Sample records for blood count erythrocyte

  1. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  2. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  3. Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood cell counts and the Dst

    E-print Network

    Dasso, Sergio

    Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood. Erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes play a key role in living systems because they are responsible is found in both series. KEY WORDS: Bio-geomagnetism, Dst index, erythrocytes, blood cells, space weather

  4. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  5. Erythrocyte mechanics and blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cokelet, G.R.; Meiselman, H.J.; Brooks, D.E. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    This monograph includes the proceedings of a conference on erythrocyte mechanics and blood flow. The topics discussed include: the bilayer and shell model of the erythrocyte membrane; protein-protein interactions in red cell membranes; mechano-chemical study of red cell membrane structure in situ; viscoelastic solid behavior of red cell membrane; measures of blood rheology and erythrocyte mechanics; mechanisms of erythrocyte aggregation; dynamics of red blood cell deformation and aggregation, and in vivo flow; physical and mathematical models of blood flow - theoretical analysis; physical and mathematical models of blood flow - experimental studies; behavior or abnormal erythrocytes in capillaries; reduced erythrocyte deformability and vascular pathology; and microvascular transit of normal, immature, and altered red blood cells in spleen versus skeletal muscle. Summary remarks on in vitro erythrocyte characteristics and in vivo erythrocyte behavior are also indcluded. (RJC)

  6. Erythrocyte and blood antibacterial defense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is an axiom that blood cellular immunity is provided by leukocytes. As to erythrocytes, it is generally accepted that their main function is respiration. Our research provides objective video and photo evidence regarding erythrocyte bactericidal function. Phase-contrast immersion vital microscopy of the blood of patients with bacteremia was performed, and the process of bacteria entrapping and killing by erythrocytes was shot by means of video camera. Video evidence demonstrates that human erythrocytes take active part in blood bactericidal action and can repeatedly engulf and kill bacteria of different species and size. Erythrocytes are extremely important integral part of human blood cellular immunity. Compared with phagocytic leukocytes, the erythrocytes: a) are more numerous; b) are able to entrap and kill microorganisms repeatedly without being injured; c) are more resistant to infection and better withstand the attacks of pathogens; d) have longer life span and are produced faster; e) are inauspicious media for proliferation of microbes and do not support replication of chlamidiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, viruses, etc.; and f) are more effective and uncompromised bacterial killers. Blood cellular immunity theory and traditional view regarding the function of erythrocytes in human blood should be revised. PMID:24883200

  7. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 ± 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 ± 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 ± 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 ± 0.5 and 15.8 ± 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial–venous (a–v) O2 difference (r2 = 0.89–0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules. PMID:16439430

  8. Blood from healthy animals and humans contains nondiscocytic erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Simpson, L O

    1989-12-01

    Blood samples (three drops) from healthy animals and humans were fixed in a 2.5% solution of glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer at pH 7.4 within seconds of being drawn. Dehydrated and gold-coated preparations were photographed at x 600 in a scanning electron microscope, then printed at x 1200. Erythrocytes were classified according to their shape and surface features into six classes, namely, normal red cells, flat cells, cells with surface changes, early cup forms, late cup forms, cells with altered margins. The size of each shape-determined class was expressed as a percentage of the total number of cells counted. Data relating to 23 healthy females and to a mouse, rat, rabbit and horse are reported. Although the presence of nondiscocytic erythrocytes in peripheral human blood has been described, the presence of similar cells in animal blood has not been reported previously. PMID:2611142

  9. Erythrocyte dynamics in flow affects blood rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkova, V.; Farutin, A.; Polack, B.; Misbah, C.; Podgorski, T.

    2012-12-01

    Normal blood consists of highly deformable particles (red blood cells, RBC, or erythrocytes) suspended in a Newtonian fluid (blood plasma). As a rough physical model of erythrocytes, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) are successfully used to probe their membrane properties. In shear flows vesicles and red blood cells show rich variety of dynamical behaviours influencing the rheological properties of their suspensions. Here, we focus on new experimental aspects of the problem in the case, when a combination of an oscillatory shear rate and a basic constant shear rate is applied to suspensions. Experimental examples with concentrated RBC suspensions are presented together with a discussion on the importance of the superposition of a constant shear flow to the pure oscillation, which is usually used to extract the viscoelastic properties of a complex fluid.

  10. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K. Saxena

    2007-01-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant\\u000a increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation >40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes\\u000a (age <15 days). Erythrocytes are

  11. Extracorporeal irradiation of blood: dosimetry corrected for shortened erythrocyte lifespans

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Pate, H.R.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of radiation delivered to erythrocytes during extracorporeal irradiation of blood (ECIB) has been described using Poisson distribution statistics. The Poisson expression for erythrocyte radiation dose distribution was simplified by considering the slight dilution of blood with fluid that is initially in the extracorporeal tubing. An algorithm was devised that allows curtailed lifespans of irradiated erythrocytes to be taken into account in a short computer program of radiation dosimetry for ECIB. Radiation doses to erythrocytes with and without lifespan corrections are compared.

  12. Sequence Variants in Three Loci Influence Monocyte Counts and Erythrocyte Volume

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    REPORT Sequence Variants in Three Loci Influence Monocyte Counts and Erythrocyte Volume Manuel A erythrocyte volume (rs12661667, p Ľ 1.2 3 10Ŕ9 , 0.7% variance explained) in a region that spanned five genes. The third region was also associated with erythrocyte volume and was located in an intergenic region

  13. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  14. Erythrocyte Ascorbate Recycling: Antioxidant Effects in Blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalu Mendiratta; Zhi-chao Qu; James M May

    1998-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant in human plasma, but requires efficient recycling from its oxidized forms to avoid irreversible loss. Human erythrocytes prevented oxidation of ascorbate in autologous plasma, an effect that required recycling of ascorbate within the cells. Erythrocytes had a high capacity to take up dehydroascorbate, the two-electron oxidized product of ascorbate, and to reduce it to

  15. An analysis of bison erythrocyte antigens and blood proteins

    E-print Network

    Zamora, Linda Elia

    1983-01-01

    hemolysis, agglutination of the erythrocytes and allergic reactions. Karl Landsteiner (Zmijewski, 1978) in 1901, was the first to point out that there were immunologic differences among red blood cell antigens. He found that humans of blood group A... 79 Page 6. Frequency of positive hemolytic reactions in bison using cattle blood typing reagents. . . . 87 7. Frequency oF positive hemolyti c reactions in bison usi ng experimental bison blood reagents. 8. Inheritance of carbonic anhydrase...

  16. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Bianchi; J. H. M. Knoll; A. F. Flint; M. F. Pizzimenti; S. A. Latt

    1990-01-01

    Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1\\/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified

  17. An analysis of bison erythrocyte antigens and blood proteins 

    E-print Network

    Zamora, Linda Elia

    1983-01-01

    -chairmen of Advisory Committee: Or. J. Caldwell Or. J. Templeton Six hundred and sixty four blood samples were collected from eight herds of American b1son. Hemolyt1c tests were made using 140 cattle blood typing reagents specific for 55 antigenic Factors and 20.... . Hemolytic Testing of Erythrocytes. . . . . . . . Isaunization Preparation and Technique. . . Collection and Processing of Antisera. . . . Antisera Analysis. Absorptions and Elutions Preparation of Blood Typing Reagents. . . . . Heeoglobin Typing...

  18. Effects of erythrocyte aggregation and venous network geometry on red blood cell axial migration

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Effects of erythrocyte aggregation and venous network geometry on red blood cell axial migration, and Paul C. Johnson. Effects of erythrocyte aggregation and venous network geometry on red blood cell axial

  19. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  20. In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhangyi; Petrig, Benno L; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A

    2008-08-18

    In vivo measurement of retinal blood flow is obtained by measuring the blood velocity of erythrocytes and lumen diameters of the blood vessels using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Erythrocyte velocity is measured by tracking erythrocytes moving across a horizontal scanning line. This approach provides high temporal bandwidth measurements, allowing the fluctuation of blood flow during cardiac cycles to be measured. The technique is most applicable to medium-sized blood vessels. PMID:18711513

  1. LYSIS OF ANTIBODY COATED CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES BY A NON-LYMPHOCYTE PIG BLOOD LEUKOCYTE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LYSIS OF ANTIBODY COATED CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES BY A NON-LYMPHOCYTE PIG BLOOD LEUKOCYTE B. CHARLEY H : erythrocyte-antibody. Koren et al., 1978 ; Wardley et al., 1976). Dif- ferent cell types, all of which bearing communication, using a con- ventionnal slchromium release test with label- led chicken erythrocytes sensitized

  2. Correlation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) dynamics and blood luminescence studied using optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Cyril N.; Bouravleva, Ekaterina V.; Fadyukova, Olga E.; Voeikov, Vladimir V.; Koshelev, Vladimir B.

    2003-10-01

    Simultaneous temporal analysis of whole human or rat blood luminescence and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) in same blood using special computerized optoelectronic devices for single photon counting and for high temporal resolution of the rate of sedimentation of red blood/plasma boundary revealed correlation between both time series. Correlation was observed in vitro in normal blood, after action of physical (height of blood column) and of chemical (hydrogen peroxide) factors, and in experimental cerebral ischemia. An ischemia was invoked in rats by occlusion of both common carotid arteries. ESR was studied with the device "ESR-scan" and the dynamics of respiratory burst (RB) by a luminol-dependent luminescence method on the same blood samples. There was a noticeable increase of intensity of RB in whole rat blood and significant acceleration of ESR in blood diluted on 50% in 90 minutes after applying a ligature on carotid arteries. The individual differences between animals attesting to different degree of RB and ESR activation in blood both in intact animals and after operational intervention was obtained. Revealed correlation points to considerable relation between blood energy and its mechanical properties.

  3. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  4. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  5. Complete blood count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The skin should be cleaned with alcohol or iodine before the test. The patient should be seated ... which has many causes including: Blood loss Iron deficiency Deficiences of vitamin B12 or folic acid Bone ...

  6. Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

  7. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3

  8. Interactions of quantum dots with donor blood erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pleskova, S N; Pudovkina, E E; Mikheeva, E R; Gorshkova, E N

    2014-01-01

    The effects of quantum dots CdSe/ZnS-mercaptopropionic acid, (CdSe/CdZnS)ZnS-polyT, and CdSeCdSZnS/polyT/SiO2-NH2 on human erythrocytes were studied. The nanomaterials reduced signifi cantly the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and modified the erythrocyte membrane resistance to induced (acid and hypo-osmotic) hemolysis. Evaluation of the erythrocyte morphology by atomic force microscopy in the control and after exposure to quantum dots showed significant differences in erythrocyte size and changes in their morphology as a result of exposure to the nanomaterials. PMID:24771382

  9. [The value of erythrocytic protoporphyrin measurement for screening blood donors for iron deficiency: a decision analysis].

    PubMed

    Preziosi, P; Griere, B; Galan, P; Toulmonde, E; Hercberg, S

    1991-01-01

    Blood donors are considered as a group with increased risk of iron deficiency. Therefore it seems particularly useful to have a simple screening test at one's disposal in blood centers to detect easily early iron deficiency. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin assay on an hematofluorometer is very easy and of a low cost. So we studied its diagnostic value on a sample of 285 blood donors (131 men and 154 women). Prevalence of iron deficiency, defined by the coexistence of, at least, two abnormal indicators (serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, mean corpuscular volume), was 5.6% in this sample; sensitivity of erythrocyte protoporphyrin used alone was 75% and its specificity was 91.5%. We used a decision analysis to evaluate the opportunity of screening with this test, accompanied where indicated by iron supplements. The results, though preliminary, suggest that erythrocyte protoporphyrin measurement could be of interest in screening blood donors for iron deficiency. PMID:1866483

  10. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15?L of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975

  11. Biophotonics of the interaction of low-intensity laser radiation with blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blood erythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.

  12. ERYTHROCYTES ERYTHROPOIESIS

    E-print Network

    9/10/2013 1 ERYTHROCYTES ERYTHROPOIESIS · Orderly process to maintain red blood cells in the blood ­ 158 X 109/L MATURE ERYTHROCYTE · 7-9 µm · Biconcave Disk · Pink MEMBRANE LIPIDS · Lipids REDUCTASE RAPOPORT-LEUBERING SHUNT #12;9/10/2013 6 ERYTHROCYTE CONCENTRATION · Sex · Age · Location

  13. Influence of erythrocyte iodothyronine-binding proteins on radioimmunoassay of thyroxin in dried blood spots

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, W.A.; Lynskey, C.P.

    1982-01-01

    Three erythrocyte proteins, one identified as hemoglobin, bind thyroid hormones. Using a dextran/charcoal radioimmunoassay for thyroxin in dried blood spots, we demonstrate that such binding differs with the buffer used. Barbital, phosphate, and borate buffers significantly enhance the binding more than glycine and tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine buffers. Binding is not affected by agents commonly used to inhibit thyroxin binding to serum proteins. A highly significant nonlinear direct relationship between sample storage (temperature and duration) and increased thyroxin-erythrocyte binding is documented, together with an associated decrease in assayed concentrations of thyroxin. However, concomitant serial measurement of thyroxin with polyethylene glycol and combined double-antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassays produced no evidence of interference by erythrocyte proteins in the radioimmune reaction. We conclude that erythrocyte proteins act only as low-affinity secondary binders in radioimmunoassay for thyroxin.

  14. Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

  15. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS

    E-print Network

    DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 ABSTRACT In differential blood counts of 200 herring, Clupea haretll(us haretll(us. the percentages reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from February 1969 through July 1969 from the Boothbay

  16. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF BLOOD GROUPS AND ERYTHROCYTES ENZYMES IN POPULATION GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abst r act : This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje,

  17. Multiple loci influence erythrocyte phenotypes in the CHARGE Consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A Zakai; Frank J A van Rooij; Nicole Soranzo; Albert V Smith; Michael A Nalls; Ming-Huei Chen; Anna Kottgen; Nicole L Glazer; Abbas Dehghan; Brigitte Kuhnel; Thor Aspelund; Qiong Yang; Toshiko Tanaka; Andrew Jaffe; Joshua C M Bis; Germaine C Verwoert; Alexander Teumer; Caroline S Fox; Jack M Guralnik; Georg B Ehret; Kenneth Rice; Janine F Felix; Augusto Rendon; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Daniel Levy; Kushang V Patel; Eric Boerwinkle; Jerome I Rotter; Albert Hofman; Jennifer G Sambrook; Dena G Hernandez; Gang Zheng; Stefania Bandinelli; Andrew B Singleton; Josef Coresh; Thomas Lumley; André G Uitterlinden; Janine M vanGils; Lenore J Launer; L Adrienne Cupples; Ben A Oostra; Jaap-Jan Zwaginga; Willem H Ouwehand; Swee-Lay Thein; Christa Meisinger; Panos Deloukas; Matthias Nauck; Tim D Spector; Christian Gieger; Vilmundur Gudnason; Cornelia M van Duijn; Bruce M Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Aravinda Chakravarti; Andreas Greinacher; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Susan Furth; Mary Cushman; Tamara B Harris; Jing-Ping Lin; Santhi K Ganesh; Christopher J O'Donnell

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of erythrocytes within the blood are important clinical traits and can indicate various hematological disorders. We report here genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for six erythrocyte traits, including hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red blood cell count (RBC). We performed an initial GWAS in cohorts of

  18. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY

    E-print Network

    salmon (0. keta). The erythrocyte count, the hemoglobin concentration, and the blood glucose, chloride. and calcium levels fell; and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the blood urea and nonprotein nitrogen

  19. Prognostic Value of Elevated White Blood Cell Count in Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Schillaci; Matteo Pirro; Giacomo Pucci; Tiziana Ronti; Gaetano Vaudo; Massimo R. Mannarino; Carlo Porcellati; Elmo Mannarino

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic low-grade inflammation may contribute to vascular injury and atherogenesis, and has been described in association to high blood pressure (BP). However, as yet the prognostic significance of white blood cell (WBC) count in the setting of uncomplicated hypertension has not been investigated.Methods: In the Progetto Ipertensione Umbria Monitoraggio Ambulatoriale (PIUMA) study, 1617 white patients with essential hypertension (aged

  20. Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

  1. Regulation of blood flow distribution in skeletal muscle: role of erythrocyte-released ATP

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Mary L; Sprague, Randy S

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate tissue O2 levels in skeletal muscle is vital for normal physiology and requires a well regulated and appropriately distributed convective O2 supply. Inherent in this fundamental physiological process is the requirement for a mechanism which both senses tissue O2 need and locally adjusts flow to appropriately meet that need. Over the past several years we and others have suggested that, in skeletal muscle, O2 carrying erythrocytes participate in the regulation of total blood flow and its distribution by releasing ATP. Importantly, the release of this vasoactive molecule must be both rapid and well controlled if it is to serve an important physiological role. Here we provide insights into three distinct regulated signalling pathways within the erythrocyte that are activated by exposure to reduced O2 tension or in response to binding of agonists to the prostacyclin or ?-adrenergic receptors. Although much has been learned about the role of the erythrocyte in perfusion of skeletal muscle, much remains to be understood. However, what is clear is that the long established passive carrier of O2 also contributes to the regulation of the distribution of microvascular perfusion in skeletal muscle by virtue of its capacity to release ATP. PMID:22586223

  2. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  3. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).

    PubMed

    Emmenegger, Eveline J; Glenn, Jolene A; Winton, James R; Batts, William N; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

    2014-11-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks. PMID:25263493

  4. [Purification of superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte by nano magnetic chitosan microspheres].

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoquan; Ping, Juan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yongzhou; Liu, Cui; Pang, Xiaobin

    2014-06-01

    Nano magnetic microspheres prepared by chitosan and poly acylic acid were applied to purifying superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte. Chitosan-polyacyilc acid graft copolymer was synthesized by free radical graft copolymerization with potassium persulfate as inititator. To prepare Fe3O4 magnetic fluids with chemical coprecipitation, chitosan-polyacylic nano magnetic microspheres were prepared with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Structure of nano magnetic microspheres was detected by FT-IR spectrometer. Particle size and morphology were characterized by JEM-4000EX technology. Chitosan-polyacylic nanometer microspheres have good paticle cize distribution, magnetic responsiveness and protein adsoption. Activity, product yield and activity recovery of SOD after purification reached 6 727 U/mg, 21.1%, and 85.7% respectively. Purification of blood superoxide dismutase by chistosan-polyacylic acid microspheres has its renewable and feasible nature. PMID:25212016

  5. Erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as potential drug vehicles: Isolation by gradual hypotonic hemolysis and biochemical and morphological characterization.

    PubMed

    Kosti?, Ivana T; Ili?, Vesna Lj; ?or?evi?, Verica B; Bukara, Katarina M; Mojsilovi?, Slavko B; Nedovi?, Viktor A; Bugarski, Diana S; Veljovi?, ?or?e N; Miši?, Danijela M; Bugarski, Branko M

    2014-10-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of isolation process-gradual hypotonic hemolysis on chosen parameters of the erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) originating from bovine and porcine slaughterhouse blood. The estimation of the gradual hypotonic hemolysis as a drug loading procedure for the erythrocyte ghosts was performed as well. Based on the results derived from analysis of the osmotic properties of the erythrocytes, the gradual hemolysis was performed with high volume of erythrocytes and 35mM hypotonic sodium-phosphate/NaCl, enabling >90% of hemolysis for both types of erythrocytes. Detailed insight into ghosts' morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy revealed a distortion from erythrocyte shape and an altered surface texture with increased bilayer curvature for both samples. Compared to erythrocytes, an average diameter of ghosts from both type of erythrocytes decreased for only about 10%. The reported unidispersity of the isolated ghosts is of great importance for their potential application as vehicles of active compounds. Gradual hemolysis did not lead to substantial loss of cholesterol and membrane/cytoskeleton proteins. This result indicated the ghosts' possibility to mimic the chemical and structural anisotropic environment of in vivo cell membranes, which is of significance for drug diffusion and partition coefficients. Induced shift of phosphatidylserine to external surface of the ghosts demonstrated their potential application as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to cells of reticuloendothelial system. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a drug model - dexamethasone-sodium phosphate, and its interaction with structural components in both types of erythrocyte ghosts. PMID:25051307

  6. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM’s captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  7. Targeted quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of erythrocyte membranes during blood bank storage.

    PubMed

    Rinalducci, Sara; Longo, Valentina; Ceci, Luigi R; Zolla, Lello

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of blood bank stored red blood cells (RBCs) is the irreversible transition from a discoid to a spherocyte-like morphology with membrane perturbation and cytoskeleton disorders. Therefore, identification of the storage-associated modifications in the protein-protein interactions between the cytoskeleton and the lipid bilayer may contribute to enlighten the molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations of mechanical properties of stored RBCs. Here we report the results obtained analyzing RBCs after 0, 21 and 35?days of storage under standard blood banking conditions by label free mass spectrometry (MS)-based experiments. We could quantitatively measure changes in the phosphorylation level of crucial phosphopeptides belonging to ?-spectrin, ankyrin-1, ?-adducin, dematin, glycophorin A and glycophorin C proteins. Data have been validated by both western blotting and pseudo-Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM). Although each phosphopeptide showed a distinctive trend, a sharp increase in the phosphorylation level during the storage duration was observed. Phosphopeptide mapping and structural modeling analysis indicated that the phosphorylated residues localize in protein functional domains fundamental for the maintenance of membrane structural integrity. Along with previous morphological evidence acquired by electron microscopy, our results seem to indicate that 21-day storage may represent a key point for the molecular processes leading to the erythrocyte deformability reduction observed during blood storage. These findings could therefore be helpful in understanding and preventing the morphology-linked mechanisms responsible for the post-transfusion survival of preserved RBCs. PMID:25800014

  8. Effect of Streess on Blood Leucocyte and Milk Somatic Cell Counts in Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. N. Wegner; J. D. Schuh; F. E. Nelson; G. H. Stott

    1976-01-01

    Blood and milk samples from Holstein cows were examined for total blood leucocyte count, differential blood leuco- cyte count, milk quality test, and somatic cell count in milk while the cows were stressed by corticotropin injection, con- finement in a heat-humidity chamber, or environmental-heat stress by exposure during the hot summer months of June through November in southern Arizona. All

  9. Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y L Zheng; N P Carter; C M Price; S M Colman; P J Milton; G A Hackett; M F Greaves; M A Ferguson-Smith

    1993-01-01

    Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching

  10. Control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic cycle: ?? T cells target the red blood cell-invasive merozoites.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giulia; Loizon, Séverine; Guenot, Marianne; Mocan, Iulia; Halary, Franck; de Saint-Basile, Genevičve; Pitard, Vincent; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Moreau, Jean-François; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Behr, Charlotte

    2011-12-22

    The control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic parasite density is essential for protection against malaria, because it prevents pathogenesis and progression toward severe disease. P falciparum blood-stage parasite cultures are inhibited by human V?9V?2 ?? T cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both intraerythrocytic parasites and the extracellular red blood cell-invasive merozoites specifically activate V?9V?2 T cells in a ?? T cell receptor-dependent manner and trigger their degranulation. In contrast, the ?? T cell-mediated antiparasitic activity only targets the extracellular merozoites. Using perforin-deficient and granulysin-silenced T-cell lines, we demonstrate that granulysin is essential for the in vitro antiplasmodial process, whereas perforin is dispensable. Patients infected with P falciparum exhibited elevated granulysin plasma levels associated with high levels of granulysin-expressing V?2(+) T cells endowed with parasite-specific degranulation capacity. This indicates in vivo activation of V?9V?2 T cells along with granulysin triggering and discharge during primary acute falciparum malaria. Altogether, this work identifies V?9V?2 T cells as unconventional immune effectors targeting the red blood cell-invasive extracellular P falciparum merozoites and opens novel perspectives for immune interventions harnessing the antiparasitic activity of V?9V?2 T cells to control parasite density in malaria patients. PMID:22045985

  11. Characterization of Human Blood Tissue by Impedance Spectroscopy and Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Zavala, Eder; Hernández, Francisco; Lamadrid, Raúl; Guerrero, Carlos; Sosa, Modesto; Villagomez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2006-09-01

    The use of the Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has increased since the middle of 20th century for the characterization of materials which exhibit a frequency dependent behavior over the applied electric field; this behavior is correlated to the substance composition, its structural organization and the interactions between its components. In this work, the human whole blood electrical properties are studied, as well as that of its separated components (plasm, leukocytes, erythrocytes), using an harmonic voltage from 1Hz to 10MHz. The impedance modulus response |Z| and the angular phase lag were registered as functions of the frequency swept. Also, it was studied the variation of the same electrical parameters during sedimentation of blood cells as a function of time. It was found that the use of IS, as a characterization tool for human blood tissue, is an important instrument for the diagnosis and disease tracking of certain pathologies, which could be identified by its correspondent impedance "footprint" in the complex coordinate system.

  12. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF HEMATOZOA IN BLOOD SMEARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph D. Godfrey; Alan M. Fedynich; Danny B. Pence

    1987-01-01

    Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites\\/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or

  14. Platelet Adhesion from Shear Blood Flow Is Controlled by Near-Wall Rebounding Collisions with Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, A.A.; Butylin, A.A.; Ataullakhanov, F.I.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of platelet adhesion in shear flow is known to be substantially modulated by the physical presence of red blood cells (RBCs). The mechanisms of this regulation remain obscure due to the complicated character of platelet interactions with RBCs and vascular walls. To investigate this problem, we have created a mathematical model that takes into account shear-induced transport of platelets across the flow, platelet expulsion by the RBCs from the near-wall layer of the flow onto the wall, and reversible capture of platelets by the wall and their firm adhesion to it. This model analysis allowed us to obtain, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical determination of the platelet adhesion rate constant as a function of the wall shear rate, hematocrit, and average sizes of platelets and RBCs. This formula provided a quantitative description of the results of previous in vitro adhesion experiments in perfusion chambers. The results of the simulations suggest that under a wide range of shear rates and hematocrit values, the rate of platelet adhesion from the blood flow is mainly limited by the frequency of their near-wall rebounding collisions with RBCs. This finding reveals the mechanism by which erythrocytes physically control platelet hemostasis. PMID:21320422

  15. Platelet adhesion from shear blood flow is controlled by near-wall rebounding collisions with erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, A A; Butylin, A A; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2011-02-16

    The efficacy of platelet adhesion in shear flow is known to be substantially modulated by the physical presence of red blood cells (RBCs). The mechanisms of this regulation remain obscure due to the complicated character of platelet interactions with RBCs and vascular walls. To investigate this problem, we have created a mathematical model that takes into account shear-induced transport of platelets across the flow, platelet expulsion by the RBCs from the near-wall layer of the flow onto the wall, and reversible capture of platelets by the wall and their firm adhesion to it. This model analysis allowed us to obtain, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical determination of the platelet adhesion rate constant as a function of the wall shear rate, hematocrit, and average sizes of platelets and RBCs. This formula provided a quantitative description of the results of previous in vitro adhesion experiments in perfusion chambers. The results of the simulations suggest that under a wide range of shear rates and hematocrit values, the rate of platelet adhesion from the blood flow is mainly limited by the frequency of their near-wall rebounding collisions with RBCs. This finding reveals the mechanism by which erythrocytes physically control platelet hemostasis. PMID:21320422

  16. Invasion of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and erythrocytes by Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Jacques; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2010-11-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a small, cell wall-less bacterium that contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in both dairy and feedlot cattle, including mastitis and bronchopneumonia. Numerous reports have implicated M. bovis in the activation of the immune system, while at the same time inhibiting immune cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether the specific immune-cell population M. bovis is capable of attaching to and potentially invading. Here, we demonstrate that incubation of M. bovis Mb1 with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in a significant reduction in their proliferative responses while still remaining viable and capable of gamma interferon secretion. Furthermore, we show that M. bovis Mb1 can be found intracellularly (suggesting a role for either phagocytosis or attachment/invasion) in a number of select bovine PBMC populations (T cells, B cells, monocytes, ?? T cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, and T-helper cells), as well as red blood cells, albeit it at a significantly lower proportion. M. bovis Mb1 appeared to display three main patterns of intracellular staining: diffuse staining, an association with the intracellular side of the cell membrane, and punctate/vacuole-like staining. The invasion of circulating immune cells and erythrocytes could play an important role in disease pathogenesis by aiding the transport of M. bovis from the lungs to other sites. PMID:20713619

  17. Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice

    PubMed Central

    Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones. PMID:24575274

  18. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood. PMID:20041968

  19. Preliminary Discussion On The Three Dimensional Space Quantitative Analysis Of Erythrocytes By SEMP And Some Applications On The Clinic And Research Of Blood Disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian-Huang, Lu; Wen-Meng, Tong; Zhi-Jun, Zhang; Gui-Huan, He; Su-Hui, Huan

    1989-04-01

    The abnormity of the quality and quantity for erythrocytes is one of the important changes of blood disease. It shows the abnormal blood-making function of human body. Therefore, the study of the change of shape of erythrocytes is the indispensible and important basis of reference in the clinic, diagnose and research of blood disease. In this paper, a preliminary discussion is made on the acquisition of scanning stereographs for erythrocytes, the application of the theory of photographic measurement on the three dimensional space quantitative analysis of erythrocytes, drawings of isoline map and section map of various erythrocytes for normal persons, paroxysmal nocturanal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and aplastic anemia patients, study of the shape characteristics of normal erythrocytes and various abnormal erytnrocytes and the applications in clinic, diagnose and research. This research is a combination of microphotogrammetry and erythrocyte morphology. It is polssible to push fotward the study of erythrocyte morphology from LM, SEM to a higher stage of scanning electron micrographic photogrammetry(SEMP) for stereograpic observationand three diamensional quantitative analysis to explore a new path for the further study of the shape of erthrocytes.

  20. In vitro Assessment of Haemocyte and Thrombocyte Count from the Blood Clam of Anadara inequivalvis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Suganthi; S. Bragadeeswaran; K. Prabhu; S. Sophia Rani; S. Vijayalakshmi; T. Balasubramanian

    The identificatio n and characterization of blood components and clotting time of Anadara inequivalvis were studied, specific identification procedure were made on the mollusc blood which have haemocytes and platelets. In order to find out more informations from blood components, clotting time, haemocyte count, platelet count and platelets aggregation, studies were carried out briefly. Our results illustrate the WBC and

  1. Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Julia C

    2011-01-01

    As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

  2. 70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, ?erif; Çal??kan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

  3. Efficiency comparison of two preparative mechanisms for magnetic separation of erythrocytes from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. D.

    1981-03-01

    Separation efficiencies of erythrocytes, made paramagnetic by oxidation of their cellular oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin with sodium nitrite, were compared under identical magnetic separation conditions with those of cells whose oxyhemoglobin had been reduced to deoxyhemoglobin through exposure to sodium dithionite, and the percentage of high-spin hemoglobin was estimated spectrophotometrically. Both parallel and transverse flow/matrix filter configurations gave greater average separation efficiencies, with less variability, for erythrocytes containing the dithionite-reduced hemoglobin. These findings are thought to originate in the characteristics of the oxidative reaction, since the spectrophotometric data indicate a similar variability in oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin.

  4. Quantification of hematozoa in blood smears.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R D; Fedynich, A M; Pence, D B

    1987-10-01

    Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or from the number of fields of view examined. Doubling the number of erythrocytes counted (1) decreased the overdispersed frequency distribution patterns in only 25% of the replicate counts for numbers of H. maccallumi/100 erythrocytes for a series of 2,000 versus 4,000 erythrocytes counted; and (2) did not significantly increase the accuracy for determining parasite intensities. Thus, the number of erythrocytes that must be counted to determine parasite intensities could be considerably reduced from the 10,000 or 20,000 estimated for most studies, and still provide an accurate determination of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes in datasets collected from hosts with moderate to high levels of parasitemia. This resulted in a decreased amount of time expended by the observer on each blood smear examined. With two equivalently trained individuals, differences between observers examining the same blood smears were minimal. This study suggests an approach by which a more standardized methodology for quantifying blood parasite intensities could be developed. PMID:3119870

  5. Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Westman, Julia S; Benktander, John; Storry, Jill R; Peyrard, Thierry; Hult, Annika K; Hellberg, Ĺsa; Teneberg, Susann; Olsson, Martin L

    2015-07-24

    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/P(k)-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosyl-ceramide 3-?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAc?3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1 (k) phenotype and whose pretransfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry were used to show that the naturally occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognize x2 and sialylated forms of x2, whereas x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase, neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1 (k) or P2 (k) erythrocyte units are preferentially selected for transfusion to P(k) patients because p erythrocytes may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels. PMID:26055721

  6. Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Beck

    2006-12-08

    Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

  7. Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaites, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a counting system and number operations. Suggests six distinct areas in a "number" subject: one-to-one correspondences; simple counting process; complicated counting process; addition and multiplication; algorithms for the operations; and the decimal system. (YP)

  8. The relationship between the percentage saturation of maternal and cord plasma transferrin and the maternal and cord blood free erythrocyte protoporphyrin:haem ratio.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, L H; Akpanyung, E O; Arnab, R; Ipadeola, T

    1985-09-01

    The relationship between the percentage saturation of maternal and cord plasma transferrin and the maternal and cord blood free erythrocyte protoporphyrin:haem ratio were investigated in 49 healthy mothers following an uncomplicated pregnancy, and in their full term newborn infants. The variables studied were plasma iron, plasma total iron-binding capacity, percentage saturation of plasma transferrin, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin:haem ratio and haematocrit value. The same variables were also investigated in a group of 60 healthy university students. Though the measurement of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin:haem ratio has broad application in public health studies, little information is available regarding the possible application and clinical use of this variable in the Nigerian population. The results obtained suggest that the free erythrocyte protoporphyrin:haem ratio of blood has a significant negative correlation with that of the percentage saturation of plasma transferrin of the sample. The maternal percentage saturation of plasma transferrin has a significant positive correlation with that of the corresponding fetal (cord) sample. There was no significant correlation between maternal and cord free erythrocyte protoporphyrin [FEP]:haem ratio. PMID:2415053

  9. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  10. Parathyroid hormone ablation alters erythrocyte parameters that are rescued by calcium-sensing receptor gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Jose R.; Youte, Rodeler; Brown, Edward M.; Pollak, Martin R.; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Pong, Lie-Chin; Chien, Lawrence; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Rivera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) produces anemia, are unclear. Parathyroid hormone secretion is regulated by the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor. We investigated the effects of ablating PTH on hematological indices and erythrocytes volume regulation in wild-type, PTH-null and Ca2+-sensing receptor-null/PTH-null mice. The erythrocyte parameters were measured in whole mouse blood and volume regulatory systems were determined by plasma membrane K+ fluxes and osmotic fragility was measured by hemoglobin determination at varying osmolarities. We observed that the absence of PTH significantly increases mean erythrocyte volume and reticulocyte counts, while decreasing erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These changes were accompanied by increases in erythrocyte cation content, a denser cell population and increased K+ permeability, which were in part mediated by activation of the K+/Cl? cotransporter and Gardos channel. In addition we observed that erythrocyte osmotic fragility in PTH-null compared with wild-type mice was enhanced. When Ca2+-sensing receptor gene was deleted on the background of PTH-null mice, we observed that several of the alterations in erythrocyte parameters of PTH-null mice were largely rescued, particularly those related to erythrocyte volume, K+ fluxes and osmotic fragility, and became similar to those observed in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+-sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone are functionally coupled to maintain erythrocyte homeostasis. PMID:23528155

  11. No radioadaptive response to micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction in murine peripheral blood in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Ramirez, P.; Vallarino-Kelly, T.; Rodriguez-Reyes, R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.025 Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 1.0 or 0.1 Gy of gamma rays was determined in murine peripheral blood. The adaptive and challenge doses as well as the timing of their administration were taken from a previously reported experiment. The response was determined by the strategy of measuring the area below the curve (ABC) of MN-PCE induction vs. time. This strategy permits one to determine an index of total damage and to establish if conditioning exposure affects the timing of MN-PCE appearance in the blood stream, which in turn could cause an apparent difference in response between the conditioned and the unconditioned groups at specific times. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does not protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge gamma ray dose, and that there was no change on the kinetics of MN-PCE appearance in peripheral blood. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    PubMed

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease. PMID:24511683

  13. Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

    2005-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

  14. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  15. Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco

    Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

  16. Brain, blood, and iron: Perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C.M.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J.; Verhaag, Esther M.; Jan J, Vonk; Margolis, Russell L.; Walker, Ruth H.

    2012-01-01

    The terms “neuroacanthocytosis” (NA) and “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation” (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

  17. Brain, blood, and iron: perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C M; Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J; Verhaag, Esther M; Vonk, Jan J; Margolis, Russell L; Walker, Ruth H

    2012-06-01

    The terms "neuroacanthocytosis" (NA) and "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation" (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

  18. The effects of short-term and long-term testosterone supplementation on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability in healthy adult mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Vogel, Johannes; Li, Michelle; Peng, Liming; Pencina, Karol; Serra, Carlo; Sandor, Nicolae L; Jasuja, Ravi; Montano, Monty; Basaria, Shehzad; Gassmann, Max; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone treatment induces erythrocytosis that could potentially affect blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk. We thus investigated the effects of testosterone administration on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability using mouse models. Blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and hematocrits were measured in normal male and female mice, as well as in females and castrated males after short-term (2 wk) and long-term (5-7 mo) testosterone intervention (50 mg/kg, weekly). Castrated males for long-term intervention were studied in parallel with the normal males to assess the effect of long-term testosterone deprivation. An additional short-term intervention study was conducted in females with a lower testosterone dose (5 mg/kg). Our results indicate no rheological difference among normal males, females, and castrated males at steady-state. Short-term high-dose testosterone increased hematocrit and whole-blood viscosity in both females and castrated males. This effect diminished after long-term treatment, in association with increased erythrocyte deformability in the testosterone-treated mice, suggesting the presence of adaptive mechanism. Considering that cardiovascular events in human trials are seen early after intervention, rheological changes as potential mediator of vascular events warrant further investigation. PMID:25774550

  19. Suspected viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) in a juvenile blackbar triggerfish,

    E-print Network

    Grutter, Alexandra "Lexa"

    Suspected viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) in a juvenile blackbar triggerfish, Rhinecanthus Suspected viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) was detected in blood films from an immature blackbar erythrocytes affected by the VEN-like condition, but accompanying erythroblasts appeared free from infection

  20. Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte Ju Li*, George Lykotrafitis

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte Ju Li*, George Lykotrafitis , Ming Dao , and Subra, January 10, 2007 (received for review November 15, 2006) The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC squeezing through narrow capillaries. The erythrocyte's remarkable mechanical properties originate from

  1. MULTICOMPARTMENT KINETIC MODEL FOR LEAD. PART 3. LEAD IN BLOOD PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...

  2. Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, Holger; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1999-05-01

    We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

  3. Blood Monocyte Count Is a Predictor of Total and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiko Kato; Takako Takita; Mitsuyoshi Furuhashi; Yukitaka Maruyama; Hiromichi Kumagai; Akira Hishida

    2008-01-01

    An increase in white blood cell (WBC) count is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, few studies have assessed the association of specific WBC subtypes with mortality. We prospectively studied the predictive value of WBC subtypes for total and cardiovascular death in 333 HD patients (age 63 ± 12 years; HD duration 129 ± 109 months)

  4. Effects of some drugs on human cord blood erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases I and II: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, Murat; Aktas, Mehmet; Kuzucu, Mehmet; Gül, ?lhami; Coban, T Abdulkadir

    2012-10-01

    In this [corrected] study, we purified hcbCA I and II from human cord blood erythrocytes using [corrected] Sepharose-4B-l [corrected] tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity gel chromatography. [corrected]. The inhibition effects of ampicillin sulfate, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and ranitidine on hcbCA I and hcbCA II were also monitored. [corrected]. IC(50) values for ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime and ranitidine were found to be 27.l, 79.4 and 55.5 µM, respectively, [corrected] for hcbCA I, and [corrected] 21.0, 79.1 and 66.1 µM, respectively, [corrected] for hcbCA II. [corrected]. According to these results, ampicillin [corrected] sulfate inhibited only hcbCAII and IC(50) value [corrected] of this antibiotic was found to be 56.8 µM. All [corrected] substances were found to be [corrected] non-competitive inhibitors. It is important to study the inhibition effects of these drugs on hcbCA I and II izoenzymes as pregnant women are often prescribed these antibiotics. [corrected]. For this reason, the dosage of [corrected] these drugs should be carefully evaluated [corrected] to minimize side effects. PMID:21851212

  5. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from grand multigravidae display a distinct cytokine profile in response to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Louise E; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J; Forbes, Emily K; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5-7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2-4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5-7 compared to G2-4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

  6. Sex-dependent differences in rheological properties and the relation of blood viscosity to erythrocyte aggregation indices among morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Wiewióra, Maciej; Maciej, Wiewiora; Sosada, Krystyn; Krystyn, Sosada; Slowinska, Ludmila; Piecuch, Jerzy; Jerzy, Piecuch; Glück, Marek; Marek, Glück; Zurawinski, Wojciech; Wojciech, Zurawinski; Turczynski, Boles?aw; Boles?aw, Turczynski

    2010-01-01

    Some studies indicate that obesity is associated with rheological disturbances. Because there are usually sex differences in the type of obesity we decided to evaluate rheological differences between male and female obese patients. We studied 18 morbidly obese men, mean age 43.66 +/- 11.32 years, mean body mass index (BMI) 49.82 +/- 6.03 kg/m2 and 20 obese females, mean age 40.6 +/- 11.86 years, mean BMI 47.41 +/- 8.81 kg/m2. Blood and plasma viscosity measurements were performed using a cone-plate viscometer (Brookfield DV-II). Erythrocyte elongation and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation were measured using the Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyser (LORCA). Whole blood viscosity and RBC deformability expressed by the elongation index were significantly higher in obese men. We did not observe differences in plasma viscosity, corrected blood viscosity and aggregation parameters among the obese population. Blood viscosity correlated with selected RBC aggregation indices. We conclude that morbidly obese patients presented sex-dependent differences in some rheological properties. This study indicates a relation between erythrocyte aggregation indices and blood viscosity in obese populations. PMID:20571240

  7. DETERMINATION OF CARBON14 AND TRITIUM IN BLOOD AND OTHER WHOLE TISSUES. LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING OF TISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Herberg

    1960-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of carbon-14 and tritium in blood, heart, ; kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and muscle tissue was investigated. The dissolution ; of tissues into two different solvent systems and their counting are discussed. ; The effect of dilution of such solvent and color quenched solutions is shown. ; Some counting efficiencies obtained for carbon-14, tritium, and suIfur-35 in

  8. Preoperative White Blood Cell Count and Risk of 30-Day Readmission after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; Landis, R. Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Malenka, David J.; DiScipio, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 4–16). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,000–12,000 and >12,000?mm3) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%–12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,000–12,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery. PMID:23970996

  9. Preoperative white blood cell count and risk of 30-day readmission after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremiah R; Landis, R Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S; Dacey, Lawrence J; Boss, Richard A; Helm, Robert E; Horton, Susan R; Hofmaster, Patricia; Jones, Cheryl; Desaulniers, Helen; Westbrook, Benjamin M; Duquette, Dennis; Leblond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D; Magnus, Patrick C; Malenka, David J; Discipio, Anthony W

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 4-16). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,000-12,000 and >12,000?mm(3)) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%-12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,000-12,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery. PMID:23970996

  10. White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow. PMID:25025014

  11. Estimation of platelet count in unstained peripheral blood smears in comparison with stained smears and evaluation of its efficacy.

    PubMed

    Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load. PMID:25500519

  12. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 ?m fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  13. STUDIES UPON THE EFFECT OF LIGHT ON BLOOD AND TISSUE CELLS : II. THE ACTION OF LIGHT ON ERYTHROCYTES IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Earle, W R

    1928-10-31

    1. It was found that when hanging drops of whole blood, drawn from a rabbit, were subjected to irradiation from certain light sources, a striking degeneration of the white and of the red cells occurred. In this degeneration of the red cells there was (a) a preliminary period of 15-30 minutes during which no effect was noted; (b) following this, there was a period during which the cells swelled and became first almost biplanar, then biconvex, and finally spherical. After a spherical shape had been assumed, the liberation of blood pigment from the cells began. This process progressed with varied rapidity, sometimes being very slow, and being incomplete; sometimes being of almost explosive rapidity. This liberation was not accomplished in either case through a gross rupture of the cells, but through the agency of some submicroscopic change produced either in the cell contents, the cell wall, or both. Following this liberation of pigment, in some cultures the red cells showed signs of coagulation, as did the white cells. In other cultures, however, the red cells were reduced to achromatic shadows. 2. When whole blood was diluted with unbuffered Locke solution and then irradiated in hanging drop preparations, the erythrocytes swelled, as in whole blood, but then, instead of an almost instantaneous hemolysis of every cell present, or a slow liberation of hemoglobin from each individual cell, all the red cells hemolyzed, one or two at a time, the hemolyzed cells being left as achromatic shadows. 3. This hemolysis of the red cells, as in the case of the degeneration of the white cells, occurred upon irradiation of the culture with white light, or with light lying in each of the three spectral zones of the visual spectrum, defined by Wratten filters Nos. 45, 58 and 29 respectively, as follows: (a) 430micromicro-550micromicro; infra-red; (b) 475micromicro-630micromicro; 690micromicro-infra-red; (c) 600micromicro-infra-red. 4. Within the range of intensities of light employed, there was little or no difference in the rate at which light of these three regions acted on the red cells. Further, this rate was the same as was the rate when the red cells were irradiated with no colored filter interposed in the optical path, or when a 5 per cent total transmission neutral filter was interposed. 5. It was shown that this degeneration of the red cells under the action of light was not dependent on the presence or absence of serum, with the possible exception of that trace which might have been adherent to the red cells even after repeated washing. 6. The white cells in the culture generally showed no changes until after traces of red cell pigment could be seen free in the surrounding medium. 7. On the other hand, no neutrophils were observed moving around for longer than a few minutes after the liberation of red cell pigment had occurred. 8. The liberation of substances from the red blood cells, as a result of irradiation of such preparations, may play some major rôle in the degeneration of irradiated white cells. PMID:19869513

  14. Variation in blood leucocytes, somatic cell count, yield and composition of milk of crossbred goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mainak Das; Mahendra Singh

    2000-01-01

    Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institute’s goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,

  15. Obesity and the White Blood Cell Count: Changes with Sustained Weight Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Dixon; Paul E O' Brien

    2006-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition, and elevated white blood cell counts (WBC) have widely recognized\\u000a associations with inflammatory conditions. The authors explored the relationship between the WBC and degree of obesity, basic\\u000a anthropometry, and clinical and biochemical markers of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, and with weight loss following\\u000a Lap-Band surgery. Methods: 477 patients with complete biochemical and

  16. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  17. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  18. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals' absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  19. On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-03-21

    This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100,000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement. PMID:25631744

  20. Role of Erythrocyte Deformability During Capillary Wetting

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Role of Erythrocyte Deformability During Capillary Wetting Ronghui Zhou, Jason Gordon, Andre F.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20672 Abstract: Deformability of erythrocyte was found to fundamentally alter than a critical value that is dependent on the erythrocyte concentration (about 50 mm for whole blood

  1. Kolaviron Improved Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Blood (Erythrocyte, Serum, and Plasma) of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayepola, Omolola R.; Brooks, Nicole L.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Bitter kola seed (Garcinia kola, family: Guttiferae) has been used as a social masticatory agent in Africa for several years and is believed to possess many useful medicinal properties. The present study evaluates the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects of kolaviron (an extract from the Garcinia kola seeds) in the blood of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetic rats were treated with kolaviron (100?mg/kg b·wt) orally, five times a week for a period of six weeks. Serum glucose and HBA1C concentrations were estimated in experimental groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (in erythrocytes) as well as plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor: interleukin- (IL-) 1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were also analyzed. Results. Kolaviron treatment markedly improved antioxidant status and abated inflammatory response evidenced by reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor, lipid peroxidation product, and the restoration of activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in the blood of diabetic rats. Conclusion. Kolaviron improved antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, and protected against hyperglycemic-induced oxidative damage in the blood of diabetic rats. PMID:24795542

  2. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  3. Phospholipid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma of mammalian blood including Australian marsupials; quantitative 31P NMR analysis using detergent.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Sorkhabi, M H; Agar, N S; Sullivan, D R; Gallagher, C; Kuchel, P W

    1996-02-01

    The phospholipid classes of erythrocyte membranes and plasma from several domestic animals and marsupials were quantified by 31P NMR using detergents. Washed erythrocyte samples were thoroughly haemolysed by tip-sonication and dissolved in sodium cholate; plasma samples were dissolved in Triton X-100. The species studied were: common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), black-striped wallaby (Macropus dorsalis), bandicoot (Isoodon macrocarpus), Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), dog (Canus familiaris) and rabbit (Orytolagus caniculus). There were considerable species variations in the relative abundance of erythrocyte and plasma phospholipid classes. The variations may be attributed to the habitats and diets of the animals as well as to their phylogenetic differences. PMID:8653579

  4. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  5. An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2014-09-01

    Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

  6. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  7. Flickering Analysis of Erythrocyte Mechanical Properties: Dependence on Oxygenation Level, Cell Shape, and Hydration Level

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Flickering Analysis of Erythrocyte Mechanical Properties: Dependence on Oxygenation Level, Cell Erythrocytes (red blood cells) play an essential role in the respiratory functions of vertebrates, carrying

  8. Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN WAIN; VO ANH HO; AMANDA M. WALSH; NGUYEN THI; TUYET HOA; CHRISTOPHER M. PARRY; NICHOLAS J. WHITE

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median

  9. Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry of the Captive European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Metin; O. Türkozan; F. Kargin; Y. K. Basumoglu; E. Taskavak; S. Koca

    2006-01-01

    Metin K., O. Türkozan, F. Kargin, Y. K. Basimoglu, E. Taskavak, S. Koca: Blood Cell Morphology and Plasma Biochemistry of the Captive European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 49-55. The morphological characteristics of peripheral blood cells, micronucleated erythrocytes counts and plasma biochemistry profile were examined in ten healthy captive European pond turtles Emys orbicularis. Blood samples

  10. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

  11. Interpretation of the full blood count in systemic disease--a guide for the physician.

    PubMed

    Leach, M

    2014-01-01

    The full blood count (FBC) is perhaps the single most common investigation performed in medical patients. It has the potential, when interpreted carefully and in relation to the clinical history, to provide very useful information to assist in diagnosis and management. Clinicians are often alerted to the presence of a primary haematological disorder by abnormalities in the FBC. For the purpose of this review these diseases will not be discussed in detail but the reader will be alerted to pointers which might indicate primary blood disorders throughout the text. The haematology laboratory in large teaching hospitals will often provide up to 1,500 automated FBC analyses each day. These are individually checked for 'flags' provided by the analyser which indicate values outside the normal range. It is clearly essential that clinical information is provided with the request as this will influence how the result is handled by scientific and medical staff. Furthermore, significant abnormalities will generate a blood film request and the report will be most useful when interpreted in light of the patient's working diagnosis. In cases where a diagnosis is not yet known, even brief information on presentation, for example 'collapse with hypotension', 'fever on return to UK', 'weight loss and anorexia', can all be important and help the lab provide clinicians with guidance. This short review aims to provide physicians with a workable guide to the interpretation of some of the commoner findings in the full blood count. Some of these will be very familiar to you but some will not. This review is not meant to be exhaustive as the rare minutiae will obscure the essential core material. Your haematology colleagues are always happy to help and available for assistance in difficult or problematic cases. I have not specified normal ranges in relation to each entity as these will be defined by your local laboratory. PMID:24995446

  12. Influence of Calicophoron microbothrium amphistomosis on the biochemical and blood cell counts of cattle.

    PubMed

    Mavenyengwa, M; Mukaratirwa, S; Monrad, J

    2010-12-01

    Sixteen Tuli steers aged 1 year were subdivided into four equal groups (I-IV) and infected with Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae. Group I received a low dose (LD) of 5000 metacercariae, group II a medium dose (MD) of 15,000 metacercariae, group III a high dose (HD) of 25,000 metacercariae while group IV was the non-infected control (C) group. The experimental animals were monitored daily for clinical signs while ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood and serum samples were collected every 7 days until day 28 post-infection, when sample collection was terminated. Samples were processed for full blood count, eosinophils and blood biochemical values for calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein and albumin. Moderate to severe diarrhoea developed in the MD and HD groups at day 21 post-infection. The diarrhoea coincided with a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in total plasma protein, calcium and phosphorus levels, particularly in the MD group. Similarly, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the packed cell volume (PCV), the haemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) levels occurred in the MD and HD groups from day 21 post-infection, while a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the circulating eosinophils occurred between 7 and 21 days post-infection in the LD and the HD groups. PMID:20109245

  13. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...

  14. Mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells: guidelines for blood volume to process, based on CD34-positive blood cell count in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Anguita-Compagnon, A T; Dibarrart, M T; Palma, J; Paredes, L; Mosso, C; Montalva, R; Salas, L; Araos, D; Delgado, I; Majlis, A

    2010-01-01

    We report 189 mobilizations and 489 collections of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) performed in 139 autologous transplantation patients and in 28 donors for allogeneic transplantations whose ages ranged from 2-68 years. We observed a correlation (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.64) between CD34-positive cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units examined to estimate PBSC. In a subset of 287 collections (97 adults and 49 children) we obtained peripheral blood (PB) CD34-positive cell counts at 2 to 4 hours before leukapheresis. We noted a correlation between PB CD34-positive cell counts before leukapheresis and the number of CD34-positive cells per kilogram of body weight collected in the whole apheresis of the day (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.82). An even better correlation was obtained between PB CD34-positive cells preapheresis and the yield of each individual blood volume (BV) processed (P < .001; Pearson's coefficient 0.87). Healthy donors and patients in each age group behaved similarly. In addition, the collection yield was greater among children than adults. These findings allowed us to develop a simple predictive model to estimate the BV to process for a target dose of CD34-positive cells per kilogram, based on the level of PBSC before apheresis in children and adults. PMID:20172346

  15. Cardiovascular Risks of Anemia Correction with Erythrocyte Stimulating Agents: Should Blood Viscosity Be Monitored for Risk Assessment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seul-Ki Jeong; Young I. Cho; Marc Duey; Robert S. Rosenson

    2010-01-01

    To date, all major clinical trials for anemia correction using erythrocyte stimulating agents (ESAs) failed to show improved\\u000a outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and vascular thrombosis. Even moderate elevations in hemoglobin (e.g.,\\u000a to 13 g\\/dL) using erythropoietin have been associated with significantly increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events\\u000a and heart failure. This review presents a biophysical rationale for increased risk

  16. Regular Article Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer and

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Regular Article Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer Hemorheology Lattice Boltzmann method Immersed boundary method Concentrated erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell in various microcirculation situations. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction Erythrocytes

  17. Methotrexate pharmacokinetics in age-fractionated erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Schrřder

    1986-01-01

    Age fractionation of erythrocytes is useful for further studies of the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX) in red blood cells. We separated erythrocytes from five blood donors and four patients at different time points after MTX infusions, using discontinuous Percoll gradients consisting of four solutions with a difference of 3% in density among them. The procedure yielded five distinct fractions of

  18. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

  19. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  20. Total blood lymphocyte counts in hemochromatosis probands with HFE C282Y homozygosity: relationship to severity of iron overload and HLA-A and B alleles and haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C Barton; Howard W Wiener; Ronald T Acton

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that some persons with hemochromatosis have low total blood lymphocyte counts, but the reason for this is unknown. METHODS: We measured total blood lymphocyte counts using an automated blood cell counter in 146 hemochromatosis probands (88 men, 58 women) with HFE C282Y homozygosity who were diagnosed in medical care. Univariate and multivariate analyses of total

  1. Micronucleus test of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of the people living in the radiation pollution zone as a result of the accident at the Siberian chemical plant on April 6, 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Ilyinskikh; A. V. Eremich; I. I. Ivanchuck; E. N. Ilyinskikh

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out analysis of the number of blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes with micronuclei in the inhabitants of four settlements located near the place of the accident which happened at the atomic power station of the Siberian chemical plant (Tomsk-7) on April 6, 1993. In all cases, the people examined showed a considerable increase in the number of cells

  2. Observational study of erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening test for detecting low lead exposure in children: Impact of lowering the blood lead action threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))

    1991-02-01

    We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.

  3. Red blood cell count as an indicator of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhan-Sheng; Song, Zhan-Chun; Bai, Jing-Hui; Li, Fei; Wu, Tao; Qi, Ji; Hu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheological disorders of red blood cells (RBC) and decreased RBC deformability have been involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM. Methods This study involved 369 patients with T2DM: 243 with one or more microvascular complications and 126 without microvascular complications. Anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed in an automated blood cell counter. The presence of risk factors for microvascular complications was determined. Results The proportion of patients with microvascular complications increased as the RBC count decreased (P < 0.001). After adjustment for known risk factors for microvascular complications by logistic regression analysis, lower quartiles of RBC count were associated with a higher risk of microvascular complications compared with the reference group composed of the highest quartile (first quartile, odds ratio 4.98, 95% confidence interval 1.54–6.19, P = 0.008; second quartile, odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17–5.28, P = 0.024). Conclusion A decreased RBC count is associated with microvascular complications in Chinese patients with T2DM. The RBC count is a potential marker to improve further the ability to identify diabetic patients at high risk of microvascular complications. PMID:23690689

  4. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score???3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61?±?9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate?>?100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level?>?1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count?>?11,000/µL, use of ?-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count?>?11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio?=?3.028; 95% confidence interval?=?1.69-5.40, p?blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI. PMID:26060384

  5. Serum Uric Acid, Alanine Aminotransferase, Hemoglobin and Red Blood Cell Count Levels in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simavl?, Hüseyin; Bucak, Yasin Yücel; Tosun, Mehmet; Erdurmu?, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation (PEX), the most common cause of secondary glaucoma, has not been clearly identified, but there is increasing evidence that points out the role of oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used blood parameters, hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and uric acid (UA) levels, in subjects with PEX. Materials and Methods. This study is performed in a state hospital between November 2011 and December 2012. Retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent cataract surgery was performed. Thirty-one healthy subjects with PEX and 34 healthy subjects without PEX were evaluated. Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels were recorded. Student's t-test was used to compare the two groups. Results. The mean age was 73.6 ± 14.1 years in PEX group and 70.1 ± 12.7 in control group (p = 0.293). Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels did not show a statistically significant difference among PEX and control groups (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusion. Serum levels of Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels were similar in subjects with and without PEX. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise role of Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA in the pathogenesis of PEX.

  6. The use of the white cell count and haemoglobin in combination as an effective screen to predict the normality of the full blood count

    PubMed Central

    OSEI-BIMPONG, A; McLEAN, R; BHONDA, E; LEWIS, S M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The utility of the full blood count (FBC) is vast with each parameter serving as a tool to aid diagnosis and monitor disease progression. However, the effectiveness of the test is hampered because of increased workload and lack of interpretation. In the effort to redress this issue, the combined use of the white blood cell count (WBC) and haemoglobin in predicting the normality of the FBC is evaluated. Method FBC data were collated from 2191 patients and classified into two groups depending on whether the WBC and the haemoglobin were within the reference range. Blood films were examined on the abnormal FBC samples in each group and graded on morphology. Results The FBC was normal in 89.6% of cases in the presence of a normal WBC and haemoglobin with subtle abnormalities in the remainder; 1+ grading of abnormal morphology in 93%. However, when the WBC and/or haemoglobin was abnormal, the remaining FBC was significantly abnormal (P < 0.05) and the corresponding blood films were grossly abnormal; 2+/3+ grading in 96% of cases. Conclusion We concluded that in the presence of a normal WBC and haemoglobin, the FBC is normal in almost all cases and measuring these two parameters could be used as an effective screen to predict FBC normality. PMID:21883968

  7. Migraine and erythrocyte biology: a review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Cervellin, G; Mattiuzzi, C

    2014-12-01

    Migraine is a common disabling headache disorder that is conventionally classified according to the presence or absence of aura. The pathogenesis of this disorder entails a complex interplay of neurovascular factors, that trigger reduction of cerebral blood flow followed by reactive vasodilatation. Despite major emphasis has been placed on the investigation of putative biomarkers that could predict response to specific treatments and prophylaxis, less focus has been directed at the association between migraine and erythrocytosis. Erythrocytosis is typically accompanied by hyperviscosity, that is now considered a crucial determinant in the pathogenesis of migraine. The results of some epidemiological investigations are in substantial agreement to confirm the existence of a significant relationship between increased haemoglobin levels and migraine, whereas some case reports have also reported an effective improvement of symptoms after reduction of erythrocyte count by therapeutic venesection. Interesting evidence has recently emerged from the assessment of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a simple and inexpensive measure of anysocytosis that has been also associated with a variety of ischaemic and thrombotic disorders other than migraine. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current clinical and epidemiological evidence linking migraine and erythrocyte biology. PMID:24628738

  8. Blood Components

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Red cells Red cells, or erythrocytes , carry oxygen from the lungs ... frozen plasma. Transfusable Blood Components Summary Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF ...

  9. Effect of a New Oral Contraceptive with Drospirenone on Vital Signs, Complete Blood Count, Glucose, Electrolytes, Renal, and Liver Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surasak Taneepanichskul

    vital signs, complete blood count, glucose, electrolytes, and renal and liver function. Material and Method: An open-label non-comparative clinical trial was conducted. One hundred women who were planning to use oral contraception for at least six months were recruited. The subjects received a blister pack which contained 21 tablets of 3 mg drospirenone \\/30 µg ethinyl estradiol for the first

  10. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  11. Complete blood count parameters may have a role in diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease

    PubMed Central

    Eskiciogluą, Fatma; Ulkumen, Burcu Artunc; Calik, Esat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate whether gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and healthy pregnancy differ with respect to complete blood count parameters and these parameters can be used both to explain the pathophysiologic mechanisms and differentiate the two conditions from each other. Methods: The data obtained from 37 women with GTD and 61 healthy pregnancies (control group) regarding platelet (PLT), mean PLT volume (MPV) and PLT distribution width (PDW), and white blood cell (WBC) levels were evaluated. Patients with GTD were further subdivided into two groups composed of 20 partial mole (PM) and 17 complete mole (CM) cases. Results: PDW and WBC were lower in the GTD than the control. There were no differences for PLT and MPV. WBC was lower in PM and both WBC and PDW were lower in CM compared with control. ROC curve analysis revealed an area under curve (AUC) 75.5% for WBC and AUC 69.3% for PDW. A cut-off value was determined 8.19 for WBC with 81.0% sensitivity and 54.1% specificity. While, 15.85 were accepted for PDW, with 87.9% sensitivity and 44.4% specificity. Conclusion: Lower WBC in GTD may suggest that molar pregnancy requires a lower inflammatory reaction facilitating trophoblastic invasion. Lower PDW as an indicator of platelet activation in CM may suggest that CM requires less PLT activation than healthy pregnancy that needs stronger trophoblast invasion for normal placental development. Decreased PDW levels especially < 15.85 and WBC levels < 8.19 may alert clinicians for risk of GTD.

  12. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  13. Normal values for peripheral blood white cell counts in women of four different ethnic origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Bain; M Seed; I Godsland

    1984-01-01

    Total and differential white cell counts were studied in 399 women living in the same community in Britain but drawn from four different ethnic groups. The groups were white (northern European), Indian, black (African and West Indian), and Oriental. The total white cell count and absolute neutrophil count were significantly lower in the black group than in each of the

  14. Corrigendum Corrigendum to ``Erythrocyte nitric oxide transport reduced

    E-print Network

    Gimzewski, James

    Corrigendum Corrigendum to ``Erythrocyte nitric oxide transport reduced by a submembrane http://www.elsevier.com/locate/bba BBAGEN-26016; No of Pages 1; 4C: #12;Regular paper Erythrocyte; Erythrocyte; Red blood cell; Cytoskeleton; Membrane 1. Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously produced

  15. Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wain, John; Diep, To Song; Ho, Vo Anh; Walsh, Amanda M.; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Parry, Christopher M.; White, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median S. typhi count in blood was 1 CFU/ml (range, <0.3 to 387 CFU/ml), of which a mean of 63% (95% CI, 58 to 67%) were intracellular. The mean number of bacteria per infected leukocyte was 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7 to 2.4) CFU/cell (n = 81). Children (<15 years old; n = 115) had higher median blood bacterial counts than adults (n = 262): 1.5 (range, <0.3 to 387) versus 0.6 (range, <0.3 to 17.7) CFU/ml (P = 0.008), and patients who excreted S. typhi in feces had higher bacteremias than those who did not: a median of 3 (range, <0.3 to 32) versus 1 (range, <0.3 to 68) CFU/ml (P = 0.02). Blood bacterial counts declined with increasing duration of illness (P = 0.002) and were higher in infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. typhi (1.3 [range, <0.3 to 387] CFU/ml; n = 313) than in infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive S. typhi (0.5 [range, <0.3 to 32] CFU/ml; n = 62) (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis this proved to be an independent association, suggesting a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in S. typhi. PMID:9620400

  16. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  17. Relation of admission white blood cell count to left ventricular remodeling after anterior wall acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Anne; Ennezat, Pierre V; Tricot, Olivier; Lallemant, Robert; Aumégeat, Valérie; Segrestin, Benoit; Quandalle, Philippe; Lamblin, Nicolas; Bauters, Christophe

    2007-07-15

    We investigated whether a high white blood cell (WBC) count on admission for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be associated with a higher risk of subsequent left ventricular (LV) remodeling. We included 107 patients with anterior AMI. Echocardiographic studies were performed at hospital discharge, at 3 months, and at 1 year after AMI. LV remodeling (>20% increase in end-diastolic volume) was observed in 27% of patients. WBC counts during hospitalization were higher in patients who subsequently underwent LV remodeling (p = 0.003 for WBC count on admission). The increase in end-diastolic volume from baseline to 1 year was greater for patients in the higher tertile of WBC count on admission (p = 0.04). When adjusting for baseline clinical and echocardiographic characteristics by multivariate analysis, WBC count on admission was independently associated with LV remodeling (odds ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.45, p = 0.018). In conclusion, a high WBC count on admission for AMI is an independent predictor of LV remodeling, even when predischarge echocardiographic variables are taken into account. PMID:17631066

  18. In vivo effects of lead on erythrocytes following chronic exposure through drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moo-Yeol Lee; Jung-Hun Shin; Hee-Shim Han; Jin-Ho Chung

    2006-01-01

    More than 95% of lead, a environmental heavy metal, entering into blood accumulates in erythrocytes suggesting erythrocytes\\u000a as an important target of lead toxicity. Recent studies reported that erythrocytes could contribute to blood coagulation via\\u000a phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in erythrocytes. However,in vivo effects of chronic lead exposure especially by drinking water on procoagulant activity of erythrocytes have not been studied

  19. Effects of exercise and oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) fatty acids on blood oxidant markers and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses.

    PubMed

    De Moffarts, B; Portier, K; Kirschvink, N; Coudert, J; Fellmann, N; van Erck, E; Letellier, C; Motta, C; Pincemail, J; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in a placebo-controlled field study the effect of a (n-3)-vitamin supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF), oxidant/antioxidant markers and plasmatic omega3/omega6 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in 12 eventing horses. Venous blood was sampled at rest before (PRE) and after (POST) a three week treatment period with either the supplement (group S, n=6) or a placebo (group P, n=6) as well as after 15min (POST E15') and 24h (POST E24h) after a standardised exercise test. The following markers were analysed: EMF, plasma antioxidant capacity of water and lipid soluble components, ascorbic acid, uric acid (UA), glutathione (reduced: GSH, oxidised: GSSG), vitamin E (Vit E), beta-carotene, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, selenium, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), oxidised proteins (Protox), lipid peroxides (Pool) and FAR. EMF did not differ between group S and P after treatment, but GPx remained unchanged in group S whereas it decreased in group P and plasma Cu/Zn ratio remained unchanged whereas it increased in group P. FAR were significantly increased in group S. Exercise induced a significant decrease of EMF (POST vs. E24h) in both groups, but which was significantly lower at E15' in group S than in group P. Exercise induced a significant increase of UA and ACW (POST vs. E15') and Protox (POST vs. E24h) in both groups. An exercise-related decrease in GSH and Pool (POST vs. E15') was found in group P, whereas Vit E and FAR (POST vs. E24h) significantly decreased in both groups. The study showed that exercise induced a decrease in EMF in horses associated with changes of blood oxidative balance. The (omega-3)-vitamin supplementation tested improved the oxidative balance poorly but delayed the exercise-induced decrease of EMF and increased the FAR. PMID:17110141

  20. Evidence that verotoxins (Shiga-like toxins) from Escherichia coli bind to P blood group antigens of human erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bitzan, M; Richardson, S; Huang, C; Boyd, B; Petric, M; Karmali, M A

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of verotoxins (VTs) with human erythrocytes (RBCs) in vitro was investigated, with particular reference to the role of P blood group glycolipids that are structurally related to the known VT receptors. RBC binding of purified VT1, VT2, VT2c, and VT2e was detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Glycolipids were extracted from defined RBCs, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and assessed for VT binding in an overlay assay by adding toxin and specific antibodies. All VTs bound to P1 phenotype (Pk, P, and P1 antigens) and P2 phenotype (Pk and P antigens) RBCs but not to p phenotype (lacking the Pk, P, and P1 antigens) RBCs. Binding of VT1 and VT2 was approximately 10-fold greater to P1 and the rare Pk2 (Pk antigen but no P1 or P antigen) phenotype cells than to P2 phenotype RBCs, whereas VT2e bound equally well to P1 and P2 phenotype cells. The VT1 and VT2 immunofluorescence results correlated with the detection of P1 and/or increased amounts of Pk (globotriaosylceramide) antigen; VT2e immunofluorescence correlated with the detection of P (globotetraosylceramide) antigen. The Pk band pattern and VT binding observed in the thin-layer chromatogram of human P1 and P phenotype RBC extracts varied from that of human kidney and Pk1 phenotype (Pk and P1 antigens) RBCs. We conclude that each VT binds to human RBCs in vitro by utilizing specific P blood group glycolipids as receptors. On P1 and P phenotype RBCs, the accessibility of the Pk antigen for VTs appeared to be restricted. The occurrence of VT-RBC binding in natural VT-producing Escherichia coli disease and its relevance for the pathophysiology of hemolytic uremic syndrome remain to be established. Images PMID:8039905

  1. White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – The Tromsř Study

    PubMed Central

    Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Brćkkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsř Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer. PMID:24023876

  2. Association of White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein with Outcomes in Children Hospitalized for Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Derek J; Hall, Matthew; Auger, Katherine A; Tieder, Joel S; Jerardi, Karen E; Queen, Mary Ann; Statile, Angela M; Myers, Angela L; Shah, Samir S

    2015-07-01

    We examined the association between baseline peripheral white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) values with outcomes among 153 children hospitalized with pneumonia. In multivariable analyses, CRP, but not white blood cell count, was significantly associated with both fever duration and hospital length of stay. For every 1mg/dL increase in CRP, length of stay increased by 1 hour. PMID:25961893

  3. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Angeloni; Giorgia Nicolini; Manuela Merli; Francesca Nicolao; Giorgio Pinto; Teresa Aronne; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Oliviero Riggio

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivePolymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in ascitic fluid is the most useful test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We evaluated the validity of an automated blood cell counter for the PMN determination in ascitic fluid by comparing it with the traditional hematologic method with a light microscope in a manual counting chamber.

  4. White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

  5. Baseline total and specific differential white blood cell counts and 5-year all-cause mortality in community-dwelling older women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean X. Leng; Qian-Li Xuea; Yi Huang; Luigi Ferrucci; Linda P. Fried; Jeremy D. Walston

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammation is associated with many pathophysiologic processes and mortality in older adults. Increase in total white blood cell (WBC) counts is recognized as an important cellular marker of systemic inflammation. However, relationships of total WBC and individual differential counts with mortality in older adults, particularly in older women, have not been adequately evaluated. To address this

  6. The Risk of Metabolic Syndrome According to the White Blood Cell Count in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kim, Chul-Hee; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo; Kang, Sung-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean. Materials and Methods A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference. Results The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011). Conclusion This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development. PMID:23549805

  7. Complete Blood Count Alterations after Six Months of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Patients with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Özdemir, Cengiz; Dalar, Levent; Karasulu, Levent; Ayd?n, ?enay; Alt?n, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The cardiovascular complications caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) decrease after continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). Mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and red cell distribution width (RDW) are newly recognized tools for assessing cardiovascular risk. Methods: From a selection of patients with symptoms of nocturnal snoring and/or excessive daytime sleepiness, 36 males with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 30/h and 22 age-matched normal male controls with AHI < 5/h were included. Patients with OSA underwent another night of CPAP titration, and 11 patients were excluded at the 6-month evaluation due to poor compliance with the home CPAP therapy. Complete blood count parameters of compliant patients and the control group were evaluated. Results: Compared to controls, MPV values were significantly higher (p = 0.025) in OSA patients, but no significant differences in PDW or RDW were found (p > 0.05). Six months of CPAP therapy resulted in significantly lower MPV values but increased values of PDW and RDW in patients with severe OSA (p = 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Our data suggest that complete blood count parameters in OSA patients such as MPV, PDW and RDW change significantly after CPAP therapy. Citation: Sökücü SN, Özdemir C, Dalar L, Karasulu L, Ayd?n ?, Alt?n S. Complete blood count alterations after six months of continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(8):873-878. PMID:25126033

  8. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. ... to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how ... white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count.

  9. Dynamics of Blood Count after Rheohemapheresis in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Possible Association with Clinical Changes

    PubMed Central

    Koš?ál, Milan; Bláha, Milan; Rencová, Eva; Lánská, Miriam; Rozsíval, Pavel; Kratochvilová, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rheohemapheresis (RHF) is a method that can stop the activity of the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood, and the effects of the RHF procedures extend beyond the time of the individual procedures. Patients and Methods. We present the data for 46 patients with AMD treated with a series of 8 rheohemapheretic procedures. Blood count parameters were measured before the first and the last procedures. The clinical effect was judged by changes in the drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) area before and after the rheopheretic sessions. Results. Rheopheresis caused a decrease in hemoglobin (P < 0.001), a decrease in leukocytes (P < 0.034), and an increase in platelets (P < 0.005). We found a negative correlation between the amount of platelets and their volume (P < 0.001, Pearson correlation coefficient: ?0.509). We identified the platelet/MPV ratio as a good predictor of the clinical outcome. Patients with a platelet/MPV ratio greater than 21.5 (before the last rheopheresis) had a significantly better outcome (P = 0.003, sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 80%). Conclusion. Several basic blood count parameters after RHF can be concluded to significantly change, with some of those changes correlating with the clinical results (reduction of the DPED area). PMID:24734249

  10. White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

  11. Blood Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells from the ...

  12. Purification and characterization of erythrocyte caldesmon. Hypothesis for an actin-linked regulation of a contractile activity in the red blood cell membrane.

    PubMed

    der Terrossian, E; Deprette, C; Lebbar, I; Cassoly, R

    1994-01-15

    We have previously shown that in human or pig whole erythrocytes, only a single 71-kDa polypeptide cross-reacts with the affinity-purified antibody to pig platelet caldesmon (der Terrossian et al., 1989). In the present paper, we demonstrate that this polypeptide represents a genuine caldesmon which remains attached to the membrane prepared in the presence of an excess of free Mg2+ but not in its absence. Immunoreactivity of this peptide is specific towards the antibody to pig platelet caldesmon since it is not labelled with antibodies to other components of the red cell membrane. Erythrocyte caldesmon was purified to 95% homogeneity and displays well known characteristics of caldesmons from other sources. Together with tropomyosin, it has the ability to regulate platelet actin-activated rabbit skeletal muscle myosin ATPase activity. The stoichiometry of 1 caldesmon/1 tropomyosin/7-9 actin molecules indicates that the amount of caldesmon, in the red cell membrane, corresponds precisely to the amount of tropomyosin. Immunofluorescent labelling of whole erythrocytes gave similar punctate patterns with purified antibodies to myosin, to caldesmon, to tropomyosin and to actin (but not to spectrin), suggesting colocalization of these proteins. Together, and for the first time, our results give strong evidence that caldesmon, bound on the actin protofilament, might represent the inhibitory component, so far uncharacterized, of a thin-filament-like system in erythrocyte. PMID:8307018

  13. Hypochlorous acid-induced oxidative damage of human red blood cells: effects of tert-butyl hydroperoxide and nitrite on the HOCl reaction with erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilya B. Zavodnik; Elena A. Lapshina; Lev B. Zavodnik; Miros?aw Soszy?ski; Grzegorz Bartosz; Maria Bryszewska

    2002-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid, one of the most powerful biological oxidants, is believed to be important in the pathogenesis of some diseases. The purpose of this study was to further characterise the membrane and intracellular events which resulted in HOCl-induced oxidative impairments and haemolysis of human erythrocytes and interaction of different oxidative agents, which accumulated during respiratory burst, in the process of

  14. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Erythrocyte in the Capillary

    E-print Network

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Lin, Wentao; Wei, Yuan; Zhong, Xing; Newman, Tony; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of erythrocyte deformability is used as an important means for early diagnosis of blood diseases and blood rheology. Yet no effective method is available in terms of three-dimensional reconstruction of erythrocytes in a capillary. In this study, ultrathin serial sections of skeletal muscle tissue are obtained from the ultramicrotome, the tomographic images of an erythrocyte in a capillary are captured by the transmission electron microscope, and then a method to position and restore is devised to demonstrate the physiological relationship between two adjacent tomographic images of an erythrocyte. Both the modeling and the physical verification reveal that this method is effective, which means that it can be used to make three-dimensional reconstruction of an erythrocyte in a capillary. An example of reconstructed deformation of erythrocyte based on the serial ultrathin sections is shown at the end of this paper.

  15. Some selected peripheral blood and haemopoietic system indices in Wistar rats with chronic vanadium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zaporowska, H; Wasilewski, W

    1989-01-01

    1. Wistar rats of both sexes received vanadium in drinking water in the amount of 23-29 mg/kg body weight in the form of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) for a period of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. 2. Animals treated in this way ate less food and drank less AMV solution as compared with the amount of water consumed by the controls; they suffered from diarrhoea, and owing to this the increment in body weight was reduced. 3. Vanadium decreased erythropoiesis and maturation of red blood cells, which was expressed by a reduced erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level and increased reticulocyte and polychromatophilic erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood. 4. The composition percentage of the bone marrow cells and the peripheral blood leukocyte count did not undergo noticeable changes under the influence of vanadium. PMID:2567224

  16. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrz?bski, Zbigniew; Zar?bska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimi?ski, ?ukasz; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  17. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Angeloni; Giorgia Nicolini; Manuela Merli; Francesca Nicolao; Giorgio Pinto; Teresa Aronne; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Oliviero Riggio

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in ascitic fluid is the most useful test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). We evaluated the validity of an automated blood cell counter for the PMN determination in ascitic fluid by comparing it with the traditional hematologic method with a light microscope in a manual counting chamber.METHODS:A total of 130 ascitic fluid samples

  18. Automated counting of cells in cerebrospinal fluid using the CellDyn-4000 haematology analyser.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Janssen, Willy C M

    2002-11-01

    Counting of cells in cerebrospinal fluid is currently performed manually. Because of the inherent analytical and economical disadvantages, we attempted to introduce a fully automated method. Therefore, we validated the Abbott CellDyn-4000 haematology analyser for counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid. The analyser was used in its standard configuration with the simple precaution of a preceding blank sample. As for leukocyte counting the analyser yielded high precision (CV approximately 5% above the upper reference limit), good linearity, low limit of detection (2/microl) and excellent correlation (r > 0.99) with the counting chamber method. The differential leukocyte count was equally accurate and precise, even in the low concentration range. Performance of the erythrocyte count was impaired by its high limit of detection (6/nl) and it appeared satisfactory only for detecting blood admixture due to traumatic puncture. The specificity of the analyser is excellent, since it correctly classified non-viable leukocytes and excluded yeast cells from the leukocyte count in a patient with cryptococcal meningitis. We conclude that the CellDyn-4000 is well suited for quickly and reliably counting leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid. Developing some software modifications might make the analyser useful also for performing erythrocyte counting in cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:12521237

  19. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network

    PubMed Central

    McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C.; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.; Crane, Paul K.; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B.; Carlson, Chris S.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e–55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy?/?). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn’s disease. PMID:22037903

  20. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Finstad, Oystein Wessel; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Lindholm, Tone Hćg; Nyman, Ingvild Berg; Lřvoll, Marie; Wallace, Christian; Olsen, Christel Morćus; Storset, Anne K; Rimstad, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042

  1. HEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD CHEMICAL VALUES OF MALLARD, Anas p. platyrhynchos, DRAKES BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER REMIGE MOULT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. DRIVER

    Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige

  2. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  3. Retention of radiolead by human erythrocytes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J BARTON

    1989-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed to assess human erythrocyte lead uptake and release directly, rapidly, and reproducibly; the technique requires small aliquots of blood and uses silicone fluid to separate erythrocytes from their suspending media. Uptake occurred rapidly and was directly related to temperature. Increasing quantities of available elemental lead were associated with increasing absolute quantities but decreasing percentages

  4. Hypothesis on the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by malaria merozoites

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Louis H.

    1977-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi merozoites invade erythrocytes by a sequence of events: attachment, widespread deformation of the erythrocyte membrane, endocytosis, and resealing of the membrane and vesicle. The possible mechanisms by which these events occur are discussed. In particular, there is a detailed discussion of the role of the Duffy blood group system in invasion. PMID:412599

  5. A rapid effect of handling on counts of white blood cells in a wintering passerine bird: a more practical measure of stress?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dina C?rule; Tatjana Krama; Jolanta Vrublevska; Markus J. Rantala; Indrikis Krams

    Measuring circulating glucocorticoids is a widely used method to assess stress in animals. However, hormones must be sampled\\u000a within the first few minutes of capture, which makes it difficult to discriminate between hormone baseline levels and the\\u000a levels caused by capture and handling stress. The use of white blood cell (WBC) counts made from blood smears represents an\\u000a alternate method

  6. Short-Chain PEG Mixed-Monolayer Protected Gold Clusters Increase Clearance and Red Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Carrie A.; Agrawal, Amanda C.; Balinski, Andrzej; Harkness, Kellen M.; Cliffel, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles have great potential as novel building blocks for the design of new drugs and therapeutics based on the easy ability to multifunctionalize them for biological targeting and drug activity. In order to create nanoparticles that are biocompatible in vivo, poly-ethylene glycol functional groups have been added to many previous multifunctionalized particles to eliminate non-specific binding. Recently, monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles with mercaptoglycine functionalities were shown to elicit deleterious effects on the kidney in vivo that were eliminated by incorporating a long-chain, mercapto-undecyl-tetraethylene glycol, at very high loadings into a mixed monolayer. These long-chain PEGs induced an immune response to the particle presumably generating an anti-PEG antibody as seen in other long-chain PEG-ylated nanoparticles in vivo. In the present work, we explore the in vivo effects of high and low percent ratios of a shorter chain, mercapto-tetraethylene glycol, within the monolayer using simple place-exchange reactions. The shorter chain PEG MPCs were expected to have better water solubility due to elimination of the alkyl chain, no toxicity, and long-term circulation in vivo. Shorter chain lengths at lower concentrations should not trigger the immune system into creating an anti-PEG antibody. We found that a 10% molar exchange of this short chain PEG within the monolayer met three of the desired goals: high water solubility, no toxicity, and no immune response as measured by white blood cell counts, but none of the short chain PEG mixed monolayer compositions enabled the nanoparticles to have a long circulation time within the blood as compared to mercapto-undecyl-ethylene glycol, which had a residence time of 4 weeks. We also compared the effects of a hydroxyl versus a carboxylic acid terminal functional group on the end of the PEG thiol on both clearance and immune response. The results indicate that short-chain length PEGs, regardless of termini, increase clearance rates compared to the previous long-chain PEG studies while carboxylated-termini increase red blood cell counts at high loadings. Given these findings, short-chain, alcohol-terminated PEG, exchanged at 10% was identified as a potential nanoparticle for further in vivo applications requiring short circulation lifetimes with desired features of no toxicity, no immune response, and high water solubility. PMID:21473648

  7. Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900?cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend <0.0001), respectively, when compared to the subnormal leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts. PMID:24876672

  8. Enzyme-Dependent Ascorbate Recycling in Human Erythrocytes: Role of Thioredoxin Reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalu Mendiratta; Zhi-chao Qu; James M May

    1998-01-01

    Human erythrocytes efficiently reduce dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to ascorbate, which helps to maintain the ascorbate content of blood. Whereas erythrocyte DHA reduction is thought to occur primarily through a direct chemical reaction with GSH, this work addresses the role of enzyme-mediated DHA reduction by these cells. The ability of intact erythrocytes to recycle DHA to ascorbate, estimated as DHA-dependent ferricyanide

  9. Regular Article Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Regular Article Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase: Computational model Nitric oxide Hemorrhage Endothelial nitric oxide synthase Erythrocyte A large loss of blood from multiple sources in the vasculature. Recent studies have shown that erythrocytes express

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth, as they contain abundant nutrients. However, the relationship between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes remains

  11. Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte J. INTRODUCTION The deformation of the human erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) has been the topic of detailed, changes in the propensity for large deformation of the erythrocyte are known to influence disease states

  12. Brucella melitensis invades murine erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

  14. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26130946

  15. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  16. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  17. Impact of red blood cells count and high density lipoproteins with the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Alon; Verdoia, Monica; Cassetti, Ettore; Barbieri, Lucia; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-07-01

    We have hypothesized that high red blood cells (RBC) count can potentially play an atheroprotective role in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. We, therefore, have investigated the relationship between high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) and RBC levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of mortality. Impaired lipid profile represents a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. High density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key factor in atherosclerosis disease development. RBC can mimic HDL's reverse cholesterol transportation with a potential atheroprotective role. Coronary angiography has been evaluated in 3,534 patients. Fasting samples were collected for haematology and lipids levels assessment. Coronary disease was defined for at least 1 vessel stenosis >50 %. Patients were divided according to HDL-C and RBC tertiles. Lower HDL-C was significantly associated to the prevalence of CAD (84.8 vs 78.5 vs 67.3 %, p ? 0.001; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.55 [1.3-1.8], p < 0.001) and severe CAD (30 % vs 30 % vs 24.4 %, p = 0.002; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 1.08 [1.01-1.16], p = 0.02), this relationship was maintained even dividing our population according to RBC tertiles (p < 0.001).In conclusion, HDL-C levels are directly related to RBC count and inversely to the prevalence and extent of coronary disease. Higher RBC levels can reduce the risk of CAD in patients with lower HDL-C levels, suggesting an important atheroprotective role. PMID:25680891

  18. Infused peripheral blood autograft absolute lymphocyte count correlates with day 15 absolute lymphocyte count and clinical outcome after autologous peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L F Porrata; M R Litzow; D J Inwards; D A Gastineau; S B Moore; A A Pineda; K L Bundy; D J Padley; D Persky; S M Ansell; I N M Micallef; S N Markovic

    2004-01-01

    Absolute lymphocyte count at day 15 (ALC-15) after autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APHSCT) is an independent prognostic factor for survival in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Factors affecting ALC-15 remain unknown. We hypothesized that dose of infused autograft lymphocytes (A-ALC) directly impacts upon ALC-15. A total of 190 consecutive NHL patients received A-ALC between 1993 and 2001. The primary

  19. A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

  20. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250693

  1. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on storage of red blood cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Baoyan; Zhang Jiangeng; Song Ximei; Yuan Ailian; Zhang Wenli; Zhao Jiefang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore effects of ultraviolet irradiation on storage of red blood cell and the safety and feasibility of ultraviolet irradiation on banked blood. Metho ds Paired blood samples were used for contrast . Changes in erythrocyte fragility , blood ion , erythrocyte A TP enzyme activity and erythrocyte immune functions were tested 72 h and 120 h before and

  2. Prognostic effect of peripheral blood cell counts in advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP-like chemotherapy: A single institution analysis

    PubMed Central

    YAMAUCHI, TAKAHIRO; TASAKI, TOSHIKI; TAI, KATSUNORI; IKEGAYA, SATOSHI; TAKAGI, KAZUTAKA; NEGORO, EIJU; KISHI, SHINJI; YOSHIDA, AKIRA; IWASAKI, HIROMICHI; UEDA, TAKANORI

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to correlate blood cell counts (lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet counts) with early disease relapse following the attainment of complete remission (CR) by the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP)-like regimen in patients with advanced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In total, 30 patients were evaluated, with a median follow-up period of 43 months. All the participating patients attained CR. In total, eight patients experienced relapse within two years of the diagnosis, and the three-year overall survival rate was recorded as 77%. The peripheral counts for lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets, and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio, all of which have been reported to be prognostic in DLBCL, were assessed. None of these parameters were correlated with the incidence of early relapse or with the prognosis. The lymphocyte count was higher in the patients with durable remission than in those who relapsed, however, no significant differences were identified. Thus, the present study concluded that early disease relapse was not predicted by peripheral blood cell counts in advanced DLBCL that reached CR using the R-CHOP-like regimen. PMID:25621059

  3. Lymphocyte counts and functions in arterial and venous splenic blood of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Evidence for elimination of spontaneously DNA synthesizing cells in the spleen.

    PubMed Central

    Björkholm, M; Holm, G; Askergren, J; Mellstedt, H

    1983-01-01

    Lymphocyte counts and functional competence of lymphocytes from arterial and venous splenic blood were studied in six patients with Hodgkin's disease subjected to splenectomy. One patient was untreated, four were tested after mantle field treatment and a sixth patient had a splenic relapse after total nodal radiotherapy. The percentage of E binding cells in splenic venous blood was lower than that of arterial blood though no significant differences were found in total lymphocyte or E binding cell counts. The spontaneous lymphocyte DNA synthesis was lower in venous than in arterial splenic lymphocytes in all patients. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced DNA synthesis was much lower in lymphocytes from splenic venous blood than in those from arterial blood in two patients and marginally decreased in another two. The pattern of concanavalin A response was similar to that of PWM. The elimination of lymphocytes over the spleen could not be related to the presence of lymphocytotoxic serum factors or to splenic weight or histologically verified tumour involvement. The results support the notion that some facets of the blood lymphocyte abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease may be explained by removal of functionally active lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen. It is also concluded that spontaneously activated lymphoid cells are detained in the spleen. PMID:6872314

  4. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  5. Fate of erythrocyte Cd-metallothionein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Min, K.S.; Ohyanagi, N.; Onosaka, S.; Fukuhara, C.

    1986-04-01

    Degradation of metallothionein (MT), which appears in erythrocytes following cadmium (Cd) administration, was investigated in mice. Cd-MT underwent only slight decomposition by hemolysate in an in vitro experiment unlike an 800g supernatant fraction of the liver homogenate. In an in vivo study, (/sup 3/H)diisopropylfluorophosphate was given to mice which had received /sup 109/CdCl2 to investigate the relationship between the decay of /sup 109/Cd-MT in the erythrocyte and the life span of the erythrocyte. A similar reduction pattern of radioactivity of /sup 109/Cd and /sup 3/H was observed. Erythrocytes containing /sup 109/Cd-MT obtained from mice preadministered with /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ was transfused to normal mice. The /sup 109/Cd radioactivity of erythrocytes decreased in a manner similar to Cd in erythrocytes of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/-administered mice. Contrary to this decrease of erythrocyte Cd in the transfused mice, Cd concentration of the spleen increased markedly. Cd increased also in the liver. These results indicate that erythrocyte MT degrades along with the erythrocyte. The Cd from this MT is deposited in the spleen and liver where blood cells are catabolized.

  6. Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Carolyn N; Fry, Michael M

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds. PMID:25477546

  7. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chapters My Chapter All Chapters Contact Contact LLS Tech Support Work at LLS LLS en Espanol LLS ... Chapters My Chapter All Chapters Contact Contact LLS Tech Support Work at LLS Global LLS en Espanol ...

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily chemotherapy that followed his diagnosis with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Though his treatments continue (3-1/2 years in total), ... Lymphoma Survivor The Woodlands, TX I was diagnosed with ...

  9. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin B12 or folate deficiency , myelodysplasia, liver disease , hypothyroidism MCH Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (See reference range ) Mirrors ... in burn patients, and hereditary spherocytosis, a rare congenital disorder. RDW (Not always reported) RBC Distribution Width ...

  10. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 ?m?×?15 ?m measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results. PMID:24898912

  11. Coincidence detection of heterogeneous cell populations from whole blood with coplanar electrodes in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    PubMed

    Hassan, U; Bashir, R

    2014-11-21

    Particle counting finds many industrial applications especially in medical healthcare. In particular, cell counting from whole blood is used pervasively for disease diagnostics. Microfluidic impedance cytometry is fast, requires a small volume of blood, can be used at point of care and can perform absolute enumeration of different cell types in the sample. Coincidence detection is very essential for accurate counting results and becomes more significant while counting specific target cells, e.g. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell count in HIV/AIDS patient blood samples. In heterogeneous samples, e.g. blood, cell differentiation for all coincidence occurrences is essential in addition to the coincidence detection for accurate cell enumeration. In this paper, we have characterized the coincidence detection with cell differentiation using a microfluidic impedance biochip. The pure population of leukocytes is obtained after all erythrocytes are lysed on-chip from whole blood. Leukocytes were counted electrically as they pass over coplanar microfabricated electrodes bonded to the 15 ?m × 15 ?m cross section counting channel while generating a bipolar pulse for each cell passage. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the electrical cell pulse and its coincidences. We show that coincidence detection can be characterized into three main types based on the range of time delay at which the coincidence occurs. We have also characterized cell differentiation for all the three coincidence types and show that multiple coincidences of different types can also occur. We used healthy and HIV-infected patient blood samples and used our coincidence detection technique to count CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and show the improvement in accuracy of cell counts compared to that without coincidence detection. We have also shown the improvement in the erythrocyte counting with coincidence detection in diluted whole blood samples. PMID:25231594

  12. Analysis of aggregation parameters of erythrocytes in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Babu, N; Singh, M

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation properties of normal and diabetic subjects were analyzed by optical scattering under dynamic conditions. Aggregation of erythrocytes was determined using on-line erythrocyte aggregometer based on sequential analysis of transmitted laser light intensity after passing through the erythrocyte suspension. Diabetes samples were divided into four groups depending upon their blood glucose levels. The aggregation mechanism was determined in terms of aggregation size index, effective number of cells and effective cellular sedimentation duration. These parameters thus obtained were used to quantitatively describe the dynamic nature of aggregation process under gravitational sedimentation. The aggregation parameters decreased in diabetic samples. This indicates that the aggregation of erythrocytes was significantly increased in diabetes mellitus. These changes may affect flow properties of erythrocytes in the microcirculation. PMID:15894825

  13. Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, D. C. Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H.; Miller, Louis H.

    2009-01-01

    In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population. PMID:19279206

  14. Light-dependent spin trapping of hydroxyl radical from human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bynoe, L A; Pou, S; Gottsch, J D; Rosen, G M

    1991-09-30

    The generation of reactive oxygen species from human erythrocytes has previously been demonstrated. Furthermore, erythrocytic protoporphyrin IX has been shown to generate superoxide and singlet oxygen when exposed to light. These findings suggest that a component of erythrocytic reactive oxygen species production may be light-dependent. By inhibiting erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate or sodium cyanide, we demonstrate the light-dependent generation of hydroxyl radical in human erythrocytes using spin trapping/Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy. This finding may be significant in tissues where blood is exposed to light, such as in the eye. PMID:1656946

  15. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as triage test between urgent and nonurgent conditions in 2961 patients with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; Stoker, Jaap; Toorenvliet, Boudewijn R; Laurell, Helena; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to discriminate between urgent and nonurgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department, thereby guiding the selection of patients for immediate diagnostic imaging.Data from 3 large published prospective cohort studies of patients with acute abdominal pain were combined in an individual patient data meta-analysis. CRP levels and WBC counts were compared between patients with urgent and nonurgent final diagnoses. Parameters of diagnostic accuracy were calculated for clinically applicable cutoff values of CRP levels and WBC count, and for combinations.A total of 2961 patients were included of which 1352 patients (45.6%) had an urgent final diagnosis. The median WBC count and CRP levels were significantly higher in the urgent group than in the nonurgent group (12.8?×10/L; interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-16) versus (9.3?×10/L; IQR 7.2-12.1) and (46? mg/L; IQR 12-100 versus 10 ?mg/L; IQR 7-26) (P?50 ?mg/L and WBC count >15?×10/L were combined; however, 85.3% of urgent cases was missed.A high CRP level (>50? mg/L) combined with a high WBC count (>15?×10/L) leads to the highest PPV. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of patients (8.7%). Overall, CRP levels and WBC count are insufficient markers to be used as a triage test in the selection for diagnostic imaging, even with a longer duration of complaints (>48 ?hours). PMID:25738473

  16. HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature

    E-print Network

    9/16/2013 1 HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature destruction SCHISTOCYTES & SPHEROCYTES · Gallstones · Dark or Red Urine · Symptoms of Anemia · Thinning of Cortical Bone · Extramedullary RBC Defects · Immunohemolytic Anemias #12;9/16/2013 3 INTRINSIC DEFECTS · Membrane Defects

  17. Mapping Regions Containing Binding Residues within Functional Domains of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi Erythrocyte-Binding Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akash Ranjan; Chetan E. Chitnis

    1999-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by malaria parasites is mediated by specific molecular interactions. Whereas Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi use the Duffy blood group antigen, Plasmodium falciparum uses sialic acid residues of glycophorin A as receptors to invade human erythrocytes. P. knowlesi uses the Duffy antigen as well as other receptors to invade rhesus erythrocytes by multiple pathways. Parasite ligands that

  18. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-01-01

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality. PMID:24305632

  19. Structure elucidation of the blood group B like and blood group I active octaantennary ceramide tetracontasaccharide from rabbit erythrocyte membranes by two-dimensional /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy at 600 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrowski, J.; Dabrowski, U.; Bermel, W.; Kordowicz, M.; Hanfland, P.

    1988-07-12

    The primary structure of the ceramide tetracontasaccharide (1) from rabbit erythrocyte membranes has been determined with the aid of 600-MHz two-dimensional phase-sensitive correlated, totally correlated (TOCSY, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn), relayed coherence transfer, triple quantum filtered, and nuclear Overhauser enhancement /sup 1/H NMR spectra. It was shown that obtaining subspectra of the constituent sugar residues from a totally correlated spectrum and assigning the resonances occurring in these subspectra by analyzing the relevant cross-peaks in phase-sensitive correlated spectra is the most efficient way for establishing complex oligosaccharide structures. This analysis has shown 1 to be the highest homologue of the multiantennary neolactoglycosphingolipids.

  20. Effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Ratan K.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical model examining the effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic (OA) signals is presented. Each erythrocyte is considered as a fluid sphere and its optical absorption is defined by its oxygen saturation state. The OA field generated by a cell is computed by solving the wave equation in the frequency domain with appropriate boundary conditions. The resultant field from many cells is simulated by summing the pressure waves emitted by individual cells. A Monte Carlo algorithm generates 2-D spatially random distributions of oxygenated and deoxygenated erythrocytes. Oxygen saturation levels of oxygenated cells a assumed to be 100% and 0% for deoxygenated cells. The OA signal amplitude decreases monotonically for the 700-nm laser source and increases monotonically for 1000 nm optical radiation when blood oxygen saturation varies from 0 to 100%. An approximately sixfold decrease and fivefold increase of the OA signal amplitude were computed at those wavelengths, respectively. The OA spectral power in the low-frequency range (<10 MHz) and in the very high-frequency range (>100 MHz) decreases for 700 nm and increases for 1000 nm with increasing blood oxygen saturation. This model provides a theoretical framework to study the erythrocyte oxygenation-dependent OA signals.

  1. Ameliorating effects of curcumin and vitamin E on diazinon-induced oxidative damage in rat liver and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Messarah, Mahfoud; Amamra, Wahiba; Boumendjel, Amel; Barkat, Leila; Bouasla, Ihcčne; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; Feki, Abdelfattah El

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E and/or curcumin against diazinon (DZN) (an organophosphorus insecticide)-induced toxicity of blood, liver and erythrocyte markers of male Wistar rats. The exposure of rats to DZN for 21 days provoked significant changes in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin. Results showed that lipid peroxidation increased significantly in DZN-treated rats, as evidenced by high liver and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. Alteration of the antioxidant system in DZN-treated rats was confirmed by the significant decrease in the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by a decline in reduced glutathione content in both tissues. On the other hand, a significant increase in the activities of plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the rats treated with DZN. However, the administration of vitamin E and curcumin has ameliorated the previous markers. In conclusion, our results indicate that the natural antioxidants like vitamin E and curcumin can effectively lower the erythrocytes and hepatic injuries induced by DZN as monitored by lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme activities and sensitive serum enzyme levels. PMID:22609857

  2. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNF?, IFN?) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid population indicating a stress response. In short cadmium exposure causes preferential clearance of older erythrocytes from circulation along with a depressed erythropoietic activity at higher doses. PMID:26161863

  3. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNF?, IFN?) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid population indicating a stress response. In short cadmium exposure causes preferential clearance of older erythrocytes from circulation along with a depressed erythropoietic activity at higher doses. PMID:26161863

  4. Erythrocyte membrane ATPase and calcium pumping activities in porcine malignant hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Thatte, H.S.; Mickelson, J.R.; Addis, P.B.; Louis, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    To investigate possible abnormalities in erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities in the pharmacogenetic disorder MH, membrane ATPase activities have been examined in erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells of MHS and normal swine. While no differences were noted in Mg2+-ATPase activities, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity of MHS erythrocyte ghosts was less than that of normal ghosts. Ca2+-ATPase activity exhibited low- and high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites in both types of erythrocyte ghost. While the Km for Ca2+ was greater for normal than for MHS erythrocyte ghosts at the high-affinity Ca2+-binding site, the reverse was true at the low-affinity Ca2+-binding site. Irrespective of the type of calcium binding site occupied, the Vmax for normal erythrocyte ghost Ca2+-ATPase activity was greater than that for MHS ghosts. In the presence of calmodulin, there was now no difference between MHS and normal erythrocyte ghosts in either the Km for Ca2+ or the Vmax of the Ca2+-ATPase activity. To determine if the calcium pumping activity of intact MHS and normal pig erythrocytes differed, calcium efflux from the /sup 45/Ca-loaded erythrocytes was determined; this activity was significantly greater for MHS than for normal erythrocytes. Thus, the present study confirms that there are abnormalities in the membranes of MHS pig red blood cells. However, we conclude that these abnormalities are unlikely to result in an impaired ability of MHS erythrocytes to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration.

  5. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  6. Erythrocyte and plasma trace element levels in clinical assessments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nčve; L. Molle; M. Hanocq; P. M. Sinet; R. Van Geffel

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of original investigations on zinc, copper, and selenium levels in plasma and erythrocytes of Down's syndrome\\u000a (DS), cystic fibrosis (CF), and control subjects, the possible importance of erythrocytic trace element concentrations in\\u000a clinical analysis is emphasized. Red blood cell levels of copper and zinc were found significantly increased in both groups\\u000a of diseased patients as compared to

  7. Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2002-07-01

    The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

  8. Diffusion of peroxynitrite across erythrocyte membranes

    PubMed Central

    Denicola, Ana; Souza, José M.; Radi, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    Peroxynitrite anion (ONOO?) is a reactive species of increasingly recognized biological relevance that contributes to oxidative tissue damage. At present, however, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms of peroxynitrite diffusion through biological compartments. In this work we have studied the diffusion of peroxynitrite across erythrocyte membranes. In solution, peroxynitrite rapidly reacts with oxyhemoglobin to yield methemoglobin, with k2 = (10.4 ± 0.3) × 103 M?1?s?1 at pH 7.4 and 25°C. Addition of peroxynitrite to intact erythrocytes caused oxidation of intracellular oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. Oxidation yields in red blood cells at pH 7.0 were approximately 40% of those obtained in solution, which results mostly from competition of other cytosolic components for peroxynitrite. Indeed, rather small differences were observed between oxidation yields in lysates compared with intact erythrocytes, in particular at acidic and neutral pH values, indicating that membrane was not precluding peroxynitrite diffusion. Incubation of erythrocytes at pH 7.0 with 4,4?-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a specific inhibitor of anion exchange, resulted in up to 50% inhibition of oxyhemoglobin oxidation by peroxynitrite. More protection by DIDS was achieved at alkaline pH, while no effect was observed at pH 5.5, where 95% of peroxynitrite is in the acidic form, ONOOH (pKa = 6.8). In addition, peroxynitrite caused nitration of intracellular hemoglobin, in a process that was enhanced in thiol-depleted erythrocytes. Our results indicate that peroxynitrite is able to cross the erythrocyte membrane by two different mechanisms: in the anionic form through the DIDS-inhibitable anion channel, and in the protonated form by passive diffusion. PMID:9520406

  9. RBC barcoding allows for the study of erythrocyte population dynamics and P. falciparum merozoite invasion.

    PubMed

    Clark, Martha A; Goheen, Morgan M; Spidale, Nicholas A; Kasthuri, Raj S; Fulford, Anthony; Cerami, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invasion of host erythrocytes is essential for the propagation of the blood stage of malaria infection. Additionally, the brief extracellular merozoite stage of P. falciparum represents one of the rare windows during which the parasite is directly exposed to the host immune response. Therefore, efficient invasion of the host erythrocyte is necessary not only for productive host erythrocyte infection, but also for evasion of the immune response. Host traits, such as hemoglobinopathies and differential expression of erythrocyte invasion ligands, can protect individuals from malaria by impeding parasite erythrocyte invasion. Here we combine RBC barcoding with flow cytometry to study P. falciparum invasion. This novel high-throughput method allows for the (i) direct comparison of P. falciparum invasion into different erythrocyte populations and (ii) assessment of the impact of changing erythrocyte population dynamics on P. falciparum invasion. PMID:24984000

  10. Peripheral Erythrocytes Decrease upon Specific Respiratory Challenge with Grass Pollen Allergen in Sensitized Mice and in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmutz, René; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlböck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, René; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). Methods and Results BALB/c mice (n?=?20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n?=?10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n?=?10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n?=?42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Conclusion Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate for hypoxia is a possible explanation for these findings. PMID:24466205

  11. Reduced sodium concentration and increased sodium-potassium pump activity of erythrocytes in human hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Engel, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    Erythrocyte Nai, Nai/Ki and ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake (K transport) were measured in whole blood of 16 normotensive and 19 hypertensive white male subjects, within seconds or minutes after withdrawal of blood. Erythrocyte Nai and Nai/Ki were reduced (p less than 0.05), and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was increased (p less than 0.01) in hypertensive subjects. In a separate group of hypertensive white male subjects, an inverse correlation was found between erythrocyte Nai/Ki and ouabain-binding sites per erythrocyte (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01, n = 9). The abnormalities of erythrocyte cation fluxes in hypertensive subjects are similar to those induced by aldosterone in vascular smooth muscle cells and by glucocorticoid administration in the erythrocytes of human subjects, suggesting similarities in pathogenesis.

  12. Accuracy and Feasibility of Point-Of-Care White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein Measurements at the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Pia; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background Several point-of-care (POC) tests are available for evaluation of febrile patients, but the data about their performance in acute care setting is sparse. We investigated the analytical accuracy and feasibility of POC tests for white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods In the first part of the study, HemoCue WBC and Afinion AS100 CRP POC analyzers were compared with laboratory’s routine WBC (Sysmex XE-2100) and CRP (Modular P) analyzers in the hospital central laboratory in 77 and 48 clinical blood samples, respectively. The POC tests were then adopted in use at the pediatric ED. In the second part of the study, we compared WBC and CRP levels measured by POC and routine methods during 171 ED patient visits by 168 febrile children and adolescents. Attending physicians performed POC tests in capillary fingerprick samples. Results In parallel measurements in the laboratory both WBC and CRP POC analyzers showed good agreement with the reference methods. In febrile children at the emergency department (median age 2.4 years), physician performed POC determinations in capillary blood gave comparable results with those in venous blood analyzed in the laboratory. The mean difference between POC and reference test result was 1.1 E9/L (95% limits of agreement from -6.5 to 8.8 E9/L) for WBC and -1.2 mg/L (95% limits of agreement from -29.6 to 27.2 mg/L) for CRP. Conclusions POC tests are feasible and relatively accurate methods to assess CRP level and WBC count among febrile children at the ED. PMID:26034987

  13. Is the blood basophil count sufficiently precise, accurate, and specific?: three automated hematology instruments and flow cytometry compared.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Erik K; Henriksson, Carola E; Holthe, Mette R; Urdal, Petter

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of the basophil count of 3 hematology instruments with a flow cytometric method (FCM) in which CD123 and CD193 were used as basophil markers. By analyzing 112 patient samples, we found the ADVIA 120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL) and CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) to underestimate the number of basophils by approximately 50% and the Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) and ADVIA to overestimate the basophil count in some samples with pathologic leukocytes. All 3 instruments had large (25%-50%) analytic within-run coefficients of variation. Compared with the FCM, we found a relatively good correlation for the CELL-DYN basophil count (r = 0.81), an intermediate correlation for the Sysmex (r = 0.64), and a poor correlation for the ADVIA (r = 0.24). When excluding the 52 samples flagged for the presence of pathologic leukocytes, these correlations were found to be 0.84, 0.90, and 0.57, respectively. The basophil count of the 3 instruments is, at least presently, of unsatisfactory quality. PMID:22180481

  14. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Quintanar-Escorza; M. T. González-Martínez; L. Navarro; M. Maldonado; B. Arévalo; J. V.. Calderon-Salinas

    2007-01-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca2+–Mg2+)-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples

  15. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the /sup 32/P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references.

  16. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  17. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  18. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  19. Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

  20. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  1. New optical method for investigation of kinetics of nonspecific transmembrane transport into erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Michail V.; Zaritskaya, Galina A.; Zaritskii, Aleksandr R.; Perevedentseva, Elena V.

    1996-01-01

    A new optical method based on measurements of kinetics of the oxygenation and deoxygenation of erythrocytes in various functional states is developed. The new optic device, modeling the conditions of the system of circulation of the blood in organisms and allowing us to measure continuously the absolute values of degree of blood saturation by oxygen in the process of oxygenation (deoxygenation) and change of the mean erythrocyte volume, was elaborated. The analysis of obtained kinetic curves allowed us to determine the amount of hemoglobin capable to reverse association with oxygen (the active hemoglobin) in investigated sample and discover the pathology forms of hemoglobin. The new method allows us to investigate nonspecific erythrocyte membrane permeability. The rates of oxygen and glucose penetration to erythrocytes in various functional states was measured. It was discovered that erythrocyte membrane permeability for oxygen periodically considerably changes in the process of oxygenation and deoxygenation of the blood. It was found that the functional state of erythrocyte depends on the functional and structure state of erythrocyte membrane. The rate of glucose penetration to erythrocytes in various functional states was measured. The influence of external affects (physical and chemical, for example used in medicine surface-active substances) on function of the erythrocyte membrane was studied. Obtained results allow us to offer the elaborated device and methods of measurement as for scientific so for clinical investigations.

  2. CELLS, PROTEINS, AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...

  3. Tanshinone IIA stimulates erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    Zelenak, Christine; Pasham, Venkanna; Jilani, Kashif; Tripodi, Paola M; Rosaclerio, Luisa; Pathare, Ganesh; Lupescu, Adrian; Faggio, Caterina; Qadri, Syed M; Lang, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA, an antimicrobial, antioxidant, antianaphylactic, antifibrotic, vasodilating, antiatherosclerotic, organo-protective and antineoplastic component from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is known to trigger apoptosis of tumor cells. Tanshinone IIA is effective in part through mitochondrial depolarization and altered gene expression. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may undergo eryptosis, an apoptosis-like suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis is triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, ATP depletion and ceramide formation. The present study explored, whether tanshinone IIA elicits eryptosis. Cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration was determined from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from binding of fluorescent annexin V, hemolysis from hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant, ATP concentration utilizing luciferin-luciferase and ceramide formation utilizing fluorescent anticeramide antibodies. Clearance of circulating erythrocytes was estimated by CFSE-labeling. A 48 h exposure to tanshinone IIA (?10 µM) significantly increased cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration, decreased ATP concentration (25 µM), increased lactate concentration (25 µM), increased ceramide formation (25 µM), decreased forward scatter, increased annexin-V-binding and increased (albeit to a much smaller extent) hemolysis. The effect of 25 µM tanshinone IIA on annexin-V binding was partially reversed in the nominal absence of Ca(2+). Labelled tanshinone IIA-treated erythrocytes were more rapidly cleared from the circulating blood in comparison to untreated erythrocytes. The present observations reveal a completely novel effect of tanshinone IIA, i.e. triggering of Ca(2+) entry, ATP depletion and ceramide formation in erythrocytes, events eventually leading to eryptosis with cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling. PMID:22759974

  4. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic-a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-?m-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0-4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  5. [The effect of erythrocyte membrane modification on the rate of O2 release].

    PubMed

    Anikeeva, S P

    1990-01-01

    Specific patterns of blood deoxygenation were studied using cholesterol-modified erythrocyte membranes by means of polarographic coulombometry in microlyzer. The rate of oxygen liberation was decreased in erythrocytes enriched with cholesterol as compared with controls. Effects of the membrane quantitative composition on its diffusion properties are discussed. PMID:2382431

  6. Evaluation of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Serum Iron Profile in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Veronica; Lubas, George; Lombardo, Andrea; Corazza, Michele; Guidi, Grazia; Cardini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate iron status, erythrocyte, and platelet modifications in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). Dogs were grouped as food-responsive diarrhea (FRD, n = 11), antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD, n = 5), and steroid-responsive diarrhea (SRD, n = 6) relating to therapeutic-response. Clinical and haematological findings, evidence of gastrointestinal blood loss, and iron metabolism were evaluated before and after treatment. A mild normocytic or microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis were identified, respectively in 18.0% and 31.8% of CE dogs. No significant differences between pre- and posttreatment of hematocrit, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume, platelet count and mean platelet volume were found. Statistical analysis pointed out significant differences between pre- and posttreatment in serum iron (P < .03) and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) (P < .01). No significant correlations were found between these parameters and canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease activity index and pattern of CE as well. PMID:20798868

  7. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  8. The influences of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood cell counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Tsoy-Ing; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Chao, Tsu-Yi

    2006-01-01

    After surgery, breast cancer patients are offered adjuvant chemotherapy to avoid cancer cell spread. During chemotherapy process, neutrophils could fall relatively, and side effects could spike to the peak. Therefore, the medical care personnel should prevent the progression of the side effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The experiment group (n = 32) received a 21-day Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy, whereas the control group (n = 35) did not. White blood cells, platelet, and hemoglobin were measured on the day before chemotherapy and on days 8, 15, and 22 during chemotherapy. According to this study, there were significant differences in white blood cells (F = 115.76, P <.001), platelets (F = 25.29, P <.001), and hemoglobin (F = 15.39, P <.001) over the 3-week therapy between the experiment and control groups. Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy may decrease leukopenia in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It is recommended conducting more studies on qi-gong and then introducing it in clinical nursing practice at an appropriate time to promote quality of nursing care and quality of patient life. PMID:16565626

  9. [The noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes, leukocytes and erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Kuznik, B I; Fa?n, I A; Kaminski?, A V; Maksimova, O G; Kustovskaia, E M; Bogdanova, Iu V; Zhdanovich, N G; Rodnina, O S; Khasanova, N V

    2013-04-01

    The article considers the noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes and formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic-thrombocytic aggregates and some particular indicators of hemostasis system. The speckle-analysis of characteristics of coherent light dispersion from surface of erythrocytes moving in artificially isolated vessel section. The study established high correlation ratio between light dispersion index and spontaneous ADP-, adrenalin- and collagen-induced aggregation of thrombocytes, formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic and thrombocytic-erythrocytic aggregations. The established facts permits to consider that analysis noninvasive technique makes it possible to estimate approximately the aggregation activity of blood corpuscles. PMID:23984549

  10. Overcoming matrix effects in the chemiluminescence determination of extracellular adenosine triphosphate in erythrocyte suspensions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrea; Ouellet, Marc; English, Ann M

    2013-05-15

    As erythrocyte-derived extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gains recognition as a key vasodilator, its accurate determination is critical. Erythrocytes' high hemoglobin content can act as an inner filter when measuring ATP concentrations by chemiluminescence. We evaluated two approaches to correct for this matrix effect: addition of cell-free hemoglobin to the ATP standards and standard addition of ATP to erythrocyte suspensions. In addition, we reduced sample hematocrit to minimize the absorbance. We conclude that extracellular ATP should be determined in erythrocyte suspensions at 0.06 to 0.004% hematocrit. This gives robust signals without matrix effects and requires only microliters of blood. PMID:23376575

  11. [Fluorescence angiography image of erythrocytes with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope].

    PubMed

    Nasemann, J E

    1991-01-01

    Erythrocytes bind fluorescein to their surface, but they do not take up the dye intracellularly during fluorescein angiography. The cells are therefore hypofluorescent compared to blood plasma. Due to the high velocity of red blood cells in retinal vessels, this phenomenon has not been observed during conventional angiography. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, however, allows imaging of the retina with a very high temporal resolution. The exposure time of the scanning laser beam for a single erythrocyte is in the range of only 100 ns. Therefore, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy permits imaging of fast-moving red blood cells in large retinal vessels. Pathologically reduced blood flow is clearly visible and can be measured with digital image analysis. The values found in three patients with vascular occlusions were between 0.1 and 1.8 mm/s. In cases with intact circulation, digital image analysis was not sufficient to measure red blood cell velocity. Even if a velocimeter that permits semiquantitative comparison between erythrocytes and moving black dots is used, superimposed on the angiogram, reliable results can only be obtained in cases with reduced red cell velocity. Nevertheless, for the clinician observation of erythrocyte flow during scanning laser angiography is a new and fascinating tool. PMID:1855731

  12. Absolute Lymphocyte Count as a Predictor of CD4 Count

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan I Shapiro; David J Karras; Stephen H Leech; Katherine L Heilpern

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: To determine whether the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) (white blood count×lymphocyte percentage) can be used to predict a low CD4 count. Methods: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of consecutive CD4 count analyses performed between January 1, 1995, through December 1, 1995, at an urban university teaching hospital. Results of consecutive CD4 counts and simultaneously measured ALCs were

  13. Biophysical Properties of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes from Novel Analysis of the Flicker Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arie, Takayuki; Jin, Albert; Dvorak, James

    2002-03-01

    Infectious processes often modulate the intrinsic properties of vertebrate cells. We studied the modulation of human erythrocyte flicker during the intra-erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using video microscopy imaging and a data analysis system of our design to extract flicker spectra and lateral cell edge undulations of individual erythrocytes at various stages of infection. The total flicker power, the power weighted mean flicker frequency, the mode amplitudes of lateral undulations, and the time correlation of translation mode was quantified by infectious stage and modeled theoretically. Our results suggest that malaria-infected erythrocytes become increasingly more rigid following infection and provide an insight into the modulation of erythrocyte cytoplasmic viscosity by the parasites. These studies of malaria-infected erythrocytes elucidate the kinetics of both membrane and cellular changes that are relevant to blood microcirculation and improve our understanding of the malaria disease process.

  14. [Acidic hemolysis of erythrocytes depending on the temperature and storage time].

    PubMed

    Stus', L K

    1994-01-01

    Acidic resistance of erythrocytes, measured at temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 24, 28, 31, 35, 40 degrees C, varies in course of 25-day hypodermic blood storage. Dynamics of the resistance change depends on the temperature. PMID:8193199

  15. Decreased Ability to Carry O2 to Tissues Erythrocyte Loss

    E-print Network

    9/16/2013 1 ERYTHOCYTE DISORDERS ANEMIA Decreased Ability to Carry O2 to Tissues ­ ErythrocyteL ­ Vitamin B12 or Folate Deficiency, Hemolytic Anemia, Liver Disease, Asplenia, Aplastic Anemia Deficiency Anemia, Thalssemia, Sideroblastic Anemia #12;9/16/2013 6 BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION Poikilocytosis

  16. ERYTHROCYTE DEGENERATION IN THE ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPBA HARENGUS HARENGUS L.

    E-print Network

    ERYTHROCYTE DEGENERATION IN THE ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPBA HARENGUS HARENGUS L. STUART W. SHERBURNE blood of herring from Boothbay Harbor, Maine, and from Passamaquoddy Bay at Deer Island, N.R, Canada, in 1969. Except in one instance, when inclusions occurred in herring from water of 2°C, all herring from

  17. Amino ketone synthesis in avian erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dale, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    1. The relative rates of synthesis of aminolaevulate and aminoacetone by particles prepared from avian erythrocytes were measured under various conditions. 2. The production of both amino ketones by fresh particles was about three times greater in anaemia caused by phenylhydrazine and acetylphenylhydrazine than in anaemia caused by removal of 20–30ml. of blood. 3. The synthesis of aminolaevulate by freeze-dried particles decreased more than that of aminoacetone in the absence of added pyridoxal phosphate, in the presence of cyanide and of tris buffer, and after preincubation of the erythrocyte particles. Other differences in the rates of synthesis of the two amino ketones were observed after (a) incubation of particles at different temperatures and (b) storage of homogenized freeze-dried particles at different pH values. 4. It is suggested that these differences in the production of the two amino ketones are due to the presence of two amino ketone synthetases or to two or more isoenzymes of aminolaevulate synthetase. 5. The metabolic significance of aminoacetone in erythrocytes is discussed. PMID:5820636

  18. Changed blood rheology in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, C G; Persson, S U; Larsson, H; Persson, S

    1994-02-01

    Rheologic properties of blood were studied in 8 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and in 10 healthy subjects. Whole-blood viscosity was measured at four different shear rates, by means of a computer-controlled rotational viscometer. The patients had significantly higher blood viscosity at all shear rates, both at their natural hematocrits and after an in vitro adjustment of sample hematocrits to 45%. Erythrocyte filterability (5 microns pore size) was significantly lower, fibrinogen concentration significantly higher, and HDL-cholesterol concentration significantly lower in the patient group. No significant differences were found regarding hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin concentration, leukocyte count and filterability (8 microns pore size), plasma viscosity, and total cholesterol concentration. The measured hemorheologic abnormalities may contribute to the previously reported reduction of coronary blood flow reserve in DCM patients and to myocardial microcirculatory disturbances, which have been suggested as a cause for DCM. PMID:8129184

  19. Affordable CD4+ T cell counts by flow cytometry. II. The use of fixed whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Jani, V; Janossy, G; Iqbal, A; Mhalu, F S; Lyamuya, E F; Biberfeld, G; Glencross, D K; Scott, L; Reilly, J T; Granger, V; Barnett, D

    2001-11-01

    We tested the feasibility and precision of affordable CD4+ T cell counting in resource-poor settings using a recently standardised fixative, TransFix in whole blood (WB) by flow cytometry (FCM). The precision of the assays was established under optimal conditions for single-platform FCM such as the volumetric CytoronAbsolute and the bead-based FACSCan. Fresh WB samples from HIV-seropositive and seronegative patients were tested in Tanzania and South Africa, fixed and sent to the UK for reanalysis 7 days later. Correlation, bias and limits of agreements were analysed by linear regression and the Bland-Altman test. Absolute CD4+ T cell counts remained stable for at least 10 days when TransFix was added to WB in 1:10 dilution at 20-25 degrees C, and for 7 days when added in 1:10 or 1:5 dilution to samples stored to mimic 'tropical' conditions at 37 degrees C. Higher temperatures such as 42 degrees C were tolerated for only short periods since the recovery had decreased to 63% by day 3. The reproducibility of lymphocyte subset analysis remained unchanged by TransFix with coefficient of variations <6% for all T cell subsets. Absolute CD4+ T cell counts and CD4+ T cell % values on fixed samples in the UK showed a high correlation with the results using fresh samples in Tanzania (r=0.993 and 0.969, respectively) and with the samples handled in Johannesburg (r=0.991 and 0.981) with minimal bias. Primary CD4 gating using only a single CD4 antibody also remained accurate in TransFixed samples (r=0.999). Thus, TransFix permits optimal fixation and transport of WB samples in the developing world for FCM to local regional laboratories and for quality assurance in international centres. When used together with inexpensive primary CD4 gating, TransFix will allow reliable and affordable CD4+ T cell counting by FCM in resource-poor settings. PMID:11687248

  20. Binding of artemether and lumefantrine to plasma proteins and erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Colussi; Carole Parisot; François Legay; Gilbert Lefčvre

    1999-01-01

    The serum\\/plasma protein binding and blood distribution of artemether and lumefantrine was studied in vitro. The techniques used were the erythrocyte partitioning and ultrafiltration methods with 14C-labelled compounds. Both artemether and lumefantrine were found to be highly bound to proteins in serum, 95–98% and >99%, respectively. Under physiological protein concentrations, the distribution in blood showed that 33% of artemether was

  1. [Nanocerium restores the erythrocytes stability to acid hemolysis by inhibition of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species in old rats].

    PubMed

    Kotsuruba, A V; Kopjak, B S; Sagach, V F; Spivak, N Ja

    2015-01-01

    In experiments in vivo the effect of nanocerium (cerium oxide nanoparticles) on the stability of red blood cells to acid hemolysis, levels of both ROS and RNS generation and H2S pools in plasma and erythrocytes of old rats were investigated. In red blood cells of old rats the proton penetration into the matrix of erythrocytes showed a significant raising and the fate of labile "aging" erythrocytes in old animals compared with adult were up- regulated. These phenomena paralleled with significant up-regulation of ROS and RNS generation. Introduction for 14 days per os to old rats 0.1 mg/kg of nanocerium fully restored resistance of erythrocytes to acid hemolysis by ROS and RNS in both plasma and erythrocytes reduction. Nanocerium decreased the erythrocytes and, conversely, significantly increased the plasma's pools of H2S. PMID:26040029

  2. Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2007-01-01

    The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. PMID:17360346

  3. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  4. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Stepanova, Eugenia; Karmaus, Wilfried; Naboka, Marina; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; Mousseau, Tim; Shestopalov, Viacheslav M; Vena, John; Svendsen, Erik; Underhill, Dwight; Pastides, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs) and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure. PMID:18513393

  5. Erythrocyte lead-binding protein after occupational exposure. II. Influence on lead inhibition of membrane Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-adenosinetriphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, S.R.V. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles); Culver, B.D.; Gonick, H.C.

    1981-03-01

    Membrane Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-adenosinetriphosphatase in erythrocytes from three groups of industrially exposed Pb workers (without toxicity, with toxicity associated with high blood Pb levels, and with toxicity associated with low blood Pb levels) was inversely correlated with Pb in the membrane fraction but not significantly correlated with total erythrocyte Pb. This difference was attributable to the proportion of erythrocyte Pb bound to hemoglobin and a Pb-binding protein of molecular weight 10,000.

  6. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (?=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  7. Proteins of marsupial erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Ralston, G B

    1985-01-01

    The proteins of erythrocyte membranes from the red kangaroo, western grey kangaroo, eastern grey wallaroo (euro), red-necked wallaby, Tammar wallaby, and brush-tail possum have been fractionated on acrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The pattern of proteins was remarkably similar between the different marsupial species. The pattern of Coomassie blue-staining proteins in the membranes of these species was also very similar to that of the human erythrocyte membrane. However, the glycoproteins in the marsupial erythrocyte membranes were markedly less conspicuous than those of the human erythrocyte membrane. Furthermore, the mobilities of the glycoproteins from the marsupials were different from those of the human erythrocyte membrane. The erythrocytes of the western grey kangaroo, the eastern wallaroo and the red-necked wallaby showed pronounced resistance to hypotonic lysis compared with those of the Tammar wallaby and the human. This effect seems to be related to the size of the erythrocytes rather than to differences in their protein composition. PMID:4051902

  8. Spectral Markers of Erythrocytes on Solid Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiziev, Adkhamjon A.; Krakhmalev, V. A.

    Proposed in previous paper [1,2] the new nondestructive method of optical microscopy allows to examine the structures of living cells (human erythrocytes) in their natural colors without its staining by using a specially designed substrate for deposition of biological sample and observing a native blood smears in reflected light. Color interference contrast image is achieved due to special condition of experiment is connected with chose of angle of incidental light, wave length of light of reflected ray, chemical composition of sample, thickness of sample, refractive index of sample, refractive index of substrate, chemical composition of substrate [1,2]. We can identify chemical compounds of erythrocytes after calibration color scale by alternative methods. For comparison we used Synchrotron Radiation based Fourier Transformed Infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy. By focusing of infrared beam of FTIR microscope on cell surface we can screen and distinguish difference erythrocytes by its color. For example on Fig. 49.1 we can see two neighbored erythrocytes where one of them have red color (point 1) and other-green (point 5). To identify their spectral markers we measured IR absorption spectra of cells at different points (1,2,3,4 and 5). Intermediated area (points 3 and 4) correspond to substrate spectra (silicon substrate) and their spectra are same. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids. At 1,650 cm-1 the amide I band is observed, which results, principally, from the n(CO) stretching vibrations of the protein amide bonds; the amide II band, near 1,550 cm-1, is a combination of the d(N-H) bending and n(C-N) stretching vibrations of the amide bonds. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids [3. The intensities of the absorption bands at 2,920 and 2,850 cm-1 in green erythrocyte (point 5) were also significantly increased compared to red one (point 1). The protein conformational change of the red and green cells could be expressed as the ratio of the absorbance intensity at wavenumber 1650/1550, which represented the intensity of the amide II band of cells. Lipids have long hydrocarbon chains, so the dominant features in the IR spectrum of lipids are attributed to the asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of CH2 (2,920 and 2,850 cm-1) groups in the molecule. Other biological components, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, also have unique IR spectra.

  9. Prolactin binding sites in human erythrocytes and lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellussi, G.; Muccioli, G.; Ghe, C.; Di Carlo, R.

    1987-08-24

    Specific binding sites for prolactin (PRL) have been studied in human peripheral lymphocytes and erythrocytes of normal adult volunteers and of term cord bloods. In erythrocytes from healthy adult subjects of both sexes a very low specific binding of /sup 125/I-human PRL was found (0.24%), whereas a higher binding was found in term cord blood (1.1%). The binding was hormone specific, the binding capacity was 2.6 fmol/4 x 10/sup 9/ cells and the Kd was 3.4 x 10/sup -10/M. In lymphocytes of both adults and term cord bloods an evident specific binding was observed (male adults: 1.6%; female adults: 1.7%; cord blood: 1.8%). The binding was specific for lactogenic hormones and the binding capacity was 3.7 fmol/2 x 10/sup 6/ cells and the Kd was 3.9 x 10/sup -10/M. The presence of specific binding sites for PRL on human erythrocytes and lymphocytes could be used to study PRL binding on blood cells of patients in different physiological or pathological situations. 20 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  10. Retention of radiolead by human erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barton, J C

    1989-06-15

    An in vitro method was developed to assess human erythrocyte lead uptake and release directly, rapidly, and reproducibly; the technique requires small aliquots of blood and uses silicone fluid to separate erythrocytes from their suspending media. Uptake occurred rapidly and was directly related to temperature. Increasing quantities of available elemental lead were associated with increasing absolute quantities but decreasing percentages of uptake. Low values of pH diminished the uptake and enhanced the release of radiolead by erythrocytes, and could be correlated with diminished lead-hemoglobin binding para-Chloromecuribenzoate increased and dithiothreitol inhibited radiolead uptake but neither compound affected lead release, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are important for lead binding to the erythrocyte. Cyanamide and N-ethylmaleimide did not significantly affect the net uptake or release of radiolead. Calcium disodium EDTA, penicillamine, and dimercaprol significantly reduced lead uptake, although only incubation with dimercaprol resulted in a net removal of lead from erythrocytes. Iron and ceruloplasmin significantly decreased radiolead uptake, but inorganic metal cations other than iron, hyperosmolarity, human serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin had no significant effect on uptake or release. PMID:2734794

  11. Thallium and rubidium permeability of human and rat erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Skulskii, I A; Manninen, V; Glasunov, V V

    1990-02-01

    Transport of Tl+ and Rb+ in human and rat erythrocytes was investigated in the presence of ouabain. The chloride-dependent cotransport of Tl+, Rb+ and Na+ was precluded by replacement of Cl- by NO3-. The inward and outward rate constants for the residual fluxes of the cations were determined by measuring the transport of 204Tl and 86Rb in double label experiments. The rate of passive transport of Tl+ exceeded that of Rb+ by one-two orders of magnitude in human as well as rat erythrocytes. The membrane barrier which contributes to the maintenance of ion gradients was shown not to be a barrier for Tl+ which easily penetrates the membrane by an unknown mechanism. In rat erythrocytes the barrier for Rb+ was 10-15 times weaker than that in human red blood cells, while the corresponding ratio of rat/human Tl+ permeabilities was about 1.8-2.0. It follows that Tl+ permeability is only slightly affected by factors modifying the permeability to alkali cations. The increase of temperature from 20 degrees to 37 degrees C resulted in a three-fourfold stimulation of the passive transport of Tl+ both in human and rat erythrocytes. The movement of Tl+ and Rb+ through the erythrocyte membrane differed substantially from their diffusion along the excitable membrane channels characterized both by poor Tl+/K+ selectivity and weak temperature dependence. PMID:2311912

  12. Eicosanoid synthesis by purified thrombocytes and erythrocytes from warm- and cold-acclimated American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Herman, C A

    1997-04-01

    Amphibian blood plays an important role in eicosanoid synthesis. Although clotting frog blood produces eicosanoids, the cellular source of prostaglandins and thromboxanes in bullfrog blood is unknown. Thromboxane (TX)B2 synthesis from purified thrombocytes was affected by 30-day cold-acclimation at 5 degrees, but not PGE2 or leukotriene (LT) synthesis. Although no cyclooxygenase activity has been found in human erythrocytes, frog erythrocytes were capable of forming cyclooxygenase products, but the amounts were lower than those produced by thrombocytes. Additionally, there was no effect of cold exposure on eicosanoid production by isolated erythrocytes. Similar to some mammalian nucleated white blood cells, nucleated bullfrog thrombocytes and erythrocytes produced leukotrienes. The production of eicosanoids by thrombocytes was stimulated by A23187 and thrombin. Erythrocytes were stimulated by A23187. Control synthesis by erythrocytes and thrombocytes was inhibited by 5 microM indomethacin (cyclooxygenase pathway) or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (5-lipoxygenase pathway) and cyclooxygenase products were increased in the presence of nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Thrombin stimulation of eicosanoid production by thrombocytes was inhibited when the inhibitors were present prior to the final centrifugation of the cell isolation. The results suggest that cold exposure can affect eicosanoid synthesis in thrombocytes, but not erythrocytes, and that thrombocytes are a major source of eicosanoids in bullfrogs. The production of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products by nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes suggests a role for these compounds in hemostasis and inflammatory responses in these animals. PMID:9126474

  13. The Semiconserved Head Structure of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Mediates Binding to Multiple Independent Host Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qijun Chen; Andreas Heddini; Antonio Barragan; Victor Fernandez; S. Frieda; A. Pearce; Mats Wahlgren

    Erythrocytes infected with mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum do not circulate but are with- drawn from the peripheral circulation; they are bound to the endothelial lining and to unin- fected erythrocytes in the microvasculature. Blockage of the blood flow, hampered oxygen de- livery, and severe malaria may follow if binding is excessive. The NH 2 -terminal head structure (Duffy binding-like

  14. Urinary Riboflavin Excretion and Erythrocyte Glutathione Reductase Activity in Preschool Children Suffering from Upper Respiratory Infections and Measles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahtab S. Bamji; P. Bhaskaram; C. M. Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The urinary and blood levels of riboflavin and erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR) activity and its stimulation with FAD (EGR-AC) were examined in preschool children suffering from either measles or other upper respiratory infections and matched controls. Patients showed significantly higher levels of urinary riboflavin (per unit creatinine), erythrocyte riboflavin and EGR activity and lower EGR-AC values. This trend reversed after

  15. Description of peripheral blood cells and differential blood analysis of captive female and male leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea as an approach for diagnosing diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A. Burgos-Aceves; Rafael Campos-Ramos; Danitzia A. Guerrero-Tortolero

    2010-01-01

    The peripheral blood cells and differential blood profile of captive female and male leopard grouper Mycteroperca\\u000a rosacea are described for aquacultural purposes. Basophilic, polychromatic, and orthochromic erythroblasts were observed as immature\\u000a erythrocytes that develop into mature erythrocytes. Young erythrocytes were not evident, and bi-lobed erythrocytes were extremely\\u000a scarce. Types of leukocytes included lymphocytes; three types of granulocytes (basophiles, eosinophiles, and

  16. Carnosine levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Seely, J E; Marshall, F D

    1981-12-15

    Carnosine levels were determined in chick erythrocytes (2510 nmoles/g cells) and plasma from chick (27 nmoles/ml),rat and rabbit. Carnosine was also measured in rabbit reticulocyte-rich blood (105 nmoles/g cells), normal blood (18 nmoles/g cells) and in bone marrow. PMID:7327224

  17. Glutathione Synthesis in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Philip W.; Brauner, M. J.; Smith, M. B.; Minnich, Virginia

    1971-01-01

    The two enzymes required to synthesize glutathione de novo have been purified from human erythrocytes. Glutamylcysteine synthetase was purified 4300-fold and was approximately 80% pure based on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme catalyzes the formation of 30.5 ?moles of ?-glutamyl-cysteine per mg of protein per hr and is inhibited by sulfhydryl inhibitors. Glutathione synthetase was purified 6000-fold from erythrocytes to homogeneity as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The erythrocyte enzyme has a molecular weight of 150,000 and catalyzes the formation of 35.9 ?moles of glutathione per mg of protein per hr. Comparison of the amino acid composition and some kinetic parameters of yeast glutathione synthetase and the erythrocyte enzyme demonstrate similarities between these enzymes. Images PMID:5097571

  18. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Nigella sativa oil reduces aluminium chloride-induced oxidative injury in liver and erythrocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Bouasla, Ihcene; Bouasla, Asma; Boumendjel, Amel; Messarah, Mahfoud; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) supplementation against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats. Simultaneously, a preliminary phytochemical study was affected in order to characterize the bioactive components containing in the NSO using chemical assays. The antioxidant capacities of NSO were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that NSO was found to contain large amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into two groups, in which group A received standard diet, whereas group B treated daily with an oral gavage dose of 2 ml NSO/kg body weight. After 5 weeks pretreatment, both groups were divided again into two subgroups (A and B) of six animals each and treated for other 3 weeks. Therefore, subgroup A1 was served as a control which received standard diet, but subgroup A2 received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw mixed with food). Subgroup B1 received both AlCl3 and NSO; however, subgroup B2 received NSO only. Results showed that AlCl3 exhibited an increase in white blood cell counts and a marked decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content. Plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin concentration were higher in AlCl3 group than those of the control, while albumin and total protein concentration were significantly lower. Compared to the control, a significant raise of hepatic and erythrocyte malondialdehyde level associated with a decrease in reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, activities of AlCl3 treated rats. However, the administration of NSO alone or combined with AlCl3 has improved the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that AlCl3 has induced the oxidative stress, altered the biochemical parameters and the hepatic histological profile, but the supplementation of NSO has alleviated such toxicity. PMID:25164035

  20. The effect of cigarettes smoking on the blood counts of T and NK cells in subjects with occupational exposure to organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Moszczy?ski, P; Rutowski, J; S?owi?ski, S

    1996-09-01

    The study was carried out in a population of 139 men, divided into two control groups: 40 non-smokers and 39 smokers not exposed to chemical compounds, and two groups exposed to them: 19 non-smokers and 41 cigarette smokers with occupational contact with organic solvents. The results of toxicological analyses of air and chromatographic analyses of solvents demonstrated the presence of benzene, toluene, xylene and their partly hydrogenated derivatives, paraffin hydrocarbons, oleins, naphthenes (components of painter's naphtha), monohydric and polyhydric alcohols (butanol, cyclohexanol, butylene glycol) esters (ethyleneglycol acetate, butyl acetate) and ketones (methylisobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone). In the time of the studies the TWA values for benzene were 0 to 38 mg x m-3 (0 to 12 ppm), with arithmetic mean averages of about 19 mg x m-3 (6 ppm) and for the level of benzene 0-351 mg x m-3 (0-110 ppm) with arithmetic mean annual averages of about 48 mg x m-3 (15 ppm). Mean phenol concentration in the urine of the workers in groups I, II, III and IV respectively was: 7.9 +/- 3.5; 10.0 +/- 5.8; 16.8 +/- 6.2 and 18.4 +/- 9.7 mg x l-1. Hippuric acid concentration in the urine of the workers in groups I to IV was: 496 +/- 326, 538 +/- 341, 982 +/- 420 and 1107 +/- 507 mg x l-1 respectively. The absolute counts were determined of T-cells (CD 3+), T-helper (CD 4+), T-suppressor (CD 8+) cells and natural killer (NK) cells (CD 16+) in the peripheral blood by indirect immunofluorescence. In the subjects with occupational exposure to organic solvents the counts of T-cells and NK-cells were reduced, and the number of T-suppressor cells was raised which resulted in a decrease of the T-helper/T-suppressor ratio. These changes were more pronounced in cigarette smokers. The assessment of the immunotoxic effect of organic solvents during occupational exposure should take into consideration the possibility of a synergistic action with tobacco and may be of practical use for monitoring the toxic effect of organic solvents on the lymphocyte system. PMID:8884050

  1. The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo

    2014-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01857e

  2. Triggers, inhibitors, mechanisms, and significance of eryptosis: the suicidal erythrocyte death.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca(2+) entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

  3. Erythrocyte protoporphyrin fluorescence as a potential marker of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fauaz, Grasiele; Miranda, Adriana Regina; Gomes, Cinthia Zanini; Courrol, Lilia Coronato; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Rocha, Flávia Gomes de Góes; Schor, Nestor; Bellini, Maria Helena

    2010-04-01

    Protoporphyrin (PpIX), a porphyrin derivative, is the intermediate metabolic precursor of the heme molecule. Abnormal metabolism of total erythrocyte PpIX has been observed in diseases such as cancer, lead poisoning, psoriasis, iron deficiency anemia and acute porphyries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic syndrome in which hyperglycemia is the primary clinical manifestation and contributes to the diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of fluorescence spectroscopy of erythrocyte PpIX for monitoring the early stages of diabetes. A total of 14 male C 57BL mice, 6 weeks old, were divided into two groups: diabetic and non-diabetic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (SZT). Blood cells were cultured with standard and 50 mM supplemented RPMI medium. Blood smears were prepared and stained for qualitative morphology analysis under optical microscopy. Blood porphyrin autofluorescence was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Characteristic PpIX emission spectra were obtained by exciting the samples at 405 nm. Average blood glucose was lower in the control group than in the diabetic group (156.50 +/- 8.11 mg/dL vs. 371.10 +/- 14.43 mg/dL, P < 0.05). Both diabetic and glucose-cultured erythroblasts showed a significant decrease (around 30.5% and 40%, respectively) in the emission band intensity at 635 nm. Our results indicate that the erythrocyte PpIX profile could be used as a biological monitor for diabetes. PMID:20412623

  4. Structural and textural classification of erythrocytes in anaemic cases: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Das, Dev Kumar; Maiti, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address quantitative microscopic approach for automated screening of erythrocytes in anaemic cases using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of unstained blood cells. Erythrocytes were separated from blood samples and processed for SEM imaging. Thereafter, erythrocytes were segmented using marker controlled watershed transformation technique. Total 47 structural and textural features of erythrocytes were extracted using various mathematical measures for six types of anaemic cases as compared to the control group. These features were statistically evaluated at 1% level of significance and subsequently ranked using Fisher's F-statistic describing the group discriminating potentiality. Amongst all extracted features, twenty nine features were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Finally, Bayesian classifier was applied to classify six types of anaemia based on top seventeen ranked features those of which are of course statistically significant. The present study yielded a predictive accuracy of 88.99%. PMID:23063546

  5. [Observations on the deformability of erythrocytes in pregnancy-induced hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ma, F X

    1989-05-01

    By using a model DXC-300 erythrocyte deformability (ED) test apparatus, we determined the indices of filtration (IF) in 34 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension, 27 normal pregnancies and 36 healthy women as control to reflect the deformability of their erythrocyte. The result showed that the IF of hypertensive pregnant women from 37 to 40 weeks was strikingly higher than that in the control and the ED was much less erythrocyte deformability defects the viscosity of blood, the blood flow, and the microcirculation. Therefore, we think that observations on the erythrocyte deformability may be of value in monitoring hydrokinetic and detecting altered microcirculation. ED may be used as a new index for monitoring pregnancy induced hypertension. PMID:2805937

  6. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Navarro, L. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, M. [CIATEC, A.C. (Mexico); Arevalo, B. [Medical Center Medic Unit 1 Bajio, IMSS, Leon Gto. (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  7. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: biological background and prognostic impact. Results from the NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies.

    PubMed

    Vaitkevi?ien?, Goda; Forestier, Erik; Hellebostad, Marit; Heyman, Mats; Jonsson, Olafur G; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Rosthoej, Susanne; Söderhäll, Stefan; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1-15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). Ten-year event-free (pEFS(10 y)) survival and overall (pOS(10 y)) survival were 0.75 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively. Although treatment intensity was determined by WBC, non-remission and relapsed patients still had significantly higher WBC than those in remission for B-cell precursor (BCP) (median WBC: 24.8 vs. 14.0 vs. 8.3 × 10(9) /L, P < 0.001), but not for T-lineage (T-ALL) (median WBC: 127.8 vs. 113.0 vs. 86.8 × 10(9) /L, P = 0.22). pEFS was inversely related to WBC for BCP (P < 0.001), but not for T-ALL. WBC was not associated with risk of event for BCP or T-ALL for patients with minimal residual disease at the end of induction (MRD(d29) ) <10(-3). In contrast, for MRD(d29) ? 10(-3) and <5% leukaemic blasts in bone marrow at day 29, the pEFS(5 y) for WBC < 100.0 (N = 152) vs. ? 100.0 (N = 19) was 0.76 vs. 0.50 (P = 0.001). That was the case both for BCP (pEFS(5 y) 0.76 vs. 0.58) and for T-ALL (pEFS(5 y) 0.71 vs. 0.38). Whether the inferior EFS for the subset of patients with high WBC and slow initial response to treatment reflects rare or overlooked cytogenetic aberrations as well as the factors that determine WBC levels at diagnosis awaits exploration. PMID:21077959

  8. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23353616

  9. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  10. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  11. Effect of dental base metal alloys on IgE levels and some blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Kulak, Y; Arikan, A

    1997-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of nickel-based alloys, claims for safety of these alloys have not yet been accepted universally. The allergenic effects of nickel on dental patients and the potential toxic effects of nickel and beryllium on laboratory technicians continue to cause concern within the dental profession. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunoglobulin type E (IgE) values and some blood parameters of dental laboratory technicians who use dental base metal alloys. The following two groups were studied: 19 students who had been working with dental base metal alloys for two years; and 21 pre-clinical students who had never worked with dental base metal alloys. The latter group were used as a control. Blood specimens were taken from both groups and analysed using The Blood Counter. Total erythrocyte, thrombocyte, leukocyte, lymphocyte, granulocyte and monocyte counts were determined. Measurement of IgE was made with Coat-A-Count Total IgE IRMA. Blood and IgE measurements were repeated after 8 months. In the experimental group both erythrocyte and thrombocyte values were found to be statistically significantly decreased compared with the control group. No significant differences were found in lymphocyte and monocyte numbers between the initial and later measurements. There were no significance changes in IgE values for both groups. These results provide no evidence that dental base metal alloys (Ni, Cr, Be, Co) caused an increase in sensitization, during the period of the study. PMID:9372465

  12. Altered Self-Erythrocyte Recognition and Destruction in an Inbred Line of Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey Shirak; Anna Bendersky; Gideon Hulata; Micha Ron; Ramy R. Avtalion

    Carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA)-stained autologous and syngeneic tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) erythrocytes are recognized by effector peripheral blood leukocytes and lysed after a short culture period of 4 h. The hemolysis level was evaluated by measuring the fluorescence of the released cFDA. The degree of lysis of stained target erythrocytes of 60 individuals revealed a trimodal distribution statistically stratified into three groups

  13. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-24

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/µL. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided. PMID:24464815

  14. Long-Term Follow-Up of the Changes in Circulating Cytokines, Soluble Cytokine Receptors, and White Blood Cell Subset Counts in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) After Monoclonal Anti-TNF? Antibody Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiro Ohshima; Yukihiko Saeki; Toru Mima; Mitsuko Sasai; Katsuhiro Nishioka; Hiroshi Ishida; Masatoshi Shimizu; Masaki Suemura; Richard McCloskey; Tadamitsu Kishimoto

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the long-lasting efficacy of chimeric monoclonal anti-TNFa antibody (cA2) therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eight patients with refractory RA were treated with a single infusion of cA2 and the changes in circulating cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFa, and IL-10), soluble cytokine receptors (TNF-RI, RII, and sIL-6R) and peripheral white blood cell (WBC) subset counts were followed

  15. Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

  16. Temperature-dependent binding of cyclosporine to an erythrocyte protein

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, R.P.; Threatte, G.A.; McPherson, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of (/sup 3/H)CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA.

  17. Gemini (dimeric) surfactant perturbation of the human erythrocyte*.

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    Gemini (dimeric) surfactant perturbation of the human erythrocyte*. Martina Dubničková1, 2000; accepted: 31 July, 2000 Key words: cationic amphiphile, detergent, human erythrocyte, shape erythrocytes, and to protect erythrocytes against hypotonic haemolysis. At high sublytic concentrations the Di

  18. Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    . 1. Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia is an inherited autosomal bloodOptical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell July 2012 Available online 20 July 2012 Keywords: Sickle cell disease Red blood cell Cell biomechanics

  19. Changes in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and hematological parameters in patients with acute malaria.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, B; Hellgren, U; Rombo, L

    1989-01-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and routine hematological parameters were reviewed in 258 patients with acute malaria and compared to a control group of 120 patients with other febrile illnesses after visiting malaria endemic areas. Thrombocytopenia was found in 80% of the malaria patients compared to 13% in controls (p less than 0.01). The malaria patients also had lower white blood cell counts and marginally lower hemoglobin values than control patients. No major differences were found in ESR or CRP values. Furthermore, there were no major differences in the hematological parameters between patients infected with different malaria species, or between patients with different ethnic background. Thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 150 x 10(9)/l) had a predictive value positive of 56% and a predictive value negative of 95% for malaria in a febrile patient coming from an endemic area. Thus, the risk of malaria in a febrile thrombocytopenic patient coming from an endemic area was 56%, while the risk that another patient with a normal platelet count still had malaria was 5%. PMID:2587946

  20. Clot contraction: compression of erythrocytes into tightly packed polyhedra and redistribution of platelets and fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Cines, Douglas B.; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Hayes, Vincent; Massefski, Walter; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Rauova, Lubica; Lowery, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Contraction of blood clots is necessary for hemostasis and wound healing and to restore flow past obstructive thrombi, but little is known about the structure of contracted clots or the role of erythrocytes in contraction. We found that contracted blood clots develop a remarkable structure, with a meshwork of fibrin and platelet aggregates on the exterior of the clot and a close-packed, tessellated array of compressed polyhedral erythrocytes within. The same results were obtained after initiation of clotting with various activators and also with clots from reconstituted human blood and mouse blood. Such close-packed arrays of polyhedral erythrocytes, or polyhedrocytes, were also observed in human arterial thrombi taken from patients. The mechanical nature of this shape change was confirmed by polyhedrocyte formation from the forces of centrifugation of blood without clotting. Platelets (with their cytoskeletal motility proteins) and fibrin(ogen) (as the substrate bridging platelets for contraction) are required to generate the forces necessary to segregate platelets/fibrin from erythrocytes and to compress erythrocytes into a tightly packed array. These results demonstrate how contracted clots form an impermeable barrier important for hemostasis and wound healing and help explain how fibrinolysis is greatly retarded as clots contract. PMID:24335500

  1. Counting Quail

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

    2005-10-05

    at least three counts. Helicopter surveys Aerial surveys (conducted from a helicopter or airplane) are commonly used to count deer and pronghorn antelope in Texas, and have been used recently to survey quail. Generally, a quail survey is conducted...

  2. An evaluation of the Celloscope 401 electronic blood cell counter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. J. Lappin; A. Lamont; M. G. Nelson

    1972-01-01

    For counting erythrocytes the instrument was precise, with a mean coefficient of variation of 1·21%.Erythrocyte counts showed close agreement with results obtained on a Coulter A electronic counter of proven accuracy.When the Celloscope 401 was modified by the manufacturers to eliminate electrical interference from other laboratory equipment, satisfactory precision and accuracy for white cell counting was obtained. Using cetrimide diluent

  3. Let's Count!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Popwell

    2010-09-20

    Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

  4. Erythrocyte shape classification using integral-geometry-based methods.

    PubMed

    Gual-Arnau, X; Herold-García, S; Simó, A

    2015-07-01

    Erythrocyte shape deformations are related to different important illnesses. In this paper, we focus on one of the most important: the Sickle cell disease. This disease causes the hardening or polymerization of the hemoglobin that contains the erythrocytes. The study of this process using digital images of peripheral blood smears can offer useful results in the clinical diagnosis of these illnesses. In particular, it would be very valuable to find a rapid and reproducible automatic classification method to quantify the number of deformed cells and so gauge the severity of the illness. In this paper, we show the good results obtained in the automatic classification of erythrocytes in normal cells, sickle cells, and cells with other deformations, when we use a set of functions based on integral-geometry methods, an active contour-based segmentation method, and a k-NN classification algorithm. Blood specimens were obtained from patients with Sickle cell disease. Seventeen peripheral blood smears were obtained for the study, and 45 images of different fields were obtained. A specialist selected the cells to use, determining those cells which were normal, elongated, and with other deformations present in the images. A process of automatic classification, with cross-validation of errors with the proposed descriptors and with other two functions used in previous studies, was realized. PMID:25773368

  5. Erythrocyte entry by malarial parasites. A moving junction between erythrocyte and parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASAMICHI AIKAWA; LOUIS H. MILLER; JAMES JOHNSON

    1978-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites of the monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, was investigated by electron microscopy. The apical end of the merozoite makes initial contact with the erythrocyte, creating a small depression in the erythrocyte membrane. The area of the erythrocyte membrane to which the merozoite is attached becomes thickened and forms a junction with the plasma membrane of the

  6. In Vitro Characterization of the Erythrocyte Distribution of Methazolamide: A Model of Erythrocyte Transport and Binding Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganesh R. Iyer; Robert A. Bellantone; David R. Taft

    1999-01-01

    The rate and extent of binding of methazolamide to human erythrocytes was studied in vitro. All experiments were carried out at physiological temperature (37C) and pH (7.4). Methazolamide (MTZ) buffer concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. Distributional equilibrium between buffer and washed red blood cells was achieved after 1 hr. Results of equilibrium studies were consistent with two classes of binding

  7. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  8. Count Around

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-23

    Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can find—and figure out "what counts." It’s easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.

  9. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  10. Oxidative damage and erythrocyte membrane transport abnormalities in thalassemias.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, O; De Franceschi, L; Capellini, M D; Girelli, D; Corrocher, R; Brugnara, C

    1994-07-01

    Oxidative damage induced by free globin chains has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the membrane abnormalities observed in alpha and beta thalassemia. We have evaluated transport of Na+ and K+ in erythrocytes of patients with thalassemias as well as in two experimental models that use normal human red blood cells, one for alpha thalassemia (methylhydrazine treatment, alpha thalassemia like) and one for beta thalassemia (phenylhydrazine treatment, beta thalassemia like). With the exception of the Na-K pump, similar alterations in membrane transport were observed in thalassemia and thalassemia-like erythrocytes. These were: increased K-Cl cotransport, Na-Li countertransport and reduced Na-K-Cl cotransport. The Na-K pump was reduced in thalassemia-like cells, whereas it was increased in severe alpha thalassemia and in beta thalassemia cells. The increased K-Cl cotransport activity could be observed in light and dense fractions of beta-thalassemic cells. K-Cl cotransport in thalassemic and thalassemia-like erythrocytes was partially inhibited by [(dihydro-indenyl) oxy] alkanoic acid and completely abolished by dithiothreitol. Thus, oxidative damage represents an important factor in the increased activity of the K-Cl cotransport observed in thalassemias, and of the K+ loss observed in beta-thalassemia erythrocytes. PMID:8018927

  11. Original article Contribution of erythrocytes and plasma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Contribution of erythrocytes and plasma in threonine and lysine transfer across -- Contributions of erythrocytes and plasma to threonine and lysine transport across the PDV and the liver were appearing in the PV and in the HV are trans- ported by the plasma. Our results suggest that erythrocytes

  12. A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Philip; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel…

  13. MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN)

    E-print Network

    MFR PAPER 1336 Piscine Erythrocytic Necrosis (PEN): A Viral Infection of the Atlantic Cod and Other-FRIED, BRUCE L. NICHOLSON, and STUART SHERBURNE Several infections of erythrocytes of poikilothermic. The cytoplasmic inclusions observed in infected erythrocytes of cod, Gadus morhua, were 0.3-1.5 pm in diameter

  14. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  15. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-07-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a 'sterile' environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. 'Non-culturability', reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis'). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  16. Proteome analysis of erythrocytes lacking AMP-activated protein kinase reveals a role of PAK2 kinase in eryptosis.

    PubMed

    Zelenak, Christine; Föller, Michael; Velic, Ana; Krug, Karsten; Qadri, Syed M; Viollet, Benoit; Lang, Florian; Macek, Boris

    2011-04-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) upon energy depletion stimulates energy production and limits energy utilization. Erythrocytes lacking AMPK are susceptible to suicidal cell death (eryptosis). A hallmark of eryptosis is cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface, which can be identified from annexin V-binding. AMPK?1-deficient mice (ampk(-/-)) suffer from anemia due to accelerated clearance of erythrocytes from circulating blood. To determine the link between AMPK and the eryptotic phenotype, we performed a global proteome analysis of erythrocytes from ampk(-/-) mice and wild-type mice using high-accuracy mass spectrometry and label-free quantitation and measured changes of expression levels of 812 proteins. Notably, the p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), previously implicated in apoptosis, was detected as downregulated in erythrocytes of ampk(-/-) mice, pointing to its potential role in eryptosis. To validate this, we showed that specific inactivation of PAK2 with the inhibitor IPA3 in human and murine ampk(+/+) erythrocytes increases the binding of annexin V and augments the stimulating effect of glucose deprivation on annexin V-binding. Inhibition of PAK2 failed to significantly modify annexin V-binding in ampk(-/-) erythrocytes, showing that AMPK and PAK2 exert similar phenotypes upon inactivation in erythrocytes. This study presents the first large-scale analysis of protein expression in erythrocytes from AMPK?1-deficient mice and reveals a role of PAK2 kinase in eryptosis. PMID:21214270

  17. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) replicates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) erythrocytes ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Řystein; Olsen, Christel Morćus; Rimstad, Espen; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa

    2015-01-01

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is a reovirus that has predominantly been detected in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is associated with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon, and recently erythrocytes were identified as major target cells. The study of PRV replication and pathogenesis of the infection has been impeded by the inability to propagate PRV in vitro. In this study we developed an ex vivo cultivation system for PRV in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes. PRV was successfully passaged to naďve erythrocytes using lysates of blood cells from infected salmon. During cultivation a significant increase in viral load was observed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry, which coincided with the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions. The inclusions resembled viral factories and contained both PRV protein and dsRNA. In addition, the erythrocytes generated an antiviral immune gene activation after PRV infection, with significant up-regulation of IFN-?, RIG-I, Mx and PKR transcripts. Supernatants from the first passage successfully transmitted virus to naďve erythrocytes. This study demonstrates that PRV replicates in Atlantic salmon erythrocytes ex vivo. The ex vivo infection model closely reflects the situation in vivo and can be used to study the infection and replication mechanisms of PRV, as well as the antiviral immune responses of salmonid erythrocytes. PMID:25888832

  18. FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.

    2004-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and ?N-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

  19. Photon counting.

    PubMed

    Morton, G A

    1968-01-01

    The fundamentals of photon counting using photomultipliers are described, including criteria for selecting suitable photomultipliers, some of the precautions that must be taken in using these devices, and methods of calculating the counting errors that may occur under various conditions of measurement. Problems of determining the time distribution of photons and, in particular, the coincident emission of photons which may be encountered in lasers and other simulated emission sources are also discussed. The question of photon counting with photoconductors is reviewed, and it is shown that it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve photon counting with simple photoconductors. However, carrier multiplication with photoconductive multipliers should eventually make possible photon counting with photoconductors. Photoconductive multipliers in one form or another have high quantum efficiency and wide spectral response, and will almost inevitably replace photomultipliers for photon counting. PMID:20062394

  20. Erythrocyte rosettes--a marker for bovine T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, A S; Rouse, B T; Babiuk, L A

    1976-01-01

    Many species of erythrocytes were investigated for their ability to form spontaneous rosette with bovine peripheral blood leukocytes and fetal thymocytes. Only sheep and chicken red blood cells gave rosettes. Using conditions shown optimum for the demonstration of human rosette forming cells, only low numbers of bovine rosettes were demonstrable. By changing culture conditions to include 100% fetal calf serum, neuraminidase treated erythrocytes and/or lymphocytes and optimizing the incubation times and temperature, up to 38% of peripheral blood leukocytes and 52% of thymocytes formed rosettes. A thymic origin of rosetting cells was ascribed to T cells for the following reasons: 1) thymocytes gave higher numbers than did peripheral blood leukocytes, 2) rosette forming cell numbers were increased in peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations enriched in T cells by nylon column separation and 3) only very few rosette forming cells had surface immunoglobulin, a marker of B lymphocytes. The reasons why all T cells were not detected by the technique were discussed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:793695

  1. [Non-invasive methods for the assessment of platelet, leukocyte, erythrocyte aggregation and coagulation hemostasis].

    PubMed

    Kuznik, B I; Fa?n, I A; Kaminski?, A V; Maksimova, O G; Kustovskaia, E M; Martynova, E N; Rodnina, O S; Khasanova, N V

    2013-01-01

    A non-invasive method for the study of platelet aggregation and formation of leukocyte-erythrocyte-platelet aggregates as well as certain hemostatic parameters is proposed. The method is based on the speckle-analysis of coherent light scattering from the surface of erythrocytes moving in an artificially isolated vessel segment. It was shown that light scattering index significantly correlated with ADP-, adrenalin-, or collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with the formation of leukocyte-erythrocyte or platelet-erythrocyte aggregates, and with the levels of fibrinogen, soluble fibrin-monomer complexes and related parameters. It is concluded that the proposed method for the study of hemostatic system can be used to roughly evaluate intensity of intravascular blood coagulation and probability of thrombosis. PMID:24437188

  2. A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature.

  3. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  4. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II...

  5. Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

    2009-07-01

    Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality. PMID:19322506

  6. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-04-424184 Prepublished online August 23, 2012;

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ;2 Abstract Dense, dehydrated red blood cells (DRBCs) are a characteristic feature of sickle- cell disease clinical manifestations and hemolysis Erythrocyte density in sickle cell syndromes is associated in "Blood 2012;120(15):3136-41" DOI : 10.1182/blood-2012-04-424184 #12;1 Erythrocyte density in sickle cell

  7. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bunn

    2010-10-30

    Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

  8. Piezo1 plays a role in erythrocyte volume homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Faucherre, Adčle; Kissa, Karima; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Jopling, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitivity is an inherent property of virtually all cell types, allowing them to sense and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Stretch-activated ion channels represent a class of mechanosensitive proteins which allow cells to respond rapidly to changes in membrane tension; however their identity has remained elusive. The piezo genes have recently been identified as a family of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels. We set out to determine the role of piezo1 during zebrafish development. Here we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of piezo1 impairs erythrocyte survival without affecting hematopoiesis or differentiation. Our results demonstrate that piezo1 is involved in erythrocyte volume homeostasis, disruption of which results in swelling/lysis of red blood cells and consequent anemia. PMID:23872304

  9. Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines: identifying the targets

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Patrick E; Sahu, Tejram; Akue, Adovi; Milman, Neta; Anderson, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines target Plasmodium during its sporozoite and liver stages, and can prevent progression to blood-stage disease, which causes a million deaths each year. Whole organism sporozoite vaccines induce sterile immunity in animals and humans and guide subunit vaccine development. A recombinant protein-in-adjuvant pre-erythrocytic vaccine called RTS,S reduces clinical malaria without preventing infection in field studies and additional antigens may be required to achieve sterile immunity. Although few vaccine antigens have progressed to human testing, new insights into parasite biology, expression profiles and immunobiology have offered new targets for intervention. Future advances require human trials of additional antigens, as well as platforms to induce the durable antibody and cellular responses including CD8+ T cells that contribute to sterile protection. PMID:23176657

  10. Quantitative microscopy approach for shape-based erythrocytes characterization in anaemia.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Chakraborty, C; Mitra, B; Maiti, A K; Ray, A K

    2013-02-01

    Anaemia is one of the most common diseases in the world population. Primarily anaemia is identified based on haemoglobin level; and then microscopically examination of peripheral blood smear is required for characterizing and confirmation of anaemic stages. In conventional approach, experts visually characterize abnormality present in the erythrocytes under light microscope, and this evaluation process is subjective in nature and error prone. In this study, we have proposed a methodology using machine learning techniques for characterizing erythrocytes in anaemia associated with anaemia using microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. First, peripheral blood smear images are preprocessed based on grey world assumption technique and geometric mean filter for reducing unevenness of background illumination and noise reduction. Then erythrocyte cells are segmented using marker-controlled watershed segmentation technique. The erythrocytes in anaemia, such as, tear drop, echinocyte, acanthocyte, elliptocyte, sickle cells and normal erythrocytes cells have been characterized and classified based on their morphological changes. Optimal subset of features, ranked by information gain measure provides highest classification performance using logistic regression classifier in comparison with other standard classifiers. PMID:23252834

  11. Whole blood pumping with a microthrottle pump

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M. J.; Johnston, I. D.; Tan, C. K. L.; Tracey, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that microthrottle pumps (MTPs) display the capacity to pump solid phase suspensions such as polystyrene beads which prove challenging to most microfluidic pumps. In this paper we report employing a linear microthrottle pump (LMTP) to pump whole, undiluted, anticoagulated, human venous blood at 200 ?l min?1 with minimal erythrocyte lysis and no observed pump blockage. LMTPs are particularly well suited to particle suspension transport by virtue of their relatively unimpeded internal flow-path. Micropumping of whole blood represents a rigorous real-world test of cell suspension transport given blood’s high cell content by volume and erythrocytes’ relative fragility. A modification of the standard Drabkin method and its validation to spectrophotometrically quantify low levels of erythrocyte lysis by hemoglobin release is also reported. Erythrocyte lysis rates resulting from transport via LMTP are determined to be below one cell in 500 at a pumping rate of 102 ?l min?1. PMID:21264059

  12. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different labs. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens. ...

  13. THE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD PLATELETS IN THE LUNGS

    PubMed Central

    Howell, W. H.; Donahue, D. D.

    1937-01-01

    1. A new fixing solution is described, which preserves the platelets and prevents contact hemolysis of the erythrocytes, so that counts of both corpuscles may be made in the same preparation. 2. Comparative counts of platelets in arteries and veins show that arterial blood contains a larger number of platelets than venous blood. This difference is accentuated under experimental conditions that cause a reduction in the number of platelets. It is concluded that new platelets are added to the blood in the capillary areas of the lungs, and that there is a corresponding destruction of platelets as the blood passes through the capillary areas of the systemic circulation. 3. Perfusion of the lungs with a platelet-preserving solution, compared with that of other organs, gives evidence of the existence of a source of platelet material in the lungs. 4. Histological examination of the lungs with a technique adequate to give a differential staining of platelet material demonstrates the presence of giant cells in the lungs, and supports the view that they are active in the production of platelets. 5. In extrauterine life giant cells are concentrated in the marrow and the lungs, with the maximum of their activity in platelet production in the lungs. PMID:19870594

  14. Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

    1984-01-01

    Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

  15. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

  16. Effect of nitazoxanide on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Markus; Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2014-05-01

    Nitazoxanide, a drug effective against a variety of pathogens, triggers apoptosis and is thus considered to be employed against malignancy. Similar to nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo an apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ). The Ca(2+) -sensitivity of eryptosis is increased by ceramide. This study explored whether nitazoxanide triggers eryptosis. [Ca(2+) ]i was estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, ceramide abundance utilizing fluorescent antibodies and haemolysis from haemoglobin release. A 48-hr exposure to nitazoxanide (1-50 ?g/ml) did not significantly modify [Ca(2+) ]i but significantly increased ceramide formation, decreased forward scatter (?10 ?g/ml), increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding erythrocytes (?10 ?g/ml) and, at higher concentrations (?20 ?g/ml), stimulated haemolysis. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the absence of calcium. Nitazoxanide thus stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to ceramide formation. PMID:24215285

  17. Effect of honokiol on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zbidah, Mohanad; Lupescu, Adrian; Herrmann, Tabea; Yang, Wenting; Foller, Michael; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2013-09-01

    Honokiol ((3,5-di-(2-propenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-2,2-diol), a component of Magnolia officinalis, stimulates apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and by breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered following increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). The present study explored, whether honokiol elicits eryptosis. Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. As a result, a 48 h exposure to honokiol was followed by a slight but significant increase of [Ca(2+)]i (15 ?M), significant decrease of forward scatter (5 ?M), significant increase of annexin-V-binding (5 ?M) and significant increase of ceramide formation (15 ?M). Honokiol further induced slight, but significant hemolysis. Honokiol (15 ?M) induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In conclusion, honokiol triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of Ca(2+) entry and ceramide formation. PMID:23673313

  18. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    thorsen

    2012-11-24

    We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...

  19. Long-term physiological effects of enhanced O/sub 2/ release by inositol hexaphosphate-loaded erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Teisseire, B.; Ropars, C.; Villereal, M.C.; Nicolau, C.

    1987-10-01

    A continuous lysing and resealing procedure with erythrocytes permitted incorporation in these cells of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP/sub 6/), a strong allosteric effector of Hb. This leads to significant rightward shifts of the HbO/sub 2/ dissociation curves with in vitro P/sub 50/, values increasing from 32.2 +/- 1.8 torr for control erythrocytes to 86 +/- 60 torr. The shape of the dissociation curve was still sigmoidal, although the Hill coefficient was decreased. The life span of InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes equaled that of control erythrocytes. Erythrocyte-survival studies were done using /sub 51/Cr labeling of cells. The long-term physiological effects of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes on piglets were increased O/sub 2/ release and reduced cardiac output. The reduced O/sub 2/ affinity of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes was still effective 20 days after transfusion in awake piglets. The electrolyte concentration appeared stable over the 5-day observation period except for a transient, but significant, hyperkalemia immediately after transfusion. The reductions in the O/sub 2/ affinity of Hb reported here are large compared with previously reported values. Introduction of InsP/sub 6/ into viable erythrocytes improves tissue oxygenation when, for any reason, normal blood flow is impaired.

  20. Human erythrocyte remodelling during Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite growth and egress.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Alassane; Yam, Xue Y; Braun-Breton, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    The intra-erythrocyte growth and survival of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for both uncomplicated and severe malaria cases and depends on the parasite's ability to remodel its host cell. Host cell remodelling has several functions for the parasite, such as acquiring nutrients from the extracellular milieu because of the loss of membrane transporters upon erythrocyte differentiation, avoiding splenic clearance by conferring cytoadhesive properties to the infected erythrocyte, escaping the host immune response by exporting antigenically variant proteins at the red blood cell surface. In addition, parasite-induced changes at the red blood cell membrane and sub-membrane skeleton are also necessary for the efficient release of the parasite progeny from the host cell. Here we review these cellular and molecular changes, which might not only sustain parasite growth but also prepare, at a very early stage, the last step of egress from the host cell. PMID:22313394

  1. Effects of cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Kondo, Takahito; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Tagami, Sei-Ichi; Kuroshima, Akihiro; Kawakami, Yoshikazu

    1991-06-01

    Effects of acute and chronic cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes were investigated. Blood from both cold-acclimated (CA) and cold-adapted (CG) rats had significantly lower concentrations of glutathione than blood from control animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased significantly in CA rats and tended to rise in CG rats. Activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes was inconsistent in that it tended to increase in CA rats but decreased significantly in CG rats. The results may imply that CG rats suffered deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, there were marked decreases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in acutely cold-exposed rats in conjunction with unchanged levels of glutathione. In all treatments the state of riboflavin metabolism was estimated to be adequate, since no increases were observed in the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient.

  2. Clock Counting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. McDuffee

    2008-11-12

    Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

  3. Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

  4. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K. [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India); Das, Mukul [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India)], E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  5. Stiffness of normal and pathological erythrocytes studied by means of atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duli?ska, Ida; Targosz, Marta; Strojny, Wojciech; Lekka, Ma?gorzata; Czuba, Pawe?; Balwierz, Walentyna; Szymo?ski, Marek

    2006-03-31

    During recent years, atomic force microscopy has become a powerful technique for studying the mechanical properties (such as stiffness, viscoelasticity, hardness and adhesion) of various biological materials. The unique combination of high-resolution imaging and operation in physiological environment made it useful in investigations of cell properties. In this work, the microscope was applied to measure the stiffness of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Erythrocytes were attached to the poly-L-lysine-coated glass surface by fixation using 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 1 min. Different erythrocyte samples were studied: erythrocytes from patients with hemolytic anemias such as hereditary spherocytosis and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency patients with thalassemia, and patients with anisocytosis of various causes. The determined Young's modulus was compared with that obtained from measurements of erythrocytes from healthy subjects. The results showed that the Young's modulus of pathological erythrocytes was higher than in normal cells. Observed differences indicate possible changes in the organization of cell cytoskeleton associated with various diseases. PMID:16443279

  6. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    E-print Network

    Khan, Manas; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.3272269

    2010-01-01

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that make them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of $Ca^{++}$ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  7. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    E-print Network

    Manas Khan; Harsh Soni; A. K. Sood

    2010-11-15

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that make them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of $Ca^{++}$ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  8. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864...Hematology Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. (a) Identification. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate test is...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864...Hematology Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. (a) Identification. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate test is...

  10. Influence of Cocoa Flavanols and Procyanidins on Free Radical-induced Human Erythrocyte Hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D.; Gross, Heidrun B.; Holt, Roberta R.; Kim, Sun H.; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L.; Keen, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3?-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25 g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50 g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3?-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4? > 8)epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3?-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 ?M. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05). PMID:15712596

  11. Transcriptome analyses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) erythrocytes infected with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV).

    PubMed

    Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Wessel, Řystein; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Nyman, Ingvild Berg; Jřrgensen, Sven Martin; Rimstad, Espen; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a widespread disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and is associated with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection. PRV is detectable in blood long before development of pathology in cardiac- and skeletal muscle appear, and erythrocytes have been identified as important target cells for the virus. The effects of PRV infection on cellular processes of erythrocytes are not known, but haemolytic anemia or systemic lysis of erythrocytes does not seem to occur, even with high virus loads in erythrocytes. In this study, gene expression profiling performed with high-density oligonucleotide microarray showed that PRV infection of erythrocytes induced a large panel of virus responsive genes. These involved interferon-regulated antiviral genes, as well as genes involved in antigen presentation via MHC class I. PRV infection also stimulated negative immune regulators. In contrast, a large number of immune genes expressed prior to infection were down-regulated. Moderate reduction of expression was also found for many genes encoding components of cytoskeleton and myofiber, proteins involved in metabolism, ion exchange, cell-cell interactions as well as growth factors and regulators of differentiation. PRV did not affect expression of genes involved in heme biosynthesis, gas exchange or erythrocyte-specific markers, but some regulators of erythropoiesis showed decreased transcription levels. These results indicate that PRV infection activates innate antiviral immunity in salmon erythrocytes, but suppresses other gene expression programs. Gene expression profiles suggest major phenotypic changes in PRV infected erythrocytes, but the functional consequences remain to be explored. PMID:26057463

  12. Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

    E-print Network

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

  13. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  14. In vitro and ex vivo effect of hyaluronic acid on erythrocyte flow properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Luquita; L Urli; MJ Svetaz; AM Gennaro; ME Giorgetti; G Pistone; R Volpintesta; S Palatnik; M Rasia

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is present in many tissues; its presence in serum may be related to certain inflammatory conditions, tissue damage, sepsis, liver malfunction and some malignancies. In the present work, our goal was to investigate the significance of hyaluronic acid effect on erythrocyte flow properties. Therefore we performed in vitro experiments incubating red blood cells (RBCs) with several

  15. EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPY ON THE IN VIVO FREQUENCY OF GLYCOPHORIN A "NULL" VARIANT ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...

  16. Reduced erythrocyte deformability related to activated lipid peroxidation during the early postburn period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bekyarova; T. Yankova; I. Kozarev; D. Yankov

    1996-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in reduced red cell deformability has been examined after thermal injury of rats (full skin thickness over 15–20 per cent of total body surface). An increased concentration of erythrocyte malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and blood thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive product levels during the first 3 days after thermal trauma was established. There was a remarkable decrease in

  17. Erythrocyte membrane band 3 profile imposed by cellular aging, by activated neutrophils and by neutrophilic elastase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Santos-Silva; Elisabeth M. B Castro; Natércia A Teixeira; Francisco Carvalho Guerra; Alexandre Quintanilha

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the modifications in the profile of erythrocyte membrane protein band 3 (monomer, aggregates and fragments) imposed by cellular aging, by activated neutrophils (AN) and by neutrophilic elastase. The modifications imposed by cellular aging were evaluated in fractions of less dense and dense red blood cells (RBCs). To evaluate the changes

  18. Microscopic and thermodynamic evaluation of vesicles shed by erythrocytes at elevated temperatures

    E-print Network

    Moore, T; Pustovyy, O; Globa, L; Pascoe, D; Rudisill, M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocytes and vesicles shed by erythrocytes from human and rat blood were collected and analyzed after temperature was elevated by physical exercise or by exposure to external heat. The images of erythrocytes and vesicles were analyzed by the light microscopy system with spatial resolution of better than 90 nm. The samples were observed in an aqueous environment and required no freezing, dehydration, staining, shadowing, marking or any other manipulation. Temperature elevation, whether passive or through exercise, resulted in significant concentration increase of structurally transformed erythrocytes (echinocytes) and vesicles in blood. At temperature of 37 oC, mean vesicle concentrations and diameters in human and rat blood were (1.50+-0.35)x10^6 and (1.4+-0.2)x10^6 vesicles/{\\mu}L, and 0.365+-0.065 and 0.436+-0.03 {\\mu}m, respectively. It was estimated that 80% of all vesicles found in human blood are smaller than 0.4 {\\mu}m. Thermodynamic analysis of experimental and literature data showed that erythroc...

  19. Antigens Induced on Erythrocytes by P. falciparum: Expression of Diverse and Conserved Determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Marsh; Russell J. Howard

    1986-01-01

    Red blood cells that are infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum express new antigens on their surface. In a study of these antigens in the erythrocytes of naturally infected children in the Gambia, an antibody-mediated agglutination assay revealed an extreme degree of antigenic diversity. Serum samples from each of ten children in the convalescent stage of malaria infection reacted

  20. Concentration and purification by magnetic separation of the erythrocytic stages of all human Plasmodium species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clotilde Ribaut; Antoine Berry; Séverine Chevalley; Karine Reybier; Isabelle Morlais; Daniel Parzy; Françoise Nepveu; Françoise Benoit-Vical; Alexis Valentin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parasite concentration methods facilitate molecular, biochemical and immunological research on the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium. In this paper, an adaptation of magnetic MACS® columns for the purification of human Plasmodium species is presented. This method was useful for the concentration\\/purification of either schizonts or gametocytes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The magnetic removal of non-parasitized red blood cells (in vivo and

  1. Identifying novel Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion receptors using systematic extracellular protein interaction screens.

    PubMed

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y; Rayner, Julian C; Wright, Gavin J

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of host erythrocytes by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum initiates the blood stage of infection responsible for the symptoms of malaria. Invasion involves extracellular protein interactions between host erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. Despite significant research effort, many merozoite surface ligands have no known erythrocyte binding partner, most likely due to the intractable biochemical nature of membrane-tethered receptor proteins and their interactions. The few receptor-ligand pairs that have been described have largely relied on sourcing erythrocytes from patients with rare blood groups, a serendipitous approach that is unsatisfactory for systematically identifying novel receptors. We have recently developed a scalable assay called AVEXIS (for AVidity-based EXtracellular Interaction Screen), designed to circumvent the technical difficulties associated with the identification of extracellular protein interactions, and applied it to identify erythrocyte receptors for orphan P. falciparum merozoite ligands. Using this approach, we have recently identified Basigin (CD147) and Semaphorin-7A (CD108) as receptors for RH5 and MTRAP respectively. In this essay, we review techniques used to identify Plasmodium receptors and discuss how they could be applied in the future to identify novel receptors both for Plasmodium parasites but also other pathogens. PMID:23617720

  2. Effect of ocimum flavonoids as a radioprotector on the erythrocyte antioxidants in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Reshma, K; Ashalatha, V Rao; Dinesh, M; Vasudevan, Dm

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids extracted from the leaves of Indian holy basil, Ocimum sanctum showed promising results as radioprotector in rodents. Hence it was thought pertinent to analyze the antioxidants of erythrocytes in oral cancer patients who were concurrently treated with radiation and ocimum flavonoids. Oral cancer patients consisted of 2 groups. Group A (n=17) received radiation alone while Group B(n=17) received radiation and ocimum flavonoids(OF). Samples of heparinised blood were collected prior to treatment, 15 and 30 days respectively after treatment. Blood from normal healthy volunteers were taken as controls (n=25). Erythrocytes were analyzed for the antioxidants viz. glutathione, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase by the standard methods. Results of analysis indicated that erythrocytes from cancer patients (Group A and B) had significantly high glutathione levels before as well as after treatment compared to controls. It was observed that Group B which received OF showed a significant reduction in glutathione levels in comparison with Group A. All the other parameters showed no statistical significant changes. Results of the study suggest that erythrocytes from cancer patients responded to oxidative stress by elevating glutathione levels, while a decrease in glutathione levels observed in Group B, could be due to the free radical scavenging effect of OF, sparing the glutathione. However OF did not seem to exert its effect on other antioxidants of erythrocytes. PMID:23105516

  3. Compressed Counting

    E-print Network

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Counting is among the most fundamental operations in computing. For example, counting the pth frequency moment has been a very active area of research, in theoretical computer science, databases, and data mining. When p=1, the task (i.e., counting the sum) can be accomplished using a simple counter. Compressed Counting (CC) is proposed for efficiently computing the pth frequency moment of a data stream signal A_t, where 0= 0, which includes the strict Turnstile model as a special case. For natural data streams encountered in practice, this restriction is minor. The underly technique for CC is what we call skewed stable random projections, which captures the intuition that, when p=1 a simple counter suffices, and when p = 1+/\\Delta with small \\Delta, the sample complexity of a counter system should be low (continuously as a function of \\Delta). We show at small \\Delta the sample complexity (number of projections) k = O(1/\\epsilon) instead of O(1/\\epsilon^2). Compressed Counting can serve a basic building block...

  4. Anomalous diffusion of erythrocytes in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Fritz, O G

    1984-08-01

    The diffusion coefficient of erythrocytes was measured using quasi-elastic light-scattering (QELS) techniques. The cells were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solutions with and without a macromolecule, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP[360]). In the presence of the PVP(360) an anomalously high diffusion coefficient was measured for metabolizing cells with a normal transmembrane potential. The results are in agreement with experiments on rouleau formation by red blood cells and are supportive of the hypothesis of a long-range coherent interaction between metabolically active biological cells. PMID:6478035

  5. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes Kerstin Ramser Chalmers by measurements of trapped single func- tional erythrocytes using different excitation lines (488.0, 514

  6. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Waibel, Sabrina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections, has later been shown to be effective in various infectious diseases including malaria. Nelfinavir may trigger mitochondria-independent cell death. Erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a mitochondria-independent suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). During malaria, accelerated death of infected erythrocytes may decrease parasitemia and thus favorably influence the clinical course of the disease. In the present study, phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with nelfinavir significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (?5µg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (?2.5µg/mL), significantly increased ROS abundance (10 µg/mL), and significantly increased [Ca2+]i (?5 µg/mL). The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following nelfinavir treatment was significantly blunted, but not abolished by either addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) or removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, exposure of erythrocytes to nelfinavir induces oxidative stress and Ca2+ entry, thus leading to suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling. PMID:26008229

  7. Altered Erythrocyte Sodium Efflux following Renal Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Cole; R. Steinberg; R. Guttmann

    1978-01-01

    Abnormalities of membrane sodium transport are one of the manifestations of chronic renal failure. Following correction of the renal failure by renal transplantation erythrocyte membrane NaK ATPase activity increases to supranormal values. In the present study, direct measurements of erythrocyte sodium efflux were performed in 21 renal transplant patients. The mean rate constant for total sodium efflux was increased from

  8. Irradiation Can Selectively Kill Tumor Cells while Preserving Erythrocyte Viability in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Qing; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-Ju; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of how to safely apply intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery has not yet been obtained. Here, we investigated the optimal dose of 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation for killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901), and colonic carcinoma (SW620) tumor cells while preserving co-cultured erythrocytes obtained from 14 healthy adult volunteers. HepG2, SGC7901, or SW620 cells were mixed into the aliquots of erythrocytes. After the mixed cells were treated with 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation (30, 50, and 100 Gy), tumor cells and erythrocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll with a density of 1.063 g/ml. The viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, tumorigenicity, and apoptosis of the tumor cells were determined by MTT assay, plate colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, subcutaneous xenograft implantation into immunocompromised mice, and annexin V/7-AAD staining, respectively. The ATP concentration, 2,3-DPG level, free Hb concentration, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, blood gas variables, reactive oxygen species levels, and superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes were analyzed. We found that 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation at 50 Gy effectively inhibited the viability, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells without markedly damaging the oxygen-carrying ability or membrane integrity or increasing the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrated that 50 Gy irradiation in a standard 137Cs blood irradiator might be a safe and effective method of inactivating HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells mixed with erythrocytes, which might help to safely allow IBS in cancer surgery. PMID:26018651

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of irradiated erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Nabila S.; Desouky, Omar S.; Ismail, Nagla M.; Dakrory, Amira Z.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma radiation on the lipid part of the erythrocyte membrane, and to test the efficiency of lipoic acid as a radioprotector. This effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in the number of spin density by 14%, 22% and 65% after exposure to 25, 50 and 100 Gy respectively; whereas there was a decline in the obtained density after incubation with lipoic acid by a factor of approximately 32%. The FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocytes samples showed a marked decrease in the intensity of all characteristic peaks, which increased as the irradiation dose increased. The second-derivative of these spectra, allow the conformationally sensitive membrane acyl chain methylene stretching modes to be separated from the protein (mostly hemoglobin) vibrations that dominate the spectra of intact cells. The 2850 cm -1 band showed changes in the band shape and position after exposure to 50 and 100 Gy. Therefore it can be concluded that the band at 2850 cm -1 only is useful in monitoring the radiation effect of the lipids cell membrane intact cells.

  10. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  11. Biodiversity Count

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

    In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

  12. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  13. Counting Coins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K12, Inc.

    2011-03-23

    In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

  14. Direct laser trapping for measuring the behavior of transfused erythrocytes in a sickle cell anemia patient

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzaro, Aline; Welker, Gabriel; Scott, David; Solomon, Rance; Cooper, James; Farone, Anthony; Farone, Mary; Mushi, Robert S.; Aguinaga, Maria del Pilar; Erenso, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Using a laser trap, we have studied the properties of erythrocytes from a sickle cell anemia patient (SCA) after receiving an intravenous blood transfusion, and a normal adult individual carrying normal adult hemoglobin. The hemoglobin type and quantitation assessment was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We conducted an analysis of the size distributions of the cells. By targeting those erythrocytes in the overlapping regions of size distributions, we have investigated their properties when the cells are trapped and released. The efficacy of the transfusion treatment is also studied by comparing the relative changes in deformation and the relaxation-time of the cells in the two samples. PMID:23024913

  15. Platelet Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tests , Blood Smear , von Willebrand Factor , HIT Antibody , Coagulation Factors , PT and INR , PTT , JAK2 Mutation At ... function of platelets, and other tests that evaluate coagulation such as PT and PTT . If results are ...

  16. AMPD3-deficient mice exhibit increased erythrocyte ATP levels but anemia not improved due to PK deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jidong; Morisaki, Hiroko; Toyama, Keiko; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Morisaki, Takayuki

    2012-11-01

    AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes AMP to IMP and plays an important role in energy charge and nucleotide metabolism. Human AMPD3 deficiency is a type of erythrocyte-specific enzyme deficiency found in individuals without clinical symptoms, although an increased level of ATP in erythrocytes has been reported. To better understand the physiological and pathological roles of AMPD3 deficiency, we established a line of AMPD3-deficient [A3(-/-)] mice. No AMPD activity and a high level of ATP were observed in erythrocytes of these mice, similar to human RBC-AMPD3 deficiency, while other characteristics were unremarkable. Next, we created AMPD3 and pyruvate kinase (PK) double-deficient [PKA(-/-,-/-)] mice by mating A3(-/-) mice with CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice [PK(-/-)], a spontaneous PK-deficient strain showing hemolytic anemia. In PKA(-/-,-/-) mice, the level of ATP in red blood cells was increased 1.5 times as compared to PK(-/-) mice, although hemolytic anemia in those animals was not improved. In addition, we observed osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in A3(-/-) mice under fasting conditions. In contrast, the ATP level in erythrocytes was elevated in A3(-/-) mice as compared to the control. In conclusion, AMPD3 deficiency increases the level of ATP in erythrocytes, but does not improve anemia due to PK deficiency and leads to erythrocyte dysfunction. PMID:23078545

  17. Decreased nitrite levels in erythrocytes of children with ?-thalassemia/hemoglobin E.

    PubMed

    Suvachananonda, Thitiwat; Wankham, Amara; Srihirun, Sirada; Tanratana, Pansakorn; Unchern, Supeenun; Fucharoen, Suthat; Chuansumrit, Ampaiwan; Sirachainan, Nongnuch; Sibmooh, Nathawut

    2013-09-01

    Nitrite anion is bioactive nitric oxide (NO) species circulating in blood, and represents the NO bioavailability and endothelial function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the nitrite levels and the correlation with hemolysis and severity in ?-thalassemia/hemoglobin E (?-thal/HbE). 38 Children (12.0±1.9 years of age) with a diagnosis of mild, moderate and severe ?-thalassemia were enrolled in the study. The blood nitrite levels and potential plasma NO consumption were measured by the chemiluminescence method. The nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes of the severe thalassemia subjects were lower than those of the control subjects. At day 7 after transfusion of packed erythrocytes, the nitrite levels in erythrocytes increased. The plasma hemoglobin and NO consumption increased in the severe thalassemia subjects. The nitrite levels in erythrocytes inversely correlated with plasma hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase activity, potential NO consumption, and lipid peroxidation. Our studies demonstrate the decreased NO bioavailability in thalassemia, which could result from endothelial dysfunction, the increased potential NO consumption in plasma by cell-free hemoglobin and oxidative stress. PMID:23680525

  18. Application of a spectrally filtered probing light beam and RGB decomposition of microphotographs for flow registration of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Ganilova, Yu. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We propose a development of the flow microscopy method to increase the resolving power upon registration of erythrocyte agglutination. We experimentally show that the action of a ultrasonic standing wave on an agglutinating mixture blood-serum leads to the formation of so large erythrocytic immune complexes that it seems possible to propose a new two-wave optical method of registration of the process of erythrocyte agglutination using the RGB decomposition of microphotographs of the flow of the mixture under study. This approach increases the reliability of registration of erythrocyte agglutination and, consequently, increases the reliability of blood typing. Our results can be used in the development of instruments for automatic human blood typing.

  19. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  20. Mathematical analysis of blood flow through an arterial segment with time?dependent stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Misra; S. D. Adhikary; G. C. Shit

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed here with an aim to study the pulsatile flow of blood through an arterial segment having a time?dependent stenosis. Blood is considered to consist of a core layer where erythrocytes are concentrated and a peripheral plasma layer that is free from erythrocytes. The plasma layer is taken to behave as a Newtonian fluid, while the

  1. Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing.

    E-print Network

    Loughry, Jim

    Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing. Indicate the blood type of each of the four samples you tested. Sample 1 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 4 Part 2. Red & White Blood Cell Counts. Write down of white blood cells you would expect to see in this same sample of blood. 2. Using the information

  2. Peripheral blood and bone marrow responses under stress of cypermethrin in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Sunita; Saxena, Prabhu Narain; Saxena, Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, and thus they carry considerable chances of contaminating various ecosystems. Haematotoxicity of cypermethrin, a broadly used type II pyrethroid, has been assessed in the present study. Selected parameters included determination of total RBC count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc.), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count (DLC), along with qualitative analysis of blood and bone marrow. Of these parameters, those showing significant decline following cypermethrin intoxication included total RBC count, Hb conc., PCV, MCV, MCH, whereas non-significant decrease was observed in the case of MCHC. ESR, TLC and DLC, on the other hand, increased significantly following cypermethrin intoxication. Qualitative changes included altered red cell morphology such as microcystosis, appearance of stomatocytes, poikilocytosis, giant platelet formation, etc. in peripheral blood and increased erythroid precursors in bone marrow of treated rats. These parameters were however normalised following twenty-two days of recovery phase.

  3. A simulation study of flow dynamics of erythrocytes through diverging and converging bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2015-03-01

    A numerical model has been developed to predict the cells deformation and motion in a symmetric diverging and converging bifurcation of a microchannel. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics are incorporated. The model was utilized to evaluate the effect of different biophysical parameters, such as: initial cell position, membrane stiffness and shape of the cells on deformation and motion of the erythrocytes in the bifurcating curved microchannel. The numerical results demonstrate that erythrocytes in microvessels blunt velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and the transit velocity of erythrocytes is strongly influenced by cell deformability, shape of the cells, and the vessel geometry. These results may provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of hemodynamic behavior of microscale blood flow. The authors acknowledge the support of the State Key Program for Basic Researches of China (2014CB921103 and 2010CB923404), the National ``Climbing'' Program of China (91021003), and the National Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2010012).

  4. Alcohol and the calcium-dependent potassium transport of human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Caldwell, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro exposure of human red blood cells to ethanol (100 and 400 mM) was found to increase the initial rate of calcium-dependent potassium efflux through the red cell membrane. This effect of ethanol was apparently not due to an elevation of the intracellular free calcium but rather to a direct action of the drug on the transport process as, (1) intracellular calcium concentrations were tightly buffered with EGTA, (2) ethanol did not alter the efflux of UVCa from the cells, and (3) dantrolene, which has been proposed to counteract the effect of ethanol on intracellular calcium levels in the erythrocyte, did not inhibit the stimulatory action of ethanol. The efflux of potassium from erythrocytes obtained from chronic alcoholics was not different from that of erythrocytes from non-alcoholic individuals. The relationship of these findings to neuronal potassium transport is discussed.

  5. [The influence of lectins on the aggregation of neutrophils and erythrocytes in healthy humans].

    PubMed

    Kirichuk, V F; Voskobo?, I V

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of some plant lectins on the aggregation of neutrophils and erythrocytes in healthy humans, and the state of carbohydrate determinants of glycoprotein receptors of these cells was characterized. These carbohydrate determinants, containing D-mannose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamin, and bD-galactose, provide neutrophils aggregation in healthy persons. The surface receptors of erythrocytes have remains of bD-galactose, several N-acetyl-D-glucosamin, N-acetyl-neyranimic acid, N-acetyl-D-galactosamin, L-fucose. Thus, in neutrophils and erythrocytes of healthy persons there is a definite composition of carbohydrate determinants of glycoproteins. Changes in these carbohydrate determinants are able to increase cells aggregation and, consequently, to disturb reological property of the blood, and to impair processes of microcirculation and thrombose stimulation. PMID:15174353

  6. Polar decomposition applied to light back-scattering by erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-zhen; Yang, Li-juan; Lai, Jian-cheng; Li, Zhen-hua

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, polarization property of RBCs was discussed by polar decomposition. Experimental results were compared with a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation for the erythrocyte suspensions with the same concentration. And there is a good agreement for both experimental and simulative results. Furthermore, Mueller matrices were measured for erythrocyte suspensions with different concentration under 10%, in this condition light coherent phenomena can be ignored. Using polar decomposition, the conclusion comes out that degree of polarization (DOP) and diattenuator for erythrocyte suspensions decrease with increasing concentration. Because when suspension concentration increases, scattering coefficient will be changed increasingly simultaneously and DOP and diattenuator decreases with added scattering times. These results will be referred as useful information for noninvasive diagnosis of blood.

  7. Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrň, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (?20 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 ?M), ceramide abundance (60 ?M) and DCFDA fluorescence (?40 ?M). The effect of alantolactone (60 ?M) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  8. Binding of artemether and lumefantrine to plasma proteins and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Colussi, D; Parisot, C; Legay, F; Lefčvre, G

    1999-10-01

    The serum/plasma protein binding and blood distribution of artemether and lumefantrine was studied in vitro. The techniques used were the erythrocyte partitioning and ultrafiltration methods with 1499%, respectively. Under physiological protein concentrations, the distribution in blood showed that 33% of artemether was bound to alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, 17% to albumin, 12% to high density lipoproteins (HDL), 9.3% to low density lipoproteins (LDL) and 12% to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), with binding capacities (nKa) of 3.2 x 10(5), 6.2 x 10(3), 2.1 x 10(5), 1.7 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(7) lmol(-1), respectively. 77% of lumefantrine was bound to HDL, 7.3% to LDL and 6.6% to VLDL, with binding capacities of 2.7 x 10(7), 2. 6 x 10(7) and 2.4 x 10(8) lmol(-1), respectively. A negligible fraction of lumefantrine was bound to albumin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein. The fraction in erythrocytes was around 10% for both artemether and lumefantrine. PMID:10493991

  9. Counting Money

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    areese

    2008-09-25

    Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

  10. The effects of endosulfan on the growth and erythrocyte immune function of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wu, Yan-Hua; Zhou, Xian-Qing; Zhou, Huan-Nv

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of endosulfan on erythrocyte immune functions in Mongolian gerbils, 50 Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into five groups. They were administered endosulfan by gavage at dosages of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 6.4 mg/(kg/d). After 21 days, the daily weight gain and organ weight index were determined, and blood was collected to examine the erythrocyte immune functions. The results indicated that the effect of endosulfan dosage on daily weight gain was not significant. The liver index in the 6.4 mg/(kg/d) endosulfan group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The rosetting ratios of the erythrocyte C(3)b receptor (E-C(3)bR) significantly decreased with increasing endosulfan dosage to 9.94%, 8.59%, 8.13%, 7.84%, and 7.40%, respectively, with respect to the control group. The rosetting ratios of erythrocyte immune complexes (E-ICs) also decreased to 5.13%, 5.09%, 4.38%, 4.34% and 3.83%, respectively, with respect to the control group. There was no significant difference in the natural killer cell (NK) activity regulated by erythrocytes among the five groups. The erythrocyte innate immune inhibitory factor activity in the 1.6 mg/(kg/d) endosulfan group significantly increased, as compared with the activity in the control group. These results suggested that endosulfan can inhibit the erythrocyte immune adherent function, promote the activity of inhibitory factor, and increase the liver weight index; however, there were no significant effects on daily weight gain or the activity of the enhancing factor in Mongolian gerbils. PMID:22313245

  11. Raman imaging and spectroscopy of single functional erythrocytes: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramser, Kerstin; Bjerneld, Erik J.; Fant, Camilla; Kall, Mikael

    2002-03-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) within single erythrocytes (red blood cells), adsorbed on poly-lysine coated glass surfaces, was studied using resonance Raman spectroscopy and global Raman imaging. The erythrocytes were found to be sensitive to both surface adsorption and to the laser light. Topological changes of the cell membrane were observed immediately after cell adsorption in Raman images. We observed a photo-induced increase of the fluorescence background occurring simultaneously with a decrease in the Hb Raman signal. Concurrent changes in Raman spectra revealed a conversion of oxy-Hb to the met-Hb state. However, at a low accumulated photon dose, the preparation method enabled the recording of Raman spectra during the oxygenation cycle of a single red blood cell in buffer, which shows that Hb was in an in-vivo environment. Thus, Raman spectroscopy of functional Hb in isolated red blood cells is feasible.

  12. Iron-mediated oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rice-Evans, C; Baysal, E

    1987-01-01

    Erythrocytes subjected extracellularly to iron-mediated oxidant stress undergo haemoglobin oxidation and membrane damage, which can be modulated by maintaining the energy requirements of the cells. The results presented here suggest that a balance exists between the oxidation state of the haemoglobin and the oxidative deterioration of the membrane lipids, which is dependent on the metabolic state of the erythrocytes. These findings have important implications for thalassaemic erythrocytes that may be exposed to excess plasma iron levels, in which excessive membrane-bound iron in the form of haemichromes is a characteristic feature and in which cellular ATP levels are lowered. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:3663112

  13. Quercetin protected isolated human erythrocytes against mancozeb-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Bhaskar; Rajendar, Bandi; Ramanathan, Muthiah

    2014-07-01

    Mancozeb is a fungicide belonging to the ethylene-bisdithiocarbamate group and is widely used in agriculture. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of quercetin (QRN) against oxidative stress induced by mancozeb in human erythrocytes. In order to verify this, 5 ml of venous blood was collected and the erythrocytes were separated and divided into equal parts. One part was incubated with different concentrations of mancozeb (0, 10, 30, 100 µM) for 4 h at 37°C. The other part was preincubated with QRN (40 and 80 ?M) for 30 min, followed by mancozeb (0, 10, 30, 100 µM) incubation for 4 h. We found reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) in erythrocytes incubated with 30 and 100 µm of mancozeb. Pre-incubation with QRN (80 ?M) reversed oxidative stress induced by mancozeb (30 ?M) and inhibited LPO induced at 100 ?M by 64.36%. QRN also reduced the haemolytic effect on erythrocytes but could not prevent the induction of haemolysis by mancozeb. Therefore, these results suggest that QRN may play a role in preventing the oxidative stress induced by mancozeb in human erythrocytes. PMID:23024109

  14. Resveratrol protects against acute chemotherapy toxicity induced by doxorubucin in rat erythrocyte and plasma.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-06-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), a widely used antitumor anthracycline antibiotic, plays an undisputed key role in the treatment of many neoplasic diseases. In this study, the protective role of resveratrol against Dox-induced erythrocytes and plasma toxicity has been evaluated in rats. Animals were treated with resveratrol (25 mg/kg b.w.) by intraperitoneal injection during 8 days. At the 4(th) day of treatment, rats were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg b.w.). At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected following standard procedure and processed for oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein, free iron, calcium and H(2)O(2) levels), transaminases and antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Data showed that Dox drastically increased erythrocytes and plasma MDA, free iron, H(2)O(2) and carbonyl proteins but decreased calcium levels and also decreased erythrocytes CAT, POD and SOD activity. Besides, Dox decreased plasma CAT and SOD but unexpectedly increased POD activity. Dox also increased plasma ALT and AST levels and decreased them into erythrocytes. Co-treatment with resveratrol counteracted almost all Dox's effects. In conclusion, Dox induced a pro-oxidative stress into erythrocytes and resveratrol exerted real antioxidant properties which can be attributed, at least in part, to free iron and calcium modulation. PMID:22791644

  15. Identification and expression of maebl, an erythrocyte-binding gene, in Plasmodium gallinaceum

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Criseyda; Marzec, Timothy; Smith, Christopher D.; Tell, Lisa A.; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is of significant ecological importance and serves as a model system to study broad patterns of host switching and host-specificity. The erythrocyte invasion mechanism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is mediated, in large part, by proteins of the erythrocyte binding-like (ebl) family of genes. However, little is known about how these genes are conserved across different species of Plasmodium, especially those that infect birds. Using bioinformatical methods in conjunction with PCR and genetic sequencing, we identified and annotated one member of the ebl family, maebl (merozoite apical erythrocyte binding ligand) from the chicken parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We then detected the expression of maebl in P. gallinaceum by PCR analysis of cDNA isolated from the blood of infected chickens. We found that maebl is a conserved orthologous gene in avian, mammalian, and rodent Plasmodium species. The duplicate extracellular binding domains of MAEBL, responsible for erythrocyte binding, are the most conserved regions. Our combined data corroborate the conservation of maebl throughout the Plasmodium genus, and may help elucidate the mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion in P. gallinaceum and the host specificity of Plasmodium parasites. PMID:23224610

  16. Identification and expression of maebl, an erythrocyte-binding gene, in Plasmodium gallinaceum.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Criseyda; Marzec, Timothy; Smith, Christopher D; Tell, Lisa A; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2013-03-01

    Avian malaria is of significant ecological importance and serves as a model system to study broad patterns of host switching and host specificity. The erythrocyte invasion mechanism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is mediated, in large part, by proteins of the erythrocyte-binding-like (ebl) family of genes. However, little is known about how these genes are conserved across different species of Plasmodium, especially those that infect birds. Using bioinformatical methods in conjunction with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic sequencing, we identified and annotated one member of the ebl family, merozoite apical erythrocyte-binding ligand (maebl), from the chicken parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We then detected the expression of maebl in P. gallinaceum by PCR analysis of cDNA isolated from the blood of infected chickens. We found that maebl is a conserved orthologous gene in avian, mammalian, and rodent Plasmodium species. The duplicate extracellular binding domains of MAEBL, responsible for erythrocyte binding, are the most conserved regions. Our combined data corroborate the conservation of maebl throughout the Plasmodium genus and may help elucidate the mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion in P. gallinaceum and the host specificity of Plasmodium parasites. PMID:23224610

  17. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

  18. Effect of Kupffer cell phagocytosis of erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts on susceptibility to endotoxemia and bacteremia.

    PubMed Central

    Loegering, D J; Commins, L M; Minnear, F L; Gary, L A; Hill, L A

    1987-01-01

    The phagocytosis of erythrocytes by macrophages has previously been shown to depress macrophage function. In this study we compared the effect of the phagocytosis of erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts by Kupffer cells on the duration of the depression of complement receptor clearance function and host defense against endotoxemia and bacteremia. Phagocytosis of erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts was induced in rats by the injection of rat erythrocytes or erythrocyte ghosts coated with anti-rat erythrocyte immunoglobulin G (EIgG and GIgG, respectively). The hepatic uptake of EIgG and GIgG (17.4 X 10(8)/100 g) occurred during the first 30 min after injection. The digestion of phagocytized EIgG and GIgG, as assessed by electron microscopy, was complete at 24 and 3 h after injection, respectively. The depression of Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function caused by EIgG and GIgG returned to normal by 6 h after injection of EIgG and by 3 h after injection of GIgG. Phagocytosis of EIgG depressed the survival rate after endotoxemia and bacteremia when endotoxin or bacteria were injected at 30 min after EIgG. The survival rate returned to normal when the endotoxin and bacteria were injected at 12 and 6 h after the EIgG, respectively. Phagocytosis of GIgG did not depress the survival rate after endotoxemia and bacteremia. Thus, compared with erythrocytes, erythrocyte ghosts are more rapidly digested after phagocytosis, depress complement receptor function for a shorter period of time, and cause less depression of host defense. These findings indicate that the contents of erythrocytes play an important role in the impairment of host defense caused by the phagocytosis of erythrocytes by Kupffer cells. Images PMID:3623692

  19. Targeted Disruption of py235ebp-1: Invasion of Erythrocytes by Plasmodium yoelii Using an Alternative Py235 Erythrocyte Binding Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solabomi A. Ogun; Rita Tewari; Thomas D. Otto; Steven A. Howell; Ellen Knuepfer; Deirdre A. Cunningham; Zhengyao Xu; Arnab Pain; Anthony A. Holder

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium yoelii YM asexual blood stage parasites express multiple members of the py235 gene family, part of the super-family of genes including those coding for Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and Plasmodium falciparum RH proteins. We previously identified a Py235 erythrocyte binding protein (Py235EBP-1, encoded by the PY01365 gene) that is recognized by protective mAb 25.77. Proteins recognized by a

  20. Biodiversity Counts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

  1. Control of erythrocyte shape by calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocytes are deformable cells whose shapes can be altered by treatments with a variety of drugs. The forms the erythrocyte may assume vary continuously from the spiny "echinocytes" or crenated cells at one extreme to highly folded and dented "cupped" cells at the other extreme. Examination of 39 compounds for cup-forming activity revealed a remarkable correlation between their ability to form cupped cells and their inhibitory activity against the calcium regulatory protein, calmodulin. Calmodulin is known to interact with several erythrocyte proteins including spectrin, spectrin kinase, and the Ca++ ATPase calcium pump of the membrane. These proteins regulate the form of the cytoskeleton as well as intracellular calcium and ATP levels. It is proposed that calmodulin is required to maintain normal erythrocyte morphology and that in the presence of calmodulin inhibitors, the cell assumes a cupped shape. PMID:6833381

  2. ERYTHROCYTE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...

  3. Microfluidic impedance cytometry of tumour cells in blood.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Daniel; Hollis, Veronica; Morgan, Hywel

    2014-11-01

    The dielectric properties of tumour cells are known to differ from normal blood cells, and this difference can be exploited for label-free separation of cells. Conventional measurement techniques are slow and cannot identify rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in a realistic timeframe. We use high throughput single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry to measure the dielectric properties of the MCF7 tumour cell line (representative of CTCs), both as pure populations and mixed with whole blood. The data show that the MCF7 cells have a large membrane capacitance and size, enabling clear discrimination from all other leukocytes. Impedance analysis is used to follow changes in cell viability when cells are kept in suspension, a process which can be understood from modelling time-dependent changes in the dielectric properties (predominantly membrane conductivity) of the cells. Impedance cytometry is used to enumerate low numbers of MCF7 cells spiked into whole blood. Chemical lysis is commonly used to remove the abundant erythrocytes, and it is shown that this process does not alter the MCF7 cell count or change their dielectric properties. Combining impedance cytometry with magnetic bead based antibody enrichment enables MCF7 cells to be detected down to 100 MCF7 cells in 1?ml whole blood, a log 3.5 enrichment and a mean recovery of 92%. Microfluidic impedance cytometry could be easily integrated within complex cell separation systems for identification and enumeration of specific cell types, providing a fast in-line single cell characterisation method. PMID:25553198

  4. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and total blood volume). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  5. Association of centrioles with the marginal band of a molluscan erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Continuous circumferential bundles of microtubules, or marginal bands (MBs), are best known as a prominent structural feature of all nonmammalian vertebrate erythrocytes and mammalian blood platelets. Since their discovery in the late 19th century, MBs have been thought to play a cellular morphogenetic role, but no cytological clues to the mechanism of MB biogenesis have been reported. In previous work we have established the presence of MBs in serveral invertebrate blood cell types, including amebocytes and coelomocytes of certain Arthropod species and erythrocytes of a Sipunculan. We report here the occurrence of MBs in erythrocytes of the ark Anadara transversa (Mollusca) and four closely related species. The MBs of these arks have a striking structural feature; each is physically associated with a pair of centrioles. The centrioles are identified as such on the basis of morphological criteria: size, cylindrical shape, right-angle orientation, pairing, and 9-triplet ultrastructure. This intimate association between centrioles and MBs suggests that centrioles may be MB-organizing centers and invites comparative investigation of their possible role in vertebrate erythrocyte and platelet morphogenesis. PMID:7419578

  6. Host erythrocyte polymorphisms and exposure to Plasmodium falciparum in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Fowkes, Freya JI; Michon, Pascal; Pilling, Lynn; Ripley, Ruth M; Tavul, Livingstone; Imrie, Heather J; Woods, Caira M; Mgone, Charles S; Luty, Adrian JF; Day, Karen P

    2008-01-01

    Background The protection afforded by human erythrocyte polymorphisms against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has been proposed to be due to reduced ability of the parasite to invade or develop in erythrocytes. If this were the case, variable levels of parasitaemia and rates of seroconversion to infected-erythrocyte variant surface antigens (VSA) should be seen in different host genotypes. Methods To test this hypothesis, P. falciparum parasitaemia and anti-VSA antibody levels were measured in a cohort of 555 asymptomatic children from an area of intense malaria transmission in Papua New Guinea. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the effect of ?+-thalassaemia, complement receptor-1 and south-east Asian ovalocytosis, as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ABO blood group on parasitaemia and age-specific seroconversion to VSA. Results No host polymorphism showed a significant association with both parasite prevalence/density and age-specific seroconversion to VSA. Conclusion Host erythrocyte polymorphisms commonly found in Papua New Guinea do not effect exposure to blood stage P. falciparum infection. This contrasts with data for sickle cell trait and highlights that the above-mentioned polymorphisms may confer protection against malaria via distinct mechanisms. PMID:18173836

  7. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  8. Effects of dexmedetomidine on the deformability of erythrocytes in vitro and in anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Jun; Ji, Jun; Xie, Jie

    2014-06-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of clinically relevant concentrations of dexmedetomidine on the deformability of erythrocytes in vitro and the effects of dexmedetomidine on the deformability of erythrocytes in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Erythrocyte suspensions of different concentrations were divided into six groups: Control (group C); low, medium and high concentrations of dexmedetomidine (groups DL, DM and DH, respectively); yohimbine alone (group Y) and yohimbine mixed with dexmedetomidine (group YD). The suspensions were incubated in a thermostatic shaking incubator (50 rpm, 37°C) for 60 min. The nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activities of red blood cells and the erythrocyte deformability index (EI) were then measured. Patients (n=40) scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into a dexmedetomidine group (group A) and a control group (group B). The induction and maintenance of anesthesia in the two groups was identical. The EI and hematocrit (Hct) were assayed prior to anesthesia (T0) and following the surgery (T1). In the in vitro assay, the EI, the activity of eNOS and the NO concentration of the erythrocytes were significantly higher in groups DL, DM, DH and YD than in group C (P<0.05). In addition, the EI, the eNOS activity and NO concentration of the erythrocytes were higher in group DM than in group YD (P<0.05). In the patients, the EI value at T1 (0.90±0.04) was higher than at T0 (0.81±0.06) in group B (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference between the EI values at T0 and T1 was identified in group A (P>0.05). Dexmedetomidine treatment is able to improve the deformability of erythrocytes in vitro and in anesthesia. The improvement of erythrocyte deformability by dexmedetomidine may be partially associated with adrenergic receptors through activation of eNOS to enhance the concentration of NO in red blood cells. PMID:24926356

  9. Erythrocyte entry by malarial parasites. A moving junction between erythrocyte and parasite

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites of the monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, was investigated by electron microscopy. The apical end of the merozoite makes initial contact with the erythrocyte, creating a small depression in the erythrocyte membrane. The area of the erythrocyte membrane to which the merozoite is attached becomes thickened and forms a junction with the plasma membrane of the merozoite. As the merozoite enters the invagination in the erythrocyte surface, the junction, which is in the form of a circumferential zone of attachment between the erythrocyte and merozoite, moves along the confronted membranes to maintain its position at the orifice of the invagination. When entry is completed, the orifice closes behind the parasite in the fashion of an iris diaphragm, and the junction becomes a part of the parasitophorous vacuole. The movement of the junction during invasion is an important component of the mechanism by which the merozoite enters the erythrocyte. The extracellular merozoite is covered with a prominent surface coat. During invasion, this coat appears to be absent from the portion of the merozoite within the erythrocyte invagination, but the density of the surface coat outside the invagination (beyond the junction) is unaltered. PMID:96121

  10. Heparan sulfate on endothelial cells mediates the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes via the DBL1 domain of PfEMP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Vogt; Antonio Barragan; Qijun Chen; Fred Kironde; Dorothe Spillmann; Mats Wahlgren

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum may cause se- vere forms of malaria when excessive sequestration of infected and uninfected erythrocytes occurs in vital organs. The capacity of wild-type isolates of P falcipa- rum-infected erythrocytes (parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs)) to bind glycos- aminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin has been identified as a marker for severe disease. Here we report that pRBCs of the

  11. Coenzyme Q 10 in plasma and erythrocytes: comparison of antioxidant levels in healthy probands after oral supplementation and in patients suffering from sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Niklowitz; Thomas Menke; Thomas Wiesel; Ertan Mayatepek; Johannes Zschocke; Jürgen G Okun; Werner Andler

    2002-01-01

    Background: The membrane-associated antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or ubiquinone-10 is frequently measured in serum or plasma. However, little is known about the total contents or redox status of CoQ10 in blood cells. Methods: We have developed a method for determination of CoQ10 in erythrocytes. Total CoQ10 in erythrocytes was compared to the amounts of ubiquinone-10 and ubihydroquinone-10 in plasma using

  12. Deformability analysis of sickle blood using ektacytometry

    PubMed Central

    Rabai, Miklos; Detterich, Jon A.; Wenby, Rosalinda B.; Hernandez, Tatiana M.; Toth, Kalman; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Wood, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by decreased erythrocyte deformability, microvessel occlusion and severe painful infarctions of different organs. Ektacytometry of SCD red blood cells (RBC) is made difficult by the presence of rigid, poorly-deformable irreversibly sickled cells (ISC) that do not align with the fluid shear field and distort the elliptical diffraction pattern seen with normal RBC. In operation, the computer software fits an outline to the diffraction pattern, then reports an elongation index (EI) at each shear stress based on the length and width of the fitted ellipse: EI = (length ? width)/(length + width). Using a commercial ektacytometer (LORCA, Mechatronics Instruments, The Netherlands) we have approached the problem of ellipse fitting in two ways: (1) altering the height of the diffraction image on a computer monitor using an aperture within the camera lens; (2) altering the light intensity level (gray level) used by the software to fit the image to an elliptical shape. Neither of these methods affected deformability results (elongation index-shear stress relations) for normal RBC but did markedly affect results for SCD erythrocytes: (1) decreasing image height by 15% and 30% increased EI at moderate to high stresses; (2) progressively increasing the light level increased EI over a wide range of stresses. Fitting data obtained at different image heights using the Lineweaver–Burke routine yielded percentage ISC results in good agreement with microscopic cell counting. We suggest that these two relatively simple approaches allow minimizing artifacts due to the presence of rigid discs or ISC and also suggest the need for additional studies to evaluate the physiological relevance of deformability data obtained via these methods. PMID:24898336

  13. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Us Sponsorship Opportunities Contribute to the FABC ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... Our Partners PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  14. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Us Sponsorship Opportunities Contribute to the FABC ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... someone's future. PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  15. Genetic models in applied physiology: selected contribution: effects of spaceflight on immunity in the C57BL/6 mouse. II. Activation, cytokines, erythrocytes, and platelets.

    PubMed

    Gridley, Daila S; Nelson, Gregory A; Peters, Luanne L; Kostenuik, Paul J; Bateman, Ted A; Morony, Sean; Stodieck, Louis S; Lacey, David L; Simske, Steven J; Pecaut, Michael J

    2003-05-01

    This portion of the study quantified the effects of a 12-day space shuttle mission (Space Transport System-108/UF-1) on body and lymphoid organ masses, activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and erythrocyte and thrombocyte characteristics in C57BL/6 mice. Animals in flight (Flt group) had 10-12% lower body mass compared with ground controls housed either in animal enclosure modules or under standard vivarium conditions (P < 0.001) and the smallest thymus and spleen masses. Percentages of CD25(+) lymphocytes, CD3(+)/CD25(+) T cells, and NK1.1(+)/CD25(+) natural killer cells from Flt mice were higher compared with both controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD71 expression was depressed in the Flt and animal enclosure module control mice compared with vivarium control animals (P < 0.001). Secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-5, by splenocytes from Flt mice was decreased relative to either one or both ground controls (P < 0.05). Flt mice also had high red blood cell and thrombocyte counts compared with both sets of controls; low red blood cell volume and distribution width, percentage of reticulocytes, and platelet volume were also noted (P < 0.05) and were consistent with dehydration. These data indicate that relatively short exposure to the spaceflight environment can induce profound changes that may become significant during long-term space missions. PMID:12506046

  16. Lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis have components that are immunochemically similar to precursors of human blood group antigens. Carbohydrate sequence specificity of the mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize crossreacting antigens on LOS and human erythrocytes [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1988 Oct 1;168(4):1517

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have used mouse mAbs, 3F11 and 06B4, that are specific for highly conserved epitopes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides (LOS) to identify immunochemically similar structures on human erythrocytes. mAb 3F11 agglutinated erythrocytes from all randomly selected adult humans, while mAb 06B4 agglutinated only 80% of the same specimens. The antibodies had an activity with erythrocytes similar to human cold agglutinins in that agglutination occurred at 4 degrees C and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Human infant erythrocytes were agglutinated less well, but enzymatic treatment of either infant or adult cells resulted in an increase in expression of the 3F11- and 06B4- defined epitopes. Both antibodies bound to a series of neutral glycosphingolipids from human erythrocytes and neutrophils that have a type 2 (Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc) or N-acetyllactosamine structure. Neither antibody bound to glycosphingolipids from human meconium, which have a type 1 (Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc) structure. The antibodies were unable to bind to N-acetyl-lactosamine glycosphingolipids with a nonreducing terminal sialic acid or a Gala1----3Gal disaccharide. Antibody binding also was blocked by the presence of fucose linked to the penultimate glucosamine residue of N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids. Although both antibodies bound to linear and branched-chain N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids, 3F11 had a higher affinity for branched structures than did 06B4. The activity of 3F11 with human adult and infant treated and untreated erythrocytes with N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipids, and with LOS was very similar, if not identical, in specificity to 1B2, an mAb prepared from mice inoculated with a linear N-acetyllactosamine glycosphingolipid. PMID:2456365

  17. Methanethiol metabolism in whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, H.J.; Tangerman, A.

    1988-06-01

    The metabolism of methanethiol in whole blood has been described. Incubation of carbon 14-labeled or sulfur 35-labeled gaseous methanethiol resulted in complete trapping of methanethiol by whole blood within 30 minutes. After trapping, both labels were found to be equally distributed over plasma and erythrocytes. Eighty to ninety percent of both labels could be extracted from erythrocytes incubated in saline solution. The chemical properties of the /sup 14/C and /sup 35/S labels in saline solution differed completely. The /sup 14/C label was not precipitated by BaCl/sub 2/, was moderately volatile, and could be extracted by either (pH 1). In contrast, the 35S label was precipitated by BaCl/sub 2/, was not volatile, and was not extracted by ether. It is concluded that the central carbon-sulfur bond of methanethiol is split by incubation with whole blood. Plasma components are not involved in this process. Most likely, methanethiol becomes largely oxidized by erythrocytes to formic acid and sulfite or sulfate. Only 10% of methanethiol became firmly bound to erythrocytes. One to two percent was transformed to protein--S--S--CH/sub 3/ and 1% to dimethyl sulfide by the enzyme thiol methyltransferase.

  18. The effects of age on the erythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations of dairy cows during late pregnancy and early lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Mulei; R. C. W. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Blood samples were taken at weekly intervals from 54 dairy cows (mainly Friesians and Jerseys) during the periods 8 weeks before and 8 weeks after calving. The cows were divided into two age groups; group 1 consisting of 26 cows aged 2 1\\/2 years and group 2 consisting of 28 cows aged 5–9 years. The changes in the erythrocyte sodium

  19. Use of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, E; Moore, J S

    1990-03-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice and are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20-25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7-12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five per cent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10-20 ml/kg, recipient weight, is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10-15 ml of blood/kg body weight at 2-4 week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood crossmatching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 ml of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, collapse, apnea, and opisthotonos. Intravenous epinephrine HCl 1:1000 can be administered (0.2 to 0.5 ml) intravenously or (4 to 5 ml) intramuscularly if clinical signs are severe. Pretreatment with antipyretics and slowing the administration rate may decrease the febrile response. Blood or plasma administered too rapidly will also result in signs of cardiovascular overload, acute heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension and edema. Furosemide and slower administration of blood or plasma should alleviate this problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2178738

  20. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  1. Biochemical, biophysical and haemorheological effects of dimethylsulphoxide on human erythrocyte calcium loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Santos; J. Figueira-Coelho; C. Saldanha; J. Martins-Silva

    2002-01-01

    The studies using dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and\\/or the 4-bromo-calcium ionophore A23187 (Br-A23187) often neglect the precise knowledge of some of their biochemical, biophysical and haemorheological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate these effects on erythrocytes after whole blood incubations with DMSO or Br-A23187 dissolved in DMSO. There were no significant differences between the different aliquots in the

  2. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  3. Inhibition of erythrocyte sickling in vitro by pyridoxal.

    PubMed Central

    Kark, J A; Kale, M P; Tarassoff, P G; Woods, M; Lessin, L S

    1978-01-01

    To test the antisickling activity of pyridoxal, we compared the oxygen affinity and the percent sickling at low PO2 of untreated erythrocytes with values for cells from the same blood sample incubated with pyridoxal, glyceraldehyde, or pyridoxine. Pyridoxal increased oxygen affinity much more than glyceraldehyde. 20 mM pyridoxal and glyceraldehyde had equivalent antisickling activity. At PO2 levels above 20 mm Hg, both agents reduced sickling to less than 2%. In samples examined by electron microscopy, pyridoxal reduced the percent sickled cells and the percent cells that contain hemoglobin S fibers by the same amount (from 74 to 3%). Pyridoxine had no effect on oxygen affinity or sockling. Pyridoxal reacts with intracellular hemoglobin to increase oxygen affinity, which inhibits hemoglobin S polymerization and sickling. Images PMID:701485

  4. River water genotoxicity evaluation using micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Torres de Lemos, Clarice; Milan Rödel, Patrícia; Regina Terra, Nara; Cristina D'Avila de Oliveira, Nânci; Erdtmann, Bernardo

    2007-03-01

    The quality of Caí river water (Rio Grande do Sul State) in an area under the influence of a petrochemical complex was studied using the micronucleus assay in erythrocytes from peripheral blood of the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. This cytogenetic in vivo assay was performed to evaluate the effects of petrochemical effluents on the stream. Organisms were exposed to samples collected at four sites, during an 11-month period. Three different exposure periods were used (7, 14, and 21 days) to evaluate their influence in genotoxic detection. The 14-day exposure period was most effective in detecting genotoxicity in samples from this area. The presence of substances with clastogenic and/or aneugenic potential could be detected at the different sites analyzed. This in vivo assay allowed the detection of genotoxicity in the area studied, indicating the potential for environmental genotoxicity monitoring. PMID:16499968

  5. Species specific blood typing in birds using hemagglutin and precipitin techniques

    E-print Network

    Cragg, Peter Charles

    1977-01-01

    utilized throughout this study as the host animal for all immunization procedures. Whole blood for immunization was collected from the brachial vein of donor species using a heparin coated needle and syringe, and the blood transferred to a 12 ml. tube... immunized by intravenous injection of the brachial vein. The immunization injection consisted of 2. 5 ml. of a 2X v/v suspension of antigen (erythrocytes, plasma or 16 whole blood). Preliminary research for this study showed that a 2% erythrocyte...

  6. Leukocyte Count and Vascular Risk in Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Ovbiagele; Michael J. Lynn; Jeffrey L. Saver; Marc I. Chimowitz

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few data exist about the prognostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC) count among patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease. We investigated the relationship between WBC count and vascular risk in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease enrolled in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease(WASID) study. Methods: The relationships between baseline serum WBC count (categorized into quartiles) and both ischemic

  7. Membrane cytoskeletal interactions in the human erythrocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Branton, D.

    1982-01-01

    Strategies for analyzing the erythrocyte cytoskeleton have involved selective elution and purification of membrane components, assays of binding between eluted components and membrane vesicles, association assays in solution, and visualization of site-specific binding by electron microscopy. How these strategies have served to develop our current understanding of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton is summarized and why these strategies are limited to providing insight into the first-order interactions of individual molecules with few predictions about the next hierarchical levels of structure involving the overall organization of a cytoskeleton is discussed.

  8. Counting whole numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hirst

    2007-10-12

    Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

  9. Membrane-Wrapping Contributions to Malaria Parasite Invasion of the Human Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Satchwell, Timothy J.; Hanssen, Eric; Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Riglar, David T.; Toye, Ashley M.; Betz, Timo; Baum, Jake; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The blood stage malaria parasite, the merozoite, has a small window of opportunity during which it must successfully target and invade a human erythrocyte. The process of invasion is nonetheless remarkably rapid. To date, mechanistic models of invasion have focused predominantly on the parasite actomyosin motor contribution to the energetics of entry. Here, we have conducted a numerical analysis using dimensions for an archetypal merozoite to predict the respective contributions of the host-parasite interactions to invasion, in particular the role of membrane wrapping. Our theoretical modeling demonstrates that erythrocyte membrane wrapping alone, as a function of merozoite adhesive and shape properties, is sufficient to entirely account for the first key step of the invasion process, that of merozoite reorientation to its apex and tight adhesive linkage between the two cells. Next, parasite-induced reorganization of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and release of parasite-derived membrane can also account for a considerable energetic portion of actual invasion itself, through membrane wrapping. Thus, contrary to the prevailing dogma, wrapping by the erythrocyte combined with parasite-derived membrane release can markedly reduce the expected contributions of the merozoite actomyosin motor to invasion. We therefore propose that invasion is a balance between parasite and host cell contributions, evolved toward maximal efficient use of biophysical forces between the two cells. PMID:24988340

  10. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Hongxia [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Chen, Yong [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Xun [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ma, Shuyuan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ye, Hongyan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai, Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-01-22

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  11. Comparison of chromium-51 and iron-59 for estimating erythrocyte survival in the cat

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, C.G.; Putnam, J.P.; Berman, E.; Fisher, H.; Ostby, J.

    1984-08-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies were conducted on eight normal, healthy, 1-year-old male specific-pathogen-free cats using both chromium-51 and iron-59 simultaneously. The chromium-51 procedure gave a half-life value of 11.1 +/- 0.9 days. This was considerably lower than would be expected on the basis of the experimentally determined iron-59 erythrocyte survival time of 51.2 +/- 14.9 days. The results of this study indicated that there was considerable loss of the chromium-51 label in the cat other than that from senescence alone. An analysis of the chromium-51 disappearance curve indicated that there were two exponential disappearance rates for the chromium-51 label and, in the absence of cell death, approximately 67% of the label was lost with a rate constant of 0.02 per day and 33% was lost with a rate constant of 0.1 per day. An equation is presented which models the loss of chromium-51 label which could be used to calculate erythrocyte survival from a chromium-51 disappearance curve. Blood volume measurements, hemograms, bone marrow differential results, and iron kinetic values also were determined and the results presented. While a reasonable approximation of the erythrocyte life span could be made by correcting the chromium-51 values for losses other than senescence, the iron-59 procedure would be the preferred method in cats.

  12. A method to evaluate the antioxidant system for radicals in erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, L.W.; Zhang, Y. (Loyola Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The erythrocyte defense system against cellular oxidants is complex and efficient. Free radicals generated in cell membranes, however, are relatively sequestered from the cell's antioxidant mechanisms. When an oxidant challenge exceeds the capacity of the erythrocyte's antioxidant system, membrane damage may occur, causing red cell destruction and hemolytic anemia. In this study, we present a method for monitoring radical reduction in erythrocyte membranes, using fatty acid spin labels with nitroxide radicals on the hydrocarbon chains. About 50 microL of packed (about 5-6 x 10(8)), carbon monoxide (CO)-gassed red blood cells are used. The electron paramagnetic resonance signals of the 5-doxylstearic acid spin labels in the intact cells are obtained as a function of time, at 37 degrees C over a period of 2 h. The pseudo first-order rate constant for reduction of the spin label in normal adult intact cells under our experimental conditions is 4.3 +/- 1.8 x 10(-3)/min. The reproducibility and variability of the measurements are discussed. Since the measurements we describe reflect the extent of radical reductions occurring in cell membranes, we suggest that this method can be used to measure the ability to defend oxidants in membranes of erythrocytes with defective antioxidant systems. This method is particularly useful for measuring the modification of the antioxidant system toward radicals in membranes by drugs, chemicals, or environmental toxins.

  13. Studies of the pathogenesis of anemia of inflammation: erythrocyte survival

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.J.; Krehbiel, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Erythrocyte survival was investigated in healthy cats and in cats with sterile abscesses. Erythrocyte survival time in cats with sterile abscesses was found to be significantly reduced. The erythrocyte destruction appeared to be the major factor in the early stages of anemia of inflammation.

  14. OSMOTIC RESPONSE TESTS ON ERYTHROCYTES FOR THE DETECTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE OSMOTIC RESPONSE TESTS ON ERYTHROCYTES FOR THE DETECTION OF DOUBLE MUSCLE CARRIERS IN CATTLE. of Animal science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada SUMMARY Erythrocyte harvested from heparinized that the erythrocyte fragility test described in this report may be used for the identification of carriers which

  15. Torocyte Membrane Endovesicles Induced by Octaethyleneglycol Dodecylether in Human Erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    Torocyte Membrane Endovesicles Induced by Octaethyleneglycol Dodecylether in Human Erythrocytes in human erythrocytes by octaethyleneglycol dodecylether (C12E8) were studied by confocal laser scanning to be located near the cell surface. In sections of C12E8-treated erythrocytes transmission electron microscopy

  16. Biophysics of Malarial Parasite Exit from Infected Erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Biophysics of Malarial Parasite Exit from Infected Erythrocytes Rajesh Chandramohanadas1 , Yong, Singapore, Singapore Abstract Upon infection and development within human erythrocytes, P. falciparum of Malarial Parasite Exit from Infected Erythrocytes. PLoS ONE 6(6): e20869. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020869

  17. RESEARCH Open Access Avian erythrocytes have functional mitochondria,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Avian erythrocytes have functional mitochondria, opening novel perspectives,2 and François Criscuolo1,2 Abstract Background: In contrast to mammalian erythrocytes, which have lost their nucleus and mitochondria during maturation, the erythrocytes of almost all other vertebrate species

  18. ERYTHROCYTE OSMOTIC RESPONSE TEST ON MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA-SUSCEPTIBLE PIGS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE ERYTHROCYTE OSMOTIC RESPONSE TEST ON MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA-SUSCEPTIBLE PIGS W. A. KING L *** Defiartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada SUMMARY Erythrocytes harvested from sensitivity of erythrocytes to osmotic shock observed in affected animals and carriers of this syndrome (KING

  19. Modifications of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) in Human Erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    Modifications of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) in Human Erythrocytes A POSSIBLE ROLE IN AMYOTROPHIC identified. Here we show, using SOD1 isolated from human erythrocytes, that human SOD1 is phosphorylated bovine erythrocyte SOD1 or recombi- nant human SOD1. Although recombinant methods are widely used

  20. Origins and consequences of mitochondrial decline in nucleated erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Leary, Scot

    Origins and consequences of mitochondrial decline in nucleated erythrocytes C.D. Moyes*, M form 9 April 2002; accepted 23 April 2002 Abstract Cellular aging in nucleated erythrocytes from lower addressed these questions using trout erythrocytes that were separated into age classes using inherent

  1. Tissues distribution of heavy metals and erythrocytes antioxidant status in rats exposed to Nigerian bonny light crude oil.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ebokaiwe, Azubike P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2013-03-01

    The harmful effects of folkloric uses of Nigerian bonny light crude oil (BLCO) in ailments management may outweigh the expected beneficial effects. We investigated the levels of heavy metal concentrations in the tissues as well as the effect of BLCO on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes of rats after oral exposure to 0, 200 and 800 mg/kg BLCO for 7 days. Analysis of heavy metal concentrations in BLCO showed that Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Ni. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the tissues is blood-Fe > Pb >Zn whereas Cu and Ni levels were not affected; Liver-Ni > Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb and Testes-Ni > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe. The order of concentration of the metals in the tissues is as follows: iron-blood > liver > testes; zinc-liver > blood > testes; lead-blood > liver > testes; copper-testes > liver > blood; nickel-liver > testes > blood. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner with significant elevation in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels, whereas glutathione level was not significantly decreased in BLCO-treated animals. Collectively, the results showed that BLCO induces oxidative damage to erythrocytes of rats. PMID:22082827

  2. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of hydroxycinnamic acids, quercetin, and cyanidin 3-glucoside in hypercholesterolemic erythrocytes (in vitro study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Duchnowicz; Marlena Broncel; Anna Pods?dek; Maria Koter-Michalak

    Objective  Four polyphenols: ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid (hydroxycinnamic acids), quercetin (flavonol) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (anthocyanin) were selected, and their\\u000a antioxidant properties and their influence on cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic and normal erythrocytes were\\u000a investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  To determine the effect of phenolic compounds, we prospectively studied cholesterol concentration, lipid peroxidation and\\u000a membranes fluidity. Whole-blood and isolated erythrocytes (2% hematocrit) were incubated for

  3. Shear Rate and Hematocrit Effects on the Apparent Diffusivity of Urea in Suspensions of Bovine Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nanne, Edgar E.; Aucoin, Christian P.; Leonard, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to demonstrate a new method to determine diffusivities in blood and to show how urea transport is affected by blood cells. Diffusivities of urea in suspensions of bovine erythrocytes in bovine albumin solutions were determined in a two-layer membraneless microfluidic device as a function of interfacial shear rate and hematocrit. The experiments validated the measurement system at zero hematocrit and provided measurements at finite hematocrits, unobtainable in static systems. Both obstruction of diffusion by unsheared and thus non-rotating cells and augmentation of diffusion by cells rotating in response to shear were demonstrated. PMID:20335796

  4. Rapid Analysis of Hemoglobins in Whole Blood by a Light Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a method for fast determination of blood morphological and biochemical parameters (concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and sulfhemoglobin; the hematocrit; average concentration of total hemoglobin in erythrocytes; the erythrocyte parameter associated with their volume and shape) from the diffuse transmittance spectrum of light for a thin cuvet containing whole blood (thickness 200 ?m), illuminated by collimated light. The method is based on an analytical dependence of the spectral diffuse transmission coefficient of blood on the parameters of interest, taking into account multiple scattering of light by erythrocytes and possible variations in their shape. We have analyzed the uncertainties of the method when the analyte parameters are all variable.

  5. Measuring the Inhibition of Adhesion of Lectins to the Surface of Erythrocytes with Optically Controlled Collisions between Microspheres and Erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Measuring the Inhibition of Adhesion of Lectins to the Surface of Erythrocytes with Optically Controlled Collisions between Microspheres and Erythrocytes Xiangping Qian, R. Erik Holmlin, and George M of inhibitors that block the adhesion of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to the surface of erythrocytes. WGA

  6. Epizootiology of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Piacentini; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

    1989-01-01

    Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were infected artificially with the virus that causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). A specific and consistent time course of infection was demonstrated for inclusion body number and hematocrit values. At 12°C, the inclusions appeared approximately 11 d postinjection and were most common near day 21. Hematocrit values were lowest at day 28. By day 30,

  7. The cytoskeleton of isolated murine primitive erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Koury; E. A. Repasky; B. S. Eckert

    1987-01-01

    Cytoskeletons of primitive erythrocytes have been isolated from the embryos of day 12 pregnant C57\\/Bl mice and examined by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Microtubules are the most prominent cytoskeletal component. They are found either singly or organized into loose bundles just under the plasma membrane, but do not form classical marginal bands in most cells.

  8. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  9. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  10. [Effect of potassium leakage on reversible aggregation of human erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Balmukhanov, B S; Basenova, A T

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the aggregation of human erythrocytes caused by polydextrane were studied under conditions influencing the rate of potassium leakage from cells to medium. It was shown that aggregation decreases as the leakage of potassium ions increases and is completely abolished at leakage rates higher than 2.5-3.0 mmol/l of erythrocytes per hour. The involvement of nonequilibrial electrokinetic phenomena in the inhibition of erythrocyte aggregation by ionic fluxes across erythrocyte surface is discussed. It is proposed that potassium leakage affects the erythrocyte sedimentation rate in clinical investigations. PMID:10624531

  11. [Status of hemapoiesis in residents of the Techa riverside villages in the period of maximum radiation exposure. Report 1. Evaluation of the cellular composition of peripheral blood and the role of comorbidities in the oppression of hemapoiesis].

    PubMed

    Akleev, A V; Dimov, G P; Varfolomeeva, T A

    2012-01-01

    Residents of the Techa riverside villages chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (the average dose rate in 1951-1956 was 0.047 Gy/year, the maximum reached 2.44 Gy/year) developed marked changes in the cellular composition of peripheral blood. The maximum reduction of peripheral blood counts occurred in the years 1951-1953, after which the beginning of the restoration of cellularity to the control level was observed. The dose rate at this point (1956) was about 0.02 Gy/year. The factors of radiation and non-radiation nature (gender, the age at the onset of exposure, health related disorders) in different combinations affect the number of peripheral blood cells. The influence of dose rate of a chronic radiation exposure on a platelet count takes precedence over other factors. The factors of gender and dose rate determine the number of erythrocytes in exposed persons. The changes accompanying the health status and dose rate significantly affect the number of neutrophils. The influence of comorbidity, age and dose rate on the number of monocytes was noted. A lymphocyte count was mainly determined by the age at the onset of exposure and concomitant diseases. A joint influence of chronic radiation exposure and concomitant diseases increases a mutual action on erythro- and thrombocytopoiesis. The decrease of the dose rate was followed by a gradual predominance of the somatic disease influence on leukocyte (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) counts. PMID:22690574

  12. In vivo biodistribution of a radiolabeled blood substitute: sup 99m Tc-labeled liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in an anesthetized rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, A.S.; Goins, B. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Klipper, R.W.; Phillips, W.T. (Univ. of Texas, San Antonio (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) is an erythrocyte substitute that is a potential resuscitative fluid for the in vivo delivery of oxygen. The authors had noninvasively imaged radiolabeled LEH in vivo with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) to study the biodistribution in an anesthetized rabbit. Rabbits were infused with 30 ml of LEH and imaged with a {gamma} camera continuously for 2 hr. At 20 hr postinfusion, the animals were imaged again and sacrificed; the organs were weighed and their radioactivity was determined for autopsy organ distribution. Organ uptake from the images was corrected for organ-associated blood pool, which was determined by infusion of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled rabbit erythrocytes. Blood pool and decay-corrected biodistribution data reveal the kinetics of LEH distribution. Image biodistribution data was also validated at 20 hr by tissue sampling. At 20 hr postinfusion, autopsy biodistribution data reveals approximately 42.6% of the total counts remaining in the blood, 15.4% in the liver, 18.1% in spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, 2.4% in muscle, 1.6% in urine, and trace levels in the kidney, brain, and heart (<1%). There is no evidence of hemoglobin release from LEH or kidney dysfunction at any time over the course of the study.

  13. Microspectrophotometric and scanning microphotometric studies of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schindler, J F; de Vries, U; Lindner, E

    1985-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) hemoglobin readily autoxidizes in blood smears. Quantification of Soret-band absorbance in individual erythrocytes by means of scanning cytophotometry therefore requires more elaborate methods of preparation of blood samples. Of the fixatives that have been tested, suspension of whole blood in isotonic salt solutions containing glutaraldehyde was most suitable. Glutaraldehyde-fixed red blood cells are totally resistant to hemolysis. In the course of fixation, hemoglobin is transformed to methemoglobin. Spectrophotometry indicated extensive similarities between glutaraldehyde-fixed carp methemoglobin and human methemoglobin. In aqueous solutions, the intensity of the Soret-peak was pH-dependent. The allosteric modifier organic polyphosphate caused an R----T transition, resulting in increased molar extinctions. Dried preparations showed Soret-spectra that were not influenced from either pH or organic polyphosphate concentration of the aqueous suspensions in which the erythrocytes had been stored. The same was true for slide preparations of cyanomethemoglobin, easily derived from methemoglobin on addition of potassium cyanide. In the absence of oxygen fresh blood cells from carp slowly transform their hemoglobin into deoxyhemoglobin. Spectra of the intermediate stages of deoxygenation, Hb4(O2)3, Hb4(O2)2 and Hb4(O2), as well as mixtures of these intermediates, could be monitored. PMID:3928536

  14. Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Erhard, P.

    1981-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that mercury accumulates in cord blood during pregnancy. This study was carried out to determine where in cord blood the mercury accumulates, i.e., in cord erythrocytes, in cord plasma, or in both, and to determine whether the predominant form of mercury which accumulates is methyl or inorganic mercury. From our data it is clear that methyl mercury accumulates in cord erythrocytes: A total of 30% more methyl mercury was found in fetal erythrocytes than in maternal erythrocytes. Also correlation analysis of the methyl mercury levels in maternal and fetal erythrocytes showed a strong correlation (r = 0.87). In regard to inorganic mercury, the highest concentration was found in the placenta, suggesting a barrier role, but a significant correlation (r = 0.62) was also found between the maternal and fetal plasma levels of inorganic mercury. Moreover, the inorganic mercury concentration per gram of plasma was higher in fetal cord plasma than in maternal plasma. Overall, the relative levels of methyl and inorganic mercury reported here varied considerably in maternal and fetal erythrocytes, plasma, and in the placenta, but all of the levels were low (< 6 ng Hg/gm of tissue) and in agreement with total mercury levels reported by others.

  15. Impact of umbelliferone on erythrocyte redox status in STZ-diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B.; Pugalendi, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is currently hypothesized to be a mechanism underlying diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone (UMB), a derivative of coumarin, on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 180 to 200 g, by the administration of STZ (40 mg/kg/b-wt) intraperitonially. The normal and diabetic rats were treated with UMB in 10 percent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved in water for 45 days. The diabetic rats had elevated levels of blood glucose and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD), and lipid hydroperoxide (HP) and decreased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C and reduced glutathione [GSH]), elevated levels of vitamin E, and elevated levels of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx]), elevated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and altered lipid profile (cholesterol and phospholipids) in erythrocytes. These changes were reversed by treatment with UMB. Thus, our results indicate that the administration of UMB shows promising potential for the restoration of normal blood glucose levels, erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and lipid profile in STZ-diabetic. PMID:16464311

  16. A new h.p.l.c. isolation procedure for chicken and goose erythrocyte histones.

    PubMed Central

    Helliger, W; Lindner, H; Hauptlorenz, S; Puschendorf, B

    1988-01-01

    Total chicken erythrocyte histones were separated by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. using a multi-step acetonitrile gradient in a very short time (35 min). The proteins were eluted in the following order: H1, H5, H2B, H2A.2, H4, H2A.1 and H3.2. Applying a special gradient system adapted for the separation of very-lysine-rich histones, chicken erythrocyte H5 was resolved into two subfractions. Their electrophoretic mobilities were identical in both SDS and acetic acid/urea/Triton polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, but different in free-flow electrophoresis. Amino-acid-sequence analyses revealed that the two components only differ with respect to position 15, one having glutamine in that position and the other arginine. A separation of histones prepared from goose erythrocytes disclosed no H5 subfractionation. Furthermore, histones obtained from anaemic-chicken blood were analysed by the above-mentioned h.p.l.c. conditions. An alteration in the relation of H1 to H5 was detected, but no further differences in the number and quantity of the histones and histone variants were observed as compared with the corresponding proteins processed from normal-chicken blood. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:3196317

  17. In vivo influence of extract from Aronia melanocarpa on the erythrocyte membranes in patients with hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Duchnowicz, Piotr; Nowicka, Agnieszka; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Broncel, Marlena

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hypercholesterolemia increases cholesterol concentration in erythrocyte membranes, which results in decrease of membrane fluidity and decreases the deformability of red blood cells. The fruits of Arona melanocarpa contains many of polyphenols and other compounds that have beneficial health effects. Material/Methods The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of 2-month supplementation of extract from Aronia melanocarpa (100 mg Aronox, three times per day) on cholesterol concentration, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity, level of thiol groups and activity of ATPase in erythrocytes from patients with hypercholesterolemia. The study involved 25 patients with hypercholesterolemia without pharmacological treatment and 20 healthy individuals as a control group. Blood samples were collected before, and after 1 and 2 months of Aronia administration. Results The 2-month Aronia supplementation resulted in a decrease of cholesterol concentration (by 22%) and a decrease of lipid peroxidation (by 40%), and an increase of membrane fluidity. No statistically significant increase of the concentration of thiol groups and of ATPase activity were observed. Conclusions Our study shows that supplementation of extract from Aronia melanocarpa has a beneficial effect on rheological properties of erythrocytes. PMID:22936193

  18. Turnover of erythrocyte and platelet glycoprotein amino sugars in carbohydrate-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gapparov, M.M.; Nikol'skaya, G.V.; Sokolov, A.I.

    1985-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the rate of degradation of amino sugars of platelets and erythrocyte membranes of rats kept on carbohydrate diets, using starch and sucrose. /sup 3/H-Glucosamine hydrochloride injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 200 microCu per rat, 1, 2, and 3 days before sacrifice, was used as the label. Replacement of starch equivalent to 40% of the calorific value of the diet by sucrose is shown to significantly change the halfrenewal time of the amino sugars of rat erythrocyte membranes. Investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the amino sugars of the blood cells can be used to assess the effect of food on metabolic and adaptive processes in man.

  19. Phospholipid fatty acid turnover in erythrocyte membranes from humans exposed to hyperbaric hyperoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine phospholipid fatty acid turnover in erythrocyte membranes from human subjects exposed to hyperbaric, hyperoxic conditions. Seven males breathed 100% oxygen at two atmospheres of pressure for nine hours. Venous blood was collected one hour before the oxygen exposure; one hour, five hours, and nine hours into the exposure; and one hour, 24 hours, 48 hours and one week after the exposure ended. Washed erythrocytes were incubated with ({sup 3}H) oleic acid for thirty minutes at 37{degree}C. Phospholipids were extracted with methanol and chloroform, separated by thin layer chromatography, and quantitated by spectrodensitometry. Radioactivity was measured in four phospholipid classes and incorporation of ({sup 3}H) oleic acid into phospholipids calculated. Phospholipid fatty acid turnover was used as an indicator of membrane metabolism.

  20. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  1. Multiscale simulation of erythrocyte membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Asaro, Robert J.; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-03-01

    To quantitatively predict the mechanical response and mechanically induced remodeling of red blood cells, we developed a multiscale method to correlate distributions of internal stress with overall cell deformation. This method consists of three models at different length scales: in the complete cell level the membrane is modeled as two distinct layers of continuum shells using finite element method (Level III), in which the skeleton-bilayer interactions are depicted as a slide in the lateral (i.e., in-plane) direction (caused by the mobility of the skeleton-bilayer pinning points) and a normal contact force; the constitutive laws of the inner layer (the protein skeleton) are obtained from a molecular-based model (Level II); the mechanical properties of the spectrin (Sp, a key component of the skeleton), including its folding/unfolding reactions, are obtained with a stress-strain model (Level I). Model verification is achieved through comparisons with existing numerical and experimental studies in terms of the resting shape of the cell as well as cell deformations induced by micropipettes and optical tweezers. Detailed distributions of the interaction force between the lipid bilayer and the skeleton that may cause their dissociation and lead to phenomena such as vesiculation are predicted. Specifically, our model predicts correlation between the occurrence of Sp unfolding and increase in the mechanical load upon individual skeleton-bilayer pinning points. Finally a simulation of the necking process after skeleton-bilayer dissociation, a precursor of vesiculation, is conducted.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granule, a Complex Chinese Medicine, on Thalassemia Patients Suffering from Hemolysis and Anemia of Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Na-Li; Wu, Zhi-kui; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Fang, Su-Ping; Wang, Wen-Juan; Cheng, Yan-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic biological mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granule (YSSXG), a complex Chinese medicine, on the hemolysis and anemia of erythrocytes from patient with thalassemia disease. Sixteen patients with thalassemia (8 cases of ?-thalassemia and 8 cases of ?-thalassemia) disease were collected and treated with YSSXG for 3 months. The improvements of blood parameter demonstrated that YSSXG had a positive clinical effect on patients with thalassemia disease. For patients with ?-thalassemia disease, RT-PCR showed that YSSXG upregulated the relative mRNA expression level of ?-globin to ?-globin and downregulated DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b mRNA compared with pretreatment. Western blotting showed that YSSXG downregulated the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3a. For patients with ?-thalassemia disease, the relative expression level of A?-globin to ?-globin had an increasing trend and the level of BCL11A mRNA expression obviously increased. For all patients, RT-PCR showed that YSSXG upregulated mRNA expression of SPTA1 and SPTB. Activities of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased and MDA obviously reduced on erythrocyte and blood serum after YSSXG treatment. TEM showed that YSSXG decreased the content of inclusion bodies. Activities of Na+K+-ATPtase and T-ATPtase of erythrocyte increased significantly after YSSXG treatment. This study provides the basis for mechanisms of YSSXG on thalassemia suffering with hemolysis and anemia of erythrocytes from patient. PMID:25574177

  3. Storage-Induced Changes in Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins Promote Recognition by Autoantibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sip Dinkla; V?ra M. J. Novotný; Irma Joosten; Giel J. C. G. M. Bosman

    2012-01-01

    Physiological erythrocyte removal is associated with a selective increase in expression of neoantigens on erythrocytes and their vesicles, and subsequent autologous antibody binding and phagocytosis. Chronic erythrocyte transfusion often leads to immunization and the formation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies. We investigated whether erythrocyte storage leads to the increased expression of non-physiological antigens. Immunoprecipitations were performed with erythrocytes and vesicles from

  4. Intraindividual Stability of Human Erythrocyte Cholinesterase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee J. Lefkowitz; Joseph M. Kupina; Nigel L. Hirth; Rachel M. Henry; Georgia Y. Noland; John Y. Barbee; Joey Y. Zhou; Coleen B. Weese

    Background: Erythrocyte cholinesterase (RBC-ChE) ac- tivities serve as useful and sensitive biomarkers to monitor exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting sub- stances, such as chemical warfare nerve agents and pesticides. Although the interindividual variation of RBC-ChE is well characterized, the magnitude of intra- individual variation for RBC-ChE remains controver- sial. An accurate measure of intraindividual variation is critical for establishing the appropriate frequency

  5. ?- and ?-Monosaccharide transport in human erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leitch, Jeffry M.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrative sugar uptake in human erythrocytes is characterized by a rapid phase, which equilibrates 66% of the cell water, and by a slow phase, which equilibrates 33% of the cell water. This behavior has been attributed to the preferential transport of ?-sugars by erythrocytes (Leitch JM, Carruthers A. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292: C974–C986, 2007). The present study tests this hypothesis. The anomer theory requires that the relative compartment sizes of rapid and slow transport phases are determined by the proportions of ?- and ?-sugar in aqueous solution. This is observed with d-glucose and 3-O-methylglucose but not with 2-deoxy-d-glucose and d-mannose. The anomer hypothesis predicts that the slow transport phase, which represents ?-sugar transport, is eliminated when anomerization is accelerated to generate the more rapidly transported ?-sugar. Exogenous, intracellular mutarotase accelerates anomerization but has no effect on transport. The anomer hypothesis requires that transport inhibitors inhibit rapid and slow transport phases equally. This is observed with the endofacial site inhibitor cytochalasin B but not with the exofacial site inhibitors maltose or phloretin, which inhibit only the rapid phase. Direct measurement of ?- and ?-sugar uptake demonstrates that erythrocytes transport ?- and ?-sugars with equal avidity. These findings refute the hypothesis that erythrocytes preferentially transport ?-sugars. We demonstrate that biphasic 3-O-methylglucose equilibrium exchange kinetics refute the simple carrier hypothesis for protein-mediated sugar transport but are compatible with a fixed-site transport mechanism regulated by intracellular ATP and cell shape. PMID:18987250

  6. Spectrin, human erythrocyte shapes, and mechanochemical properties.

    PubMed Central

    Stokke, B T; Mikkelsen, A; Elgsaeter, A

    1986-01-01

    Physical studies of human erythrocyte spectrin indicate that isolated spectrin dimers and tetramers in solution are worm-like coils with a persistence length of approximately 20 nm. This finding, the known polyelectrolytic nature of spectrin, and other structural information about spectrin and the membrane skeleton molecular organization have lead us to the hypothesis that the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton constitutes a two-dimensional ionic gel (swollen ionic elastomer). This concept is incorporated in what we refer to as the protein gel-lipid bilayer membrane model. The model accounts quantitatively for red elastic shear modulus and the maximum elastic extension ratio reported for the human erythrocytes membrane. Gel theory further predicts that depending on the environmental conditions, the membrane skeleton modulus of area compression may be small or large relative to the membrane elastic shear modulus. Our analyses show that the ratio between these two parameters affects both the geometry and the stability of the favored cell shapes and that the higher the membrane skeleton compressibility the smaller the values of the gel tension needed to induce cell shape transformations. The main virtue of the protein gel-lipid bilayer membrane model is that it offers a novel theoretical and molecular basis for the various mechanical properties of the membrane skeleton such as the membrane skeleton modulus of area compression and osmotic tension, and the effects of these properties on local membrane skeleton density, cell shape, and shape transformations. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3955175

  7. Improved Ellman procedure for erythrocyte cholinesterase.

    PubMed

    George, P M; Abernethy, M H

    1983-02-01

    The procedure of Dietz et al. (Clin. Chem. 19: 1309-1313, 1973) for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) gives a background absorbance of 1.4 A when extended to erythrocyte cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) measurement, because the peak absorbance of the reaction product, 5-thionitrobenzoate, coincides with the hemoglobin Soret band at 410 nm. Consequently, the precision of erythrocyte cholinesterase measurements is poor, and the test is restricted to laboratories with a spectrophotometer having a high signal-to-noise ratio. Use of the detergent benzethonium chloride (Hyamine 1622) instead of quinidine sulfate to stop enzyme action allows readings to be made at 440 nm because the hemoglobin band is shifted to 405 nm and its peak intensity is decreased. Moreover, detergent micelle interactions shift the peak absorbance of the 5-thionitrobenzoate from 410 to 435 nm. Overall, the blank absorbance is decreased to about 0.4 A. This results in an assay that is twice as precise as the previous version and is suited for use in a routine laboratory with a moderate-quality spectrophotometer. Thus erythrocyte cholinesterase measurements can readily be made, to complement plasma cholinesterase in the investigation of exposure to organophosphates. PMID:6821947

  8. Flicker in erythrocytes. I. Theoretical models and registration techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. L. Kononenko

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic low-frequency oscillations of erythrocyte cell membrane, termed usually the flicker of erythrocytes,\\u000a is reviewed. The first part describes the theoretical models of erythrocyte flickering and the registration techniques. The\\u000a relations are given and analyzed which connect the shape of both the frequency and the spatial spectra of stochastic membrane\\u000a oscillations with geometrical and mechanical parameters of

  9. Drug, enzyme and peptide delivery using erythrocytes as carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Gutiérrez Millán; Mar??a Luisa Sayalero Marinero; Aránzazu Zarzuelo Castańeda; José M Lanao

    2004-01-01

    Erythrocytes are potential biocompatible vectors for different bioactive substances, including drugs. These can be used successfully as biological carriers of drugs, enzymes and peptides. There are currently diverse methods that permit drug encapsulation in erythrocytes with an appropriate yield. The methods most commonly employed are based on a high-haematocrit dialysis procedure, mainly hypo-osmotic dialysis.Erythrocytes loaded with drugs and other substances

  10. [Computer assessment of membrane structure in various erythrocyte forms].

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, M T

    2009-01-01

    The photometric computer image analysis method is described. It is based on the creation of the gallery of the images of various erythrocyte forms (discocytes, ecchinocytes, target cells and degenerative forms). Using the Bio Vision program, the structure of membranes of each type of erythrocytes was studied. It was found that the morpho-functional changes of erythrocytes of various degrees were accompanied by the alterations in the relative content of condensed membrane protein-lipid complexes. PMID:20358780

  11. Interaction of cytoskeletal proteins on the human erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Branton, D. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA); Cohen, C.M.; Tyler, J.

    1981-04-01

    The discoveries are reviewed that elucidate how the cytoskeleton of the human erythrocyte membrane is linked to the membrane and make it possible to visualize the molecular interactions among the cytoskeletal components. These discoveries are the result of a coordinated structural and biochemical approach that has revealed a surprisingly complex set of specific interactions whose existence emphasizes the fundamental continuity between the erythrocyte membrane and the erythrocyte cytoskeleton.

  12. Cyclic and Radial Variation of the Echogenicity of Blood in Human Carotid Arteries Observed By Harmonic Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Guk Paeng; Kweon-Ho Nam; K. Kirk Shung

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the characteristics of erythrocyte aggregation in flowing blood, echogenicity variation in blood was observed both in vitro and in vivo. However, few noninvasive observations of blood echogenicity variation during the cardiac cycle in human arteries have been reported. In the present study, to reduce the dynamic range between the blood vessel lumen and the surrounding tissue, coded

  13. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Caricio Martins; Tereza Cristina de Oliveira Corvelo

    AIM: To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expres- sion in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the pres- ence of gastric epithelial lesions. METHODS: The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mu- cosa of H pylori -infected gastric ulcer patients was ana- lyzed. Forty-two

  14. Sodium selective erythrocyte glycocalyx and salt sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Oberleithner, Hans

    2015-06-01

    Negatively charged surfaces of erythrocytes (RBC) reflect properties of the endothelial glycocalyx. Plasma electrolytes counteract these charges and thus control the repulsive forces between RBC and endothelium. Although Na(+) is supposed to exert a rather high affinity to the RBC surface, a direct comparison between Na(+) and K(+) in counteracting the RBC surface has been never made. Therefore, we measured Na(+)/K(+) selectivity of the RBC surface in 20 healthy volunteers applying the previously published salt blood test (SBT). It turned out that the Na(+)/K(+) selectivity ratio of the RBC glycocalyx is on average 6.1?±?0.39 (ranging from 3 to 9 in different individuals). Considering standard plasma Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, binding probability of Na(+)/K(+) at the RBC surface is about 180:1. The SBT reveals that plasma K(+) counteracts only about 7 % of the negative charges in the RBC glycocalyx. As an in vivo proof of principle, a volunteer's blood was continuously tested over 6 months while applying a glycocalyx protective polyphenol-rich natural compound (hawthorn extract). It turned out that RBC Na(+) sensitivity (the inverse of Na(+) buffer capacity) decreased significantly by about 25 % while Na(+)/K(+) selectivity of the RBC glycocalyx declined only slightly by about 8 %. Taken together, (i) plasma Na(+) selectively buffers the negative charges of the RBC glycocalyx, (ii) the contribution of K(+) in counteracting these negative surface charges is small, and (iii) natural polyphenols applied in vivo increase RBC surface negativity. In conclusion, low plasma Na(+) is supposed to favor frictionless RBC-slipping through blood vessels. PMID:25027385

  15. [Osmotic fragility test of erythrocytes with a coil planet centrifuge].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, H; Yabushita, N; Kageyama, K

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of osmotic fragility of erythrocytes has been applied to the diagnosis of hemolytic diseases, studies of membrane permeability and alternations leading to destruction of erythrocytes. Almost 30 years have gone by since the coil planet centrifuge system was devised for measuring the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. Many excellent studies by means of this centrifuge system have been published. Prominent investigations are reviewed as follows: in relation to the osmotic fragility, various liver diseases, angina pectoris, trapping the aged erythrocytes, tumor, lactic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, free cholesterol, exercise and lead exposure level were examined. PMID:9871811

  16. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. (a)...

  18. Binding of selenium-75 to blood and liver cytosolic proteins in the preruminant calf

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, K.J.; Hidiroglou, M.

    1988-02-01

    Labeled selenite (75Se) administered to calves in milk replacer, containing .2 or 5 ppm Se, was rapidly absorbed with peak blood 75Se at 6 h. Gel filtration and dialysis treatment of plasma and erythrocyte hemolysates showed that initially 75Se was transported in blood as 75SeO3= or loosely bound to plasma and erythrocyte proteins. At high Se intake, albumin became a transport protein for some of the plasma 75Se, and proportionately more blood radioactivity was carried in the erythrocytes. At 72 h after dosing, most plasma 75Se was tightly bound to protein in glutathione peroxidase fraction with low peroxidase activity, possibly Se transport protein. At 72 h, distribution of 75Se in erythrocyte was 35 to 40% in glutathione peroxidase, 50% in hemoglobin, and 5% in a selenite plus selenopolypeptide fraction. Erythrocyte peroxidase activity was mostly in the glutathione peroxidase fraction (57%) and hemoglobin (38%). Molecular weight estimate for erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase was 84,200 daltons; about 90% of blood peroxidase activity was in erythrocytes. High Se intake had no marked effect on distribution of 75Se among liver cytosolic proteins. About 35% of 75Se was in glutathione peroxidase fraction, having most of the peroxidase activity, 25% in void volume, 11 to 18% in a selenite plus selenopolypeptide fraction, and small amounts in selenoproteins of about 12,000 and 50,000 daltons.

  19. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  20. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 by ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued • If the total carbohydrate ...

  1. Malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes inhibit glucose utilization in uninfected red cells

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes inhibit glucose utilization in uninfected red cells Monika Abstract The erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite de- pend on anaerobic glycolysis for energy. Using. Keywords: Malaria; Erythrocytic stages; Glycolysis; 2,3- Diphosphoglycerate; Phosphofructokinase

  2. Facilitated Phosphatidylcholine Flip-Flop Across Erythrocyte Membranes Using Low Molecular Weight Synthetic Translocases

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Facilitated Phosphatidylcholine Flip-Flop Across Erythrocyte Membranes Using Low Molecular Weight: The transmembrane distribution of phospholipids plays an important regulatory role in human erythrocytes. Membrane phosphatidylcholine flip-flop across erythrocyte membranes. Addition of a small amount of dilauroylphos

  3. The lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) erythrocyte; morphology, ultrastructure, major plasma membrane proteins and phospholipids, and cytoskeletal

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    The lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) erythrocyte; morphology, ultrastructure, major plasma membrane, Finland Summary The aim of this study was to characterize the erythrocyte of the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), a primitive vertebrate. The lamprey erythrocyte predominantly has a non-axisymmetric stomatocyte

  4. Erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles as a biomimetic delivery platform

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liangfang

    Erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles as a biomimetic delivery platform Che functionalization by coating biode- gradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte mem- branes, including. The structure, size and surface zeta potential, and protein contents of the erythrocyte membrane

  5. Simulations of the Erythrocyte Cytoskeleton at Large Deformation. II. Micropipette Aspiration

    E-print Network

    Boal, David

    Simulations of the Erythrocyte Cytoskeleton at Large Deformation. II. Micropipette Aspiration-grained molecular models of the erythrocyte membrane's spectrin cytoskeleton are presented in Monte Carlo in situ. These are employed in direct, finite-temperature simulations of erythrocyte deformation

  6. Protective effects of fucoidan against ?-radiation-induced damage of blood cells.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ki Hyeong; Lee, Keyong Ho

    2011-04-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from brown algae including Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria japonica, has a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant and antitumor activities. Here, we investigated the radioprotective effects of fucoidan on human monoblastic leukemia cell line U937. Further, animal tests were carried out using Balb/c mice in order to determine the radiation-induced changes in the counts of blood cells, including thrombocytes, erythrocytes, leukocytes and hematocrit. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, wherein fucoidan (1, 10, and 100 ?g/mL) was observed to improve recovery from damage caused by 8-Gy radiation in a dose dependent manner. The viability of U937 cells pre-treated with fucoidan also increased in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, fucoidan at 100 mg/kg was found to protect against changes in the counts of blood cells as follows: on day 28 after irradiation, the thrombocyte count in the irradiated controls decreased to 45% compared with the non-irradiated controls, while that in the fucoidan-treated group was 60%. The hematocrit in the fucoidan-treated group recovered to 75% on day 28, while that in the irradiated control was 68%. The erythrocyte count in the irradiated controls consistently ranged from 64% to 67% throughout the experiment, but that in the fucoidan-treated group increased gradually, ranging from 75% to 80%. The mean number of survival days and 50-day actuarial survival rate increased dose dependently in the fucoidan-treated group. The mean number of survival days and the 50-day actuarial survival rate in this group was 16, 21, and 29 days and 12%, 20%, and 30% at fucoidan doses of 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg. The values of these parameters in the control group were 9 days and 0%, although the difference between the test and control groups was not statistically significant. Our results may prove valuable in the field of radioprotection. PMID:21544730

  7. Use of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, collapse, apnea, and opisthotonos. Intravenous epinephrine HCl 1:1000 can be administered (0.2 to 0.5 mL) intravenously or (4 to 5 mL) intramuscularly (preferable) if clinical signs are severe. Pretreatment with antipyretics and slowing the administration rate may decrease the febrile response. Blood or plasma administered too rapidly will also result in signs of cardiovascular overload, acute heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension and edema. Furosemide and slower administration of blood or plasma should alleviate this problem. Administration rates have been suggested starting from 10 mL/kg/hr; faster rates may be necessary in peracute hemorrhage. Plasma should be administered when failure of absorption of passive maternal antibody has occurred or when protein-loosing enteropathy or nephropathy results in a total protein of less than 3 g/dL or less than 1.5 g albumin/dL. Plasma can be stored at household freezer temperatures (-15 to -20 degrees C) for a year; coagulation factors will be destroyed after 2 to 4 months when stored in this manner. To maintain viability of coagulation factors, plasma must be stored at -80 degrees C for less than 12 months. When administering plasma, a blood donor set with a built-in filter should always be used. When bovine plasma is thawed, precipitants form in the plasma and infusion of these microaggregates may result in fatal reactions in the recipient. PMID:10573816

  8. Natural antibodies to human lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the serum of Orcinus orca killer whale.

    PubMed

    Gerard, D; Cohen, E; Cunningham, R; Fitzpatrick, J E; Godsell, C

    1987-01-01

    The existence of naturally occurring heterophile antibodies to antigenic determinants on human blood cell membranes has long been known. It has been shown that the serum of Orcinus orca (Killer whale) does contain similar antibody. Absorption techniques in concert with either microagglutination or complement-dependent microcytotoxicity assays revealed at least three antibody specificities erythrocyte (RBC), B-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte. Human erythrocyte specificity has been separated from other mammalian RBC specificity, and higher microagglutination titers and/or scores were observed with human group A RBC's than with group B,O, or AB. Tests run at 4 degrees, 20 degrees and 37 degrees C). Higher microcytotoxicity and microagglutination activity was demonstrated with B versus T lymphocytes. It is hoped that the characterization of the antigenic specificity of these heterophile agglutinins will prove to be useful as a biological reagent-tool which may be applied to the identification of a new receptor on human lymphocytes and/or erythrocytes. Also, if isolated, these agglutinins could be useful in the study of the occurrence and presence of specific receptors on cell membranes and give insight as to how these receptors change in health, disease and malignancy. PMID:3678562

  9. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on garlic-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hamlaoui, S; Mokni, M; Limam, N; Zouaoui, K; Ben Rayana, M C; Carrier, A; Limam, F; Amri, M; Marzouki, L; Aouani, E

    2012-08-01

    High garlic dose could exert adverse health properties and grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) exhibit a variety of beneficial effects, even at high dose. In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of high garlic dose treatment on antioxidant status of the blood compartment and the protective effect of GSSE. Rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered either with garlic extract (5 g/kg bw) or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw) or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily during one month. Plasma parameters and erythrocytes antioxidant status were evaluated. Data confirmed that high garlic dose induced anemia and a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes characterized by increased malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl protein and antioxidant enzyme activities as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Garlic also elevated intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and free iron whereas GSSE treatment counteracted almost all garlic deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state into erythrocytes via the Fenton reaction between H(2)O(2) and free iron, and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties. PMID:23070087

  10. Isolation technique and proteomic analysis of the erythrocyte ghosts of red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Li, Jianglin; Feng, Can; Hu, Zhaotun; Liu, Wenfeng; Liang, Songping; Yin, Dazhong

    2013-01-01

    To proceed proteomic analysis of erythrocyte of the red-eared turtle Trachemys scripta, a method for obtaining turtle erythrocyte ghosts (TEG) was first developed. After hypotonic lysis using a special buffer, forcing the erythrocyte through the syringe with an "N"-shaped needle, applying low speed homogenizing and differential centrifugation, highly purified TEG fractions were obtained. The isolated TEG proteins were treated with in-gel digestion separated by SDS-PAGE or in-solution digestion followed by HPLC predissociation, and then identified by nano-ESI-LC MS/MS techniques. A total of 169 TEG proteins was identified, validated, and categorized. Among these proteins, tubulins, and cell-surface-located F-type ATP synthase revealed important information into the super tolerance of Trachemys scripta in anoxia and low temperature exposure. Altogether, this study not only provided a method to isolate high quality TEG and a dataset of comprehensive characterization of TEG proteins, but also provides a tool for proteomic research of all nucleated red blood cells, and thus opened a new research field for exploring the mechanisms of super tolerance of turtles in harsh environment. PMID:23160936

  11. Developmental changes in erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase subunit abundance and enzyme activity in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Vasarhelyi, B.; Tulassay, T.; Ver, A.; Dobos, M.; Kocsis, I.; Seri, I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To study the relation between erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase subunit isoform composition, Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and cation pump function in preterm and term neonates.?DESIGN—Erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase subunit isoform abundance, Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and cation pump function were studied in blood samples obtained from 56 preterm neonates of 28-32 weeks gestation (group 1), 58 preterm neonates of 33-36 weeks gestation (group 2), and 122 term neonates (group 3) during the first two postnatal days.?RESULTS—?1 isoform abundance was higher and ?2 isoform abundance was lower in group 1 than in group 3 (p = 0.0002). ?2 and ?1 isoform abundance did not change with maturation and there was no evidence for the presence of the ?3 isoform. Gestational age was inversely related to Na+,K+-ATPase activity (p = 0.0001) and directly related to intracellular Na+ concentration (p = 0.0025).?CONCLUSIONS—Expression of the ?1 and ?2 Na+,K+-ATPase subunit isoforms is developmentally regulated. The increased abundance of ?1 isoforms of immature neonates translates to increased ATPase activity. The lower intracellular Na+ concentration of immature neonates suggests that their erythrocyte Na+,K+-ATPase cation pump function may also be increased.?? PMID:10952709

  12. Erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles as a biomimetic delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Hu, Che-Ming J; Zhang, Li; Aryal, Santosh; Cheung, Connie; Fang, Ronnie H; Zhang, Liangfang

    2011-07-01

    Efforts to extend nanoparticle residence time in vivo have inspired many strategies in particle surface modifications to bypass macrophage uptake and systemic clearance. Here we report a top-down biomimetic approach in particle functionalization by coating biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles with natural erythrocyte membranes, including both membrane lipids and associated membrane proteins for long-circulating cargo delivery. The structure, size and surface zeta potential, and protein contents of the erythrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles were verified using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and gel electrophoresis, respectively. Mice injections with fluorophore-loaded nanoparticles revealed superior circulation half-life by the erythrocyte-mimicking nanoparticles as compared to control particles coated with the state-of-the-art synthetic stealth materials. Biodistribution study revealed significant particle retention in the blood 72 h following the particle injection. The translocation of natural cellular membranes, their associated proteins, and the corresponding functionalities to the surface of synthetic particles represents a unique approach in nanoparticle functionalization. PMID:21690347

  13. Facilitated Uptake of a Bioactive Metabolite of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol) into Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite ?-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-?-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate ?-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated. PMID:23646194

  14. Effects of pentoxifylline on Ca sup 2+ -dependent transglutaminase in rat erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Swislocki, N.I.; Tierney, J.M. (UMD-New Jersey Medical School, Newark (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We have examined the effects of pentoxifylline, a drug used to improve peripheral blood flow in patients with chronic vascular disorders, on shear-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent protein crosslinking in the erythrocyte. Cells were washed in isosmotic bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.5, and brought to a 20% suspension. 5 ml samples were sheared by swirling them for seconds; {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake, activation of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transglutaminase, and products of the crosslinking reaction were measured. A 5 second shear promoted {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} entry, activation of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transglutaminase and crosslinking of proteins in the membrane-cytoskeletal fraction. Pentoxifylline, a drug that promotes erythrocyte deformability, diminished Ca{sup 2+} entry and inhibited activation of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transglutaminase, and had a prophylactic role on the effects of Ca{sup 2+} entry due to shear. Incubation of cells with 2.5 mM pentoxifylline before swirling minimized the effects of shear on {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} entry, Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transglutaminase and crosslinking of proteins. This study indicates that pentoxifylline promotes erythrocyte flexibility by minimizing shear-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent crosslinking.

  15. Induction of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes during cholesterol oxidation catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, V.E.; Monovich, O.; Ribarov, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the ability of cholesterol oxidase (ChO), which catalyzes oxidation of cholesterol (Ch) to cholest-4-en-3-one and, at the same time, reduction of O/sub 2/ to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, to induce the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in plasma membranes. Erythrocyte ghosts were obtained from guinea pig blood; the reaction of oxidation of Ch in the erythrocyte ghosts or in micelles with Triton X-100 was carried out in the following medium: Tris-HCl 0.2 M, pH 7.0 (at 37 C), Triton X-100 0.25%, and ChO 0.05 U/ml. At the present time ChO is often used to study the asymmetry of distribution of Ch in biomembranes and the velocity of its transbilayer migration. It is suggested that changes in membrane permeability do not take place during the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme, and no products capable of affecting flip-flop in biological are formed. Accumulation of LPO products in erythrocyte membranes discovered in this investigation under the influence of ChO compels critical re-examination of the resutls.

  16. Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Marchesi, V. T.; Tillack, T. W.; Jackson, R. L.; Segrest, J. P.; Scott, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The major glycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane has been isolated by treatment with lithium di-iodosalicylate and found to be a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 50,000. This molecule, which is 60% carbohydrate and 40% protein, carries multiple blood-group antigens, the receptors for influenza viruses, and various plant agglutinins. Four unique carbohydrate-containing peptides (?-1, ?-2, ?-3, and ?) are produced by tryptic digestion of the isolated glycoprotein; their order in the molecule has been determined by sequential tryptic digestion of intact erythrocyte membranes and partially digested glycoprotein fragments. Cleavage of the native protein with cyanogen bromide produces five fragments; two of these (C-5 and C-1) contain most of the carbohydrate in the molecule and are derived from the N-terminal half of the polypeptide chain. The nonpolar amino acids of this glycoprotein are located predominantly in the C-terminal fragment (C-2). Phytohemagglutinin conjugated to ferritin has been used to map the distribution of glycoprotein receptors over the surfaces of intact erythrocytes by freeze-etching and electron microscopy. This label localizes to sites on the membrane that overlie the intramembranous particles. These findings suggest that the glycoprotein is oriented at the cell surface with its oligosaccharide-rich N-terminal end exposed to the exterior, while its C-terminal segment interacts with other components in the interior of the membrane to form intramembranous particles. Images PMID:4504356

  17. The effect of chelating agents on vanadium distribution in the rat body and on uptake by human erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor V. Hansen; Jan Aaseth; Jan Alexander

    1982-01-01

    Pentavalent vanadium (V5) as Na48VO3 was given i.p. to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 µmol\\/kg in order to study its organ distribution pattern. Two days after injection, kidneys reached a V level of about 28 nmol\\/g wet weight, followed in decreasing order by spleen, liver, bone, blood plasma, testis, lung, erythrocytes and brain in control rats. A

  18. Oral intake of glucose plus galactose and erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate A nutritional evaluation of hydrolyzed lactose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Barth; Nina Kopra

    1986-01-01

    Summary This study deals with the metabolic effects of hydrolyzed lactose: After an overnight fast 5 healthy adult volunteers consumed a glucose-galactose mixture equivalent to 61.4g of lactose (or 125g of a dried skim milk powder with hydrolyzed lactose). The postprandial rise of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate (gal-1-P) never exceeded 22.3 ?mol per liter packed red blood cells. This amounts to no

  19. cAMP-Signalling Regulates Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocyte Deformability Required for Malaria Parasite Transmission.

    PubMed

    Ramdani, Ghania; Naissant, Bernina; Thompson, Eloise; Breil, Florence; Lorthiois, Audrey; Dupuy, Florian; Cummings, Ross; Duffier, Yoann; Corbett, Yolanda; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Vernick, Kenneth; Taramelli, Donatella; Baker, David A; Langsley, Gordon; Lavazec, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Blocking Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes has been designated a strategic objective in the global agenda of malaria elimination. Transmission is ensured by gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE) that sequester in the bone marrow and at maturation are released into peripheral blood from where they are taken up during a mosquito blood meal. Release into the blood circulation is accompanied by an increase in GIE deformability that allows them to pass through the spleen. Here, we used a microsphere matrix to mimic splenic filtration and investigated the role of cAMP-signalling in regulating GIE deformability. We demonstrated that mature GIE deformability is dependent on reduced cAMP-signalling and on increased phosphodiesterase expression in stage V gametocytes, and that parasite cAMP-dependent kinase activity contributes to the stiffness of immature gametocytes. Importantly, pharmacological agents that raise cAMP levels in transmissible stage V gametocytes render them less deformable and hence less likely to circulate through the spleen. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors that raise cAMP levels in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, such as sildenafil, represent new candidate drugs to block transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:25951195

  20. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fennell, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn{sup ++}, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37{degree}C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn{sup ++}, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove {sup 32}P from red blood cell phosphoproteins.

  1. Enhanced erythrocytic lipid peroxides level in rabbits after repeated parental administration of iron.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, P; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Pattanaik, A K; Ranjan, R

    2005-10-01

    An experiment was conducted in rabbits to evaluate the possible involvement of oxidative stress in iron-overload animals. Ten adult female New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 2 equal groups with 5 animals each. Group II animals received intramuscular iron dextran injections (120 mg/kg body wt/day) on alternate day for 14 days (8 injections), while Group I animals did not receive any iron supplementation to serve as negative controls. The blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture before the start of iron dosing and thereafter, at weekly intervals for 28 days. The samples were processed to measure blood iron concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocytic lipid peroxide (LPO) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. The blood iron concentration showed a rising trend following repeated iron administration, and the mean level recorded on day 14 was significantly higher than respective day 0 value. LPO level remained significantly higher from day 14 onwards till the end of the observation period of 14 more days after cessation of iron adminstration. Erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activities showed a transient significant rise on day 7, and thereafter, showed a declining trend, but remained statistically comparable to respective day 0 or corresponding value of the control animals. PMID:16235716

  2. Enhanced gametocyte formation in erythrocyte progenitor cells: a site-specific adaptation by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Peatey, Christopher L; Watson, Jolanta A; Trenholme, Katharine R; Brown, Christopher L; Nielson, Lars; Guenther, Marko; Timmins, Nicholas; Watson, Gregory S; Gardiner, Donald L

    2013-10-01

    Gametocytogenesis by Plasmodium falciparum is essential for transmission of the parasite from human to mosquito, yet developing gametocytes lack expression of surface proteins required for cytoadherence. Therefore, elimination from the circulation should occur unless they are sequestered in regions of low blood flow such as the extracellular spaces of the bone marrow. Our data indicate that gametocytogenesis is enhanced in the presence of erythroid progenitors found within the bone marrow. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy indicates that developing gametocytes undergo remarkable shifts in their erythrocyte membrane elasticity, which may allow them to be retained within the bone marrow until maturation. PMID:23847056

  3. Killing me softly - suicidal erythrocyte death.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Qadri, Syed M; Lang, Florian

    2012-08-01

    Similar to nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling. Eryptotic cells are removed and thus prevented from undergoing hemolysis. Eryptosis is stimulated by Ca(2+) following Ca(2+) entry through unspecific cation channels. Ca(2+) sensitivity is enhanced by ceramide, a product of acid sphingomyelinase. Eryptosis is triggered by hyperosmolarity, oxidative stress, energy depletion, hyperthermia and a wide variety of xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Eryptosis is inhibited by nitric oxide, catecholamines and a variety of further small molecules. Erythropoietin counteracts eryptosis in part by inhibiting the Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels but by the same token may foster formation of erythrocytes, which are particularly sensitive to eryptotic stimuli. Eryptosis is triggered in several clinical conditions such as iron deficiency, diabetes, renal insufficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome, phosphate depletion, sepsis, haemolytic uremic syndrome, mycoplasma infection, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-(G6PD)-deficiency, hereditary spherocytosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and Wilson's disease. Enhanced eryptosis is observed in mice with deficient annexin 7, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI), AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK, anion exchanger AE1, adenomatous polyposis coli APC and Klotho as well as in mouse models of sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Eryptosis is decreased in mice with deficient phosphoinositide dependent kinase PDK1, platelet activating factor receptor, transient receptor potential channel TRPC6, janus kinase JAK3 or taurine transporter TAUT. If accelerated eryptosis is not compensated by enhanced erythropoiesis, clinically relevant anemia develops. Eryptotic erythrocytes may further bind to endothelial cells and thus impede microcirculation. PMID:22561748

  4. Myocardial infarction differentially alters sphingolipid levels in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets of the rat.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Ma?gorzata; Zendzian-Piotrowska, Ma?gorzata; B?achnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Zabielski, Piotr; Kurek, Krzysztof; Górski, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Three bioactive sphingolipids, namely sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), ceramide (CER) and sphingosine (SPH) were shown to be involved in ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart. S1P is a powerful cardioprotectant, CER activates apoptosis and SPH in a low dose is cardioprotective whereas in a high dose is cardiotoxic. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of experimental myocardial infarction on the level of selected sphingolipids in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets in the rat. Myocardial infarction was produced in male Wistar rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. Blood was taken from the abdominal aorta at 1, 6 and 24 h after the ligation. Plasma, erythrocytes and platelets were isolated and S1P, dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate (DHS1P), SPH, dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and CER were quantified by means of an Agilent 6460 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using positive ion electrospray ionization source with multiple reaction monitoring. The infarction reduced the plasma level of S1P, DHS1P, SPH and DHS but increased the level of total CER. In erythrocytes, there was a sharp elevation in the level of SPH and DHS early after the infarction and a reduction after 24 h whereas the level of S1P, DHS1P and total CER gradually increased. In platelets, the level of each of the examined compounds profoundly decreased 1 and 6 h after the infarction and partially normalized in 24 h. The results obtained clearly show that experimental heart infarction in rats produces deep changes in metabolism of sphingolipids in the plasma, platelets and erythrocytes. PMID:22961594

  5. Frictional characteristics of erythrocytes on coated glass plates subject to inclined centrifugal forces.

    PubMed

    Kandori, Takashi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Kousuke; Funamoto, Kenichi; Takeno, Takanori; Ohta, Makoto; Takeda, Motohiro; Shirai, Atsushi

    2008-10-01

    In recent years a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film and a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer have attracted attention as coating materials for implantable artificial organs or devices. When these materials are coated on vascular devices, compatibility to blood is an important problem. The present paper focuses on friction characteristics of erythrocytes to these coating materials in a medium. With an inclined centrifuge microscope developed by the authors, observation was made for erythrocytes moving on flat glass plates with and without coating in a medium of plasma or saline under the effect of inclined centrifugal force. Friction characteristics of erythrocytes with respect to these coating materials were then measured and compared to each other to characterize DLC and MPC as coating materials. The friction characteristics of erythrocytes in plasma using the DLC-coated and noncoated glass plates are similar, changing approximately proportional to the 0.5th power of the cell velocity. The cells stick to these plates in saline as well, implying the influence of plasma protein. The results using the MPC-coated plate in plasma are similar to those of the other plates for large cell velocities, but deviate from the other results with decreased cell velocity. The results change nearly proportional to the 0.75th power of the cell velocity in the range of small velocities. The results for the MPC-coated plate in saline are similar to that in plasma but somewhat smaller, implying that the friction characteristics for the MPC-coated plate are essentially independent of plasma protein. PMID:19045514

  6. Breast cancer risk and erythrocyte compositions of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Kiyonori; Hirose, Kaoru; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Hiraki, Akio; Saito, Toshiko; Iwata, Hiroji; Tatematsu, Masae; Tajima, Kazuo

    2007-07-15

    Dietary intake of fish rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been proposed to decrease cancer risk. In contrast to results from laboratory studies, however, protective effects for breast cancer have proved equivocal in epidemiological studies. In the present case-control study, we examined associations between breast cancer risk and fatty acid compositions in erythrocyte membranes as biomarkers for those intakes. Dietary information and blood samples were collected from 103 incident breast cancer cases and 309 non-cancer controls (matched by age and season) and erythrocyte fatty acids were measured using accelerated solvent extraction and gas-liquid chromatography. Dietary intake of n-3 HUFAs demonstrated a negative association with risk (the highest to the lowest tertile, odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.98; p(trend)<0.05), but there was no association with those of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and meat. Moreover, risk was inversely associated with erythrocyte compositions of EPA (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.14-0.53; p(trend)<0.0001), DHA (OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.02-0.16; p(trend)<0.0001) and n-3 HUFAs (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.24; p(trend)<0.0001), and positively with that of SFAs (OR, 12.29; 95% CI, 4.94-30.57; p(trend)<0.0001) and the ratio of SFAs/n-3 HUFAs (OR, 14.65; 95% CI, 5.67-37.82; p(trend)<0.0001). In conclusion, we showed that erythrocyte compositions of specific fatty acids derived from fish intake, as biomarkers, are associated with lower risk of breast cancer, but further studies are needed to investigate mechanisms linked to the etiology. PMID:17354239

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mendanha, S A; Anjos, J L V; Silva, A H M; Alonso, A

    2012-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H(2)O(2) (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H(2)O(2) (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and ?-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation. PMID:22473321

  8. Immunochemical studies on Tn erythrocyte glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lee, L T; Frank, S; de Jongh, D S; Howe, C

    1981-12-01

    Glycoproteins were extracted from membranes of erythrocytes that displayed Tn polyagglutination and were compared chemically and immunologically with glycoproteins of group O, MN cells. Tn glycoprotein had lower than normal NANA : protein and sugar : protein ratios, as revealed by direct analysis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and displayed slower immunoelectrophoretic mobility than glycoproteins of group O, MN cells. Agglutination of Tn cells by Salvia sclarea lectin was inhibited by Tn glycoprotein but not by O, MN glycoprotein. Tn and MN glycoproteins were equally potent inhibitors of influenza virus HA. Our findings indicate than Tn-specific determinants are part of the glycophorin molecule. PMID:6171313

  9. Ultrastructure and function of erythrocyte membrane skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    The membrane of the human erythrocyte is reinforced along its entire cytoplasmic surface by a two-dimensional network of peripheral proteins that closely adhere to the membrane proper through specific protein-protein interactions. This protein network resembles a shell that retains the approximate size and shape of the membrane ghost and is generally termed the skeleton. Spectrin, the major constituent of the membrane skeleton, accounts for approximately 75% of the skeletal protein mass. The molecular structure of spectrin is discussed in this paper.

  10. Fluorometric assay for red blood cell antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.B.; Lambermont, M.; Strosberg, A.D.; Wybran, J.

    1981-03-01

    A fluorometric assay is described for the detection of red blood cell antibodies. The assay reveals as little as 600 molecules of bound, fluoroesceinated rabbit anti-human IgG antibodies per erythrocyte. Eleven patients with possible autoimmune erythrocyte disorder and negative direct antiglobulin test were studied by the fluorometric assay. The outcome of the fluorometric assay was compared with that of the human allogeneic rosette test. Results obtained by the two methods were in complete agreement. Five of the patients were shown to possess unexpectedly high levels of erythrocyte-bound IgG in spite of a negative, direct antiglobulin test. These findings and the validity of the fluorometric assay are discussed.

  11. Digital image analysis of blood cells.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Lydie

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and accurate counts of red blood cells (RBCs), nucleated RBCs, platelets, and white blood cells (WBCs) (total and differential WBCs) are important requirements for a hematology laboratory. The detection of abnormal blood cell populations and the recognition of pathologic distributions of leukocytes are also of clinical importance. Manual microscopy counts are still required when a sample is flagged by the hematology analyzer and are still the reference method for WBC differential counts. Automated microscopy analyzers can provide accurate WBC differential counts, which may replace manual microscopy, but should not replace the eye of the cytologist. PMID:25676375

  12. Structural Equation Modeling for Analyzing Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in Framingham

    PubMed Central

    Pottala, James V.; Djira, Gemechis D.; Espeland, Mark A.; Larson, Martin G.; Harris, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that several types of erythrocyte fatty acids (i.e., omega-3, omega-6, and trans) are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, there are complex metabolic and dietary relations among fatty acids, which induce correlations that are typically ignored when using them as risk predictors. A latent variable approach could summarize these complex relations into a few latent variable scores for use in statistical models. Twenty-two red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids were measured in Framingham (N = 3196). The correlation matrix of the fatty acids was modeled using structural equation modeling; the model was tested for goodness-of-fit and gender invariance. Thirteen fatty acids were summarized by three latent variables, and gender invariance was rejected so separate models were developed for men and women. A score was developed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) latent variable, which explained about 30% of the variance in the data. The PUFA score included loadings in opposing directions among three omega-3 and three omega-6 fatty acids, and incorporated the biosynthetic and dietary relations among them. Whether the PUFA factor score can improve the performance of risk prediction in cardiovascular diseases remains to be tested. PMID:24959197

  13. Interaction of calcium and lead in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ong, C N; Lee, W R

    1980-02-01

    The interactions of calcium and lead on the human erythrocytes have been studied in vitro using 45Ca and 203Pb as tracers. The chemical groups binding calcium and lead on the erythrocytes were also investigated. Calcium ions in the plasma were shown to be capable of replacing the 203Pb on the red cells. More than 85% of the 203Pb in the erythrocyte was associated with the cytoplasmic components, and the rest was bound to the stromal membrane. About 90% of 45Ca was attached to erythrocyte membrane. Extraction of 45Ca and 203Pb-labelled erythrocyte membranes with chloroform/methanol mixture showed that the distribution patterns of these two nuclides are similar, with over 88% protein bound, less than 10% lipid bound, and traces in the aqueous phase. Chemical modification of erythrocyte membrane proteins with carbodi-imide, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), and maleic anhydride suggested that the carboxyl groups are responsible for binding lead and calcium to the red cell membrane. The SH groups may have a minor role in the binding for both cations. Amino groups did not appear to affect the binding of these cations. Gel chromatography of 45Ca-labelled erythrocyte membrane indicated that Ca++ bound to the same fraction of membrane proteins as 203Pb, corresponding to a molecular weight of about 130 000 to 230 000. A possible implication of these findings is that lead and calcium may compete for the same binding site(s) on the erythrocyte. PMID:7370195

  14. Blunted Apoptosis of Erythrocytes from Taurine Transporter Deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Lang; Ulrich Warskulat; Birgit Heller-Stilb; Dan Huang; Almut Grenz; Svetlana Myssina; Michael Duszenko; Florian Lang; Volker Vallon; Thomas Wieder

    2003-01-01

    In nucleated cells cellular taurine is released prior to DNA fragmentation and the breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry within the plasma membrane. Similar to what is seen in nucleated cells, phosphatidylserine asymmetry is also abolished in erythrocytes exposed to osmotic shock or oxidative stress. The present study has been performed to explore the sensitivity of erythrocytes from a taurine transporter knockout

  15. Pannexin 1 in erythrocytes: Function without a gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silviu Locovei; Li Bao; Gerhard Dahl

    2006-01-01

    ATP is a widely used extracellular signaling molecule. The mechanism of ATP release from cells is presently unresolved and may be either vesicular or channel-mediated. Erythrocytes release ATP in response to low oxygen or to shear stress. In the absence of vesicles, the release has to be through channels. Erythrocytes do not form gap junctions. Yet, here we show with

  16. Erythrocyte membrane proteins in copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.T.; Kramer, T.R.

    1987-05-01

    Increased osmotic stability and decreased survivability of erythrocytes caused by Cu deficiency suggest that low copper status may lead to modification in the organization of erythrocyte membrane proteins. Accordingly Cu deficiency was produced in rats by feeding a diet containing < 1 ppm Cu. The effects of low copper status on erythrocyte membrane proteins were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacylamide electrophoresis. A 170,000 dalton protein (170K) amounted to 2.68 +/- 0.11% of the total membrane protein in erythrocytes from copper-deficient rats (n = 25) and 1.42 +/- 0.10% in erythrocytes from rats fed adequate Cu. When erythrocyte membranes from copper-deficient rats were extracted with 0.5% (v/v) Triton X-100, 170K remained associated with the cytoskeletal proteins, spectrin and actin. Thus, copper deficiency can alter the composition of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Furthermore, hematocrit levels in copper-deficient rats were negatively correlated to the amount of 170K suggesting that alteration of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton may be a factor that contributes to the anemia associated with copper deficiency.

  17. Erythrocyte metallothionein as an index of zinc status in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, A.; Bailey, L.B.; Cousins, R.J. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Metallothionein concentrations in erythrocyte lysates derived from human subjects were measured by an ELISA procedure. IgG obtained from serum of sheep injected with human metallothionein 1 was used in this competitive assay. Subjects were fed a semipurified zinc-deficient diet for an 8-day depletion period after 3 days of acclimation. Fasting plasma zinc concentrations were reduced {approx}7%. Metallothionein in the erythrocyte lysates was significantly decreased to 59% of the initial level by the end of the depletion period. Supplementation of these depleted subjects with zinc did not increase erythrocyte metallothionein levels within 24 hr. Daily supplementation of control subjects with zinc increased erythrocyte metallothionein to a 7-fold maximum within 7 days. These levels were reduced by 61% within 14 days after zinc supplementation was terminated. Incubation of rat ({sup 35}S)metallothionein with human erythrocyte lysate showed a time-dependent increase in {sup 35}S soluble in 20% trichloroacetic acid, indicating degradation of the labeled protein, presumably via protease activity in the lysate. It is proposed that zinc supplementation induces erythrocyte metallothionein during erythropoiesis and that low zinc intake decreases synthesis and/or accelerates degradation of the protein in reticulocytes/erythrocytes. Metallothionein levels in erythrocytes may provide a useful index upon which to assess zinc status in humans.

  18. Effects of Aggregation on Blood Sedimentation and Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhbanov, Alexander; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test has been used for over a century. The Westergren method is routinely used in a variety of clinics. However, the mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation remains unclear, and the 60 min required for the test seems excessive. We investigated the effects of cell aggregation during blood sedimentation and electrical conductivity at different hematocrits. A sample of blood was drop cast into a small chamber with two planar electrodes placed on the bottom. The measured blood conductivity increased slightly during the first minute and decreased thereafter. We explored various methods of enhancing or retarding the erythrocyte aggregation. Using experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, we show that the initial increase in blood conductivity was indeed caused by aggregation, while the subsequent decrease in conductivity resulted from the deposition of erythrocytes. We present a method for calculating blood conductivity based on effective medium theory. Erythrocytes are modeled as conducting spheroids surrounded by a thin insulating membrane. A digital camera was used to investigate the erythrocyte sedimentation behavior and the distribution of the cell volume fraction in a capillary tube. Experimental observations and theoretical estimations of the settling velocity are provided. We experimentally demonstrate that the disaggregated cells settle much slower than the aggregated cells. We show that our method of measuring the electrical conductivity credibly reflected the ESR. The method was very sensitive to the initial stage of aggregation and sedimentation, while the sedimentation curve for the Westergren ESR test has a very mild slope in the initial time. We tested our method for rapid estimation of the Westergren ESR. We show a correlation between our method of measuring changes in blood conductivity and standard Westergren ESR method. In the future, our method could be examined as a potential means of accelerating ESR tests in clinical practice. PMID:26047511

  19. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Nalls; David J. Couper; Toshiko Tanaka; Frank J. A. van Rooij; Ming-Huei Chen; Albert V. Smith; Daniela Toniolo; Neil A. Zakai; Qiong Yang; Andreas Greinacher; Andrew R. Wood; Melissa Garcia; Paolo Gasparini; Yongmei Liu; Thomas Lumley; Aaron R. Folsom; Alex P. Reiner; Christian Gieger; Vasiliki Lagou; Janine F. Felix; Henry Völzke; Natalia A. Gouskova; Alessandro Biffi; Angela Döring; Uwe Völker; Sean Chong; Kerri L. Wiggins; Augusto Rendon; Abbas Dehghan; Matt Moore; Kent Taylor; James G. Wilson; Guillaume Lettre; Albert Hofman; Joshua C. Bis; Nicola Pirastu; Caroline S. Fox; Christa Meisinger; Jennifer Sambrook; Sampath Arepalli; Matthias Nauck; Holger Prokisch; Jonathan Stephens; Nicole L. Glazer; L. Adrienne Cupples; Yukinori Okada; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoichiro Kamatani; Koichi Matsuda; Tatsuhiko Tsunoda; Toshihiro Tanaka; Michiaki Kubo; Yusuke Nakamura; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Naoyuki Kamatani; Michael Stumvoll; Anke Tönjes; Inga Prokopenko; Thomas Illig; Kushang V. Patel; Stephen F. Garner; Brigitte Kuhnel; Massimo Mangino; Ben A. Oostra; Swee Lay Thein; Josef Coresh; H.-Erich Wichmann; Stephan Menzel; JingPing Lin; Giorgio Pistis; André G. Uitterlinden; Tim D. Spector; Alexander Teumer; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Vilmundur Gudnason; Stefania Bandinelli; Timothy M. Frayling; Aravinda Chakravarti; Cornelia M. van Duijn; David Melzer; Willem H. Ouwehand; Daniel Levy; Eric Boerwinkle; Andrew B. Singleton; Dena G. Hernandez; Dan L. Longo; Nicole Soranzo; Jacqueline C. M. Witteman; Bruce M. Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Tamara B. Harris; Christopher J. ODonnell; Santhi K. Ganesh

    2011-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten

  20. Obesity and Immune Cell Counts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Julie; Tien, Phyllis C.; Feldman, Joseph; Shin, Ja Hyun; Fennie, Kristopher; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H.; Bacon, Melanie C.; Minkoff, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Objective Obesity is common in women and associated with a number of adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, infectious diseases, and cancer. We explore the relationship between obesity and immune cell counts in women. Design Longitudinal study of 322 women from 1999 through 2003 enrolled as HIV-negative comparators in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Methods Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as normal weight (BMI 18.5 - 24.9), overweight (BMI 25 - 29.9), obese (BMI 30 - 34.9), and morbid obesity (BMI ?35). CD4 and CD8 counts and percents, total lymphocyte and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured annually using standardized techniques. A mixed model repeated measures analysis was performed using an autoregressive correlation matrix. Results At the index visit, 61% of women were African-American; mean age was 35 years, and median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Immunologic parameters were in the normal range (median CD4 count: 995 cells/mm3; CD8 count: 488 cells/mm3; total lymphocyte count: 206 cells/mm3; median WBC: 6 × 103 cells/mm3). In multivariate analyses, being overweight, obese or morbidly obese were independently associated with higher CD4, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts than being normal weight; morbid obesity was associated with a higher CD8 count. The strongest associations between body weight and immune cell counts were demonstrated in the morbidly obese. Conclusion Increasing body weight is associated with higher CD4, CD8, total lymphocyte, and WBC counts in women. Investigation into the impact of obesity on immune function and long term adverse outcomes is needed. PMID:17570264