POCT) that produces quick results of platelet counts and function allow earlier clinician interpretation, diagnosis and treatment. Before being adopted for routine clinical use, a POCT device’s performance must be evaluated by standard laboratory techniques to ensure high quality results. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of the Plateletworks® BC 3200 automated hematology analyzer by correlating its precision, accuracy and linearity for the measurement of blood counts to our hospital central laboratory analyzer (Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800). The study utilizes well described methods for Within-Run and Day-to-Day precision, comparison of methods (bias), and linearity. Control samples from the manufacturer were used for the precision studies, blood samples from 115 cardiac surgical subjects were used for comparison of methods and accuracy, and pre-diluted control samples from the manufacturer were used for the linearity studies. The precision of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable. The overall coefficient of variation (CV) for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Within-Run precision was acceptable ranging from 0.65–6.4%. Likewise, the CV for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Day-to-Day precision was acceptable ranging from 1.45% to 6.7%. The correlation and accuracy between the two analyzers for the evaluated parameters (platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin) was acceptable. The linearity for the measured parameters was also acceptable with a range between 98–100%. The performance of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable for providing blood cell counts as compared to our central hospital laboratory analyzer. PMID:26405360

  3. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma Infection in Research Sheep and Its Effects on Hematology Variables and Erythrocyte Membrane Fragility

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Joseph A; Spath, Samantha N; Bergin, Ingrid L; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steven R; Dyson, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) infection in research sheep can confound experimental results and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Prevalence and clinicopathologic studies historically relied on blood-smear diagnosis, but systematic studies using current molecular techniques are warranted. Here we sought to report the prevalence of subclinical infection in our study population, compare diagnostic sensitivity and specificity between blood smears and a PCR assay, and determine the effects of infection on CBC variables and erythrocyte membrane fragility. We collected whole-blood samples from 111 convenience-sampled research sheep. All samples were tested for hemoplasmas by using a PCR assay, blood smears were evaluated for visual presence of hemoplasmas, and CBC and osmotic fragility assays were performed. Subclinical prevalence, according to PCR diagnosis, was 14.1% (14 of 99) in our study population. Relative to the PCR assay, blood-smear diagnosis was 8.3% sensitive and 100% specific for hemoplasma detection. Subclinical infection was associated with changes in MCV, MCHC, RBC distribution width, and absolute monocyte count. Acute infection was associated with changes in RBC mass, Hgb concentration, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Acute infection was associated with increased mean erythrocyte fragility compared with that in uninfected control and treated sheep. We demonstrated that hemoplasma infection is common in our study population, blood-smear evaluation is insensitive at detecting infection, and infection is associated with changes in CBC variables and increased erythrocyte membrane fragility. These findings raise concerns regarding the suitability of hemoplasma-infected sheep for biomedical research. PMID:25527029

  4. Pravastatin provides antioxidant activity and protection of erythrocytes loaded Primaquine.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Fars

    2010-01-01

    Loading erythrocytes with Primaquine (PQ) is advantageous. However, PQ produces damage to erythrocytes through free radicals production. Statins have antioxidant action and are involved in protective effect against situation of oxidative stress. Thus the protective effect of pravastatin (PS) against PQ induced oxidative damage to human erythrocytes was investigated in the current studies upon loading to erythrocytes.The erythrocytes were classified into; control erythrocytes, erythrocytes incubated with either 2 mM of PS or 2 mM of PQ, and erythrocytes incubated with combination of PS plus PQ. After incubation for 30 min, the effect of the drugs on erythrocytes hemolysis as well as some biomarkers of oxidative stress (none protein thiols, protein carbonyl, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) were investigated.Our results revealed that PS maintains these biomarkers at values similar to that of control ones. On the other hand, PQ cause significant increases of protein carbonyl by 115% and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance by 225% while non-protein thiols were significantly decreased by 112 % compared with control erythrocytes. PS pre-incubation before PQ exerts marked reduction of these markers in comparison with PQ alone. Moreover, at NaCl concentrations between 0.4% and 0.8%, PQ causes significant increase of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) hemolysis in comparison with the other groups (P<0. 001). Scanning electron micrograph indicates spherocytes formation by PQ incubation, but in the other groups the discocyte shape of erythrocytes was preserved.The reduction of protein oxidation and lipids peroxidation by PS is related to antioxidants effect of this statin. Preservation of erythrocytes fragility and morphology by PS are related to its free radicals scavenging effect. It is concluded that pravastatin has protective effect against erythrocytes dysfunction related any situations associated with increased oxidative stress, especially when loaded with PQ. PMID:21060723

  5. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and immunologic parameters in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:26622258

  6. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

  7. Human Erythrocytes Selectively Bind and Enrich Infectious HIV-1 Virions

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Zoltan; Brown, Bruce K.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Peachman, Kristina K.; Matyas, Gary R.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Rao, Mangala; Alving, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Although CD4(+) cells represent the major target for HIV infection in blood, claims of complement-independent binding of HIV-1 to erythrocytes and the possible role of Duffy blood group antigen, have generated controversy. To examine the question of binding to erythrocytes, HIV-1 was incubated in vitro with erythrocytes from 30 healthy leukapheresis donors, and binding was determined by p24 analysis and adsorption of HIV-1 with reduction of infectivity for CD4(+) target cells. All of the cells, regardless of blood group type, bound HIV-1 p24. A typical preparation of erythrocytes bound <2.4% of the added p24, but erythrocytes selectively removed essentially all of the viral infectivity as determined by decreased infection of CD4(+) target cells; however, cell-associated HIV-1 was approximately 100-fold more efficient, via trans infection, than unadsorbed virus for infection of CD4(+) cells. All of the bound HIV-1 p24 was released by treatment of the cells with EDTA, and binding was optimized by adding Ca2+ and Mg2+ during the washing of erythrocytes containing bound HIV-1. Although the small number of contaminating leukocytes in the erythrocyte preparation also bound HIV-1 p24, there was no significant binding to CD4, and it thus appears that the binding occurred on leukocytes at non-CD4 sites. Furthermore, binding occurred to erythrocyte ghosts from which contaminating leukocytes had been previously removed. The results demonstrate that erythrocytes incubated in vitro with HIV-1 differentially adsorb all of the infectious HIV-1 virions (as opposed to non-infectious or degraded virions) in the absence of complement and independent of blood group, and binding is dependent on divalent cations. By analogy with HIV-1 bound to DC-SIGN on dendritic cells, erythrocyte-bound HIV-1 might comprise an important surface reservoir for trans infection of permissive cells. PMID:20011536

  8. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Peripheral White Blood Cell Count, Fever and Acute Leukocutosis for Bacterial Meningitis in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Hosseinali; YadollahiKhales, Golnaz; Isaee, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC) count, fever (>38˚C) and WBC rise (>10%) for bacterial meningitis in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. We included consecutively all the patients with severe TBI admitted to our center during the study period who were febrile (>38˚C orally) and underwent lumbar puncture (LP) and analysis and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Laboratory analysis of CSF and blood were performed within 2 hours of LP. CSF culture was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of peripheral blood WBC count, fever (>38˚C) and WBC rise (>10%) was determined according to the CSF culture. Results: Overall we included242 consecutive patients with severe TBI. The mean age of the participants was 32.8 ± 17.4 years. Acinetobacter was the most common organism found in the CSF cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral WBC count (>10,000)was 48.4% (95% CI: 0.42-0.56) and 47% (95% CI: 0.37-0.58) respectively. The PPV and NPV was 13.1% (95% CI: 0.33-0.52) and 84.8% (95% CI: 0.42-0.61), respectively. The AUC for WBC count was 0.478 (95% CI: 0.37-0.58) indicating low accuracy for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The AUC for WBC rise (>10%) and temperature >38˚C was0.460 (95% CI: 0.351-0.569) and 0.517 (95% CI: 0.410-0.624) respectively, both indicating low accuracy for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicates that peripheral blood leukocyte count, fever (>38˚C) and WBC rise (>10%) is a non-reliable marker for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in patients with severe TBI.

  10. The effect of treatment with montelukast on levels of serum interleukin-10, eosinophil cationic protein, blood eosinophil counts, and clinical parameters in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Birol; Aydemir, Cumhur; Ustündag, Gonca; Eldeş, Nilüfer; Kutsal, Ebru; Can, Murat; Demirtaş, Selda; Tomaç, Nazan

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine. IL-10 levels are reduced in asthmatic airways. A regulatory mechanism involving IL-4 induced allergen-specific IL-10 production may be defective in allergic subjects, and this defect potentially contributes to more intense inflammation. The aim of this study was to define the effect of treatment with montelukast on serum levels of IL-10, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), blood eosinophil counts, and clinical parameters (symptom score and lung function tests) in children with mild and moderate persistent asthma. Twenty-five children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and 25 nonatopic healthy children as controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with montelukast for four weeks. Lung function tests for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF25-75) were performed before and after treatment. Serum IL-10, ECP levels, and blood eosinophil counts were determined in both the control group and asthmatic children before and after treatment. The mean serum IL-10 levels were significantly lower before treatment than after treatment (1.75 +/- 0.9 pg/ml and 5.49 +/- 3.6 pg/ml; p < 0.001) and in control subjects (5.6 +/- 2.8 pg/ml). After four weeks of treatment with montelukast, the mean blood eosinophil count value (608 +/- 73/mm3 and 469 +/- 57/mm3; p < 0.05) but not the ECP value (33.98 +/- 24.3 microg/L and 29.03 +/- 19.2 microg/L; p > 0.05) was significantly decreased. After treatment with montelukast, all clinical parameters and lung function tests improved. We found no statistical correlations between the serum level of IL-10 and the serum level of ECP, eosinophil count, lung function tests, or clinical scores after treatment with montelukast. Montelukast caused a statistically significant increase in serum IL-10 levels and decrease in peripheral blood eosinophil counts over the four-week treatment period. Our study indicates that montelukast provides clinical benefits for children with chronic asthma and produces an anti-inflammatory response by increasing serum IL-10 levels, PMID:20112601

  11. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  12. Dietary calcium intake is associated with adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory state and blood pressure, but not with erythrocyte intracellular calcium and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Thas; Torres, Mrcia Regina Simas Gonalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2013-09-28

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 1850 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ? 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23411109

  13. The effect of Alpine mountaineering on acute erythrocyte hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, D T; Watts, P B; Newbury, V S

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erythrocyte hemolysis occurs during a mountain ascent over snow and ice to 3285 meters. Data were collected from six experienced recreational mountaineers, 2 females and 4 males, who participated in a six-day ice climbing seminar and peak ascent in the North Cascades mountain range of the United States. Blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein at sea level (S1), in a base camp at 1515 m prior to the summit ascent (S2), on the summit at 3285 m after 6.5 hours of climbing (S3), at base camp immediately after the descent (S4), and at sea level following a trail descent from the base camp (S5). Whole blood samples were chilled and analyzed for complete blood count including hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct), and white blood cell count (WBC). Serum was frozen and later analyzed for serum haptoglobin (Hapt). No significant changes were found for Hct and Hb among the samples. Mean (+/- SEM) Hapt values were 125 (+/- 28), 113 (+/- 25), 100 (+/- 18), 103 (+/- 32), and 109 (+/- 23) mg.dl-1 for S1 through S5, respectively. No significant differences were found among the Hapt values. Plasma volume changes (% PVC) were calculated from Hct and Hb. Mean estimated % PVC were -4.16 (+/- 1.55), -2.54 (+/- 3.93), 7.46 (+/- 4.86), and 4.80 (+/- 3.49) percent between S1 and S2, S2 and S3, S3 and S4, and S4 and S5, respectively. Total body haptoglobin (TBH) was estimated from Hapt and % PVC in an attempt to correct for the plasma volume change effect on haptoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1544729

  14. Graphic analysis of osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Sudo, K; Nishi, N; Sarashi, A; Kimura, E

    1976-11-01

    A precise and highly reproducible method for analyzing the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes with a minute amount of blood (less than 10 mul) is described. The osmotic fragility curves are recorded with a coil planet centrifuge with accessories and a scanning photodensitometer. The recorded curves are transcribed by a DuPont Curve Resolver and their components are analyzed. Normal fragility curves obtained from healthy adults revealed slightly skewed Gaussian curves and they were resolved into several typical Gaussian components which differed according to the physical and clinical conditions of subjects. Each resolved component is supposed to correspond to the population of erythrocytes having a nearly identical osmotic fragility. The method is proved to be useful for the detection of altered membrane properties of erythrocytes in various diseases. PMID:996851

  15. Extensive chronic GVHD is associated with donor blood CD34+ cell count after G-CSF mobilization in non-myeloablative allogeneic PBSC transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, N; Prébet, T; De Latour, R Peffault; Katsahian, S; Kuentz, M; Piard, N; Réa, D; Norol, F; Jouet, J P; Ribeil, J A; Tabrizi, R; Rio, B; Lioure, B; Tiberghien, P; Bourhis, J H; Sirvent, A; Bordigoni, P; Blaise, D; Michallet, M; Vernant, J P

    2012-12-01

    The correlation between the incidence of GVHD and the number of infused CD34(+) cells remains controversial for PBSC transplantation after a reduced-intensity-conditioning (RIC) regimen. We evaluated 99 patients transplanted with an HLA-identical sibling after the same RIC (2-Gy-TBI/fludarabine). Donor and recipient characteristics, donor's blood G-CSF-mobilized CD34(+) cell count, and number of infused CD34(+) and CD3(+) cells were analyzed as risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD There was a trend for an increased incidence of extensive chronic GVHD in the quartile of patients receiving more than 10 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg (P = 0.05). Interestingly, the number of donor's blood CD34(+) cells at day 5 of G-CSF mobilization was closely associated with the incidence of extensive chronic GVHD, that is, 48% (95% CI: 28-68) at 24-months in the quartile of patients whose donors had the highest CD34(+) cell counts versus 24.3% (95% CI: 14-34) in the other patients (P = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, the only factor correlating with extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was the donor's blood CD34(+) cell count after G-CSF (HR 2.49; 95% CI: 1.16-5.35, P = 0.019). This study shows that the incidence of cGVHD is more strongly associated with the donor's ability to mobilize CD34(+) cells than with the number of infused CD34(+) cells. PMID:22609881

  16. Bromfenvinphos induced suicidal death of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The organophosphorus pesticide bromfenvinphos ((E,Z)-O,O-diethyl-O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl] phosphate) has been shown to decrease hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in blood presumably by triggering oxidative stress of erythrocytes. Oxidative stress is known to activate erythrocytic Ca(2+) permeable unselective cation channels leading to Ca(2+) entry and increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i), which in turn triggers eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. The present study explored, whether and how bromfenvinphos induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48hour exposure of human erythrocytes to bromfenvinphos (≥100μM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter, significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence, and significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence. The effect of bromfenvinphos on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In conclusion, bromfenvinphos triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to stimulation of ROS formation and Ca(2+) entry. PMID:26778435

  17. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity. PMID:26196576

  18. Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, D. C. Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H.; Miller, Louis H.

    2009-01-01

    In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population. PMID:19279206

  19. [The method of analysis of distribution of erythrocytes by density: practical guidelines].

    PubMed

    Shukrina, E S; Nesterenko, V M; Tsvetaeva, N V; Nikulina, O F; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2014-07-01

    The article describes the phthalate method of analysis of distribution of erythrocytes by density and demonstrates its possibility. The distribution of erythrocytes by density is implemented using centrifugation of blood in micro-hematocrit capillaries in presence of compounds of dimethyl- and dibuthylphthalates of known density. The acquisition of such clinically reliable parameters of distribution of erythrocytes by density as mean density of erythrocytes, width of distribution of erythrocytes by density, light and heavy fraction of erythrocytes and maximum of curve of distribution of erythrocytes by density is described. The causes of deviation of distribution of erythrocytes by density from standard values under various pathological conditions are considered. The syndrome of dehydration of erythrocytes is described in details. The simple and accessible method of acquisition of distribution of erythrocytes by density is described. It is demonstrated that analysis of distribution of erythrocytes by density makes it possible to determine character of changes occurring with erythrocytes. The monitoring of parameters of distribution of erythrocytes by density allows evaluating dynamics of pathological process and effectiveness of therapy. PMID:25346987

  20. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  1. Accuracy and Feasibility of Point-Of-Care White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein Measurements at the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Pia; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background Several point-of-care (POC) tests are available for evaluation of febrile patients, but the data about their performance in acute care setting is sparse. We investigated the analytical accuracy and feasibility of POC tests for white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods In the first part of the study, HemoCue WBC and Afinion AS100 CRP POC analyzers were compared with laboratory’s routine WBC (Sysmex XE-2100) and CRP (Modular P) analyzers in the hospital central laboratory in 77 and 48 clinical blood samples, respectively. The POC tests were then adopted in use at the pediatric ED. In the second part of the study, we compared WBC and CRP levels measured by POC and routine methods during 171 ED patient visits by 168 febrile children and adolescents. Attending physicians performed POC tests in capillary fingerprick samples. Results In parallel measurements in the laboratory both WBC and CRP POC analyzers showed good agreement with the reference methods. In febrile children at the emergency department (median age 2.4 years), physician performed POC determinations in capillary blood gave comparable results with those in venous blood analyzed in the laboratory. The mean difference between POC and reference test result was 1.1 E9/L (95% limits of agreement from -6.5 to 8.8 E9/L) for WBC and -1.2 mg/L (95% limits of agreement from -29.6 to 27.2 mg/L) for CRP. Conclusions POC tests are feasible and relatively accurate methods to assess CRP level and WBC count among febrile children at the ED. PMID:26034987

  2. ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... elevated ESR occurs with inflammation but also with anemia , infection , pregnancy , and with aging. A very high ESR usually ... white blood cell count ( leukocytosis ), and some protein abnormalities. Some changes in red cell shape (such as sickle cells in sickle cell anemia ) also lower the ESR. ESR and C-reactive ...

  3. Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

  4. Are polymorphisms in metabolism protective or a risk for reduced white blood cell counts in a Chinese population with low occupational benzene exposures?

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling-li; Zhang, Guang-hui; Huang, Jing-wen; Li, Yong; Zheng, Guo-qiao; Zhang, De-ting; Zhou, Li-fang; Tao, Xi-dan; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Yun-jie; Sun, Pin; Frank, Arthur; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetic variations in metabolic enzyme genes may enhance hematotoxicity in benzene-exposed populations. Objective: To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolism genes and white blood cells (WBCs). Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five benzene-exposed workers and 220 unexposed indoor workers were recruited in China. We explored the relationship between metabolic enzymes polymorphisms [glutathione S-transferase T1/M1 (GSTT1/M1) null, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1)rs1695, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) rs3813867, rs2031920, rs6413432, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) rs1051740, rs2234922] by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and WBC. Results: The exposed group had lower WBC counts (P<0.001) than the unexposed group. Increased susceptibility to hematotoxicity, as evidenced by lower WBC counts, was found in workers with null-GSTT1 (P = 0.045), null-GSTM1 (P = 0.030), rs2031920 (P = 0.020), and rs3813867 (P = 0.014) genotypes. White blood cell counts were also lower in workers with null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM1 genotypes and Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1: rs2031920, rs3813867) may support the hematotoxicity of benzene-exposed workers in China, and we can make use of it to select susceptible population. PMID:26179485

  5. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  6. Effect of storage on insulin receptor binding in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, K K; Nerurkar, S G; Carter, L; Brickler, C; Giridhar, G

    1983-05-01

    The authors established the specificity, reliability, and precision of human erythrocyte insulin radioreceptor assay. On the basis of insulin binding, cell viability, and degree of hemolysis, heparin sodium was found to be a more suitable anticoagulant than sodium fluoride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium oxalate, or sodium citrate. In two sets of experiments carried out at 4°C and 23°C, human erythrocytes were stored as whole blood or isolated erythrocytes suspended in Tris-{4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-ethanesulfonic acid} buffer. The effect of storage under these conditions was evaluated by erythrocytespecific insulin binding. Human erythrocytes can be stored for 72 hours at 4°C without any change in insulin binding, insulin receptor sites per cell, or average affinity constant at the empty sites. Isolated erythrocytes can also be stored in plasma for 72 hours or in buffer G for 24 hours at 4°C without any change in insulin binding. It is not advisable to store human erythrocytes in plasma or as whole blood for more than 24 hours at 23°. These findings are useful in preserving insulin receptor activity when storage of erythrocytes is unavoidable. PMID:6864830

  7. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid population indicating a stress response. In short cadmium exposure causes preferential clearance of older erythrocytes from circulation along with a depressed erythropoietic activity at higher doses. PMID:26161863

  8. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  9. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certain fungus infections Asthma Autoimmune diseases Eczema Hay fever Leukemia and other blood disorders A lower-than-normal eosinophil count may be due to: Alcohol intoxication Overproduction of certain steroids in the body (such as cortisol)

  10. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the blood loss leads to iron deficiency). Hemolytic anemia : In this condition, anemia is caused by increased ... This condition causes increased RBC destruction, similar to hemolytic anemia described above. A low reticulocyte count with low ...

  11. Light-scattering changes caused by RBC aggregation: physical basis for new approach to noninvasive blood count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, Leonid D.; Fine, Ilya

    2001-06-01

    We develop theoretical models of light transmission through whole blood considering RBC aggregation. RBC aggregates are considered to be the main centers of scattering in red/near- infrared spectral region. In pulsatile blood flow the periodic changes of aggregate geometry cause oscillations of light scattering. Thus scattering-assisted mechanism has to be taken into account in pulse oximeter calibration. In case of over-systolic vessel occlusion the size of aggregates grows, and the light transmission rises. Light diffraction on a single scatterer makes the transmission growth non- monotonic for certain spectral range. For the most typical set of aggregate parameters this range corresponds to wavelengths below 760 nm, and this prediction fits well both in vivo and in vitro experimental results. This spectral range depends on the refraction index mismatch and the geometry of aggregates. Both of them may be affected by the chemistry of blood. For instance, changes of glucose and hemoglobin have different effect on light transmission time response. Consequently, their content may be determined from time evolution of optical transmission.

  12. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. PMID:26917244

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... which measure the number, size, and shape of cells and platelets in the blood. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion.

  14. Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2002-07-01

    The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

  15. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). PMID:24790773

  16. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  17. Invasion of Erythrocytes by Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Horzempa, Joseph; O'Dee, Dawn M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Franks, Jonathan M.; Clay, Doris

    2011-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Conlan, on pages 68.) Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a category A biodefense agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its highly infectious nature. F. tularensis infects leukocytes and exhibits an extracellular phase in the blood of the host. It is unknown, however, whether F. tularensis can infect erythrocytes; thus, we examined this possibility in vivo and in vitro. In the murine model of pulmonary type A tularemia, we showed the presence of intraerythrocytic bacteria by double-immunofluorescence microscopy and ex vivo gentamicin protection of the purified erythrocyte fraction. In vitro, F. tularensis invaded human erythrocytes, as shown in the gentamicin protection assays, double-immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy with immunogold labeling of the bacteria. Additional in vitro tests indicated that serum complement-dependent and complement-independent mechanisms contribute to erythrocyte invasion. Our results reveal a novel intraerythrocytic phase during F. tularensis infection. PMID:21628658

  18. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  19. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  20. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 μm. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  1. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 μm. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  2. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT).

    PubMed

    Reiner, Alexander P; Lettre, Guillaume; Nalls, Michael A; Ganesh, Santhi K; Mathias, Rasika; Austin, Melissa A; Dean, Eric; Arepalli, Sampath; Britton, Angela; Chen, Zhao; Couper, David; Curb, J David; Eaton, Charles B; Fornage, Myriam; Grant, Struan F A; Harris, Tamara B; Hernandez, Dena; Kamatini, Naoyuki; Keating, Brendan J; Kubo, Michiaki; LaCroix, Andrea; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Simin; Lohman, Kurt; Meng, Yan; Mohler, Emile R; Musani, Solomon; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Okada, Yukinori; Palmer, Cameron D; Papanicolaou, George J; Patel, Kushang V; Singleton, Andrew B; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Herman A; Taylor, Kent; Thomson, Cynthia; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Lingyao; Ziv, Elad; Zonderman, Alan B; Folsom, Aaron R; Evans, Michele K; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M; Snively, Beverly M; Wilson, James G

    2011-06-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8)). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can result in false positive associations in GWAS. PMID:21738479

  3. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  4. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( CBC ) Platelet count ... the mother Mother taking sulfa drugs during pregnancy Rh incompatibility Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  5. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to the liver, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin. PMID:26195804

  6. Evaluation of immature granulocyte counts by the XE-IG master: upgraded software for the XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Carol; Kunka, Stefan; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Yukio; Davis, Bruce H; Machin, Samuel J

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated an automated immature granulocyte (IG) count in the peripheral blood with the XE-IG Master (Sysmex Corporation). The XE-IG Master is the upgraded software package for the XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer. Reproducibility tests demonstrated a mean coefficient of variation of 7.02% for the IG percentage (IG%) and 6.93% for the absolute IG count. Correlations of the IG counts were assessed in two ways. A flow cytometric IG count using CD11b, CD16, and CD45 monoclonal antibodies and a manual differential count were used as reference methods. The regression equation and the correlation coefficient of the IG% for the flow cytometric reference count versus results with the XE-IG Master were: y = 0.91x + 0.10; r = 0.96. For the comparison with the manual differential count of promyelocytes, myelocytes, and metamyelocytes, the regression equation and correlation coefficient were: y = 0.81x + 1.27; r = 0.78. Samples were found to be stable up to 48 hours both at room temperature and when refrigerated. We investigated the clinical significance of the IG count as a new marker of acute inflammation. In this preliminary study, most samples with a high IG count had positive values for C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (positive sample rates were 84.0% and 95.0%, respectively) despite neutrophil counts within the normal range. Elevated IG counts correlated most closely with CD64 expression on polymorphonuclear cells and less so with the concentration of interleukin 6. Compared with other available inflammation markers, the IG count is rapidly generated with each full blood count at no extra cost and with no delay in sample analysis. PMID:14521317

  7. Influence of glucose solution on the erythrocyte scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, Elena K.

    2007-02-01

    The scattering characteristics of erythrocytes (the coefficients of extinction, scattering, absorption and indicatrixes) were calculated with using the theory Mie for spherical homogeneous spherical particles and the theory for two-layered spherical concentric particles. Transmission spectrums were measured with the spectrophotometer Cary500 in the wavelength range 460-860 n m. Specimens of liquid for imbedding of erythrocytes were preparing by mixing blood plasma a nd 50-% glucose solution with the different concentrations. The volume concentrations (hematocrit) of red blood cells (RBC) were maintained to have the same values in all specimens by adding equal volume of whole blood to immersion liquid of equal volumes. It has been shown that, contrary to theretical prediction, transmission is decreasing for all wavelengths with the addition of glucose solution in interval glucose volume concentrations 0.05 - 0.35-0.4. The subsequent increase of the glucose concentration leads to increasing of spectral transmission as a result of erythrocyte hemolysis.

  8. Erythrocyte and platelet proteomics in hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Halder, Suchismita; Karmakar, Shilpita

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes undergo ineffective erythropoesis, hemolysis, and premature eryptosis in sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Abnormal hemoglobin variants associated with hemoglobinopathy lead to vesiculation, membrane instability, and loss of membrane asymmetry with exposal of phosphatidylserine. This potentiates thrombin generation resulting in activation of the coagulation cascade responsible for subclinical phenotypes. Platelet activation also results in the release of microparticles, which express and transfer functional receptors from platelet membrane, playing key roles in vascular reactivity and activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Over the last decade, proteomics had proven to be an important field of research in studies of blood and blood diseases. Blood cells and its fluidic components have been proven to be easy systems for studying differential expressions of proteins in hematological diseases encompassing hemoglobinopathies, different types of anemias, myeloproliferative disorders, and coagulopathies. Proteomic studies of erythrocytes and platelets reported from several groups have highlighted various factors that intersect the signaling networks in these anucleate systems. In this review, we have elaborated on the current scenario of anucleate blood cell proteomes in normal and diseased individuals and the cross-talk between the two major constituent cell types of circulating blood. PMID:26611378

  9. Exposure to ozone and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemi, Y.; Ohmori, K.; Ito, T.; Osaka, F.; Matuura, Y. )

    1992-10-01

    In order to learn the biological effect of photochemical oxidants on living bodies, we exposed newborn and adult rats, of both sexes, to ozone at a concentration of 0.25 ppm, which can be encountered in an urban environment, and then measured the osmotic resistance of their erythrocytes. The results of experiments using newborn rats indicated a positive increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in whole blood following ozone exposure for 4 weeks. An increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in the top part obtained by centrifugation was observed following ozone exposure for 12 weeks. This tendency was especially evident among male rats. On the other hand, no increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes was recognized in the adult animals which had been exposed to the same concentration of ozone for 18 months.

  10. [Structural and functional characteristics of erythrocytes, endothelial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in patients with prostatic adenoma and comorbid chronic prostatitis].

    PubMed

    Shatokhin, M N; Teodorovich, O V; Konoplia, A I; Dolgareva, S A; Gavriliuk, V P

    2011-01-01

    Patients with prostatic adenoma combined with chronic prostatitis were found to have abnormal content of proteins in peripheral blood erythrocytic membrane, erythrocytic sorption, concentration of nitric oxide stable metabolites, endotheline-1 and lipid peroxidation products in blood plasma before and after transurethral resection of the prostate. Different dosage forms of the drug longidase were tested for efficacy in correction of impairment of structural and functional properties of erythrocytes, endothelial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in the above patients. PMID:21500492

  11. Isolation of transketolase from human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Himmo, S D; Thomson, M; Gubler, C J

    1988-01-01

    Transketolase was isolated from human red blood cells with over 6,200 fold purification by a new method. The stepwise procedure for the isolation of the enzyme from erythrocyte hemolysate included the use of ethanol/chloroform precipitation, chromatography on hydroxyapatite and finally, affinity adsorption on carboxymethyl-cellulose. The molecular weight of erythrocyte transketolase, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, appeared to be about 140,000. The pH optimum for activity was between 7.6 and 7.8 and the optimum temperature for activity was 50 degrees C. The Km values for xylulose-5-phosphate, ribose-5-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate were 2.0 x 10(-4) M, 3.2 x 10(-4) M and 2.0 x 10(-3) M, respectively. PMID:3237644

  12. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  13. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  14. Impact of microparticles derived from erythrocytes on fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Levin, Grigory; Sukhareva, Ekaterina; Lavrentieva, Athina

    2016-04-01

    It has long been known that negatively charged membranes of erythrocyte-derived microparticles display procoagulant activity. However, relatively little is known about the possible fibrinolytic activity of such microparticles. This issue becomes particularly important during red blood cell storage, which significantly increases the number of microparticles. Whole blood was collected from 30 healthy donors. Microparticles were isolated on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of erythrocyte storage. The effect of microparticles on the fibrinolytic activity of the donor plasma was determined by coagulation and optical (chromogenic substrate) methods. We demonstrated that erythrocyte microparticles had a prominent fibrinolytic activity which cleaves not only fibrin but also chromogenic substrates. Microparticles present fibrinolytic activity mainly due to the presence of plasminogen on them. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes significantly enhance cleavage of the chromogenic substrate by the streptokinase-plasminogen complex, but to a lesser extent accelerate euglobulin clot lysis time. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles display prominent fibrinolytic activity, which significantly decreases during storage of red blood cells. PMID:26590996

  15. Effect of ceruloplasmin on the number and resistance of erythrocytes during acute physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Surina-Marysheva, E F; Krivokhizhina, L V; Kantyukov, S A; Sergienko, V I; Ermolaeva, E N; Smirnov, D M

    2009-08-01

    Acute physical exercise was followed by a decrease in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, shortening of the time-to-onset of erythrocyte hemolysis, and increase in the sorption capacity of the cell membrane. Administration of ceruloplasmin 24 h before physical exercise normalizes membrane resistance in red blood cells. PMID:20027324

  16. Sequential changes in bronchoalveolar cytology after autologous blood inoculation.

    PubMed

    McKane, S A; Slocombe, R F

    1999-07-01

    Six horses, free of recent exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), each had 8 bronchial segments inoculated with 40 ml of autologous blood lavaged on Days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 after inoculation. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analysed, and total leucocyte counts and differential cell percentages determined. Statistical analysis of the differences between the 8 post inoculation and 1 pre-inoculation (control) lavage sites demonstrated an early neutrophilic response, rising from < 5% of alveolar leucocytes to 10% by 24-48 h post inoculation. As this response waned, macrophage numbers increased and persisted at mildly elevated levels for the remainder of the experiment. Small numbers of erythrophagocytes were observed prior to 3 days post inoculation, but their numbers increased 10-fold by Day 10. In the first 3 days, blood was observed endoscopically streaming from inoculated lung regions, suggesting that mucociliary clearance is a major mechanism of early erythrocyte clearance. However, both free and phagocytosed whole erythrocytes were recovered in lavages 14 days after inoculation with small numbers of erythrocytes still present at 21 days. We conclude that intrapulmonary blood provokes a mild, but prolonged inflammatory reaction and that the removal of alveolar haemorrhage is dependent on a combination of mucociliary clearance and phagocytic mechanisms. Erythrophagocytosis is slow to commence and the removal of blood prolonged, suggesting that horses in fast work, sufficient to induce EIPH, are unlikely to recover fully if intervals between strenuous work are less than 14 days. PMID:10659236

  17. CELLS, PROTEINS, AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...

  18. Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter.

    PubMed

    Keatinge, W R; Coleshaw, S R; Cotter, F; Mattock, M; Murphy, M; Chelliah, R

    1984-11-24

    Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in the first hour. Whole blood viscosity increased by 21%; plasma viscosity usually increased, and arterial pressure rose on average from 126/69 to 138/87 mm Hg. Plasma cholesterol concentration increased, in both high and low density lipoprotein fractions, but values of total lipoprotein and lipoprotein fractions were unchanged. The increases in platelets, red cells, and viscosity associated with normal thermoregulatory adjustments to mild surface cooling provide a probable explanation for rapid increases in coronary and cerebral thrombosis in cold weather. The raised arterial pressure and possibly cholesterol concentration may contribute to slower components of the increased thrombosis. PMID:6437575

  19. Photodynamic effects on human and chicken erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimel, Sol; Koenig, Karsten; Berns, Michael W.

    1995-02-01

    The intracellular accumulation of a variety of photosensitizers in human (non-nucleated) and chicken (nucleated) erythrocytes, as well as the photodynamically induced hemolysis were studied using 488 nm laser microirradiation (15 (mu) W, 100X) and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Cells incubated with the negatively charged hydrophilic compounds TPPS4 and Pd-TPPS4 exhibited no significant fluorescence before irradiation, but developed strong fluorescence in the cellular and nuclear membranes following photoinduced membrane damage. In contrast, microirradiation of Photofrin-incubated erythrocytes showed instantaneous fluorescence which decreased due to photodegradation. For the cationic, hydrophilic dye Methylene Blue, significant fluorescence was detected in the nucleus only. Following ALA incubation, large intercellular differences were observed in fluorescence in the red spectral region. These differences are probably due to the differential ability of individual erythrocytes to biosynthesize protoporphyrin IX. Photofrin was the most efficient photosensitizer to induce hemolysis. Higher radiant exposures were required for lysis of nucleated than of human red blood cells, except in the case of Methylene Blue. Irradiation was more efficient for unwashed cell suspensions than for washed suspensions, indicating the non-negligible role of extracellular photosensitizing molecules.

  20. l-Arginine supplementation enhances antioxidant activity and erythrocyte integrity in sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, M O; Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Jaja, S I

    2015-09-01

    The effect of oral, low-dose l-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) on antioxidant activity, haematological parameters and osmotic fragility of red blood cells was investigated in sickle cell disease sufferers. Twenty eight sickle cell anaemia subjects were recruited for the study. Five millilitres of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), total antioxidant enzymes (TAE) activity, malondialdehyde concentration ([MDA]), RBC count, [Hb], PCV, MCHC, MCV, MCH, percent irreversibly sickled cells (%ISC)) and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the subjects. l-arginine supplementation increased [R] (p<0.001), TAE activity (p<0.05) and MCV (<0.05) but reduced plasma [MDA], MCHC, MCH and %ISC (p<0.001, respectively). Δ[R] correlated positively with ΔTAE (r=0.8) and negatively with Δ[MDA] (r=-0.7) and Δ%ISC (r=-0.5). Also ΔTAE activity correlated negatively with Δ[MDA] (r=-0.7) and Δ%ISC (r=-0.6). Supplementation shifted the osmotic fragiligram to the right and reduced the concentrations of NaCl at which initial and complete lyses of erythrocytes occurred. Study showed that low-dose, oral l-arginine increased antioxidant activity, red blood cell resistance to osmotic lysis but reduced red cell density in SCD. PMID:26051155

  1. Sialic acid content of erythrocytes in normal individuals and patients with certain hematologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Aminoff, D; Anderson, J; Dabich, L; Gathmann, W D

    1980-01-01

    The sialic acid content of erythrocytes from healthy individuals of different blood types and of patients with known hematological disorders has been determined. The sialic acid was completely released enzymatically with sialidase and quantitated by the thiobarbituric acid method. The sialic acid content of erythrocytes was constant irrespective of ABO blood type, or anticoagulant used; viz, 0.85-0.92 mumoles/ml of packed erythrocytes or 46-53 X 10(6) sialyl residues per cell. Deviations from these normal values were obtained with erythrocytes from patients with a variety of hematological disorders. Patients with the following disorders have significantly (P less than 0.01) lower sialic acid values compared to erythrocytes from healthy individuals (given in the order of decreasing sialic acid content): sickle cell anemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphocytic lymphoma, chronic granulocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia, leukemia, and Hodgkin disease. PMID:7211833

  2. Differential White Blood Cell Count and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Ye, Zheng; Cooper, Andrew J.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Biggs, Mary L.; Chen, Liang-Kung; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Hanefeld, Markolf; Ingelsson, Erik; Lai, Wen-An; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lind, Lars; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Mohan, Viswanathan; Muscari, Antonio; Nilsson, Goran; Ohrvik, John; Chao Qiang, Jiang; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tamakoshi, Koji; Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora; Wang, Ya-Yu; Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Zoli, Marco; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p = 1.5*10−18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2 = 83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p = 1.5*10−4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p = 0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p = 0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p = 7.7*10−13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p = 7.7*10−5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate. PMID:20976133

  3. Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2007-01-01

    The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. PMID:17360346

  4. Effect of smoking on serum immunoglobulins and cellular blood constituents in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, W A; Maugeri, U; Adamczyk, B

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study a possible link between smoking and systemic immunological abnormalities, which could have been eventually the common ground for chronic degenerative processes Blood samples were taken from 319 apparently healthy men from 19-45 years of age. Mean values of hemoglobin were slightly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers but the difference appeared to have been insignificant. In contrast, the erythrocyte counts in nonsmokers were significantly higher. Although all types of white cells were in larger numbers among smokers only neutrophilic granulocytes and lymphocytes were substantially higher than in the group of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers mean value of IgG and IgA were about 10% higher than in smokers. The same pattern was observed for serum globulin alpha 2. The clear dose-response relationship was observed for neutrophilic granulocytes, erythrocyte counts and IgG level. PMID:3653606

  5. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  6. Impact of Admission White Blood Cell Count on Short- and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohan; Huang, Bi; Lu, Haisong; Zhao, Zhenhua; Lu, Zhinan; Yang, Yanmin; Zhang, Shu; Hui, Rutai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown inflammation is involved in the development of acute aortic dissection (AAD). The hypothesis that white blood cell count (WBCc) on admission may have an impact on the short- and long-term outcomes of type A AAD was tested in a large-scale, prospective observational cohort study. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 570 consecutive patients with type A AAD in Fuwai hospital were enrolled and were followed up. Baseline characteristics and WBCc on admission were collected. The primary outcomes were 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. During a median of 1.89 years of follow-up, the 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality were 10.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified admission WBCc as an independent predictor of 30-day mortality when considered as a continuous variable or as a categorical variable using the cutoff of 11.0  × 109 cells/L (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein, d-dimer, and surgical intervention, elevated admission WBCc (>11.0 × 109 cells/L) remained an independent predictor of 30-day mortality of AAD (hazard ratio = 3.31, 95% confidence interval 1.38–7.93, P = 0.007). No impact of admission WBCc was observed on the long-term all-cause mortality. In conclusion, elevated admission WBCc may be valuable as a predictor of 30-day mortality, and may be useful in the risk stratification of type A AAD during hospitalization. PMID:26496299

  7. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23353616

  8. White Blood Cell Count to Mean Platelet Volume Ratio Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Fakour, Sanam; Arjmand, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Leukocyte and platelet have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to determine the usefulness of a novel marker named white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) for predicting outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with or without MetS. Subjects and Methods A total of 331 NSTE-ACS individuals (60±12.5 years, 57.4% male) were enrolled and followed for a median of 24 months. MetS was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results Patients were divided into two groups: high WMR (WMR≥720) and low WMR (WMR<720). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MetS rates were significantly greater in the higher WMR group compared to those in the low WMR group (MACE: 14.3% vs. 25%, p=0.014; MetS: 50.9% vs. 75%, p<0.001). MetS was diagnosed in 62.2% of patients. MACE incidence in patients with or without MetS was comparable (p=0.737). Among MetS individuals, patients in the high WMR group had more MACE than the low WMR group (11.2% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). However, MACE was comparable among non-MetS individuals (p=0.681). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) of MACE incidence for high-WMR in MetS individuals was 2.616 (95% confidence interval: 1.282–5.339, p=0.008). However, HR of MACE incidence for high WMR in non-MetS individuals was not significant. Conclusion Among NSTE-ACS patients without revascularization therapy, elevated admission WMR was associated with an increased risk of developing composite MACE in MetS individuals but not in non-MetS patients. PMID:27014354

  9. Microscopy and Microanalysis of Blood in a Snake Head Fish, Channa gachua Exposed to Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pala, Eva M; Dey, Sudip

    2016-02-01

    Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities. PMID:26914995

  10. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (β=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  12. Erythrocyte invasion receptors for Plasmodium falciparum: new and old.

    PubMed

    Satchwell, T J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the complex process by which the invasive form of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, the merozoite, attaches to and invades erythrocytes as part of its blood stage life cycle represents a key area of research in the battle to combat malaria. Central to this are efforts to determine the identity of receptors on the host cell surface, their corresponding merozoite-binding proteins and the functional relevance of these binding events as part of the invasion process. This review will provide an updated summary of studies identifying receptor interactions essential for or implicated in P. falciparum merozoite invasion of human erythrocytes, highlighting the recent identification of new receptors using groundbreaking high throughput approaches and with particular focus on the properties and putative involvement of the erythrocyte proteins targeted by these invasion pathways. PMID:26862042

  13. Changes in erythrocyte microrheology in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Górnicki, A

    2004-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability (ED), the ability of red blood cells to change shape during flow in the microcirculation, is the basic rheological property of erythrocytes. It is determined by the surface area to volume ratio, viscoelastic properties of the membrane, and intracellular viscosity. The aim of the present study was to determine changes in erythrocyte microrheology in patients with psoriasis. The whole red cell deformability was measured by flow-channel diffractometry. To assess the contribution of different factors influencing changes in ED, measurements were also made of the biophysical state of the phospholipid bilayer, using an osmotic haemolysis technique, and internal viscosity, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed a significant decrease in ED in patients with psoriasis in comparison with controls, and suggested that the main cause of this may be alterations in intracellular viscosity and membrane viscoelastic behaviour. PMID:14723726

  14. Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic-stage antigen discovery: exploiting naturally acquired humoral responses.

    PubMed

    Molina, Douglas M; Finney, Olivia C; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L; Gardner, Malcolm J; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing

    2012-09-01

    The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy- individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic-stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy- donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

  15. Identification of the phorbol ester receptor in human and avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.M.; Sando, J.J.; Speizer, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    The ability of phorbol esters to inhibit the uptake of a fluorescent glucose analogue in goose but not human erythrocytes is consistent with earlier reports that the human red blood cell lacks the phorbol ester receptor. However, they have located specific phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding sites in both human and goose erythrocytes. Human and goose red blood cells contain 2 classes of phorbol ester receptors with similar affinities, however the human erythrocyte contains 1/3 as many phorbol ester receptors as does the goose red blood cell. An additional contrast in the binding of phorbol esters to human and goose red blood cells is the temperature-induced enhancement of binding to goose, but not human erythrocytes. Equilibrium phorbol ester binding to goose red blood cells at 37/sup 0/C is enhanced 3.3 +/- 0.4 times that amount bound at 4/sup 0/C. Equilibrium binding of phorbol esters to human erythrocytes is identical at both temperatures. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation profiles of C-kinase substrates also differ between the human and goose erythrocyte.

  16. Aluminum Trichloride Induces Hypertension and Disturbs the Function of Erythrocyte Membrane in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyue; Cao, Zheng; Sun, Xudong; Zuang, Cuicui; Huang, Wanyue; Li, Yanfei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al accumulates in erythrocyte and causes toxicity on erythrocyte membrane. The dysfunction of erythrocyte membrane is a potential risk to hypertension. The high Al content in plasma was associated with hypertension. To investigate the effect of AlCl3 on blood pressure and the function of erythrocyte membrane, the rats were intragastrically exposed to 0, 64(1/20 LD50), 128(1/10 LD50), and 256(1/5 LD50) mg/kg body weight AlCl3 in double distilled water for 120 days, respectively. Then, we determined the systolic and mean arterial blood pressures of rats, the osmotic fragility, the percentage of membrane proteins, the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-pX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the erythrocyte membrane in this experiment. The results showed that AlCl3 elevated the systolic and mean arterial blood pressure of rats, increased the osmotic fragility, decreased the percentage of membrane protein, inhibited the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, CAT, SOD and GSH-pX, and increased the MDA content of erythrocyte membrane. These results indicate that AlCl3 may induce hypertension by disturbing the function of erythrocyte membrane. PMID:26354416

  17. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    PubMed

    Louir, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually. PMID:26467045

  18. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  19. Blood oxidative stress markers after ultramarathon swimming.

    PubMed

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kyparos, Antonios; Tsalis, Georgios; Loupos, Dimitrios; Pavlidou, Anastasia; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Data on redox balance in response to marathon swimming are lacking, whereas findings from studies using other types of ultraendurance exercise are controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ultramarathon swimming on selective blood oxidative stress markers. Five well-trained male swimmers aged 28.8 (6.0) years participated in the study. Blood samples were obtained before and after the ultramarathon swimming, for full blood count analysis and determination of protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The swimmers swam 19.4 (3.4) hours, covering 50.5 (15.0) km. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count, and leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were significantly elevated after swimming, whereas protein carbonyls, TBARS and TAC did not significantly change. The findings of the present study indicate that well-trained swimmers were able to regulate a redox homeostasis during ultra-long duration swimming. It is also postulated that the relatively low intensity of marathon swimming may not be a sufficient stimulus to induce oxidative stress in well-trained swimmers. The fact that low-intensity long-duration exercise protocols are not associated with oxidative damage is useful knowledge for coaches and athletes in scheduling the content of the training sessions that preceded and followed these exercise protocols. PMID:20613649

  20. Prolactin binding sites in human erythrocytes and lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellussi, G.; Muccioli, G.; Ghe, C.; Di Carlo, R.

    1987-08-24

    Specific binding sites for prolactin (PRL) have been studied in human peripheral lymphocytes and erythrocytes of normal adult volunteers and of term cord bloods. In erythrocytes from healthy adult subjects of both sexes a very low specific binding of /sup 125/I-human PRL was found (0.24%), whereas a higher binding was found in term cord blood (1.1%). The binding was hormone specific, the binding capacity was 2.6 fmol/4 x 10/sup 9/ cells and the Kd was 3.4 x 10/sup -10/M. In lymphocytes of both adults and term cord bloods an evident specific binding was observed (male adults: 1.6%; female adults: 1.7%; cord blood: 1.8%). The binding was specific for lactogenic hormones and the binding capacity was 3.7 fmol/2 x 10/sup 6/ cells and the Kd was 3.9 x 10/sup -10/M. The presence of specific binding sites for PRL on human erythrocytes and lymphocytes could be used to study PRL binding on blood cells of patients in different physiological or pathological situations. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  1. Pathogenesis of acute avian malaria. II. Anemia mediated by a cold-active autohemagglutinin from the blood of chickens with acute Plasmodium gallinaceum infection.

    PubMed

    Soni, J L; Cox, H W

    1975-03-01

    A cold-active hemagglutinin for trypsinized human type "O" erythrocytes (CAH) from blood of chickens with acute Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria was found to be associated with 19 S and 7 S globulin fractions of malarious chicken blood, but cleavage with 2-mercaptoethanol indicated that it was primarily of the IgM class of antibody. In serologic tests CAH reacted with trypsinized erythrocytes, and anti-chicken globulin. It did not react with other of the antigens or antibodies detected in the blood of malarious chickens. When the absorbed and eluted CAH was injected into normal chickens it produced an anaphylactic-like shock and caused a 25% reduction in red blood cell counts within 48 hours. Plasma samples collected during this interval showed signs of hemolysis. Reactions of blood cells from the recipient birds with fluorescein conjugated anti-chicken globulin indicated that CAH reacted with erythrocytes. The absence of fluorescent activity 3 days after injection suggested that these erythrocytes had been removed from the circulation. When normal chickens were injected with trypsinized autologous blood cells, CAH was detected within 3 days. The agglutination test again was active at temperatures below 22 degrees C and was negative when tested at 37 degrees C. In these birds the appearance of CAH was accompanied by reductions in red blood cell counts and by hemolysis. The results of these experiments suggest that CAH was not stimulated by plasmodial parasite antigen, but rather by autoantigens, which appear to be common to heterologous animal species, and which were in some manner expressed by the presence of the intracellular parasites, or by trypsin treatment. The experiments further suggest that this autohemagglutinin was partially causal of malarial anemia. The presence of other anemia factor(s) was indicated by anemia following injection of plasma that had been absorbed free of CAH. PMID:804265

  2. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone marrow cancer called multiple myeloma Nutrition deficiencies of iron, copper , folic acid, vitamin B6 , or vitamin B12 Overhydration Pregnancy Drugs that can decrease the RBC count include: ...

  3. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor, radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels Chronic kidney disease Anemia caused by low levels of Vitamin B12 or folate Reticulocyte count may be increased during pregnancy.

  4. Characterizing osmotic lysis kinetics under microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing for erythrocyte fragility studies.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yihong; Loufakis, Despina Nelie; Bao, Ning; Lu, Chang

    2012-12-01

    The biomechanics of erythrocytes, determined by the membrane integrity and cytoskeletal structure, provides critical information on diseases such as diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and sickle cell anemia. Here we demonstrate a simple microfluidic tool for examining erythrocyte fragility based on characterizing osmotic lysis kinetics. Hydrodynamic focusing is used for generating rapid dilution of the buffer and producing lysis of erythrocytes during their flow. The lysis kinetics are tracked by monitoring the release of intracellular contents from cells via recording the light intensity of erythrocytes at various locations in the channel. Such release profile reflects sensitively the changes in erythrocyte fragility induced by chemical, heating, and glucose treatment. Our tool provides a simple approach for probing red blood cell fragility in both basic research and clinical settings. PMID:23047457

  5. Ribavirin induced anaemia: the effect of vitamin D supplementation on erythropoietin and erythrocyte indices in normal Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Bassem; Ashour, Tariq Helal; El-Shemi, Adel Galal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the effect of vitamin D3 (VitD) supplementation on erythrocyte indices, serum and kidney erythropoietin (EPO) in normal rats treated with Pegylated interferon-α (Peg-INF-α) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided equally into 8 groups. ‘Control’; ‘P’: only received Peg-INF-α; ‘PD’: Peg-INF-α/VitD; ‘PR’: Peg-INF-α/RBV; ‘PRD’: Peg-INF-α/RBV/VitD; ‘R’: only received RBV; ‘RD’: RBV/VitD and ‘VitD’: only received vitamin D3. Peg-INF-α-2a was injected subcutaneously (6 µg/rat/week) for 4 weeks. RBV (4 mg/rat/day) and VitD (500 IU/rat/day) were given orally for 5 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure erythrocyte indices and serum 25(OH) vitamin D. EPO was measured in serum samples and kidney specimens by ELISA. Results: Peg-INF-α alone did not affect the RBCs count, haemoglobin, serum and kidney EPO compared to control (P > 0.05). RBV significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and EPO levels in kidney and serum, either individually (R group) or combined with Peg-INF-α (PR group), compared to ‘Control’ and ‘P’ groups. VitD prevented the development of anaemia and significantly increased the concentrations of EPO at serum and kidney levels in the ‘RD’ and ‘PRD’ groups compared to ‘R’ and ‘PR’ groups. There was a significant positive correlation between blood levels of VitD with serum and kidney EPO, Red cell count and haemoglobin concentrations. Conclusion: VitD could have a potential beneficial role in the prevention of ribavirin-induced anaemia by promoting endogenous EPO. Further studies are needed to explore the role of vitamin D in the prevention of ribavirin associated anaemia. PMID:25356124

  6. Eicosanoid synthesis by purified thrombocytes and erythrocytes from warm- and cold-acclimated American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Herman, C A

    1997-04-01

    Amphibian blood plays an important role in eicosanoid synthesis. Although clotting frog blood produces eicosanoids, the cellular source of prostaglandins and thromboxanes in bullfrog blood is unknown. Thromboxane (TX)B2 synthesis from purified thrombocytes was affected by 30-day cold-acclimation at 5 degrees, but not PGE2 or leukotriene (LT) synthesis. Although no cyclooxygenase activity has been found in human erythrocytes, frog erythrocytes were capable of forming cyclooxygenase products, but the amounts were lower than those produced by thrombocytes. Additionally, there was no effect of cold exposure on eicosanoid production by isolated erythrocytes. Similar to some mammalian nucleated white blood cells, nucleated bullfrog thrombocytes and erythrocytes produced leukotrienes. The production of eicosanoids by thrombocytes was stimulated by A23187 and thrombin. Erythrocytes were stimulated by A23187. Control synthesis by erythrocytes and thrombocytes was inhibited by 5 microM indomethacin (cyclooxygenase pathway) or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (5-lipoxygenase pathway) and cyclooxygenase products were increased in the presence of nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Thrombin stimulation of eicosanoid production by thrombocytes was inhibited when the inhibitors were present prior to the final centrifugation of the cell isolation. The results suggest that cold exposure can affect eicosanoid synthesis in thrombocytes, but not erythrocytes, and that thrombocytes are a major source of eicosanoids in bullfrogs. The production of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products by nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes suggests a role for these compounds in hemostasis and inflammatory responses in these animals. PMID:9126474

  7. Genotoxic evaluation of pirfenidone using erythrocyte rodent micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Alcántar-Díaz, Blanca E; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M; Zamora-Perez, Ana L; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Bertha A; Sánchez-Parada, María Guadalupe; García-Bañuelos, Jesús J; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Pirfenidone is a non-steroidal antifibrotic compound that has been proposed in clinical protocols and experimental studies as a pharmacological treatment for fibroproliferative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxicity or cytotoxicity of three doses of pirfenidone using the micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rodent models. Pirfenidone was administered orally to Balb-C mice for 3 days, and also was administered topically to hairless Sprague Dawley rats during the final stage of gestation. Mice were sampled every 24 h over the course of 6 days; pregnant rats were sampled every 24 h during the last 6 days of gestation, and pups were sampled at birth. Blood smears were analyzed and the frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNEs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), were recorded in samples from mice, pregnant rats and rat neonates. Increases in MN frequencies (p<0.03) were noted only in the positive control groups. No genotoxic effects or decreased PCE values were observed neither in newborn rats transplacentally exposed to pirfenidone, or in two adult rodent models when pirfenidone was administered orally or topically. PMID:22683486

  8. Demonstration of thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the erythrocytes of cats.

    PubMed

    Foster, A P; Shaw, S E; Duley, J A; Shobowale-Bakre, E M; Harbour, D A

    2000-01-01

    Azathioprine is a purine analogue used as an immunosuppressive and immunomodulator agent in various mammals, including cats. Several adverse reactions have been reported and have limited the use of the drug in the cat. Adverse reactions to azathioprine in humans have been correlated with reduced activity of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) in erythrocytes. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if cats have TPMT activity in their erythrocytes and to compare the values obtained with the normal range for humans and the normal range for dogs in a preliminary report. Activity of the enzyme was measured in blood samples drawn from 41 cats. Blood also was taken from 5 dogs. The mean erythrocyte TPMT activity in the cats was 2.4 +/- 0.4 nmol (range, 1.2-3.9 nmol) per hour per milliliter of red blood cells (U/mL RBC) or 2-8 nmol per hour per gram of hemoglobin (U/g Hb). This range was far lower than the normal human range (8-15 U/mL RBC; 16-33 U/g Hb) and was of monopolar distribution. This observation apparently precludes any diagnostic purpose in assaying erythrocyte TPMT in this species. Erythrocyte TPMT activity in the 5 dogs ranged from 5.5 to 13.1 U/mL RBC (11-27 U/g Hb), which was comparable with normal and carrier ranges for humans, but proof of TPMT genetic polymorphism in either species will require genotyping studies. PMID:11012121

  9. Complement Receptor 1 Is a Sialic Acid-Independent Erythrocyte Receptor of Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Spadafora, Carmenza; Czege, Jozsef; Moch, J. Kathleen; Finberg, Robert W.; Tsokos, George C.; Stoute, José A.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a highly lethal malaria parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is dedicated to invading and multiplying inside erythrocytes. The molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion are incompletely understood. P. falciparum depends heavily on sialic acid present on glycophorins to invade erythrocytes. However, a significant proportion of laboratory and field isolates are also able to invade erythrocytes in a sialic acid-independent manner. The identity of the erythrocyte sialic acid-independent receptor has been a mystery for decades. We report here that the complement receptor 1 (CR1) is a sialic acid-independent receptor for the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum. We show that soluble CR1 (sCR1) as well as polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against CR1 inhibit sialic acid-independent invasion in a variety of laboratory strains and wild isolates, and that merozoites interact directly with CR1 on the erythrocyte surface and with sCR1-coated microspheres. Also, the invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes correlates with the level of CR1 expression. Finally, both sialic acid-independent and dependent strains invade CR1 transgenic mouse erythrocytes preferentially over wild-type erythrocytes but invasion by the latter is more sensitive to neuraminidase. These results suggest that both sialic acid-dependent and independent strains interact with CR1 in the normal red cell during the invasion process. However, only sialic acid-independent strains can do so without the presence of glycophorin sialic acid. Our results close a longstanding and important gap in the understanding of the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum that will eventually make possible the development of an effective blood stage vaccine. PMID:20585558

  10. The sheep erythrocyte T-dependent antibody response (TDAR).

    PubMed

    White, Kimber L; Musgrove, Deborah L; Brown, Ronnetta D

    2010-01-01

    The sheep erythrocyte T-dependent antibody Response (TDAR) evaluates the ability of animals sensitized in vivo to produce primary IgM antibodies to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC). The assay enumerates the number of antigen specific IgM antibody producing cells in the spleen. When exposure to the test material takes place in vivo, as does sensitization, the actual quantification of the number of antibody producing cells occurs ex vivo. Following the animal being euthanized, a single cell suspension of spleen cells is prepared. These spleen cells containing the IgM secreting plasma cells are incubated in a semisolid matrix of agar, sheep erythrocytes, and guinea pig serum as a single cell layer between a Petri dish and glass cover slip. After a 3 h incubation period, lysis of sRBCs around each of the IgM secreting antigen specific plasma cells results in the formation of a clear plaque, which can easily be counted. The TDAR has been found to be the most sensitive functional assay for evaluating effects on the immune system, particularly the humoral immune component. The TDAR to sheep erythrocytes still remains the gold standard for evaluating the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the immune system. PMID:19967513

  11. Influence of age on the stability of human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Penha-Silva, Nilson; Firmino, Cynthia Barbosa; de Freitas Reis, Francislene Glória; da Costa Huss, Juliana Carla; de Souza, Tatiana Maria Theodoro; de Freitas, Mariana Vaini; Netto, Rita de Cássia Mascarenhas

    2007-01-01

    This work evaluated the dependence of erythrocyte membrane stability on age, temperature (26, 32, 37, 42 and 47 degrees C), nutritional status, red cell count, red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in human females (n = 67, 20-94 years). Erythrocyte membrane resistance to hypotonic lysis was expressed as the NaCl concentration (H(50)) capable of promoting 50% haemolysis. A nutritional evaluation was performed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) instrument, which showed that 76.1% of the study group were well nourished and 23.9% were at risk of malnutrition. H(50) demonstrated a negative correlation with age at all temperatures. H(50) showed no correlation with either MNA scores or with any haematological indices. The power and significance of the correlations improved when we censored from the analyses those individuals at risk of malnutrition. The thermal dependencies lines for H(50) demonstrated higher values for females 20-39 years of age compared with those more than 60 years of age. These results suggest that erythrocyte resistance to hypotonicity (erythrocyte membrane stability), increased with age of study volunteers. This increased stability was more pronounced among well-nourished individuals. PMID:17681589

  12. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

  14. Effects of hyperglycaemia and sorbitol accumulation on erythrocyte deformability in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, D; Jennings, P E; Stone, P C; Baar, S; Barnett, A H; Stuart, J

    1986-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was studied in a total of 83 poorly controlled diabetics (mean blood glucose 12.2 mmol/l) who were divided into three groups, each with matched healthy controls. There was no appreciable difference between diabetics and matched controls regarding the filtration of erythrocytes through 3 micron diameter straight channel pores (25 diabetics) or tortuous channel pores (28 diabetics), or for the measurement of erythrocyte elongation over a range of osmolalities in the Ektacytometer (30 diabetics). When erythrocytes from 17 additional diabetics and 17 healthy controls were incubated for two hours at 37 degrees C in hyperglycaemic (50 mmol glucose/l) buffer, however, there was a considerable reduction in erythrocyte filterability for both diabetics and controls in parallel with an increase in erythrocyte sorbitol concentration. This loss of filterability was prevented by the addition of an aldose reductase inhibitor (Sorbinil). High glucose concentrations (congruent to 50 mmol/l) impair the filterability of erythrocytes through 3 micron pores, and the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol in poorly controlled outpatients is therefore unlikely to have a major adverse effect on erythrocyte rheology in diabetes mellitus. PMID:3090107

  15. Erythrocyte survival in normal mice and in mice with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, E. S.; Donaldson, G. W. K.; Woodruff, M. F. A.

    1966-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival has been studied in a strain of mice which develop autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in adult life (NZB/B1), and also in CBA and C57B1 mice, using one or both of two radioactive isotope labels, 51Cr and 32P. Erythrocyte survival is customarily expressed as the half-life but this is unsatisfactory for purposes of statistical comparison and we have used instead a parameter `κ' which represents the slope of the line obtained when: log(Counts per unit haemoglobin on day t)/(Counts per unit haemoglobin on day 0) is plotted against time. Young NZB/B1 mice yield values of κ intermediate between those obtained in CBA and C57B1 mice, and may reasonably be judged to show normal erythrocyte survival. On the other hand, in older NZB/B1 mice which are strongly Coombs positive and show reticulocytosis and anaemia, erythrocyte survival is greatly shortened. The survival of erythrocytes transfused to NZB/B1 recipients from isogeneic donors was found to be similar to that of the recipient's own erythrocytes, irrespective of whether or not the donor was Coombs positive or showed other evidence of haemolytic activity. The values of κ obtained in NZB/B1 mice were essentially the same with both labels; in CBA mice, however, a significant difference was observed. PMID:5915102

  16. Dielectric Properties and Ion Mobility in Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, H.; Schwan, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The impedance of erythrocytes of man, cattle, sheep, dog, cat, rabbit, and chicken was measured in the range from 0.5 to 250 Mc. The dielectric constant of the red cell interior is 50 at 250 Mc, varies but little with species, and can readily be accounted for by the cells' hemoglobin content. The electrical conductivity of the red cell interior was determined between 70 and 100 Mc. The values differ from species to species within the rather limited range from 4.4 to 5.3 mmho/cm. Removal of the cell membranes does not affect the conductivity. Hence, the cell interior behaves, from an electrical point of view, like a highly concentrated hemoglobin solution. A theoretical value for the electrical conductivity of erythrocyte interiors, which is calculated on the basis of the salt content of the cell, ion mobility, and the volume concentration of the hemoglobin, is roughly twice as large as the measured value. This discrepancy is typical not only of the red blood cell. Pertinent measurements show that it is probably caused by hydrodynamic and possibly by electrostatic effects also, which lower the mobility of the ions. From the lower electrical mobility it appears that a lowered diffusion constant of the electrolytes and nonelectrolytes within the cell is indicated. PMID:5970566

  17. Parasite Sequestration in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Spleen and Antibody Modulation of Cytoadherence of Infected Erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Peter H.; Hommel, Marcel; Miller, Louis H.; Udeinya, Iroka J.; Oligino, Lynette D.

    1983-08-01

    Sequestration, the adherence of infected erythrocytes containing late developmental stages of the parasite (trophozoites and schizonts) to the endothelium of capillaries and venules, is characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections. We have studied two host factors, the spleen and antibody, that influence sequestration of P. falciparum in the squirrel monkey. Sequestration of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes that occurs in intact animals is reduced in splenectomized animals; in vitro, when infected blood is incubated with monolayers of human melanoma cells, trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes from intact animals but not from splenectomized animals bind to the melanoma cells. The switch in cytoadherence characteristics of the infected erythrocytes from nonbinding to binding occurs with a cloned parasite. Immune serum can inhibit and reverse in vitro binding to melanoma cells of infected erythrocytes from intact animals. Similarly, antibody can reverse in vivo sequestration as shown by the appearance of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of an intact animal after inoculation with immune serum. These results indicate that the spleen modulates the expression of parasite alterations of the infected erythrocyte membrane responsible for sequestration and suggest that the prevention and reversal of sequestration could be one of the effector mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated protection against P. falciparum malaria.

  18. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  19. BASIGIN is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y.; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Bei, Amy K.; Theron, Michel; Uchikawa, Makoto; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndir, Omar; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Rayner, Julian C.; Wright, Gavin J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved1-4 are required in all parasite strains suggesting that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways5. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, BASIGIN, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth6. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble BASIGIN or by BASIGIN knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-BASIGIN antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a−) erythrocytes, which express a BASIGIN variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, exhibited reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for novel anti-malarial therapies. PMID:22080952

  20. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of ?eff=7.6 ?B per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for ?eff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  1. Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

  2. Erythrocyte stiffness during morphological remodeling induced by carbon ion radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

  3. Discrepancy between the percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes and the reticulocyte hemoglobin content in hemodialysis patients with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Masae; Taguchi, Chie; Uesaka, Hiroko; Kumagai, Toshiko; Seino, Koji; Hosokawa, Hisaaki; Yamauchi, Fumitoshi; Fujishima, Mikihiko; Murai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yoji

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes (%HYPO) and the reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) have been used for the diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID). However, we found a discrepancy between %HYPO and CHr values in some hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) with ID were defined as patients with a %HYPO value exceeding 5%. Five ID patients with a high CHr (group A) and 3 ID patients with a low CHr (group B) received 120 mg/week iron intravenously for 8 to 12 weeks. Changes in %HYPO, CHr, percentage of macrocytic erythrocytes (%MACRO), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction, and soluble transferrin receptor level were investigated over a 20-week period. CHrs were measured with 2 hematology analyzers: the Bayer HealthCare Technicon H*3 and the ADVIA 120. Patients in group A showed a significantly greater mean %MACRO (P < .01) and a lower mean red blood cell number (P < .05) than patients in group B. Even the mean CHr at baseline in group A was significantly higher than the mean CHr in the healthy subjects (P < .01), and hemoglobin levels increased in association with the reduction in rHuEPO dose following iron administration (P < .01). We found a group with high CHr, %HYPO, and %MACRO values among hemodialysis patients. Iron administration enables the rHuEPO dose to be reduced. PMID:16024336

  4. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  5. Enhanced suicidal death of erythrocytes from gene-targeted mice lacking the Cl-/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE1.

    PubMed

    Akel, Ahmad; Wagner, Carsten A; Kovacikova, Jana; Kasinathan, Ravi S; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Koka, Saisudha; Alper, Seth L; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M; Lang, Florian

    2007-05-01

    Genetic defects of anion exchanger 1 (AE1) may lead to spherocytic erythrocyte morphology, severe hemolytic anemia, and/or cation leak. In normal erythrocytes, osmotic shock, Cl(-) removal, and energy depletion activate Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels with Ca(2+)-induced suicidal erythrocyte death, i.e., surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, cell shrinkage, and membrane blebbing, all features typical for apoptosis of nucleated cells. The present experiments explored whether AE1 deficiency favors suicidal erythrocyte death. Peripheral blood erythrocyte numbers were significantly smaller in gene-targeted mice lacking AE1 (AE1(-/-) mice) than in their wild-type littermates (AE1(+/+) mice) despite increased percentages of reticulocytes (AE1(-/-): 49%, AE1(+/+): 2%), an indicator of enhanced erythropoiesis. Annexin binding, reflecting phosphatidylserine exposure, was significantly larger in AE1(-/-)erythrocytes/reticulocytes ( approximately 10%) than in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes ( approximately 1%). Osmotic shock (addition of 400 mM sucrose), Cl(-) removal (replacement with gluconate), or energy depletion (removal of glucose) led to significantly stronger annexin binding in AE1(-/-) erythrocytes/reticulocytes than in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes. The increase of annexin binding following exposure to the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 muM) was, however, similar in AE1(-/-) and in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes. Fluo3 fluorescence revealed markedly increased cytosolic Ca(2+) permeability in AE1(-/-) erythrocytes/reticulocytes. Clearance of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled erythrocytes/reticulocytes from circulating blood was more rapid in AE1(-/-) mice than in AE1(+/+) mice and was accelerated by ionomycin treatment in both genotypes. In conclusion, lack of AE1 is associated with enhanced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent scrambling of cell membrane phospholipids. PMID:17251326

  6. Mannose-Binding Lectin Is a Disease Modifier in Clinical Malaria and May Function as Opsonin for Plasmodium falciparum- Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Garred, Peter; Nielsen, Morten A.; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A.L.; Malhotra, Rajneesh; Madsen, Hans O.; Goka, Bamenla Q.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.; Sim, Robert B.; Hviid, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Variant alleles in the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene (mbl2) causing low levels of functional MBL are associated with susceptibility to different infections and are common in areas where malaria is endemic. Therefore, we investigated whether MBL variant alleles in 551 children from Ghana were associated with the occurrence and outcome parameters of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and asked whether MBL may function as an opsonin for P. falciparum. No difference in MBL genotype frequency was observed between infected and noninfected children or between children with cerebral malaria and/or severe malarial anemia and children with uncomplicated malaria. However, patients with complicated malaria who were homozygous for MBL variant alleles had significantly higher parasite counts and lower blood glucose levels than their MBL-competent counterparts. Distinct calcium-dependent binding of MBL to the membrane of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which could be inhibited by mannose, was observed. Further characterization revealed that MBL reacted with a P. falciparum glycoprotein identical to the 78-kDa glucose-regulated stress protein of P. falciparum. MBL seems to be a disease modifier in clinical malaria and to function as an opsonin for erythrocytes invaded by P. falciparum and may thus be involved in sequestration of the parasite, which in turn may explain the association between homozygosity for MBL variant alleles and high parasite counts. PMID:12933871

  7. Avian erythrocytes have functional mitochondria, opening novel perspectives for birds as animal models in the study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to mammalian erythrocytes, which have lost their nucleus and mitochondria during maturation, the erythrocytes of almost all other vertebrate species are nucleated throughout their lifespan. Little research has been done however to test for the presence and functionality of mitochondria in these cells, especially for birds. Here, we investigated those two points in erythrocytes of one common avian model: the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of mitochondria in erythrocytes of this small passerine bird, especially after removal of haemoglobin interferences. High-resolution respirometry revealed increased or decreased rates of oxygen consumption by erythrocytes in response to the addition of respiratory chain substrates or inhibitors, respectively. Fluorometric assays confirmed the production of mitochondrial superoxide by avian erythrocytes. Interestingly, measurements of plasmatic oxidative markers indicated lower oxidative stress in blood of the zebra finch compared to a size-matched mammalian model, the mouse. Conclusions Altogether, those findings demonstrate that avian erythrocytes possess functional mitochondria in terms of respiratory activities and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, since blood oxidative stress was lower for our avian model compared to a size-matched mammalian, our results also challenge the idea that mitochondrial ROS production could have been one actor leading to this loss during the course of evolution. Opportunities to assess mitochondrial functioning in avian erythrocytes open new perspectives in the use of birds as models for longitudinal studies of ageing via lifelong blood sampling of the same subjects. PMID:23758841

  8. Effects of +G/sub x/ acceleration and aduetron on nuclei acid content and other parameters of mouse peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Minkova, M.I.; Nikolov, I.T.; Datsov, Y.R.; Pantev, T.P.; Tenchova, V.B.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of acceleration and adeturon, a radioprotector, on the content of nucleic acids and the count, composition and osmotic resistance of white and red blood cells was investigated. Male mice of the H strain were exposed to +20G sub x for 5 min. The above parameters were measured 1, 24, and 48 hours after the exposure. The nuclei acid content decreased significantly immediately after the exposure and tended to return to normal afterwards. The leucocyte count was increased during all observation periods, and the erythrocyte count was decreased 1 hour after the exposure. Osmotic resistance of white and red blood cells varied in a different manner after the exposure. Adeturon administered at optimal protective doses (300 mg/kg) modified regulatory mechanisms of the animal body.

  9. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  10. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  11. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the

  12. [Electronic platelet counting with particular reference to thrombocytopenias (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuse, R; Burmeister, H; Hausmann, K

    1977-09-29

    Platelet counts in platelet-rich plasma without hematocrit dependent correction were performed by following rapid and simple steps: 1. pre-dilution of 20 microliter of whole blood by an isotonic solution 1:25; 2. stabilized low-speed centrifugation with 55 g for 5 minutes; 3. final dilution 1 : 5000; 4. enumeration by use of a TOA platelet counter PL-100 which has been technically improved in comparison to similar machines. Erroneously high results were obtained after a too short or too low centrifugation. As reason for this artifical small pulses due to disturbances of the flow patterns around the aperture (so-called vortex-effect) can be assumed having been caused by large-volumed erythrocytes and leukocytes in the suspension. The routinely used procedure was reliable for all platelet ranges, especially in thrombocytopenias between 100 X 10(9)/l and 25 X 10(9)l. In lower ranges comparisons with visual counts are essential. PMID:912110

  13. Microscopic mechanism analyses on influence of metabolism of erythrocyte membrane-lipid etc. by LLLIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Canbang; Wen, Yuanbin; Liu, Shuxiao; Zhou, Lingyun

    2009-08-01

    Some cases with cerebral infarction were treated by He-Ne laser irradiation on blood. In the treatment before and after, membrane-cholesterol(C)/membrane-phosphatide(P), membrane fluidity(F) and deformability of erythrocyte were determined. The results showed that low level laser irradiation on blood (LLLIB) can sure reduce the ratio of (C)/(P), can heighten fluidity and improve deformability of erythrocyte .Thus the metabolism ability of erythrocyte membrane-lipid ,the blood circulation and the properties of hemorheology can be improved. In this paper, the microscopic mechanism of those aforesaid action effects by low level laser irradiation on blood were analyzed by means of Quantum theory and some corresponding models.

  14. Deantigenation of human type B erythrocytes with Glycine max alpha-D-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, L; Mitra, M; Phillips, R; Haibach, H; Smith, D

    1995-01-01

    Conversion of erythrocyte membrane B antigen to H antigen produces blood type O which is universally transfusable. If efficient large-scale production of enzymatically converted red blood cells is to be achieved, then optimal conditions for deantigenation must be determined. Cell suspension assays were used to study the blood group B activity of Glycine max (soybean) alpha-D-galactosidase on native human erythrocytes. The enzyme readily hydrolyzed the terminal alpha-D-galactosyl residue of the B antigen, converting it to H antigen. Optimal conditions for the enzymatic conversion of red cells with the Glycine enzyme are described. Normal cell morphology and function were maintained under optimal conditions. PMID:7579003

  15. A simplified algorithm for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by laser ektacytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. Yu; Yurchuk, Yu S.

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of measuring the dispersion of red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry) is analysed theoretically. A diffraction pattern parameter is found, which is sensitive to the dispersion of erythrocyte deformability and to a lesser extent - to such parameters as the level of the scattered light intensity, the shape of red blood cells, the concentration of red blood cells in the suspension, the geometric dimensions of the experimental setup, etc. A new algorithm is proposed for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by using data of laser ektacytometry.

  16. A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Philip; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel

  17. A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Philip; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel…

  18. Microfluidic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counters for point-of-care HIV diagnostics using whole blood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Nicholas N; Hassan, Umer; Damhorst, Gregory; Ni, Hengkan; Vaid, Awais; Rodriguez, William; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-12-01

    Roughly 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV; disease burden is highest in resource-limited settings. One important diagnostic in HIV disease management is the absolute count of lymphocytes expressing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) receptors. The current diagnostic instruments and procedures require expensive equipment and trained technicians. In response, we have developed microfluidic biochips that count CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in whole blood samples, without the need for off-chip sample preparation. The device is based on differential electrical counting and relies on five on-chip modules that, in sequence, chemically lyses erythrocytes, quenches lysis to preserve leukocytes, enumerates cells electrically, depletes the target cells (CD4 or CD8) with antibodies, and enumerates the remaining cells electrically. We demonstrate application of this chip using blood from healthy and HIV-infected subjects. Erythrocyte lysis and quenching durations were optimized to create pure leukocyte populations in less than 1 min. Target cell depletion was accomplished through shear stress-based immunocapture, using antibody-coated microposts to increase the contact surface area and enhance depletion efficiency. With the differential electrical counting method, device-based CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts closely matched control counts obtained from flow cytometry, over a dynamic range of 40 to 1000 cells/μl. By providing accurate cell counts in less than 20 min, from samples obtained from one drop of whole blood, this approach has the potential to be realized as a handheld, battery-powered instrument that would deliver simple HIV diagnostics to patients anywhere in the world, regardless of geography or socioeconomic status. PMID:24307694

  19. Erythrocyte deformability and nitric oxide mobilization under pannexin-1 and PKC dependence.

    PubMed

    Silva-Herdade, A S; Freitas, T; Almeida, J Pedro; Saldanha, C

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is utilised for protein phosphorylation and exported through the pannexin 1 hemichannel (Px1) in the microcirculation. The physiological stimuli for ATP release are dependent of blood shear rate level and of the tissue oxygen content. The deoxygenated and oxygenated states of haemoglobin are respectively bound and unbound to N terminal domain of the protein band 3 of the erythrocyte membrane in dependence of its degree of phosphorylation. The protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) contribute to the phosphorylation degree of band 3 and are modulated by protein kinase C (PKC). Chelerythrine (Che) is a competitive inhibitor of ATP for PKC and a negative modulator of erythrocyte deformability. The aim of this study was to assess the mobilization of nitric oxide (NO) in erythrocyte in absence and presence of Che and Px1 inhibitor (carbenoxolone). Erythrocyte deformability was evaluated in presence of carbenoxolone (Carb). Regarding the effects observed in the erythrocyte by presence of Che or Carb, the values of efflux of NO and the concentration of nitrosogluthatione are similar and with no changes in relation to their absence. Px1inhibition by Carb 10 μM ameliorates the erythrocyte deformability at a shear force of 0.6 and 1.2 Pa. The PKC inhibitor shows similar effects to the Carb on the mobilization of nitric oxide in erythrocyte. The blockage of ATP release by Carb from erythrocytes suggests a possible benefit to develop in ischemia reperfusion or in inflammatory response where will be needed to rescue the excess of NO present and ameliorate the red blood cell deformability at low shear rates. PMID:24595130

  20. Erythrocyte shape classification using integral-geometry-based methods.

    PubMed

    Gual-Arnau, X; Herold-Garca, S; Sim, A

    2015-07-01

    Erythrocyte shape deformations are related to different important illnesses. In this paper, we focus on one of the most important: the Sickle cell disease. This disease causes the hardening or polymerization of the hemoglobin that contains the erythrocytes. The study of this process using digital images of peripheral blood smears can offer useful results in the clinical diagnosis of these illnesses. In particular, it would be very valuable to find a rapid and reproducible automatic classification method to quantify the number of deformed cells and so gauge the severity of the illness. In this paper, we show the good results obtained in the automatic classification of erythrocytes in normal cells, sickle cells, and cells with other deformations, when we use a set of functions based on integral-geometry methods, an active contour-based segmentation method, and a k-NN classification algorithm. Blood specimens were obtained from patients with Sickle cell disease. Seventeen peripheral blood smears were obtained for the study, and 45 images of different fields were obtained. A specialist selected the cells to use, determining those cells which were normal, elongated, and with other deformations present in the images. A process of automatic classification, with cross-validation of errors with the proposed descriptors and with other two functions used in previous studies, was realized. PMID:25773368

  1. [Ionic composition and potassium ion permeability of the erythrocyte membranes of patients with the inflammatory-dystrophic form of parodontosis].

    PubMed

    Peshkova, L V; Orlova, O L; Kas'ianova, T A; Trifonova, V P; Evtodienko, Iu V

    1981-03-01

    The content of K+ was evaluated in erythrocytes of the blood collected from the finger and gingiva of normal people and patients with parodontosis. The content of K+ in erythrocytes of the capillary blood was discovered to increase with the enhancement of the disease severity. The permeability ratio for K+ did not essentially change. The data obtained confirm the suggestion that parodontosis is a systemic disease rather than a local affection. PMID:7248502

  2. Fluoxetine Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, Kashif; Enkel, Sigrid; Bissinger, Rosi; Almilaji, Ahmad; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine inhibits ceramide producing acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramide is in turn known to trigger eryptosis the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ceramide is effective through sensitizing the erythrocytes to the pro-eryptotic effect of increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). In nucleated cells, fluoxetine could either inhibit or stimulate suicidal death or apoptosis. The present study tested whether fluoxetine influences eryptosis. To this end cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. As a result, a 48 h exposure of erythrocytes to fluoxetine (?25 M) significantly decreased forward scatter, increased annexin V binding and enhanced [Ca2+]i. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, fluoxetine stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. PMID:23860350

  3. Effects of racing and gender on viscoelastic properties of horse blood.

    PubMed

    Wood, S C; Fedde, M R

    1997-02-01

    Splenic contraction in racing horses increases the hematocrit (hct), thereby increasing blood viscosity. We tested as to whether racing also affects the elastic properties of blood. Mares and geldings were studied for thus purpose. After racing, there was: (i) an increased erythrocyte count independent of gender and race distance (0.32 to 1.7 km): (ii) an increased mean erythrocyte volume in both sexes; (iii) an increased heterogeneity of RBC size in both sexes; (iv) an increased plasma fibrinogen concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in both sexes; and (v) an increased elastic yield stress (EYS). When corrected to a constant hct of 65%, the blood of mares, but not geldings, had increased EYS after racing. Gender differences in fibrinogen response (p = 0.72) did not account for this and the mechanism is not known. Since EYS is analogous to the point at which ketchup starts to flow from a bottle, its increase could be deleterious in vascular beds characterized by pulsatile flow, e.g. the coronary circulation. PMID:9108630

  4. Favism: disordered erythrocyte calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    De Flora, A; Benatti, U; Guida, L; Forteleoni, G; Meloni, T

    1985-08-01

    The biochemical events that take place during acute hemolysis of G6PD-deficient subjects in favism are far from being elucidated. Evidence is here reported for a constantly and heavily disordered calcium homeostasis in the erythrocytes from seven favic patients. The abnormality, ie, a significantly impaired calcium ATPase activity and a parallel marked increase of intracellular calcium levels, was characteristic of the acute hemolytic crisis although unrelated to the attendant reticulocytosis. Concomitantly, a remarkable decrease of intracellular potassium was also observed. The mean +/- SD Ca2+-ATPase activity in the favic patients was 20.8 +/- 7.8 mumol Pi/g Hb/h compared with 37.2 +/- 8.5 in the matched controls represented by 12 healthy G6PD-deficient subjects (P less than .001). The mean +/- SD intraerythrocytic calcium content was 288 +/- 158 mumol/L of erythrocytes in the favic patients as compared with 22.0 +/- 8.2 in the G6PD-deficient controls (P less than .001). The intraerythrocytic potassium content was 76.6 +/- 19.3 mmol/L of erythrocytes in the favic patients and 106.6 +/- 8.2 in the G6PD-deficient controls (P less than .001). In vitro incubation of normal and G6PD-deficient erythrocytes with divicine, a pyrimidine aglycone present in fava beans and strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of favism, reproduces most of these events, including drop of calcium ATPase, increased intracellular calcium, and leakage of erythrocyte potassium. PMID:2410063

  5. Human erythrocytes bind and inactivate type 5 adenovirus by presenting Coxsackie virus-adenovirus receptor and complement receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Robert C; Di, Ying; Cerny, Anna M; Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Sim, Robert B; Green, Nicola K; Subr, Vladimir; Ulbrich, Karel; Gilbert, Robert J C; Fisher, Kerry D; Finberg, Robert W; Seymour, Leonard W

    2009-02-26

    Type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) is a human pathogen that has been widely developed for therapeutic uses, with only limited success to date. We report here the novel finding that human erythrocytes present Coxsackie virus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) providing an Ad5 sequestration mechanism that protects against systemic infection. Interestingly, erythrocytes from neither mice nor rhesus macaques present CAR. Excess Ad5 fiber protein or anti-CAR antibody inhibits the binding of Ad5 to human erythrocytes and cryo-electron microscopy shows attachment via the fiber protein of Ad5, leading to close juxtaposition with the erythrocyte membrane. Human, but not murine, erythrocytes also present complement receptor (CR1), which binds Ad5 in the presence of antibodies and complement. Transplantation of human erythrocytes into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice extends blood circulation of intravenous Ad5 but decreases its extravasation into human xenograft tumors. Ad5 also shows extended circulation in transgenic mice presenting CAR on their erythrocytes, although it clears rapidly in transgenic mice presenting erythrocyte CR1. Hepatic infection is inhibited in both transgenic models. Erythrocytes may therefore restrict Ad5 infection (natural and therapeutic) in humans, independent of antibody status, presenting a formidable challenge to Ad5 therapeutics. "Stealthing" of Ad5 using hydrophilic polymers may enable circumvention of these natural virus traps. PMID:19131551

  6. White blood cell count at diagnosis and immunoglobulin variable region gene mutations are independent predictors of treatment-free survival in young patients with stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Ilaria; Mauro, Francesca Romana; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Santangelo, Simona; Marinelli, Marilisa; Peragine, Nadia; Di Maio, Valeria; Nanni, Mauro; Barzotti, Rita; Mancini, Francesca; Armiento, Daniele; Paoloni, Francesca; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive panel of clinical-biological parameters was prospectively evaluated at presentation in 112 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (<65 years), to predict the risk of progression in early stage disease. Eighty-one percent were in Binet stage A, 19% in stages B/C. Treatment-free survival was evaluated as the time from diagnosis to first treatment, death or last follow up. In univariate analysis, advanced stage, hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cell, leukemic lymphocyte count, raised beta 2-microglobulin and LDH, unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes, CD38, del(17p), del(11q) and +12, were significantly associated with a short treatment-free survival; the T/leukemic lymphocyte ratio was associated with a better outcome. Multivariate analysis of treatment-free survival in stage A patients selected a high white blood cell count and unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes as unfavorable prognostic factors and a high T/leukemic lymphocyte ratio as a favorable one. At diagnosis, these parameters independently predict the risk of progression in stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. PMID:21193417

  7. Variations of the Platelet Count in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchasin, Sidney; Wallerstein, Ralph O.; Aggeler, Paul M.

    1964-01-01

    Platelet counts were obtained in 675 patients with different hematological and other medical disorders. An indirect venous blood dry slide method which gave a normal range of 200 to 400 × 103 per cu mm was used. Platelet counts varied considerably in disease: In 20 patients, exclusive of myeloproliferative disorders, platelet counts in excess of 1,000 × 103 per cu mm were observed; in 20 patients, exclusive of leukemia and megaloblastic anemia, platelet counts were below 100 × 103 per cu mm. In general, platelet counts varied with the leukocyte count, but not with the degree of anemia. PMID:14180504

  8. FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.

    2004-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and δN-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

  9. Effect of tamoxifen on erythrocyte membrane lipids, lipid peroxides, and antioxidative enzymes in breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Thangaraju, M; Ezhilarasi, R; Sachdanandam, P

    1995-01-01

    Fasting blood samples were taken from 64 tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. The levels of erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and the status of erythrocyte detoxifying enzymes were analyzed in untreated and treated patients for 3 months and 6 months with tamoxifen. Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane cholesterol, phospholipid were also determined in all the patients. The 3 months and 6 months tamoxifen-treated patients showed significantly decreased levels of erythrocyte, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxide with concomitantly increased levels of detoxifying enzymes when compared with baseline values of untreated women. Erythrocyte membrane cholesterol and phospholipid levels were markedly decreased in tamoxifen-treated patients than in untreated women. An interesting finding of this study indicates that the lipid peroxide, as well as, the lipid lowering efficacy of tamoxifen, was increased in patients with greater levels of baseline lipid and lipid peroxides in their erythrocyte membrane. These results indicate that tamoxifen is a potent suppressor of lipid peroxide formation through the favorable effects on membrane lipids and protective enzyme system. PMID:7767903

  10. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  11. Atrial natriuretic peptide and blood volume during red cell transfusion in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Rascher, W; Lingens, N; Bald, M; Linderkamp, O

    1991-04-01

    Because raised plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide indicate volume expansion, we studied the effect of red cell transfusion on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration, packed cell volume, and intravascular volume in eight preterm infants. Red cell transfusion increased red cell mass, packed cell volume and erythrocyte count, but decreased plasma volume. Total blood volume, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration, urine flow rate, and urinary sodium excretion did not change. We conclude that a slow transfusion of less than 10 ml red cells/kg body weight does not cause volume expansion with subsequent atrial natriuretic peptide release thereby affecting the cardiovascular system. PMID:1827248

  12. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  13. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state. PMID:22941203

  14. Erythrocyte deformability dependence on band 3 protein in an in-vitro model of hyperfibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Lopes de Almeida, J P; Freitas-Santos, T; Saldanha, C

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that plasma fibrinogen, a major cardiovascular risk factor, interacts with the erythrocyte membrane and acts to influence blood flow via erythrocyte nitric oxide (NO) modulation. In the present in-vitro study, whole blood samples were harvested from healthy subjects and aliquots were incubated in the absence (control aliquots) and presence of fibrinogen at different degrees of band 3 phosphorylation, and the erythrocyte deformability was determined. The present study shows that in the presence of higher fibrinogen concentrations, similar to those found in inflammatory conditions, erythrocyte deformability is increased only when band 3 is dephosphorylated by the presence of syk inhibitor and at low shear stress. On the contrary, no changes were verified in the presence of fibrinogen when band 3 is allowed to be phosphorylated by inhibiting the phosphotyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity with calpeptin. We also observed that the presence of fibrinogen at higher concentration does not induce changes in erythrocyte deformability in the absence of modulators of the band 3 phosphorylation degree. However, the mechanisms by which fibrinogen signalling modulates erythrocyte function remain to be clarified and are currently under study. PMID:22240357

  15. A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature.

  16. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  17. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-07-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a 'sterile' environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. 'Non-culturability', reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis'). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  18. Ultrasonic Backscattering from Suspended Erythrocytes: Dependence on Frequency and Size.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ihyuan

    The ultrasonic scattering properties of blood have been intensively investigated since the echo signal from red blood cells carries abundant diagnostic information for the study of blood flow and blood properties in the vessels. Recently, ultrasound of frequency higher than 20 MHz has been implemented in intravascular imaging to obtain better images of the vessel wall. In this research measurements were extended to 30 MHz to better understand the effect of blood on the operation of these intravascular devices. The experimentally measured backscatter of saline suspended porcine erythrocytes for frequency up to 30 MHz agrees very well with the theoretical analysis which indicate that Rayleigh scattering is still valid below this frequency. The analysis utilize the T-matrix method to calculate the backscattering cross section of an erythrocyte modeled as a fluid sphere, disk, and biconcave disk. Measurements on the backscattering coefficients of porcine, bovine, and lamb erythrocytes reveal that the backscatter has a square dependence on cell volume. The cell size dependent backscatter is also analyzed via a continuum approach. It is found that the echo intensity of high frequency ultrasound suffers greatly from the attenuation. The dilemma may be solved by using a spherically focused transducer. An analysis of the focused beam reflected from a perfect planar reflector leads to the modification of the standard substitution method for the backscatter measurement since the "image source" theory is found to be inappropriate for the focused beam. Reflection of the focused beam near the focal point is described based on Huygens' principle. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the backscatter is dependent upon the position of the scatterer and the geometry of the transducer if a focused beam is used. Since ultrasound velocity information is needed for scattering measurements, an innovative method for measuring the acoustic speed and the attenuation coefficient without the knowledge of the thickness of a biological specimen is developed which may provide more accurate results for the measurement of backscattering coefficient.

  19. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin wrapping, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  20. Placental transfer of essential fatty acids in humans: venous-arterial difference for docosahexaenoic acid in fetal umbilical erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruyle, M; Connor, W E; Anderson, G J; Lowensohn, R I

    1990-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3); 22:6(4,-7,10,13,16,19) (DHA)] is required in quantity by the developing nervous system of the fetus. This need could be met through synthesis of DHA from linolenic acid in the fetus or through placental transfer of DHA directly. To study the placental transfer of n-3 fatty acids, we obtained umbilical and maternal blood samples from 26 healthy women and infants at parturition and measured the fatty acid composition and content of both plasma and erythrocytes. A striking finding was a considerable venous-arterial difference for DHA in the umbilical erythrocytes as a proportion of total fatty acids and in absolute concentration. This difference of 2.2 micrograms per billion erythrocytes was 6 times larger than the difference in fetal plasma, when the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations were normalized to whole blood. Most other erythrocyte fatty acids showed a similar trend. In umbilical plasma, significant venous-arterial differences were found for 16:0, 16:1, 18:2, and total saturated fatty acids. There was a similar trend for most other plasma fatty acids. Compared with maternal blood, fetal plasma and erythrocytes had higher levels of 20:4 and DHA and lower levels of 18:2 and 18:3(n - 3) fatty acids as a proportion of total fatty acids. These results suggest that erythrocytes play a major role in the necessary transport of the essential fatty acid DHA into the fetus. PMID:2146677

  1. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Naphthazarin.

    PubMed

    Aljanadi, Omar; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Lang, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative naphthazarin may trigger apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. On the other hand, naphthazarin decreases neurotoxicity. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signalling leading to triggering of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ), ceramide and oxidative stress. The present study explored whether naphthazarin impacts on eryptosis and, if so, to unravel underlying mechanisms. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca(2+) ]i from Fluo3 fluorescence, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. As a result, a 24-hr exposure of human erythrocytes to naphthazarin (10 μm) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter, significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly increased ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface and significantly increased ROS. The effect of naphthazarin on annexin-V-binding was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) . In conclusion, naphthazarin stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to oxidative stress and enhanced ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. PMID:26013059

  2. Effects of glycerol on the thermal dependence of the stability of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cunha, C C; Arvelos, L R; Costa, J O; Penha-Silva, N

    2007-08-01

    Incubation of human blood in saline solution of 0-36% (v/v) ethanol for 30 min produces lysis or stabilization of erythrocytes depending on the ethanol concentration. Under less elevated concentrations of ethanol, erythrocytes are present in expanded shapes (R state) that present lower stability and suffer lysis with increase in the ethanol concentration. Under more elevated concentrations of ethanol, erythrocytes are present in contracted shapes (T state) that have higher stability and suffer lysis at even more elevated ethanol concentrations. This work evaluated the effects of glycerol (0 to 2.0 M) and temperature (7 to 47 degrees C) on the stability of the R erythrocytes, characterized by the ethanol concentration at the mid-transition point (D (50R )) of the hemolysis curve (D (50R )). D (50R ) declined sigmoidally with increase in the glycerol concentration or temperature, due to transition of the R to the T state erythrocytes. In 1.5 M glycerol, the erythrocytes stability decreased below 32 but increased above 37 degrees C. The combination of temperature, glycerol and ethanol actions generates a critical value of osmotic pressure below which the R state predominates and above which the T state predominates. At 7 degrees C 1.5 M glycerol decreased the erythrocytes stability against ethanol but increased the erythrocytes stability against hypotonic shock. Those conditions favor the R state, which has a lower stability against ethanol; however, in the absence of ethanol, glycerol determines less water entrance in the erythrocytes, making more difficult its lysis by hypotonicity. PMID:17917799

  3. Hematology and blood chemistry of macaws, Ara rubrogenys.

    PubMed

    García del Campo, A L; Huecas, V; Fernández, A; Puerta, M L

    1991-01-01

    1. The hematology and blood chemistry of 10 captive adult Ara rubrogenys is described. 2. They showed 3,650,000 erythrocytes/mm3, a hematocrit of 49.9% and a blood hemoglobin content of 15.2 g/100 ml. 3. Leukocyte number was 10,000 cells/mm3, the differential counts being 42.2% heterophils, 0.8% eosinophils, 2.4% basophils, 49.9% lymphocytes and 4.5% monocytes. 4. The number of thrombocytes was 21,800 cells/mm3. 5. Plasma composition was (mg/100 ml): glucose 295; triglycerides 102; cholesterol 166; urea 5.8; uric acid 5; creatinine 0.3; bilirubin was not detected and total protein concentration was 3.2 g/100 ml. Enzymatic activities were (units/1): GOT 188; GPT 10 and alkaline phosphatase 315. PMID:1685390

  4. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    MedlinePlus

    ... to measure the number of the unborn baby's red blood cells in a pregnant woman's blood. See also: Rh ... through the placenta and harm the developing baby's red blood cells. This can cause mild to serious anemia in ...

  5. Impact of correcting the lymphocyte count to improve the sensitivity of TB antigen-specific peripheral blood-based quantitative T cell assays (T-SPOT.®TB and QFT-GIT)

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N.; Lehloenya, Rannakoe J.; Meldau, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background The standardized blood-based TB antigen-specific T cell assay, T-SPOT.®TB, is ~10% more sensitive than QuantiFERON®-TB-GIT (QFT-GIT) in detecting presumed latent TB infection (LTBI). Whilst T-SPOT.®TB uses a fixed number of lymphocytes per well, QFT-GIT uses a fixed volume of blood (~1 mL). However, the person-to-person lymphocyte count can vary by 2 to 3 fold. We hypothesized that this variability could explain the reduced sensitivity of QFT-GIT. The findings could have potential implications for improving case detection. Methods T-SPOT.®TB was compared to QFT-GIT readouts before and after normalization of lymphocyte count (by adjusting the blood volume or lymphocyte enrichment within a fixed 1 mL volume) to an arbitrary value of 2.5×106 cells/mL. Within-test variability was evaluated to meaningfully interpret results. Results In patient-specific optimization experiments IFN-γ concentrations significantly increased when QFT-GIT positive samples were enriched with increasing concentrations of lymphocytes (1×106 vs. 2.5×106 cells/mL). However, for the group as a whole lymphocyte enrichment whilst maintaining a ~1 mL volume, compared to un-enriched samples, did not significantly increase IFN-γ [median (range): 0.03 (0–4.41) vs. 0.20 (0–2.40) IU/mL; P=0.64]. There was also no increase in IFN-γ readouts when QFT-GIT lymphocyte numbers were corrected (to 2.5×106 lymphocytes/mL) using volume adjustment. Interestingly, adjusted values were significantly lower than unadjusted ones [median (range): 0.02 (0–12.93) vs. 0.09 (0–14.23) IU/mL; P=0.008]. Conclusions In QFT-GIT negative subjects lymphocyte enrichment did not increase QFT-GIT positivity rates. The reduced clinical sensitivity of the QFT-GIT assay, compared to T-SPOT.®TB, is likely to be due to factors other than lymphocyte count alone. Further studies are required to clarify these findings. PMID:27076944

  6. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response. A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6–115). Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABLIS value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABLIS > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABLIS at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to differentiate patients at the beginning of imatinib treatment. PMID:26765457

  7. Structural Changes of Erythrocyte Surface Glycoconjugates after Treatment with Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vitak, Taras Y; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia there is dysregulation of ion homeostasis, violation of redox metabolism and functioning of membrane enzymes, as well as changes in the structural and functional states of erythrocyte membranes. As a result, the aggregation ability of erythrocytes increased and their deformability decreased. These changes lead to complications to microcirculation blood flow and provoke the development of vascular complications caused by diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the effect of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on the structure of carbohydrate determinants of surface membrane glycoconjugates of rat peripheral blood erythrocytes under both normal conditions and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The research was carried out using Wistar outbred white rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg for 14 days. The treatment of diabetic rats by submerged culture mycelium powder restored the physiological balance between sialylation and desialylation processes, renewed the membrane surface charge of red blood cells, normalized aggregation properties, and caused the structural recovery of oligosaccharide chains of erythrocyte membrane surface glycoconjugates. The discovered changes show an improvement in the erythrocyte functional state and rejuvenation of their population caused by biologically active compounds of the studied medicinal mushrooms. PMID:26756299

  8. Babesia microti Primarily Invades Mature Erythrocytes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Yuan, Jie; Telford, Sam R.; Menon, Sanjay; Hunter, Rouette; Shah, Sohela; Spielman, Andrew; Gelfand, Jeffrey A.; Wortis, Henry H.; Vannier, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    Babesia microti is a tick-borne red blood cell parasite that causes babesiosis in people. Its most common vertebrate reservoir is the white-footed mouse. To determine whether B. microti invades reticulocytes, as does the canine pathogen B. gibsoni, we infected the susceptible inbred mouse strains C.B-17.scid and DBA/2 with a clinical isolate of B. microti. Staining of fixed permeabilized red blood cells with 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole or YOYO-1, a sensitive nucleic acid stain, revealed parasite nuclei as large bright dots. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that parasite DNA is primarily found in mature erythrocytes that expressed Babesia antigens but not the transferrin receptor CD71. In contrast, CD71-positive reticulocytes rarely contained Babesia nuclei and failed to express Babesia antigens. Accordingly, the frequency of YOYO-1-positive, CD71-negative cells strongly correlated with parasitemia, defined as the frequency of infected red blood cells assessed on Giemsa-stained blood smears. Importantly, the absolute numbers generated by the two techniques were similar. Parasitemia was modest and transient in DBA/2 mice but intense and sustained in C.B-17.scid mice. In both strains, parasitemia preceded reticulocytosis, but reticulocytes remained refractory to B. microti. In immunocompetent C.B-17 mice, reticulocytosis developed early, despite a marginal and short-lived parasitemia. Likewise, an early reticulocytosis developed in resistant BALB/cBy and B10.D2 mice. These studies establish that B. microti has a tropism for mature erythrocytes. Although reticulocytes are rarely infected, the delayed reticulocytosis in susceptible strains may result from parasite or host activities to limit renewal of the mature erythrocyte pool, thereby preventing an overwhelming parasitemia. PMID:16714547

  9. A rapid method for determining arachidonic:eicosapentaenoic acid ratios in whole blood lipids: correlation with erythrocyte membrane ratios and validation in a large Italian population of various ages and pathologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), are important for good health conditions. They are present in membrane phospholipids. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 LCPUFA and arachidonic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid (AA and EPA), should not exceed 5:1. Increased intake of n-6 and decreased consumption of n-3 has resulted in much higher, ca 10/15:1 ratio in RBC fatty acids with the possible appearance of a pathological "scenario". The determination of RBC phospholipid LCPUFA contents and ratios is the method of choice for assessing fatty acid status but it is labour intensive and time consuming. Aims of the study [i] To describe and validate a rapid method, suitable for large scale population studies, for total blood fatty acid assay; [ii] to verify a possible correlation between total n-6:n-3 ratio and AA:EPA ratios in RBC phospholipids and in whole-blood total lipids, [iii] to assess usefulness of these ratio as biomarkers of LCPUFA status. Methods [1] Healthy volunteers and patients with various pathologies were recruited. [2] Fatty acid analyses by GC of methyl esters from directly derivatized whole blood total lipids and from RBC phospholipids were performed on fasting blood samples from 1432 subjects categorised according to their age, sex and any existing pathologies. AA:EPA ratio and the total n-6:n-3 ratio were determined. Results AA:EPA ratio is a more sensitive and reliable index for determining changes in total blood fatty acid and it is correlated with the ratio derived from extracted RBC phospholipids. Conclusions The described AA:EPA ratio is a simple, rapid and reliable method for determining n-3 fatty acid status. PMID:20105293

  10. Use of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count to distinguish between lower limb erysipelas and deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Rast, Anna C; Knobel, Demian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Laukemann, Svenja; Steiner, Deborah; Haubitz, Sebastian; Fux, Christoph A; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Early differentiation of erysipelas from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based solely on clinical signs and symptoms is challenging. There is a lack of data regarding the usefulness of the inflammatory biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count in the diagnosis of localized cutaneous infections. Herein, we investigated the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers in a prospective at-risk patient population. This is an observational quality control study including consecutive patients presenting with a final diagnosis of either erysipelas or DVT. The association of PCT (μg/L) and CRP (mg/L) levels and WBC counts (g/L) with the primary outcome was assessed using logistic regression models with area under the receiver-operator curve. Forty-eight patients (erysipelas, n = 31; DVT, n = 17) were included. Compared with patients with DVT, those with erysipelas had significantly higher PCT concentrations. No significant differences in CRP concentrations and WBC counts were found between the two groups. At a PCT threshold of 0.1 μg/L or more, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) for erysipelas were 82.4% and 85.7%, respectively, and increased to 100% and 100% at a threshold of more than 0.25 μg/L. Levels of PCT also correlated with the severity of erysipelas, with a stepwise increase according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. We found a high discriminatory value of PCT for differentiation between erysipelas and DVT, in contrast to other commonly used inflammatory biomarkers. Whether the use of PCT levels for early differentiation of erysipelas from DVT reduces unnecessary antibiotic exposure needs to be assessed in an interventional trial. PMID:25982244

  11. Intraoperative blood salvage.

    PubMed

    Pineda, A A; Valbonesi, M

    1990-04-01

    Interest in and use of IBS have increased recently. This form of haemotherapy involves the retrieval of blood shed perioperatively. IBS, together with other forms of ABT, has gained a prominent role in transfusion medicine, largely due to an increased awareness of the risks associated with transfusion of homologous blood. In addition to conserving erythrocytes, IBS prevents disease transmission, other adverse transfusion reactions, and alloimmunization to antigens in blood cells and plasma which may result from homologous blood use. An array of IBS devices is presently available, ranging from disposable canisters to complete processing systems. The devices are capable of recovering, filtering, washing and reinfusing shed erythrocytes. They can be divided into slow-flow and rapid-flow systems based on the rapidity of blood processing. Most systems use a dual channel aspiration cannula through which shed blood is aspirated and mixed with anticoagulant solution. The salvage procedure requires operator control at every step, even for the highly automated instruments. Various health care personnel have been trained to operate IBS equipment; a transfusion service nurse with blood bank expertise has proved to be a highly reliable operator in our practice. Extensive clinical observation has shown that salvaged erythrocytes function and survive normally. IBS has been applied in many surgical fields; it has two relative contraindications: its use in areas affected by infection or malignancy. Operative procedures characterized by large blood losses provide a cost-efficient application of IBS, including cardiac surgery, orthopaedic procedures, trauma, vascular surgery, and liver transplantation. New, highly efficient technology is emerging that is capable of recovering other blood components. Consequently, what presently amounts to erythrocyte recovery will be expanded shortly to include platelets and plasma, with its many constituents. PMID:2224154

  12. 21 CFR 864.8175 - Calibrator for platelet counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for platelet counting. 864.8175 Section... platelet counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is...

  13. Failure of in vivo and in vitro resialosylation of VCN-desialylated erythrocytes in mammalian and non-mammalian species: evidence from agglutination studies with peanut-agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Perret, G; Bladier, D; Vassy, R; Cornillot, P

    1982-01-01

    1. In distinction to mammalian erythrocytes, splitting of sialic acids of non-mammalian erythrocytes (chicken and newt) by Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) does not lead to a dramatic decrease in their viability. 2. One of the possibilities to explain this discrepancy is the ability of chicken and newt desialosylated erythrocytes to repair the enzymatic injury. 3. To test this hypothesis we used the property of peanut agglutinin (PNA) to agglutinate desialosylated erythrocytes. 4. Desialosylated erythrocytes of all the species tested remain PNA-agglutinable throughout their whole life time in the blood stream. The absence of effect of VCN on chicken and newt erythrocytes is therefore not due to their resialosylation. PMID:7067412

  14. Impaired cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Cholera, Rushina; Brittain, Nathaniel J.; Gillrie, Mark R.; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Diakité, Séidina A. S.; Arie, Takayuki; Krause, Michael A.; Guindo, Aldiouma; Tubman, Abby; Fujioka, Hisashi; Diallo, Dapa A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Ho, May; Wellems, Thomas E.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2008-01-01

    Sickle trait, the heterozygous state of normal hemoglobin A (HbA) and sickle hemoglobin S (HbS), confers protection against malaria in Africa. AS children infected with Plasmodium falciparum are less likely than AA children to suffer the symptoms or severe manifestations of malaria, and they often carry lower parasite densities than AA children. The mechanisms by which sickle trait might confer such malaria protection remain unclear. We have compared the cytoadherence properties of parasitized AS and AA erythrocytes, because it is by these properties that parasitized erythrocytes can sequester in postcapillary microvessels of critical tissues such as the brain and cause the life-threatening complications of malaria. Our results show that the binding of parasitized AS erythrocytes to microvascular endothelial cells and blood monocytes is significantly reduced relative to the binding of parasitized AA erythrocytes. Reduced binding correlates with the altered display of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), the parasite's major cytoadherence ligand and virulence factor on the erythrocyte surface. These findings identify a mechanism of protection for HbS that has features in common with that of hemoglobin C (HbC). Coinherited hemoglobin polymorphisms and naturally acquired antibodies to PfEMP-1 may influence the degree of malaria protection in AS children by further weakening cytoadherence interactions. PMID:18192399

  15. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  16. Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K

    2014-11-20

    Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN). Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite. PMID:25132548

  17. Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Alex J.; Theron, Michel; Tiffert, Teresa; Lew, Virgilio L.; Cicuta, Pietro; Rayner, Julian C.

    2014-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion has been studied intensively, but our cellular understanding has been limited by the fact that it occurs very rapidly: invasion is generally complete within 1 min, and shortly thereafter the merozoites, at least in in vitro culture, lose their invasive capacity. The rapid nature of the process, and hence the narrow time window in which measurements can be taken, have limited the tools available to quantitate invasion. Here we employ optical tweezers to study individual invasion events for what we believe is the first time, showing that newly released P. falciparum merozoites, delivered via optical tweezers to a target erythrocyte, retain their ability to invade. Even spent merozoites, which had lost the ability to invade, retain the ability to adhere to erythrocytes, and furthermore can still induce transient local membrane deformations in the erythrocyte membrane. We use this technology to measure the strength of the adhesive force between merozoites and erythrocytes, and to probe the cellular mode of action of known invasion inhibitory treatments. These data add to our understanding of the erythrocyte-merozoite interactions that occur during invasion, and demonstrate the power of optical tweezers technologies in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. PMID:25140419

  18. Stiffness of normal and pathological erythrocytes studied by means of atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dulińska, Ida; Targosz, Marta; Strojny, Wojciech; Lekka, Małgorzata; Czuba, Paweł; Balwierz, Walentyna; Szymoński, Marek

    2006-03-31

    During recent years, atomic force microscopy has become a powerful technique for studying the mechanical properties (such as stiffness, viscoelasticity, hardness and adhesion) of various biological materials. The unique combination of high-resolution imaging and operation in physiological environment made it useful in investigations of cell properties. In this work, the microscope was applied to measure the stiffness of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Erythrocytes were attached to the poly-L-lysine-coated glass surface by fixation using 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 1 min. Different erythrocyte samples were studied: erythrocytes from patients with hemolytic anemias such as hereditary spherocytosis and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency patients with thalassemia, and patients with anisocytosis of various causes. The determined Young's modulus was compared with that obtained from measurements of erythrocytes from healthy subjects. The results showed that the Young's modulus of pathological erythrocytes was higher than in normal cells. Observed differences indicate possible changes in the organization of cell cytoskeleton associated with various diseases. PMID:16443279

  19. Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

  20. Pyrithione and 8-hydroxyquinolines transport lead across erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Lind, Stuart E; Park, Jong Sung; Drexler, John W

    2009-09-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning remains a significant health problem. Although chelating agents can bind to plasma lead, they cannot cross cell membranes where the total body lead burden resides, and are thus inefficient at reducing the total body lead burden. Recently, calcium and sodium ionophores have been shown to transport lead across cell membranes providing a novel method for reducing total body lead stores. We recently found that clioquinol, an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, can act as a zinc ionophore. We postulated that zinc ionophores might also be able to transport lead across biological membranes. To study this, we loaded lead in vitro into human erythrocytes and then studied the ability of zinc ionophores to transport lead into the extracellular space, where it was trapped with a lead chelator. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that several 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, as well as the zinc and sodium salts of pyrithione (N-hydroxypyridine-2-thione), reduced erythrocyte lead content. The water-soluble compound, sodium pyrithione, was able to reduce lead in citrated whole blood, without partitioning into the erythrocytes. These results indicate that two classes of zinc ionophores can transport lead across a biological membrane, and they confirm that these ionophores are not cation-specific. Lead ionophores may prove useful in mobilizing lead into the extracellular space, thereby improving the efficacy of chelation therapy, in vivo or ex vivo. PMID:19665691

  1. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  2. Higher levels of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Kai, M; Kamada, T; Setoyama, S; Otsuji, S

    1979-12-01

    Significantly higher levels of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity (MV) [n-: 5.22 +/- 0.17 (4.70--5.92), mean +/- SD (range), poise, N = 67, P less than 0.005] measured by fluorescence depolarization using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a fluorescent probe were found in diabetic patients when compared with normal controls [5.05 +/- 0.15 (4.70--5.29), N = 22]. No significant differences in MV existed between males and females, nor was MV significantly correlated with diabetic age, duration of diabetes, plasma cholesterol, cholesterol/phsopholipid ratios, and plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activities. No significant difference in MV was observed between groups with or without diabetic retinopathy. There was, however, significantly higher MV [5.29 +/- 0.19 (5.00--5.92), N = 20, P less than 0.05] in the group with fasting blood glucose (FBG) greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl than that [5.19 +/- 0.15 (4.70--5.46), N = 47] in the group with FBG less than 140 mg/dl. The changes in erythrocyte membrane MV presented in this study appear to be related to the current metabolic control of diabetic patients and are considered to be one of the factors responsible for the reduced erythrocyte deformability in diabetes. PMID:510812

  3. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe3+ protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 21 ± 2 μM, ca. 100× higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  4. Micronucleated erythrocytes in newborn rats exposed to raltegravir placental transfer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Gómez-Meda, Belinda Claudia; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  5. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe(3+) protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 21±2μM, ca. 100× higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  6. Ca(2+) and caspases are involved in hydroxyl radical-induced apoptosis in erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Li, HuaTao; Feng, Lin; Jiang, WeiDan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, YongAn; Wu, Pei; Zhou, XiaoQiu

    2015-10-01

    There are young erythrocytes and mature erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of fish. The present study explored the apoptosis in hydroxyl radical ((·)OH)-induced young and mature erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Carp erythrocytes from the peripheral blood were separated into the young fraction, the intermediate fraction and the mature fraction using fixed-angle centrifugation. The erythrocytes in three age fractions were treated with the caspase inhibitors (zVAD-fmk) in physiological carp saline (PCS) or Ca(2+)-free PCS in the presence of 40 μM FeSO4/20 μM H2O2. The results showed that the (·)OH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and DNA fragmentation are caspase dependent in carp erythrocytes. Furthermore, the ROS generation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in the more young fraction are more dependent on the caspase activity. This suggested that the caspases are involved in the (·)OH-induced apoptosis in the young erythrocytes of fish. Results also indicated that Ca(2+) is involved in (·)OH-induced calpain activation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in carp erythrocytes. Moreover, the calpain activation, DNA fragmentation and PS exposure in the more mature fraction are more dependent on the levels of Ca(2+). This revealed that (·)OH-induced apoptosis is Ca(2+) dependent in the mature erythrocytes of fish. Taken together, there might be two apoptosis pathways in fish erythrocytes: one is the caspase-dependent apoptosis in the young erythrocytes and the other is the Ca(2+)-involved apoptosis in the mature erythrocytes. PMID:26080678

  7. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Dobešová, Z; Loukotová, J; Nováková, O; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J

    2016-03-14

    Significant relationships between ion transport and membrane lipid composition (cholesterol, total phospholipids and sphingomyelins) were found in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats. In these animals mean cellular hemoglobin content correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Na(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Immature erythrocytes exhibit lower mean cellular hemoglobin content (MCHC) than mature ones. The aim of the present study was to find a relationship between erythrocyte maturity, membrane lipid composition and ion transport activity in Wistar rats aged three months which were subjected to repeated hemorrhage (blood loss 2 ml/day for 6 days) to enrich circulating erythrocytes with immature forms. Immature and mature erythrocyte fractions in control and hemorrhaged rats were separated by repeated centrifugation. Hemorrhaged rats had increased number of reticulocytes but reduced hematocrit and MCHC compared to control rats. Immature erythrocytes of hemorrhaged rats differed from mature ones of control animals by elevated Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, reduced Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity and increased Rb(+) leak. These ion transport changes in immature erythrocytes were accompanied by higher concentration of total phospholipids in their cell membranes. Membrane phospholipid content correlated positively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and cation leaks but negatively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Moreover, they were also negatively related with MCHC which correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Rb(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Thus certain abnormalities of erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition detected in hypertensive animals might be caused by higher incidence of immature cells. PMID:26988297

  8. Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D; Gross, Heidrun B; Holt, Roberta R; Kim, Sun H; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L; Keen, Carl L

    2005-03-01

    Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3'-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta > 8)-epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 microM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05). PMID:15712596

  9. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Egler, Jasmin; Briglia, Marilena; Fazio, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The natural phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin, primarily used for topical treatment of warts, has later been shown to trigger tumor cell apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of tumor cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of cell membrane phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), ceramide, oxidative stress and dysregulation of several kinases. Phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface was quantified utilizing annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide from antibody binding, and reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with cantharidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥10 μg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥25 μg/mL), significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥25 μg/mL), but did not significantly modify ceramide abundance or ROS. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following cantharidin treatment was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was abolished by kinase inhibitor staurosporine (1 μM) and slightly decreased by p38 inhibitor skepinone (2 μM). Exposure of erythrocytes to cantharidin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death with erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect sensitive to kinase inhibitors staurosporine and skepinone. PMID:26226001

  10. Effect of Thioridazine on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Arnold, Markus; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thioridazine, a neuroleptic phenothiazine with antimicrobial efficacy is known to trigger anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activation of p38 kinase. The present study explored, whether thioridazine elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i has been estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, and hemolysis from hemoglobin release. Results: A 48 hours exposure to thioridazine was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i (30 M), decrease of forward scatter (30 M), and increase of annexin-V-binding (?12 M). Nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ and p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 (2 M) significantly blunted but did not abolish annexin-V-binding following thioridazine exposure. Conclusions: Thioridazine stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and activation of p38 kinase. PMID:24152992

  11. Guidelines for transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates and premature infants. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates and premature infants is common and should be minimized through a reduction in the number of blood samples taken for laboratory tests. The risks to patients have been minimized with current blood-banking techniques, although neonates and premature infants may require special consideration. The indications for transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates include the presence of shock, a loss of 10% or more of the blood volume within 72 hours when further blood sampling is expected, a hemoglobin level of less than 130 g/L in neonates with cardio-respiratory disease who require increased oxygen-carrying capacity, and a hemoglobin level of less than 80 to 100 g/L in neonates with tachypnea, tachycardia, recurrent apnea, poor feeding or failure to gain weight. The attending physician should consider these indications along with clinical judgement to ensure safe and effective erythrocyte transfusion. PMID:1458420

  12. Serum pantetheinase/vanin levels regulate erythrocyte homeostasis and severity of malaria.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Rihet, Pascal; Atwell, Scott; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Chasson, Lionel; Beaumont, Carole; Chimini, Giovanna; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Viallat, Annie; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Therefore, scoring pantetheinase in serum may serve as a severity marker in malaria infection. This disease triggers an acute stress in erythrocytes, which enhances cytoadherence and hemolysis. We speculated that serum pantetheinase might contribute to erythrocyte resistance to stress under homeostatic conditions. We show that mutant mice with a reduced serum PA are anemic and prone to phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. A cytofluorometric and spectroscopic analysis documented an increased frequency of erythrocytes with an autofluorescent aging phenotype. This is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and shear stress-induced hemolysis. Red blood cell transfer and bone marrow chimera experiments show that the aging phenotype is not cell intrinsic but conferred by the environment, leading to a shortening of red blood cell half-life. Therefore, serum pantetheinase level regulates erythrocyte life span and modulates the risk of developing complicated malaria. PMID:26343328

  13. Erythrocyte exchange and leukapheresis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Perseghin, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Hematological diseases in pregnancy should be carefully managed with a multidisciplinary approach, which should include obstetrics, hematology and, in selected patients, apheresis professionals. Hematological malignancies in pregnant women are rare, but the attending physicians should be aware that the use of cytotoxic drugs, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors or differentiating agents such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during the first trimester of pregnancy might be teratogenic and, in turn, induce fetal abnormalities or abortion. Thus, in pregnant patients with either acute or chronic leukemia presenting with symptomatic hyperleukocytosis, leukocytapheresis (LA) could be considered as a bridge therapeutic option. Furthermore, sickle cell disease (SCD) in pregnant women is usually managed only with supportive care, i.e. packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion to prevent excessive hemoglobin decrease, hydration and prevention of acute sickling crisis. Nevertheless, selected patients at high risk for placental detachment due to vasoocclusive acute crisis or with multiple pregnancies may benefit from prophylactic erythrocyte exchange (EEX). Both LA and EEX must be carried out by well trained personnel and the patients (and the fetus) must be under close clinical and instrumental monitoring. In the present paper, recent indications for performing either LA or EEX in pregnant patients are reviewed. PMID:26621538

  14. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  15. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  16. Anomalous diffusion of erythrocytes in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, O G

    1984-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of erythrocytes was measured using quasi-elastic light-scattering (QELS) techniques. The cells were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solutions with and without a macromolecule, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP[360]). In the presence of the PVP(360) an anomalously high diffusion coefficient was measured for metabolizing cells with a normal transmembrane potential. The results are in agreement with experiments on rouleau formation by red blood cells and are supportive of the hypothesis of a long-range coherent interaction between metabolically active biological cells. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:6478035

  17. EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPY ON THE IN VIVO FREQUENCY OF GLYCOPHORIN A "NULL" VARIANT ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...

  18. A method for evaluation of membrane permeability for water by the erythrocyte osmotic deformability profiles.

    PubMed

    Katyukhin, L N

    2014-05-01

    We developed a method for evaluation of membrane permeability for water based on the analysis of osmotic permeability profiles of red blood cells. Deformability of completely spherulated erythrocytes changed in a dose-dependent manner during formation of artificial water pores (by nystatin) and blocking (by HgCl2) of the existing ones. PMID:24915951

  19. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  20. On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

  1. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  2. Thalassemic erythrocytes release microparticles loaded with hemichromes by redox activation of p72Syk kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ferru, Emanuela; Pantaleo, Antonella; Carta, Franco; Mannu, Franca; Khadjavi, Amina; Gallo, Valentina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Graziadei, Giovanna; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Turrini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    High counts of circulating microparticles, originated from the membrane of abnormal erythrocytes, have been associated with increased thrombotic risk in hemolytic disorders. Our studies indicate that in thalassemia intermedia patients the number of circulating microparticles correlates with the capability of the thalassemic erythrocytes to release microparticles. The microparticles are characteristically loaded with hemichromes formed by denatured α-chains. This finding was substantiated by the positive correlation observed in thalassemia intermedia patients between the amount of hemichromes measured in erythrocytes, their capability to release microparticles and the levels of plasma hemichromes. We observed that hemichromes, following their binding to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3, induce the formation of disulfide band 3 dimers that are subsequently phosphorylated by p72Syk kinase. Phosphorylation of oxidized band 3 appears to be relevant for the formation of large hemichromes/band 3 clusters that, in turn, induce local membrane instability and the release of microparticles. Proteomic analysis of microparticles released from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes indicated that, besides hemichromes and clustered band 3, the microparticles contain a characteristic set of proteins that includes catalase, heat shock protein 70, peroxiredoxin 2 and carbonic anhydrase. High amounts of immunoglobulins and C3 have also been found to be associated with microparticles, accounting for their intense phagocytosis. The effect of p72Syk kinase inhibitors on the release of microparticles from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes may indicate new perspectives for controlling the release of circulating microparticles in hemolytic anemias. PMID:24038029

  3. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation. PMID:25817802

  4. The significance of erythrocyte antigen site density

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Leon W.; Trabold, Norma C.

    1971-01-01

    The importance of antigen site density has been studied by means of a model passive hemolysis system using red cells coupled with sulfanilic acid groups. Relative site numbers were estimated from the covalent linkage of sulfanilic acid-35S to red cell membrane protein, and the effective antigen site number was determined with 125I-labeled rabbit IgG anti-sulfanilic acid (anti-S). Immune hemolysis was demonstrated for red cells which had greater than a threshold number of antigen sites, the value of which was different for normal human cells (80,000 sites/cell), cells from a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) (40,000 sites/cell), and sheep red blood cells (RBC) (15,000 sites/cell). Cells with antigen site densities below these values did not hemolyze when tested with 1 mg/ml purified rabbit IgM anti-S. 2-8 times greater antigen site densities were required to obtain hemolysis with IgG anti-S. Above the threshold value, hemolysis titers were proportional to the antigen site number until maximal values were obtained. The greater hemolytic efficiency of IgM antibody was demonstrated in this system, and it was established that the magnitude of the difference was related to the test cell antigen site density. These data, taken with previously reported hemagglutination studies, have been used to develop a general classification of immune hemolysis and hemagglutination based on antigen site density and antibody class. It is suggested that the heterogeneity of blood group systems is caused by differences in the site separation of erythrocyte membrane antigens. PMID:5105661

  5. Structurally conserved erythrocyte-binding domain in Plasmodium provides a versatile scaffold for alternate receptor engagement.

    PubMed

    Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T Y; Arnott, Alicia; He, Wen-Qiang; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Mok, Yee-Foong; Murphy, James M; Smith, Katherine R; Lee, Stuart; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2016-01-12

    Understanding how malaria parasites gain entry into human red blood cells is essential for developing strategies to stop blood stage infection. Plasmodium vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells. The organism has two erythrocyte-binding protein families: namely, the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) and the reticulocyte-binding protein (PvRBP) families. Several members of the PvRBP family bind reticulocytes, specifically suggesting a role in mediating host cell selectivity of P. vivax. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution crystal structure of an erythrocyte-binding domain from PvRBP2a, solved at 2.12 Å resolution. The monomeric molecule consists of 10 α-helices and one short β-hairpin, and, although the structural fold is similar to that of PfRh5-the essential invasion ligand in Plasmodium falciparum-its surface properties are distinct and provide a possible mechanism for recognition of alternate receptors. Sequence alignments of the crystallized fragment of PvRBP2a with other PvRBPs highlight the conserved placement of disulfide bonds. PvRBP2a binds mature red blood cells through recognition of an erythrocyte receptor that is neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-resistant but trypsin-sensitive. By examining the patterns of sequence diversity within field isolates, we have identified and mapped polymorphic residues to the PvRBP2a structure. Using mutagenesis, we have also defined the critical residues required for erythrocyte binding. Characterization of the structural features that govern functional erythrocyte binding for the PvRBP family provides a framework for generating new tools that block P. vivax blood stage infection. PMID:26715754

  6. Structurally conserved erythrocyte-binding domain in Plasmodium provides a versatile scaffold for alternate receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Arnott, Alicia; He, Wen-Qiang; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Mok, Yee-Foong; Murphy, James M.; Smith, Katherine R.; Lee, Stuart; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites gain entry into human red blood cells is essential for developing strategies to stop blood stage infection. Plasmodium vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells. The organism has two erythrocyte-binding protein families: namely, the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) and the reticulocyte-binding protein (PvRBP) families. Several members of the PvRBP family bind reticulocytes, specifically suggesting a role in mediating host cell selectivity of P. vivax. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution crystal structure of an erythrocyte-binding domain from PvRBP2a, solved at 2.12 Å resolution. The monomeric molecule consists of 10 α-helices and one short β-hairpin, and, although the structural fold is similar to that of PfRh5—the essential invasion ligand in Plasmodium falciparum—its surface properties are distinct and provide a possible mechanism for recognition of alternate receptors. Sequence alignments of the crystallized fragment of PvRBP2a with other PvRBPs highlight the conserved placement of disulfide bonds. PvRBP2a binds mature red blood cells through recognition of an erythrocyte receptor that is neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-resistant but trypsin-sensitive. By examining the patterns of sequence diversity within field isolates, we have identified and mapped polymorphic residues to the PvRBP2a structure. Using mutagenesis, we have also defined the critical residues required for erythrocyte binding. Characterization of the structural features that govern functional erythrocyte binding for the PvRBP family provides a framework for generating new tools that block P. vivax blood stage infection. PMID:26715754

  7. EFFECT OF RESIDUAL SPLENIC FUNCTION AND FOLATE LEVELS ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS IN SPLENECTOMIZED HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rates of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of splenectomized individuals can be used as an index of genetic damage to erythrocyte recursor cells in the bone marrow. his is in contrast to non-splenectomized humans, whose micronucleated erythrocytes are removed by...

  8. Acute effect of TSH on oxygenation state and volume of erythrocytes from subjects thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Silvana; Carpi, Angelo; Evangelista, Monica; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Pollastri, Alberto; Bottoni, Antonio; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    We previously reported the presence in the membrane erythrocyte of a TSH receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor, which responds to TSH with increased cAMP level. Since there is evidence for a role of Gprotein receptors as oxygen sensor(s) implicated in cell volume regulation, we hypothesized that erythrocyte TSHR, by TSH stimulation, could modify the erythrocyte volume and the oxygenation state of erythrocytes. We determined the effect of TSH on the gas analysis in 35thyroidectomized patients for stageI differentiated thyroid cancer enrolled for recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) test during chronic treatment with synthetic l-thyroxine. Moreover, we explored the influence of TSH on the shape of erythrocytes. Venous blood-gas analysis before and after TSH were determined with a pH/blood gas electrolyte and 682CO-Oxymeter. In a subgroup of subjects (n=10), the isolated red blood cells (RBC) were analyzed by flow cytometry for morphological changes. After TSH stimulation, we found a significant decrease in PCO(2) (P<0.001), an increase in pH (P<0.01) and an increase of % O(2)-Hb (P<0.05) and pO(2) (P<0.05). By flow cytometry, the erythrocytes after TSH showed a significant enrichment on the mean number in the selected region R1 corresponding to bigger volumes (P<0.05, n=10). Finally, by contrast phase microscopy, when the cell area was measured, a mean increased volume was observed in erythrocytes after TSH compared to the basal before TSH (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that acute stimulation of TSH by rhTSH modifies the oxygenation state and volume of erythrocyte. PMID:21742463

  9. Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (≥20 μM) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 μM), ceramide abundance (60 μM) and DCFDA fluorescence (≥40 μM). The effect of alantolactone (60 μM) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  10. Further improvement of the enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) for erythrocyte antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gilman, G E; Kennedy, M S; Lott, J A; Powers, J D; Waheed, A; Senhauser, D A

    1982-02-01

    The enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) was found to be nine times more sensitive than the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) in detecting erythrocytes sensitized by IgG antibody in vitro. The release of hemoglobin and other interfering substances from the erythrocytes gave falsely high absorbance values which were corrected by the use of a hemolysis bland with each test. ELAT results showed good precision. With the use of the hemolysis blank, the ELAT should prove to be a useful tool for hospital blood blanks in the detection of weakly reactive allo- and autoantibodies. PMID:7039301

  11. Induction of transient radioresistance in human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokosz, Anita; Szweda-Lewandowska, Zofia

    2006-09-01

    Human erythrocytes suspended in an isotonic Na-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (hematocrit of 2%), were irradiated with γ-rays with single and split doses under air or N 2O in order to determine the physicochemical changes caused by the dose inducing an increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. The obtained results showed that under the applied irradiation conditions, the dose of 0.4 kGy induced changes in erythrocytes, which were responsible for temporary resistance of erythrocytes to hemolysis. We concluded that the observed resistance is caused mainly by the structural changes in proteins.

  12. Blood group reactivities of SLCL-workshop antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, M.; Sonneborn, H. H.

    1991-01-01

    We have tested all 98 workshop antibodies for blood group antigen reactivity. In initial experiments we used a routine agglutination technique with A1LEb and BLea erythrocytes to screen for reactivity with most of the possible antigens. Except for WS78 which reacted with both types of erythrocyte and WS92 which reacted with A1Leb, there was only very weak or no reactivity. We therefore used indirect immunofluorescence and a cell analyser to increase sensitivity and tested a variety of erythrocytes expressing different blood group antigens. WS78 was strongly reactive against all types of erythrocyte tested (96-99% of the cells). WS92 appeared to react with blood group A1. WS27 detected an antigen present on all erythrocytes but expressed weakly (19-21% of the cells). PMID:2039711

  13. Excessive fluoride consumption leads to accelerated death of erythrocytes and anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Agalakova, Natalia Ivanovna; Gusev, Gennadii Petrovich

    2013-06-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate an overall effect of long-term consumption of excessive fluoride (F) amounts by rats on their erythrocytes. The animals were administered regular drinking water (0.4 ppm F) or the same water supplemented with 2, 10, and 20 ppm F (as NaF) for 12 months. Chronic exposure of the rats to increasing F doses induced a progressive rise of the plasma F concentration accompanied by a dose-dependent fall of hematocrit and decrease in the mean erythrocyte volume. Consumption of 10 and 20 ppm F resulted in appearance of morphologically abnormal cells (stomatocytes and echinocytes) in the peripheral blood. Rise of the water F concentration to 20 ppm F led to significant increase in the number of phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes, although suppression of cell viability was revealed in all three groups of F-poisoned rats. A compensatory enhanced release of reticulocytes was not sufficient to compensate for erythrocyte loss. Dose-dependent accumulation of free cytosolic Ca(2+) appears to be a major pathophysiological process underlying the development of F-induced death processes in rat erythrocytes. In addition, 10 and 20 ppm F induced ATP depletion and generation of peroxides in erythrocytes, whereas superoxide and glutathione levels were not altered. Thus, long-term intoxication of the rats with F triggers premature death of their erythrocytes due to intrinsic death-associated biochemical defects and development of anemia. PMID:23673526

  14. Antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes from goats seropositive to the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L., Diptera: Oestridae) infection.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Valadez, C E; Reyes-Becerril, M C; Romero, G M J; Cepeda-Palacios, R; López-Aguilar, D R; Zenteno, T; Ascencio, F

    2011-12-29

    Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) causes an important cosmopolitan parasitosis of the nasal and sinusal cavities of sheep and goats called oestrosis. Our objective was to analyze the participation of erythrocytes in the antioxidant system in goats seropositive to O. ovis infection under field conditions. Fifty female goats naturally exposed to O. ovis infection from Baja California Sur, México, were blood-sampled. Erythrocytic intracellular content was obtained from blood plasma. Oestrosis serodiagnosis was determined by ELISA. Protein, hemoglobin (Hb), superoxide dismutase (SOD), mieloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes were determined in both seropositive and seronegative goats. Overall seroprevalence of O. ovis infection in goats was 56%. Positive significant (P<0.05) associations were observed among systemic IgG level and protein (0.34), hemoglobin (0.43), SOD (0.32), and MPO (0.41) in erythrocytes. Protein and hemoglobin concentrations, as well as SOD and MPO activities in erythrocytes were found significantly higher (P<0.05) in seropositive than in seronegative goats. By contrast, enzymatic activities of CAT and GST and lipid peroxidation values were similar in seropositive and seronegative groups. In conclusion, there was a systemic stimulation of Reactive Oxygen Species which was efficiently scavenged by erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes in goats seropositive to O. ovis infection. PMID:21802210

  15. Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

    2013-09-01

    Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants. PMID:23732483

  16. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion **

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Elizabeth S.; Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Moechtar, Mischka A.; Barteneva, Natasha S.; Weekes, Michael P.; Nobre, Luis V.; Gygi, Steven P.; Paulo, Joao A.; Frantzreb, Charles; Tani, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Junko; Watanabe, Seishi; Goldberg, Jonathan; Paul, Aditya S.; Brugnara, Carlo; Root, David E.; Wiegand, Roger C.; Doench, John G.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify host determinants for malaria have been hindered by the absence of a nucleus in erythrocytes, precluding genetic manipulation in the cell where the parasite replicates. We used cultured red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells to carry out a forward genetic screen for Plasmodium falciparum host determinants. We found that CD55 is an essential host factor for P. falciparum invasion. CD55-null erythrocytes were refractory to invasion by all isolates of P. falciparum because parasites failed to attach properly to the erythrocyte surface. Thus, CD55 is an attractive target for the development of malaria therapeutics. Hematopoietic stem cell-based forward genetic screens may be valuable for the identification of additional host determinants of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25954012

  17. [Mechanism of protective effect of amphiphilic compounds during hypertonic hemolysis of erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Orlova, N V; Shpakova, N M

    2006-01-01

    Antihemolytic effect of various amphiphilic compounds under conditions of red blood cell hypertonic hemolysis at different temperatures (0 and 37 degrees C) and cell exposure to diamide was investigated. The level of maximum antihemolytic activity and values of efficient concentrations for all studied substances were lower at 0 degrees C if compared with 37 degrees C. Exposure of erythrocytes to diamide (5 and 10 mmol/l) did not change cell sensibility to hypertonic medium. There has been demonstrated a temperature-dependent decrease in the efficiency of studiedsubstances under hypertonic hemolysis of erythrocytes exposed to 10 mmol/l diamide. Found reduction in efficiency of amphiphiles at low temperature and at high concentration of diamide was probably caused by similar changes of structural and dynamic state of erythrocyte membrane. PMID:17176840

  18. Application of a spectrally filtered probing light beam and RGB decomposition of microphotographs for flow registration of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Ganilova, Yu. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We propose a development of the flow microscopy method to increase the resolving power upon registration of erythrocyte agglutination. We experimentally show that the action of a ultrasonic standing wave on an agglutinating mixture blood-serum leads to the formation of so large erythrocytic immune complexes that it seems possible to propose a new two-wave optical method of registration of the process of erythrocyte agglutination using the RGB decomposition of microphotographs of the flow of the mixture under study. This approach increases the reliability of registration of erythrocyte agglutination and, consequently, increases the reliability of blood typing. Our results can be used in the development of instruments for automatic human blood typing.

  19. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  20. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Waibel, Sabrina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections, has later been shown to be effective in various infectious diseases including malaria. Nelfinavir may trigger mitochondria-independent cell death. Erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a mitochondria-independent suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). During malaria, accelerated death of infected erythrocytes may decrease parasitemia and thus favorably influence the clinical course of the disease. In the present study, phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with nelfinavir significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥5µg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥2.5µg/mL), significantly increased ROS abundance (10 µg/mL), and significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥5 µg/mL). The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following nelfinavir treatment was significantly blunted, but not abolished by either addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) or removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, exposure of erythrocytes to nelfinavir induces oxidative stress and Ca2+ entry, thus leading to suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling. PMID:26008229

  1. The Functional Significance of the Rho/Rho-Kinase Pathway in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tiftik, R. Nalan; Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Kul, Seval; Büyükafşar, Kansu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Erythrocyte deformability, which can be influenced by various intracellular signaling mechanisms, such as nitric oxide, cAMP, cGMP, and protein kinases, is the most important physiological factor providing the blood flow in microcirculation. However, the functional significance of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway, which contributes cell shape changes and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, has yet to be explored in erythrocytes. Therefore, we examined the influence of several activators and inhibitors of Rho/Rho-kinase signaling on human erythrocyte deformability. Materials and Methods: RhoA and ROCK-2 proteins were studied by western blotting. Influences of 2 Rho-kinase inhibitors, fasudil and Y-27632 (both 10-7 to 10-4 M), on erythrocyte deformability was determined by ektacytometer at various shear stresses (0-30 Pa) in the presence or absence of a known Rho activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 10-5 to 5x10-5 M, 1-15 min). Results: LPA incubation reduced deformability with concomitant RhoA-GTP inhibition. Y-27632 and fasudil also decreased deformability, but had no effect on LPA-induced reduction of deformability. Rho inhibitor C3 had no effect on RhoA activation. Reduction in RhoA activation was induced by sub-hemolytic mechanical stress. Conclusion: Our findings may indicate that the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway could contribute to the regulation of deformability of human erythrocytes. PMID:25035675

  2. Erythrocyte Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC): diagnostic and therapeutic implications in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Stavros; Chalikias, Georgios K; Tziakas, Dimitrios N; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2011-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. The last three decades efforts have been made to elucidate the biochemical pathways that are implicated in the process of atherogenesis and plaque development. Chemokines are crucial mediators in every step of this process. Additionally, cellular components of the peripheral blood have been proved important mediators in the formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. However, until recently data were mostly focusing on leukocytes and platelets. Erythrocytes were considered unreceptive bystanders and limited data supported their importance in the progression and destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Recently erythrocytes, through their Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), have been proposed as appealing regulators of chemokine-induced pathways. Dissimilar to every other chemokine receptor DARC possesses high affinity for several ligands from both CC and CXC chemokine sub-families. Moreover, DARC is not coupled to a G-protein or any other intracellular signalling system; thus it is incapable of generating second messages. The exact biochemical role of erythrocyte DARC remains to be determined. It is however challenging the fact that DARC is a regulator of almost every CC and CXC chemokine ligand and therefore DARC antagonism could effectively block the complex pre-inflammatory chemokine network. In the present review we intent to provide recent evidence supporting the role of erythrocytes in atherosclerosis focusing on the erythrocyte-chemokine interaction through the Duffy antigen system. PMID:21441947

  3. Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 626 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., positive controls), and healthy controls (i.e., negative controls). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

  4. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity and indices of plasmatic oxidative damage after acute physical exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Berzosa, C; Gómez-Trullén, E M; Piedrafita, E; Cebrián, I; Martínez-Ballarín, E; Miana-Mena, F J; Fuentes-Broto, L; García, J J

    2011-06-01

    Optimal levels of membrane fluidity are essential for numerous cell functions including cell growth, solute transport and signal transduction. Since exercise enhances free radical production, our aim was to evaluate in healthy male subjects the effects of an acute bout of maximal and submaximal exercise on the erythrocyte membrane fluidity and its possible relation to the oxidative damage overproduction due to exercise. Subjects (n = 34) performed three cycloergometric tests: a continuous progressive exercise, a strenuous exercise until exhaustion and an acute bout of exercise at an intensity corresponding to 70% of maximal work capacity for 30 min. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after these exercises. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HDA) concentrations and carbonyl content of plasmatic proteins were used as an index of lipid and protein oxidation, respectively. Exercise produced a dramatic drop in the erythrocyte membrane fluidity as compared to resting time, but this was not accompanied by significant changes in the plasmatic MDA and 4-HDA concentrations. The highest erythrocyte membrane rigidity was detected immediately after strenuous exercise until exhaustion was performed. Protein carbonyl levels were higher after exhaustive exercises than at rest. Continuous progressive and strenuous exercises until exhaustion, but not submaximal workload, resulted in a significant enhanced accumulation of carbonylated proteins in the plasma. These findings are consistent with the idea that exercise exaggerates oxidative damage, which may contribute, at least partially, to explain the rigidity in the membrane of the erythrocytes due to acute exercise. PMID:21116825

  5. Triggering of Erythrocyte Death by Triparanol

    PubMed Central

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor Triparanol has been shown to trigger apoptosis in several malignancies. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress which may activate erythrocytic Ca2+ permeable unselective cation channels with subsequent Ca2+ entry and increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). The present study explored whether and how Triparanol induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Triparanol (20 µM) significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence and significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. Triparanol (15 µM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased the forward scatter. The effect of Triparanol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Triparanol leads to eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Triparanol is at least in part effective by stimulating ROS formation and Ca2+ entry. PMID:26305256

  6. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  7. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Polys, PMNs, ANC, % Neu Known as neutrophilia Acute bacterial infections and also some infections caused by viruses and ... CMV) , Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) , herpes , rubella ) Certain bacterial infections (e.g., pertussis (whooping cough), tuberculosis (TB) ) Lymphocytic ...

  8. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet ( ... been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding. Infant ...

  9. [Essentiale and riboxin induce immunomodulant activity of erythrocyte stroma in rats with toxic anemia and in intact animals].

    PubMed

    Lzareva, G A; Brovkina, I L; Prokopenko, L G

    2004-01-01

    The stroma of red blood cells in rats injected with riboxin after extracorporal treatment with essentiale acquired immunomodulant properties, with a significant increase in Mg2+ -ATPase activity. Light erythrocytes producing immunosuppressing action appeared in the blood of animals poisoned with phenylhydrazine or sodium nitrite. Introduction of hemotropic poisons reduced the activity of Mg2+ -ATPase in the stroma. Riboxin injections in poisoned animals, followed by essentiale treatment of the stroma induced immunostimulating properties and normalized Mg2+ -ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes. PMID:15559631

  10. Calcium supplementation and 4-week exercise on blood parameters of athletes at rest and exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Vedat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, experiments were designed to investigate if supplementation with calcium during 4 weeks had an effect on blood parameters in sedentary male athletes at rest and exhaustion. Thirty healthy subjects of ages ranging from 18 to 22 years were included in the study. The subjects were separated into three groups, as follows: Group 1 consisted sedentary athletes receiving 35 mg/kg/day calcium gluconate. Group 2 included subjects equally supplemented with calcium training 90 min/day for 5 days/week. Group 3 were subject to the same exercise regime but did not receive calcium supplements. Blood parameters were determined in the experimental subjects at rest and after exhaustion. The leukocyte count (WBC) of athletes in groups 2 and 3 were significantly higher at exhaustion (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the WBC of the two supplemented groups. The erythrocyte count (RBC) was increased in the supplemented athletes after training (p < 0.05), but hemoglobin, hematocrit, and thrombocyte levels remained unchanged. The mean corpuscular volume increased in the calcium-supplemented group at rest (p < 0.05). These results suggest that calcium supplementation only causes increases in white and red blood cell counts in athletes after exhaustion while other hematological parameters remain unchanged. PMID:19652928

  11. Influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF injections on selected blood parameters relevant for monitoring programmes in sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Walpurgis, Katja; Slijepcevic, Mirjana; Wenzel, Folker; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Franz, Stefan; Schnzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-10-01

    The use of growth factors in sports is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC). While the beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on erythropoiesis and therefore its performance-enhancing properties have been well documented and established for decades, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relevance of the cytokine G-CSF in a doping control context, particularly concerning its influence on selected blood parameters representing central aspects of the Athlete Biological Passport. For that purpose, the effect of repeated subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections in therapeutic dosages (10 g/kg/d) on white blood cells, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and percent reticulocytes was analyzed by using commonly employed fluorescence flow cytometry-based approaches. A total of 20 people were tested (14 male, 6 female) and both white blood cell count and reticulocyte percentages were found to significantly increase following a 5-day treatment with G-CSF. Simultaneously, all other volume-dependent parameters (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) slightly but significantly decreased. Due to the relevance of these measurands for the validity of blood tests for doping controls and the anecdotal evidence of G-CSF being potentially misused by elite athletes, G-CSF analyses might be indicated in case of unusually altered blood profiles. PMID:23047806

  12. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S; Eviatar, J

    1985-09-01

    The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192

  13. Study of polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorins using microscopic image digital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, B.; Dumas, D.; Relancio, F.; Fontana, A.; Alessi, A.; Foresto, P.; Grandfils, C.; Stoltz, J.; Valverde, J.

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study synthetic polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin using image digital analysis. Polycations are oligomers or polymers of natural or synthetic origin, which bear a great number of positive charges at pH 7.4. Several of these polycations are nowadays used in clinic for human and veterinary purposes. New applications of polycations to the development of new drug delivery systems are investigated, in order to promote the drug absorption through the gastro-intestinal and blood brain barriers. However, up to now, there are no clear relationships between macromolecular features of polycations (molecular weight, mean charge density, charge repartition, etc.) and their interactions with blood elements (which bear superficial negative charges). The interaction on the red blood cell membrane with synthetic polycations having well-controlled macromolecular features and functionalized with pendent polyethylene glycol segments was investigated. The alterations over stationary and dynamic viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes were analyzed through laser diffractometry. Image digital analysis was used to study erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin. Results show different reactivities of the polycations on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings could provide more information about the mechanisms of polycation interaction on erythrocyte membranes. We consider that this work could provide useful tools to understand and improve the haemocompatibility of polycations and enlarge their potential in clinic.

  14. Improvement of major depression is associated with increased erythrocyte DHA.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Barbara J; Grenyer, Brin F S; Crowe, Trevor; Owen, Alice J; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth M; Howe, Peter R C

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if changes in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status following tuna oil supplementation correlated with changes in scores of depression. A total of 95 volunteers receiving treatment for major depression were randomised to consume 8 × 1 g capsules per day of HiDHA (2 g DHA, 0.6 g EPA and 10 mg Vitamin E) or olive oil (placebo) for 16 weeks, whilst undergoing weekly counseling sessions by trained clinical psychologists using a standard empirically validated psychotherapy. Depression status was assessed using the 17 item Hamilton rating scale for depression and the Beck Depression Inventory by a psychodiagnostician who was blind to the treatment. Blood was taken at baseline and 16 weeks (n = 48) for measurement of erythrocyte fatty acids. With HiDHA supplementation, erythrocyte DHA content rose from 4.1 ± 0.2 to 7.9 ± 0.4 % (mean ± SEM, p < 0.001) of total fatty acids but did not change (4.0 ± 0.2 to 4.1 ± 0.2 %) in the olive oil group. The mean changes in scores of depression did not differ significantly between the two groups (-12.2 ± 2.1 for tuna oil and -14.4 ± 2.3 for olive oil). However, analysis of covariance showed that in the fish oil group there was a significant correlation (r = -0.51) between the change in erythrocyte DHA and the change in scores of depression (p < 0.05). Further study of the relationship between DHA and depression is warranted. PMID:23733443

  15. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  16. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β (0) or β (+)) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0-130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β (0) and β (+) groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  17. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  18. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  19. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  20. [Dynamic structure of blood flow in the smallest veins of the brain].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K P; Levkovich, Iu I

    1990-01-01

    Intravital microfilming by means of contact epiobjective was used to investigate the blood flow inside the smallest veins (D from 10 to 100). The blood flow in the veins was shown to consist of separate streams of erythrocytes. PMID:2334806

  1. Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices. PMID:24292848

  2. The role of erythrocyte size and shape in microchannel fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Kathryn; Paredes, Jacobo; Liepmann, Dorian

    2013-11-01

    The unique properties of blood flow in microchannels have been studied for nearly a century; much of the observed blood-specific dynamics is attributed to the biconcave shape of red blood cells. However, for almost twice as long biologists have observed and characterized the differences in the size and shape of red blood cells among vertebrates. With a few exceptions, mammals share the denucleated biconcave shape of erythrocytes but vary in size; oviparous vertebrates have nucleated ovoid red blood cells with size variations of a full order of magnitude. We utilize micro-PIV to analyze blood flow of vertebrate species in microchannels, with a focus on understanding how erythrocyte size and shape alter the cell-free layer and velocity profile of whole blood. The results offer insight into the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect and the selection of animal blood for the design and evaluation of biological microfluidic devices. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1106400.

  3. Numerical analysis of the effects of a high gradient magnetic field on flowing erythrocytes in a membrane oxygenator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier-Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field.

  4. Contact patterns in concanavalin A agglutinated erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Darmani, H; Coakley, W T

    1991-02-01

    Agglutination of human erythrocytes by the lectin concanavalin A is enhanced when the erythrocytes are pretreated with neuraminidase, which removes sialic acids, or with pronase, which degrades both the glycophorins and band 3 protein. In the present work transmission electron microscopy of the enzymatically pretreated erythrocytes shows a regular pattern of interruption of contact between interacting plasma membranes. The lengths characteristic of the pattern were 0.66 and 0.50 microns for pronase- and neuraminidase-pretreated cells, respectively. Agglutination of normal erythrocytes and of neuraminidase-pretreated erythrocytes can be fully reversed by exposure to the competitive inhibitor methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Complete reversal of contact does not occur with pronase-pretreated cells. The comparatively greater tenacity of contact between cells that were treated with pronase before exposure to lectin argues for an involvement of nonspecific interactions in the agglutination process. The results are compared with previously published studies of spatially periodic contact patterns induced by a range of other polymers. PMID:1725500

  5. Tin triggers suicidal death of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tan Thanh; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, formation of ceramide and energy depletion. Excessive eryptosis contributes to several anemic conditions. Intoxication with inorganic tin(II) may lead to anemia. The present study therefore explored whether tin influences eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytic phosphatidylserine exposure was estimated from annexin V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, cytosolic Ca(2+) activity from Fluo3 fluorescence, ceramide formation from binding of fluorescent antibodies and cytosolic ATP utilizing a luciferin-luciferase assay kit. Under control conditions, eryptosis was observed in less than 5% of the erythrocytes. Exposure to tin (1-100 microm) significantly increased the percentage of PS-exposing erythrocytes and decreased cell volume. The effect was paralleled by an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, ceramide formation and a decrease of intracellular ATP concentration. In conclusion, tin triggers eryptosis, an effect at least partially due to Ca(2+ )entry, ceramide formation and ATP depletion. The effect could contribute to tin-induced anemia. PMID:18937211

  6. An increase in the Na+/K+-ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes in workers employed in a lead refining factory.

    PubMed Central

    Karai, I; Fukumoto, K; Horiguchi, S

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase activity and haematological findings, several clinical laboratory examinations were performed on 31 male workers employed in a scrap lead refining factory and, as controls, 50 male workers employed in railway construction. The results were: (1) Values for erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase activity, blood and urine lead, urine delta-aminolaevulinic acid, and urine coproporphyrin of lead workers were significantly higher than those of the controls (p less than 0.01). (2) A strongly positive relationship between blood lead and erythrocyte Na/K-ATPase activity was observed in lead workers (r = 0.473, p less than 0.01). (3) A strongly negative relationship between Na+/K+-ATPase activity and intracellular sodium was observed in both groups (lead workers; r = -0.601, p less than 0.01: controls; r = 0.595, p less than 0.01). PMID:6284196

  7. Measuring Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Invasion Phenotypes Using Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Bei, Amy Kristine; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-01-01

    Having the ability to rapidly, accurately, and robustly measure Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion is a critical component in effective assessment of a blood stage vaccine's mechanism of action. Being able to measure invasion of erythrocytes accurately, objectively and in a high throughput fashion is of critical importance. Here, we describe a simple and robust flow cytometry method that allows for the measurement of the key invasion parameters of parasite multiplication rate and erythrocyte selectivity-both important determinants of disease severity-from the schizont to the ring stage of the parasite's life-cycle, thus separating invasion from growth of the parasite. Importantly, this method is able to accurately detect low levels of parasitemia and heterogeneity within the population that can be missed by enzymatic methods. Lastly, this method has been successfully adapted and employed in field based research settings for parasitemia measurements in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro and to measure invasion inhibition by antibodies and the use of alternative pathways for invasion. PMID:26450388

  8. Functional alterations of rabbit erythrocytes induced by Loxosceles gaucho venom.

    PubMed

    Barretto, Orlando Cesar de Oliveira; Soeiro Prestes, Karina; Figueiredo Fonseca, Lorena Kessia; Achucarro Silveira, Paulo Augusto

    2007-10-01

    Loxoscelism is the syndrome caused by the brown spider Loxosceles gaucho bite in humans. Its effect on erythrocytes has been studied in humans, rabbits, pigs and guinea pigs. In this study, the damage that the L gaucho spider venom causes to the structure and function of erythrocytes in vivo was investigated in rabbits. Before and after the rabbits were envenomed, membrane proteins were studied through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and membrane function was ascertained using the osmotic fragility test, together with the highly sensitive technique of ektacytometry. Six New Zealand rabbits were inoculated by intradermal injection into the dorsal region (10 microg of venom/kg of body weight in 0.2 mL of saline). Blood was collected at 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after inoculation. The membrane protein study did not reveal any alteration in their relative band concentrations, but the osmotic fragility test showed increased hemolysis in slightly hypotonic sodium chloride solutions (at 0.6 and 0.55%). In addition, the ektacytometer study revealed greater deformability to increasing shear stress on the order of 3-30 Pascals when compared with controls, showing that the L gaucho venom does in fact alter red cell function. PMID:18025054

  9. A mechanism for erythrocyte-mediated elevation of apparent viscosity by leukocytes in vivo without adhesion to the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Helmke, B P; Sugihara-Seki, M; Skalak, R; Schmid-Schnbein, G W

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the relatively small number of leukocytes in the circulation, they have a significant influence on the perfusion of such organs as skeletal muscle or kidney. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the current study a combined in vivo and computational approach is presented in which the interaction of individual freely flowing leukocytes with erythrocytes and its effect on apparent blood viscosity are explored. The skeletal muscle microcirculation was perfused with different cell suspensions with and without leukocytes or erythrocytes. We examined a three-dimensional numerical model of low Reynolds number flow in a capillary with a train of erythrocytes (small spheres) in off-axis positions and single larger leukocytes in axisymmetric positions. The results indicate that in order to match the slower axial velocity of leukocytes in capillaries, erythrocytes need to position themselves into an off-axis position in the capillary. In such off-axis positions at constant mean capillary velocity, erythrocyte axial velocity matches on average the axial velocity of the leukocytes, but the apparent viscosity is elevated, in agreement with the whole organ perfusion observations. Thus, leukocytes influence the whole organ resistance in skeletal muscle to a significant degree only in the presence of erythrocytes. PMID:10656051

  10. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  11. High blood pressure tests (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, blood chemistry (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol), and an ECG (electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be recommended based on your condition.

  12. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01