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Sample records for blood count erythrocyte

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  3. Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood cell counts and the Dst

    E-print Network

    Dasso, Sergio

    for the transport of oxygen, coagulation and the immune response respectively. In the healthy subject, blood cell type of blood cell are expected to reflect the intrinsic dynamics of the hematologic system and its response to various intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations. We analyze blood cell counts from two sheep over

  4. Erythrocyte and blood antibacterial defense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is an axiom that blood cellular immunity is provided by leukocytes. As to erythrocytes, it is generally accepted that their main function is respiration. Our research provides objective video and photo evidence regarding erythrocyte bactericidal function. Phase-contrast immersion vital microscopy of the blood of patients with bacteremia was performed, and the process of bacteria entrapping and killing by erythrocytes was shot by means of video camera. Video evidence demonstrates that human erythrocytes take active part in blood bactericidal action and can repeatedly engulf and kill bacteria of different species and size. Erythrocytes are extremely important integral part of human blood cellular immunity. Compared with phagocytic leukocytes, the erythrocytes: a) are more numerous; b) are able to entrap and kill microorganisms repeatedly without being injured; c) are more resistant to infection and better withstand the attacks of pathogens; d) have longer life span and are produced faster; e) are inauspicious media for proliferation of microbes and do not support replication of chlamidiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, viruses, etc.; and f) are more effective and uncompromised bacterial killers. Blood cellular immunity theory and traditional view regarding the function of erythrocytes in human blood should be revised. PMID:24883200

  5. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Test: Hemoglobin Blood Culture Anemia Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests All About Allergies Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures (Video Landing Page) Getting a ...

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site. PMID:24643248

  7. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes unusually large cell Sizes in all cell categories. Cell measurements revealed erythrocytes larger than those

  8. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS

    E-print Network

    DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from

  9. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  10. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  11. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  16. Changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes resulting from blood storage.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-08-01

    The storage of blood for 24 h at 10 degrees C caused significant changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes of pigeons, peafowls, domestic fowls, lizards and toads. Significant decreases in fragility were seen with pigeon and peafowl erythrocytes. However, the osmotic fragility of domestic fowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased significantly. PMID:7863738

  17. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  18. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  19. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  20. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

  2. Sickled erythrocytes, hyphema, and secondary glaucoma: III. Effects of sicle cell and normal human blood samples in rabbit anterior chambers.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M F; Dizon, R; Raichand, M; Goldbaum, M; Jampol, L M

    1979-04-01

    When injected into rabbit anterior chambers, human sickle cell erythrocytes cause more intense and prolonged effects than do nonsickling erythrocytes. The consequences of injected sickle cell trait erythrocytes are not less severe than those of injected SC, SS, and Sthal erythrocytes. Regardless of hemoglobin composition, blood with a higher hematocrit value causes more severe complications than blood with a lower hematocrit value. PMID:460815

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    and circulate throughout the bloodstream and lymphatic system. An infection or a physical injury results and manual counting methods. Introduction White blood cells are the effector cells of the immune system

  4. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, D.W.; Knoll, J.H.M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Flint, A.F. ); Pizzimenti, M.F. ); Latt, S.A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1990-05-01

    Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, they were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations.

  5. Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N P; Buggins, A G; Snijders, R J; Jenkins, E; Layton, D M; Nicolaides, K H

    1992-01-01

    Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts increased linearly and the number of neutrophils increased exponentially from a mean value of 0.2 x 10(9)/l at 18 weeks to 0.8 x 10(9)/l at 31 weeks and then 8.5 x 10(9)/l at term. Early myeloid cells, eosinophils, and basophils were observed in 24%, 55%, and 15% of the blood films respectively; they contributed less than 2% to the total leucocyte count and there were no significant changes with gestation. The physiological leucopenia observed in fetuses early in the third trimester may partly explain the predisposition of premature neonates to infection. PMID:1586178

  6. Cord blood full blood count parameters in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adewumi, Adediran; Titilope A, Adeyemo; Akinsegun, Akinbami A; Abidoye, Gbadegesin; Ebele, Uche; Sulaimon, Akanmu A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Full blood count (FBC), one of the most frequently requested for laboratory investigations, is a simple, fast and cheap test and is a reliable indicator of health. Due to its usefulness in the assessment of health status of individuals, its parameters in cord blood, a major source of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation and an ideal source for laboratory investigations for newborns were determined to provide a useful guide to local neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians. Methods Three millilitres of umbilical cord blood was collected from 130 normal birth weight newborns (69 males and 61 females) whose cord were clamped immediately after delivery, at a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria and full blood count parameters were determined using Sysmex autoanalyzer, model KX-21N. Consented mothers of the newborns were selected based on, age between 18 and 45 years; uneventful pregnancy and delivery and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration ? 10 g/dL. Results There were no statistical gender differences in the mean values of Hb concentrations (M = 13.27 ±1.60 g/dL; F = 13.32±1.61g/dL; p = 0.93), total white cell count (M = 3.16±5.43 × 109/L; F = 13.07±4.98 × 109/L; p= 0.92), platelet count (M= 223.64± 64.21 × 109/L; F = 226.69±80.83 × 109/L; p = 0.81) and other parameters. Conclusion Mean values of full blood count parameters obtained in this study are comparable to reports from other studies in developing countries and could be a useful guide for neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians in our geographical location. PMID:25396018

  7. Biophotonics of the interaction of low-intensity laser radiation with blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blood erythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.

  8. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  9. Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

  10. Erythrocyte rheology.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J

    1985-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was formerly measured by its contribution to whole blood viscosity. It is now more commonly measured by filtration of erythrocytes through, or aspiration into, pores of 3-5 microns diameter and by the measurement of shear induced erythrocyte elongation using laser diffractometry. Recent improvements in the technology for erythrocyte filtration have included the removal of acute phase reactants from test erythrocyte suspensions, ultrasonic cleaning and reuse of filter membranes, awareness of the importance of mean cell volume as a determinant of flow through 3 microns diameter pores, and the ability to detect subpopulations of less deformable erythrocytes. Measurements of erythrocyte elongation by laser diffractometry, using the Ektacytometer, are also influenced by cell size and need to be corrected for mean cell volume. These advances have greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of rheological methods for measuring the deformability of erythrocytes and for investigating the mode of action of rheologically active drugs. Images PMID:3900147

  11. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Indications for a WBC count include infectious and inflammatory diseases; leukemia and lymphoma; and bone marrow disorders. ... numbers of WBCs (leukocytosis) may indicate: infectious diseases ... (such as rheumatoid arthritis or allergy) leukemia severe ...

  12. Intracellular erythrocyte platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase I inactivates aspirin in blood.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A(2) with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A(2) synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood. PMID:21844189

  13. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergy) Inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis) Some leukemias (e.g., chronic myeloid leukemia) Known as basopenia As with eosinophils, numbers are normally low in the blood; usually not ...

  14. Erythrocyte Concentrates Recovered from Under-Collected Whole Blood: Experimental and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Min-Hui; Liu, Yan-Chun; Cai, Li; Li, Zheng-Gang; Huang, Bing; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jun; Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although periodic blood shortages are widespread in major Chinese cities, approximately 1x105 U of whole blood are discarded yearly because of under-collection. To reduce the wastage of acid citrate dextrose solution B (ACD-B) anticoagulated under-collected whole blood (UC-WB), this study was performed to elucidate the effect of extracellular pH and holding time on erythrocyte quality. Mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP) erythrocyte concentrates (UC-RBCs) were prepared with UC-WB to assess the safety and efficacy of this component. Methods The effect of the different extracellular pH levels and storage times on erythrocytes was assessed by fluorescent probes, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. In vitro properties of 34 UC-RBCs that were prepared with UC-WB at different times after collection were analyzed and compared to normal RBCs during 35 days of storage. The results of transfusion with UC-RBCs and the incidence of adverse reactions in 49 patients were determined. Results 1) Low extracellular pH levels and long storage time induced increases in RBC fluorescence polarization and mean microviscosity, changes in membrane fluidity, band 1, 2 and 3 protein expression, and erythrocyte morphology. 2) During storage for 35 days, difference in between-subjects effects of K+, hemolysis and supernatant erythrocyte membrane protein (EMP) were statistically significant (P = 0.041, 0.007 and 0.002, respectively), while the differences between these parameters in the 4 h group and comparable controls were less significant. 3) Clinical data from 49 patients confirmed that transfusions with UC-RBCs were satisfactory with no adverse reactions. Conclusion These results suggest that it is feasible to prepare RBCs with ACD-B anticoagulated UC-WB at a minimum of 66% volume of the labeled collection. It was effective and safe to transfuse the UC-RBCs prepared within 4 h after collection and stored within 7 days. The use of UC-WB would be a welcome addition to limited blood resources in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003967 PMID:25706725

  15. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R (2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R (2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206

  16. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  17. [Temporary changes and permanent changes in the erythrocyte blood-group antigens in malignant hemopathies].

    PubMed

    Hafner, V; Coatmelec, M; Niculescu, R

    1996-01-01

    Samples of peripheral blood were taken from 11 patients (blood group A, B and O), suffering from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), before and after chemotherapy, compared to normal control samples. The RBC's typing was done by standard agglutination technique (with conventional human and murine anti-sera) and flow cytometry. While using different reagent dilutions, a lower expression of the A or B antigen was noticed in all patients, even if direct typing of the RBC's revealed an apparently normal pattern. The most important depletion of antigenic expression was found to correspond to the highest concentration of myeloblasts in the bone marrow, with hypoplastic erythrocytic series. The modified H reactivity, detected at admission, was still present after complete remission, as an expression of the residual disease. Studies of the H expression could eventually become a parameter of evaluating the moment of relapse of the myeloproliferative disease. PMID:9221050

  18. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  19. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  20. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  1. Evidence that several high-frequency human blood group antigens reside on phosphatidylinositol-linked erythrocyte membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Telen, M J; Rosse, W F; Parker, C J; Moulds, M K; Moulds, J J

    1990-04-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder associated with absence of expression of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked membrane proteins from circulating hematopoietic cells of multiple lineages. Recent work demonstrated that decay accelerating factor, one such PI-linked protein, bears the Cromer-related blood group antigens. This study demonstrated that other high incidence antigens, including Cartwright (Yta/Ytb), Holley-Gregory (Hy/Gya), John Milton Hagen (JMH), and Dombrock (Doa/Dob), are absent from the complement-sensitive (PNH III) erythrocytes of patients with PNH. The relatively normal, complement-insensitive erythrocytes from the same patients express these antigens normally. Therefore, these antigens most likely reside on PI-linked proteins absent from PNH III, but not PNH I, erythrocytes. PMID:2317557

  2. Image cytometric measurements of diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish erythrocytes in blood smears reflect the true dimensions of live cells.

    PubMed

    Flajšhans, Martin; Pšeni?ka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; T?šitel, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Comparative image cytometry of erythrocytes of diploid and triploid tench Tinca tinca L. and evolutionary tetraploid sterlet Acipenser ruthenus L. was performed on whole live unstained cells, live cells with stained nuclei and on stained fixed whole cells and their nuclei to test if erythrocyte measurements made from blood smears reflect the true dimensions of live cells. Nuclear area and perimeter were the best ploidy level predictors distinguishing accurately among live and fixed diploid, triploid and tetraploid cells, without significant differences between live and fixed cells within a ploidy level. Redundancy analysis revealed insignificant marginal effect of fixation (explained 2.3% of variation, F = 0.804), whereas the effect of ploidy level was highly significant (explained 50.6% of variation, F = 34.874). The erythrocyte measurements of diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish erythrocytes and their nuclei made from blood smears reflect the true dimensions of live cells, and the fixation procedure did not substantially affect their predictive value for ploidy level determination. PMID:20812918

  3. Interactions of dendritic glycopolymer with erythrocytes, red blood cell ghosts and membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Maly, Jan

    2015-12-30

    Interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s (95% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI A; 33% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI B) and red blood cells (RBCs) and between red blood cell membranes were investigated. We monitored the degree of hemolysis, the change in cell shape, the influence of polymers on the fluidity of the cell membrane and some cell membrane enzymes to determine their possible cytotoxic impact on them. To observe the extent of hemolysis, the RBCs were incubated with different concentrations of Mal-PEIs. The first significant lysis of RBCs was observed after 6h of incubation. Prolongation of the incubation time increased the number of ruptured cells. Moreover, we observed that Mal-PEI B was more hemolytic than Mal-PEI A in buffer solution. In contrast, an incubation of RBCs with Mal-PEIs in human plasma significantly decreased the hemolytic process and showed higher hemolytic property of Mal-PEI A compared to Mal-PEI B. Also several changes in the shape of the RBCs occurred after incubation with Mal-PEIs. Some of the erythrocytes shrank (echinocytes), but their morphology generally remained unchanged during the incubation. As shown by fluorescence experiments, both polymers induced the increase of fluidity of RBCs membranes. In summary, both types of hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s were practically non-hemolytic even at high polymer concentrations. Mal-PEI B was slightly more noxious than the Mal-PEI A in a buffer solution, while in blood plasma, the situation was opposite. Decrease of Na+/K+ ATPase and total ATPase enzymes activity was related with molecule size and number of maltose groups on the surface of molecule. The low hemolytic properties only observed at higher concentration (100?M and 400?M) indicated that Mal-PEIs are promising macromolecules in the area of drug delivery systems. PMID:26498371

  4. Preliminary Discussion On The Three Dimensional Space Quantitative Analysis Of Erythrocytes By SEMP And Some Applications On The Clinic And Research Of Blood Disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian-Huang, Lu; Wen-Meng, Tong; Zhi-Jun, Zhang; Gui-Huan, He; Su-Hui, Huan

    1989-04-01

    The abnormity of the quality and quantity for erythrocytes is one of the important changes of blood disease. It shows the abnormal blood-making function of human body. Therefore, the study of the change of shape of erythrocytes is the indispensible and important basis of reference in the clinic, diagnose and research of blood disease. In this paper, a preliminary discussion is made on the acquisition of scanning stereographs for erythrocytes, the application of the theory of photographic measurement on the three dimensional space quantitative analysis of erythrocytes, drawings of isoline map and section map of various erythrocytes for normal persons, paroxysmal nocturanal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and aplastic anemia patients, study of the shape characteristics of normal erythrocytes and various abnormal erytnrocytes and the applications in clinic, diagnose and research. This research is a combination of microphotogrammetry and erythrocyte morphology. It is polssible to push fotward the study of erythrocyte morphology from LM, SEM to a higher stage of scanning electron micrographic photogrammetry(SEMP) for stereograpic observationand three diamensional quantitative analysis to explore a new path for the further study of the shape of erthrocytes.

  5. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³?Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors. PMID:24064533

  6. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

  7. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID:26555819

  8. Whole blood lead concentration and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in selected canine populations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Kontos, V S; Koutinas, A F; Papasteriades, A

    1994-12-01

    In a total number of 275 dogs of various ages, sex and breed, blood lead concentrations (BLC) and erythrocyte ALAD activity were measured. Sixty-six of the dogs were living in lead mining areas (Group A), 157 in urban areas (Group B) and 52 in rural areas (Group C) of Greece. Mean BLC differed significantly (P < 0.05) between locations and were 326,97 and 68 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean ALAD activity was significantly different (P < 0.05) only between Groups A and B as between groups A and C. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation existed between BLC and ALAD activity. A normal range of erythrocyte ALAD activity of 807-992 mumol/PBG/LRBC/h was established for dogs. None of the 33 Group A dogs and 2 of the Group B dogs that had a BLC of 350 micrograms/L presented clinical signs indicating acute or chronic lead intoxication. No erythrocyte basophilic stippling or large number of nucleated red blood cells were seen in the 30 dogs of Group A with BLC > 350 micrograms/L. PMID:7599513

  9. Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device

    E-print Network

    Zimmerman, Julia C

    2011-01-01

    As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

  10. The effect of osmotic swelling and hemolysis of erythrocytes on the transmission spectra of radiation by a layer of diluted blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, E. K.; Davydovskii, A. G.

    2010-08-01

    We study how the degree of violation of osmotic equilibrium affects the spectral characteristics of radiation scattered by erythrocyte suspensions in media of various osmolarity. The transmission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 450-860 nm for blood samples diluted with NaCl water solutions of various concentration. From an analysis of numerical simulation results and experimental data, we show that measuring the light scattering characteristics constitutes the basis of a new optical method for determining erythrocyte osmotic resistance. The method excludes the necessity of strong action on erythrocytes, differs in its simplicity and expressivity, and can be implemented using standard spectrometers.

  11. Comparison of haemolytic activity of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata in diluted whole blood and erythrocyte suspension: diluted whole blood is a valid test system for haemolysis study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xiao, Liang; He, Qian; Liu, Sihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Liming

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we utilized two different test systems to compare the haemolysis of tentacle-only extract (TOE) devoid of nematocysts from jellyfish Cyanea capillata, the 1% whole blood and 0.45% erythrocyte suspension approximately with the same erythrocyte concentration from the blood samples of sheep, rabbit, mouse, rat and human, respectively. Without exception, the haemolytic activity of TOE was dose-dependent in both test systems from all the five kinds of blood samples, while it was generally stronger in erythrocyte suspension than that in diluted whole blood at the relatively high concentration of TOE. When various aliquots of plasma were added into the erythrocyte suspension test system, the haemolytic activity of TOE was declined with the plasma quantity increasing, and dropped to about 20% at the presence of two aliquots of plasma. If serum albumin of 0.5 mg/ml, approximately the same albumin content in 1% whole blood, was added into the erythrocyte suspension test system instead, the haemolysis of TOE was similarly inhibited. The effects of GSH, ascorbic acid and protease inhibitor on the haemolytic activity of TOE were detected in the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood simultaneously, and the test results were coincident between the two systems. These results suggested that the inconsistency of TOE haemolysis between the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood is a universal occurrence in the mammals, and blood plasma plays a dose-dependent protective role against haemolysis which may be due to serum albumin. Diluted whole blood is a valid and convenient test system for haemolysis study in vitro. PMID:21474292

  12. Targeted mutagenesis of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 3 (PfEMP3) disrupts cytoadherence of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Waterkeyn, J G; Wickham, M E; Davern, K M; Cooke, B M; Coppel, R L; Reeder, J C; Culvenor, J G; Waller, R F; Cowman, A F

    2000-06-15

    Adhesion of parasite-infected red blood cells to the vascular endothelium is a critical event in the pathogenesis of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Adherence is mediated by the variant erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). Another protein, erythrocyte membrane protein-3 (PfEMP3), is deposited under the membrane of the parasite-infected erythrocyte but its function is unknown. Here we show that mutation of PfEMP3 disrupts transfer of PfEMP1 to the outside of the P.FALCIPARUM:-infected cell. Truncation of the C-terminal end of PfEMP3 by transfection prevents distribution of this large (>300 kDa) protein around the membrane but does not disrupt trafficking of the protein from the parasite to the cytoplasmic face of the erythrocyte membrane. The truncated PfEMP3 accumulates in structures that appear to be associated with the erythrocyte membrane. We show that accumulation of mutated PfEMP3 blocks the transfer of PfEMP1 onto the outside of the parasitized cell surface and suggest that these proteins traffic through an erythrocyte membrane-associated compartment that is involved in the transfer of PfEMP1 to the surface of the parasite-infected red blood cell. PMID:10856227

  13. Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y L; Carter, N P; Price, C M; Colman, S M; Milton, P J; Hackett, G A; Greaves, M F; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    1993-01-01

    Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching for fetal nucleated erythrocytes which do not express either of these antigens. However, significant maternal contamination was present even after MACS enrichment preventing the accurate analysis of fetal cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). To overcome this problem, we used simultaneous immunophenotyping of cells with the mouse antifetal haemoglobin antibody, UCH gamma, combined with FISH analysis using chromosome X and Y specific DNA probes. This approach enables selective FISH analysis of fetal cells within an excess of maternal cells. Furthermore, we have confirmed the potential of the method for clinical practice by a pilot prospective study of fetal sex in women referred for amniocentesis between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation. Images PMID:8133505

  14. Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers

    PubMed Central

    NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

  15. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  16. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S.; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M. S. E.; Ackermann, Teresa F.; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk?/?) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk+/+). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk?/? and msk+/+ mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk?/? mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk?/? and msk+/+ erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk?/? erythrocytes than in msk+/+ erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk?/? erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk?/? mice. The spleens from msk?/? mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk+/+ mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  17. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ackermann, Teresa F; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P; Arthur, J Simon C; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk(+/+)). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk(-/-) mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk(-/-) erythrocytes than in msk(+/+) erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk(-/-) erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk(-/-) mice. The spleens from msk(-/-) mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk(+/+) mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  18. RALP1 Is a Rhoptry Neck Erythrocyte-Binding Protein of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites and a Potential Blood-Stage Vaccine Candidate Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Arumugam, Thangavelu U.; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Takeo, Satoru; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek; Long, Carole A.; Torii, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate. PMID:24002067

  19. Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

    2005-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

  20. Concise Review: Stem Cell-Derived Erythrocytes as Upcoming Players in Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeuner, Ann; Martelli, Fabrizio; Vaglio, Stefania; Federici, Giulia; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements. PMID:22644674

  1. AMPK?1 Deletion Shortens Erythrocyte Life Span in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobin; Dale, George L.; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-hui

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPK?1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPK?1 (AMPK?1?/?), but not in those lacking AMPK?2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPK?1?/? mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPK?1?/? mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPK?1?/? erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPK?1?/? mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPK?1?/? mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPK?1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes. PMID:20392689

  2. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  3. Differences in Rat and Human Erythrocytes Following Blood Component Manufacturing: The Effect of Additive Solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SilveiraCavalcante, Luciana; Acker, Jason P.; Holovati, Jelena L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small animal models have been previously used in transfusion medicine studies to evaluate the safety of blood transfusion products. Although there are multiple studies on the effects of blood banking practices on human red blood cells (RBCs), little is known about the effect of blood component manufacturing on the quality of rat RBCs. Methods Blood from Sprague-Dawley rats and human volunteers (n = 6) was collected in CPD anticoagulant, resuspended in SAGM or AS3, and leukoreduced. In vitro quality was analyzed, including deformability, aggregation, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, percent hemolysis, ATP, 2,3-DPG, osmotic fragility, and potassium concentrations. Results Compared to human RBCs, rat RBCs had decreased deformability, membrane rigidity, aggregability, and microvesiculation after component manufacturing process. Rat RBCs in SAGM showed higher hemolysis compared to human RBCs in SAGM (rat 4.70 ± 0.83% vs. human 0.34 ± 0.07%; p = 0.002). Rat RBCs in AS3 had greater deformability and rigidity than in SAGM. The number of microparticles/µl and the percentage PS expression were lower in rat RBCs in AS3 than in rat RBCs in SAGM. Hemolysis was also significantly lower in AS3 compared to SAGM (2.21 ± 0.68% vs. 0.87 ± 0.39%; p = 0.028). Conclusion Rat RBCs significantly differ from human RBCs in metabolic and membrane-related aspects. SAGM, which is commonly used for human RBC banking, causes high hemolysis and is not compatible with rat RBCs. PMID:26195928

  4. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  5. MULTICOMPARTMENT KINETIC MODEL FOR LEAD. PART 3. LEAD IN BLOOD PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...

  6. Full blood count pattern of pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun; Popoola, Abiodun; Adediran, Adewumi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Adebola, Philip; Ajibola, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Full blood count has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full blood count parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full blood count analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full blood count pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls. PMID:24009939

  7. Prospective study on the effect of smoking and nicotine substitution on leucocyte blood counts and relation between blood leucocytes and lung function

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, E. J.; Pedersen, B.; Frederiksen, R.; Dahl, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.?METHODS—The study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking.?RESULTS—Blood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil blood count was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte blood counts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte blood counts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte blood count at 12 weeks after smoking cessation.?CONCLUSIONS—Leucocyte blood counts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil blood counts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte blood counts in smokers.?? PMID:10319062

  8. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Derived from Grand Multigravidae Display a Distinct Cytokine Profile in Response to P. falciparum Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Louise E.; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J.; Forbes, Emily K.; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W.; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5–7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2–4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5–7 compared to G2–4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

  9. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from grand multigravidae display a distinct cytokine profile in response to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Louise E; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J; Forbes, Emily K; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5-7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2-4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5-7 compared to G2-4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

  10. White Blood Cell Count and Mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC. PMID:17481443

  11. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B.; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 ± 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  12. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test.

    PubMed

    Rana, Amrit Pal Singh; Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 ± 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  13. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jäger, Kathrin; Brüggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 ± 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48–1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  14. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  15. Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Haugen, T; Scott, C S

    2001-10-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks are required to implement control procedures, and the determination of platelet counts in particular is necessary to confirm that the quality of platelet unit production meets the standards defined by national or international guidelines. Apart from linearity analysis and comparisons of platelet counts given by different instruments, there has been no systematic standardisation of platelet counting methods in blood bank practice because to date there has been no suitable reference method for counting platelets in citrate anticoagulants. The recent introduction of an automated immunoplatelet procedure on the Cell-Dyn CD4000 provides a means of determining a true platelet count that is unaffected by changes induced either by storage or anticoagulant. The CD4000 in its routine configuration also provides simultaneous impedance and optical platelet counts and this study was therefore undertaken in order to compare all three different platelet counting methods in parallel with a representative series of platelet units. Platelet counts determined after sub-sampling of platelet units into EDTA vs plain non-anticoagulated tubes revealed no differences in impedance or immunoplatelet counts but generally lower optical counts when aliquoted into tubes that did not contain EDTA. This study therefore routinely used EDTA for platelet unit sub-samples. Comparative results of platelet counts for buffy coat platelet units (n = 36) aliquoted into EDTA indicated that the impedance count was higher than the reference immunoplatelet count by a mean factor of 1.25 while the optical count was lower by a mean factor of 0.87. The degree of impedance count overestimation was particularly consistent while the optical count underestimation was more variable. Linearity studies of 10 fresh platelet units showed no deviation in the range 0-2305 x 10(9) l(-1) for impedance and 0 to 1420 x 10(9) l(-1) for the optical counts, and the relative numerical relationships between impedance and optical counts were conserved throughout the range of dilutions tested. In the CD4000 optical analysis, blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA showed a distinctive elliptical population distribution that fell within the system thresholds. In contrast, the optical pattern observed for platelet units (in CPD) and ACD-anticoagulated venous blood showed a wider 90 degrees scatter with a population of platelet events above the upper parallel discriminator. As these were excluded from the optical count (but were still identified as platelets by the immunoplatelet method) it meant that the optical counts of samples in citrate-based anticoagulants were systematically lower than immunoplatelet counts. Platelet units (n = 15) analysed daily over a seven day period of storage revealed that the greatest decline in platelet counts was with the optical measurement while the most stable value was obtained by impedance analysis. The results of the immunoplatelet analysis further suggested a progressive increase in small platelets with increasing storage time. The use in this study of a standardised immunoplatelet reference method to examine the question of analyser suitability for determining platelet counts/yields of platelet units thus provided a number of important findings. An impedance platelet counting method is utilised by the great majority of haematology instruments in current use, and in common with the CD4000 analyser, a correction factor is employed to take account of RBC/platelet coincidence. This study found that when analysed samples such as platelet units were RBC-free, that an inappropriate correction factor was applied. Consequently, the CD4000

  16. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 ?m fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  17. [Seasonal changes in mechanical resistance of erythrocytes of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus)].

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Shchenyavsky, I I

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes of relative blood reticulocyte counts, free plasma hemoglobin and mechanical erythrocyte resistance were studied in the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus), under different functional conditions (winter hibernation, forced arousal in winter, and summer activity). A significant increase in reticulocyte counts in the ground squirrel blood was observed in April and October, indicating enhancement of erythropoeisis. This conclusion is also confirmed by a significant increase in free plasma hemoglobin at these periods. It has been also shown that erythrocytes of hibernating and forcibly awaken winter ground squirrels have a significantly lower mechanical resistance in comparison with those of active summer animals. The obtained data indicate that during the periods preceding the onset of winter hibernation and transition to summer activity there occurs a seasonal replacement of the erythrocyte pool by a pool more adapted to performance of functions in the novel functional state of the animal-hibernator. PMID:25786319

  18. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... is 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal One ...

  19. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  20. Association between pre–biopsy white blood cell count and prostate biopsy – related sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Suleyman; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Akdemir, Alp Ozgur; Erkmen, Akif Ersoy; Memis, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite all preventive measures and improved biopsy techniques, serious, life–threatening complications of prostate biopsy, including sepsis, still exist. In the present study, in order to identify the risk factors that may be associated with sepsis development after prostate–biopsy, we aimed to analyze retrospectively the data of our patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 889 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at our clinic. We compared pre–biopsy parameters (age, prostate volume, white blood cell (WBC) count, fasting blood glucose, free and total prostate specific antigen levels) between patients who developed sepsis and those who were sepsis–free following prostate biopsy. Results 28 patients (3.1%) developed sepsis. Among the risk factors evaluated, only pre–biopsy WBC count was found to be a significant risk factor for biopsy–related sepsis. A 5.1 fold increase was detected in the risk for sepsis development, when the cut–off value of WBC was accepted as 11.165/?L, OR: 5.1 (95% CI: 2.3–11.5). The post–biopsy sepsis development rate in patients with pre–biopsy WBC count greater and less than 11.165/?L was 13.7% (n = 10) and 3% (n = 18) respectively. Conclusions Patients with a pre–biopsy WBC count greater than 11.165/?L should be informed of the increased risk of developing post–biopsy sepsis. PMID:25914844

  1. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  2. Kolaviron Improved Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Blood (Erythrocyte, Serum, and Plasma) of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayepola, Omolola R.; Brooks, Nicole L.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Bitter kola seed (Garcinia kola, family: Guttiferae) has been used as a social masticatory agent in Africa for several years and is believed to possess many useful medicinal properties. The present study evaluates the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects of kolaviron (an extract from the Garcinia kola seeds) in the blood of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetic rats were treated with kolaviron (100?mg/kg b·wt) orally, five times a week for a period of six weeks. Serum glucose and HBA1C concentrations were estimated in experimental groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (in erythrocytes) as well as plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor: interleukin- (IL-) 1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were also analyzed. Results. Kolaviron treatment markedly improved antioxidant status and abated inflammatory response evidenced by reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor, lipid peroxidation product, and the restoration of activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in the blood of diabetic rats. Conclusion. Kolaviron improved antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, and protected against hyperglycemic-induced oxidative damage in the blood of diabetic rats. PMID:24795542

  3. Phospholipid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma of mammalian blood including Australian marsupials; quantitative 31P NMR analysis using detergent.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Sorkhabi, M H; Agar, N S; Sullivan, D R; Gallagher, C; Kuchel, P W

    1996-02-01

    The phospholipid classes of erythrocyte membranes and plasma from several domestic animals and marsupials were quantified by 31P NMR using detergents. Washed erythrocyte samples were thoroughly haemolysed by tip-sonication and dissolved in sodium cholate; plasma samples were dissolved in Triton X-100. The species studied were: common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), black-striped wallaby (Macropus dorsalis), bandicoot (Isoodon macrocarpus), Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), dog (Canus familiaris) and rabbit (Orytolagus caniculus). There were considerable species variations in the relative abundance of erythrocyte and plasma phospholipid classes. The variations may be attributed to the habitats and diets of the animals as well as to their phylogenetic differences. PMID:8653579

  4. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  5. Microfluidic-based measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate for biophysical assessment of blood in an in vivo malaria-infected mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study suggests a new erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement method for the biophysical assessment of blood by using a microfluidic device. For an effective ESR measurement, a disposable syringe filled with blood is turned upside down and aligned at 180° with respect to gravitational direction. When the blood sample is delivered into the microfluidic device from the top position of the syringe, the hematocrit of blood flowing in the microfluidic channel decreases because the red blood cell-depleted region is increased from the top region of the syringe. The variation of hematocrit is evaluated by consecutively capturing images and conducting digital image processing technique for 10?min. The dynamic variation of ESR is quantitatively evaluated using two representative parameters, namely, time constant (?) and ESR-area (AESR). To check the performance of the proposed method, blood samples with various ESR values are prepared by adding different concentrations of dextran solution. ? and AESR are quantitatively evaluated by using the proposed method and a conventional method, respectively. The proposed method can be used to measure ESR with superior reliability, compared with the conventional method. The proposed method can also be used to quantify ESR of blood collected from malaria-infected mouse under in vivo condition. To indirectly compare with the results obtained by the proposed method, the viscosity and velocity of the blood are measured using the microfluidic device. As a result, the biophysical properties, including ESR and viscosity of blood, are significantly influenced by the parasitemia level. These experimental demonstrations support the notion that the proposed method is capable of effectively monitoring the biophysical properties of blood. PMID:25379099

  6. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free ?-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  7. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

  8. Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre?>?400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis. PMID:25018781

  9. Large Scale-Invariant Fluctuations in Normal Blood Cell Counts A sign of criticality?

    E-print Network

    Perazzo, C A; Chialvo, D R; Willshaw, P; Perazzo, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Elmer A.; Chialvo, Dante R.; Willshaw, Peter

    2000-01-01

    All types of blood cells are formed by differentiation from a small self-maintaining population of pluri-potential stem cells in the bone marrow. Despite abundant information on the molecular aspects of division, differentiation, commitment and maturation of these cells, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of the system as a whole, and how it works to maintain this complex ``ecology'' in the observed normal ranges throughout life. Here we report unexpected large, scale-free, fluctuations detected from the first long-term analysis of the day-to-day variability of a healthy animal's blood cell counts measured over one thousand days. This scale-invariance cannot be accounted for by current theoretical models, and resembles some of the scenarios described for self-organized criticality.

  10. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

  11. Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.E.; Ignacio, L.; Houghton, A.

    1995-10-15

    Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed to identify which patients are at risk for cytopenia and require close monitoring. Low CBC levels during radiation therapy are likely to be the result of other medical problems that cancer patients face. Regional irradiation with small field sizes (<40% of total body marrow) typically used in clinical radiotherapy is unlikely to be the cause of marrow depression significant enough to warrant medical intervention. Blood levels taken during the first week of treatment (Week 1) can be used to determine risks of developing critical nadirs. Localized breast and prostate cancer patients are unlikely to require routine CBCs if initial levels are normal. Routine CBC levels on all radiation oncology patients without other reasons for hematopoietic depression requires reevaluation, as millions of dollars are spent on unnecessary testing. If weekly CBC blood levels are avoided in localized breast and prostate cancer patients, this alone could potentially results in a savings of as much as $40 million a year nationally. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- ... couldn't keep working and stay alive. White Blood Cells White blood cells (also called leukocytes, say: LOO- ...

  13. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  14. Binary release of ascorbic acid and lecithin from core-shell nanofibers on blood-contacting surface for reducing long-term hemolysis of erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term anti-hemolytic capability. To obtain such biomaterials, we coaxially electrospin [ascorbic acid (AA) and lecithin]/poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) core-shell nanofibers onto the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) that has been grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains. Our strategy is based on that the grafted layers of PEG render the surface hydrophilic to reduce the mechanical injure to red blood cells (RBCs) while the AA and lecithin released from nanofibers on blood-contacting surface can actively interact with RBCs to decrease the oxidative damage to RBCs. We demonstrate that (AA and lecithin)/PEO core-shell structured nanofibers have been fabricated on the PEG grafted surface. The binary release of AA and lecithin in the distilled water is in a controlled manner and lasts for almost 5 days; during RBCs preservation, AA acts as an antioxidant and lecithin as a lipid supplier to the membrane of erythrocytes, resulting in low mechanical fragility and hemolysis of RBCs, as well as high deformability of stored RBCs. Our work thus makes a new approach to fabricate blood-contacting biomaterials with the capability of long-term anti-hemolysis. PMID:25437061

  15. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  16. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection. PMID:25836768

  17. Dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal blood typing and cross-matching by gel column technique

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Rebecca J.; Reese, Jessica; Chang, Denise; Seth, Mayank; Hale, Anne S.; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Background Testing for canine blood types other than dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 (DEA 1.1) is controversial and complicated by reagent availability and methodology. Objectives The objectives of this study were to use available gel column technology to develop an extended blood-typing method using polyclonal reagents for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal and to assess the use of gel columns for cross-matching. Methods Dogs (43–75) were typed for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Methods included tube agglutination (Tube) using polyclonal reagents, a commercially available DEA 1.1 gel column test kit (Standard-Gel) using monoclonal reagent, and multiple gel columns (Extended-Gel) using polyclonal reagents. Blood from 10 recipient and 15 donor dogs was typed as described above and cross-matched using the gel column technique. Results Of 43 dogs typed for DEA 1.1, 23, 25, and 20 dogs were positive using Standard-Gel, Extended-Gel, and Tube, respectively. Typing for DEA 1.2 was not achievable with Extended-Gel. For 75 dogs typed for DEA 3, 4, and 7, concordance of Extended-Gel with Tube was 94.7%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Dal, determined only by Extended-Gel, was positive for all dogs. Post-transfusion major cross-matches were incompatible in 10 of 14 pairings, but none were associated with demonstrable blood type incompatibilities. Conclusions Gel column methodology can be adapted for use with polyclonal reagents for detecting DEA 1.1, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Agglutination reactions are similar between Extended-Gel and Tube, but are more easily interpreted with Extended-Gel. When using gel columns for cross-matching, incompatible blood cross-matches can be detected following sensitization by transfusion, although in this study incompatibilities associated with any tested DEA or Dal antigens were not found. PMID:20727123

  18. Micronucleated erythrocyte frequency in peripheral blood of B6C3F(1) mice from short-term, prechronic, and chronic studies of the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay program.

    PubMed

    Witt, K L; Knapton, A; Wehr, C M; Hook, G J; Mirsalis, J; Shelby, M D; MacGregor, J T

    2000-01-01

    The mouse peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) test was performed on samples collected from 20 short-term, 67 subchronic, and 5 chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). Data are presented for studies not previously published. Aspects of protocol that distinguish this test from conventional short-term bone marrow MN tests are duration of exposure, and absence of repeat tests and concurrent positive controls. Furthermore, in contrast to short-term bone marrow MN tests where scoring is limited to polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE), longer term studies using peripheral blood may evaluate MN in both, or either, the normochromatic (NCE) or PCE populations. The incidence of MN-PCE provides an index of damage induced within 72 hr of sampling, whereas the incidence of MN in the NCE population at steady state provides an index of average damage during the 30-day period preceding sampling. The mouse peripheral blood MN test has been proposed as a useful adjunct to rodent toxicity tests and has been effectively incorporated as a routine part of overall toxicity testing by the NTP. Data derived from peripheral blood MN analyses of dosed animals provide a useful indication of the in vivo potential for induced genetic damage and supply an important piece of evidence to be considered in the overall assessment of toxicity and health risk of a particular chemical. Although results indicate that the test has low sensitivity for prediction of carcinogenicity, a convincingly positive result in this assay appears to be highly predictive of rodent carcinogenicity. PMID:11044899

  19. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  20. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  1. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  2. Early natural killer cell counts in blood predict mortality in severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Host immunity should play a principal role in determining both the outcome and recovery of patients with sepsis that originated from a microbial infection. Quantification of the levels of key elements of the immune response could have a prognostic value in this disease. Methods In an attempt to evaluate the quantitative changes in the status of immunocompetence in severe sepsis over time and its potential influence on clinical outcome, we monitored the evolution of immunoglobulins (Igs) (IgG, IgA and IgM), complement factors (C3 and C4) and lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells (CD19+) and natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-CD16+CD56+)) in the blood of 50 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at day 1, day 3 and day 10 following admission to the ICU. Results Twenty-one patients died, ten of whom died within the 72 hours following admission to the ICU. The most frequent cause of death (n = 12) was multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. At day 1, survivors showed significantly higher levels of IgG and C4 than those who ultimately died. On the contrary, NK cell levels were significantly higher in the patients who died. Survivors exhibited a progressive increase from day 1 to day 10 on most of the immunological parameters evaluated (IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, CD4+, CD8+ T cells and NK cells). Multivariate Cox regression analysis, including age, sex, APACHE II score, severe sepsis or septic shock status and each one of the immunological parameters showed that NK cell counts at day 1 were independently associated with increased risk of death at 28 days (hazard ratio = 3.34, 95% CI = 1.29 to 8.64; P = 0.013). Analysis of survival curves provided evidence that levels of NK cells at day 1 (> 83 cells/mm3) were associated with early mortality. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the prognostic role of NK cells in severe sepsis and provide evidence for a direct association of early counts of these cells in blood with mortality. PMID:22018048

  3. Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), ? glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

  4. Common toad Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) and its importance in assessing environmental health: test of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pollo, Favio E; Bionda, Clarisa L; Salinas, Zulma A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic activities may generate significant changes in the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, so long-term monitoring of populations that inhabit them is crucial. Counting micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) in peripheral blood is a widely used method for detecting chromosomal damage due to chemical agents in the water. We analyzed MN and ENA frequency in blood obtained from the common toad Rhinella arenarum populations in sites with different degrees of environmental degradation. The results of this study indicate that there is an association between the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities and the degree of environmental alteration recorded for the sites studied. PMID:26293892

  5. Multi-wavelength spectroscopy of oriented erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Huffman, Debra E.

    2010-02-01

    Accurate characterization of the optical properties of erythrocytes is essential for the applications in optical biomedicine, in particular, for diagnosis of blood related diseases. The observed optical properties strongly depend on the erythrocyte's size, hemoglobin composition and orientation relative to the incident light. We explored the effect of orientation on the absorption and scattering properties of erythrocytes suspended in saline using UV-visible spectroscopy and theoretical predictive modeling based on anomalous diffraction approximation. We demonstrate that the orientation of erythrocytes in dilute saline suspensions is not random and produces consistent spectral pattern. Numerical analysis showed that the multi-wavelength absorption and scattering properties of erythrocytes in dilute suspensions can be accurately described with two orientation populations. These orientation populations with respect to the incident light are face-on incidence and edge-on incidence. The variances of the orientation angles for each population are less than 15 degrees and the relative proportions of the two populations strongly depend on the number density of the erythrocytes in suspensions. Further, the identified orientation populations exhibit different sensitivities to the changes in the compositional and morphological properties of erythrocytes. The anomalous diffraction model based on these orientation populations predicts the absorption and scattering properties of erythrocytes with accuracy greater than 99%. Establishment of the optical properties of normal erythrocytes allows for detection of the disease induced changes in the erythrocyte spectral signatures.

  6. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-quare test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC. PMID:25567613

  7. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  8. S-nitrosoglutathione efflux in the erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro; Napoleão, Patrícia; Saldanha, Carlota

    2015-10-12

    Glutathione is an abundant molecule inside erythrocyte, originating S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) by reacting with nitric oxide (NO). GSNO has been regarded as a store and transporter of NO, with significant interest as a potential therapeutic agent, acting as an NO donor.NO metabolism inside the erythrocyte generates several derivatives, which can be altered by external and internal stimuli such as acetylcholine (ACh), a natural substrate of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In spite of the knowledge gained in the last decades concerning NO efflux in erythrocytes little is known regarding erythrocyte GSNO efflux, which has also a significant role in microcirculation. Hence, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efflux of GSNO, concomitant with the efflux of NO, after stimulation with AChE effectors. To achieve these goals, the in vitro effect of AChE modulators - ACh and timolol - in erythrocyte NO and GSNO were studied. Timolol is an erythrocyte AChE inhibitor. Venous blood samples were collected from 18 healthy Caucasian men. For each blood sample, erythrocyte suspensions were obtained and incubated in the absence (controls) and presence of ACh and timolol maleate (10 ?M final concentration of each modulator). Both timolol and ACh induced significant GSNO efflux in the erythrocyte when compared to the control; however the efflux was lower in the presence of timolol compared to ACh. Although erythrocyte NO efflux in presence of timolol is similar to the control, the efflux decreased when compared to the ACh treatment. The presence of timolol induces significant decrease of intra-erythrocyte GSNO levels, relative to control and ACh treatment. In conclusion, when erythrocytes were stimulated with ACh or timolol, GSNO efflux occurred associated with NO efflux. These new results bring new insight into the metabolism of erythrocyte NO and new possible therapeutic applications for GSNO. PMID:24958331

  9. Accuracy of a New Platelet Count System (PLT-F) Depends on the Staining Property of Its Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Atsushi; Takagi, Yuri; Kono, Mari; Morikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet count is essential for the diagnosis and management of hemostasis abnormalities. Although existing platelet count methods installed in common hematology analyzers can correctly count platelets in normal blood samples, they tend to miscount platelets in some abnormal samples. The newly developed PLT-F channel in the XN-Series hematology analyzer (Sysmex) has been reported to be a reliable platelet count system, even in abnormal samples. However, how the PLT-F platelet counting system achieves such accuracy has not been described in scientific articles. Methods Isolated platelets, erythrocytes, and fragmented erythrocytes were examined using an automated hematology analyzer. The samples were labeled by combining PLT-F reagents and anti-CD62p, CD63, Grp75, Calreticulin, CD41, or CD61 antibody, and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy or flow cytometry. Results The PLT-F system correctly discriminated platelets in erythrocytes. Its reagents strongly stained some intraplatelet organelles labeled with anti-Grp75, but only faintly stained the plasma membrane of both platelets and erythrocytes. Microscopic observation and flow cytometric examination revealed that all of these strongly stained cells were also labeled with platelet-specific anti-CD41 and anti-CD61 antibodies. Conclusions This study revealed that the staining property of the PLT-F reagents, by which platelets and fragmented erythrocytes are clearly distinguished, contributes to the platelet-counting accuracy of the PLT-F system. PMID:26496387

  10. Fragility of abnormal erythrocytes evaluated by response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, R N; Lynch, E C; Hellums, J D; Alfrey, C P

    1975-01-01

    Shear stress is a potential cause of erythrocyte fragmentation and hemolysis in flowing blood. In this study, the response of abnormal human erythrocytes to shear stress in virto was evaluated using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Compared to normal red cells, deoxygenated erythrocytes from persons with sicle cell anemia were particularly susceptible to fragmentation and hemolysis by shear stress. Oxygenation of sicke cell blood improved the resistance of those red cells to shear stress; they remain, however, more susceptible to shear stress than normal erythrocytes. Erythrocytes from patients with iron deficiency, thalassemia minor, and erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency showed fragmentation and hemolysis at threshold shear stresses intermediate between those ovserved for blood from patients with sickle cell anemia and normal persons. Blood samples from patients with hereditary spherocytosis were more resistant to shear stress than normal blood. These results indicate that there are important differences in the response of various red cells to shear stress. PMID:1141731

  11. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  12. Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-02-01

    The osmotic resistance of pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes at different temperatures and pH was studied. Erythrocytes from female pigeons showed greater osmotic resistance than those from males, but no sex difference appeared with erythrocytes from peafowls. Pigeon erythrocytes were more resistant and the red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were higher than those in peafowls. Although no significant differences appeared in their haematological values, erythrocytes from the lizard were more resistant than erythrocytes from the toad. At higher temperature, the osmotic resistance of pigeon, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased, while that of peafowl erythrocytes decreased. The resistance of toad erythrocytes decreased in acidic and alkaline solutions, but that of peafowl erythrocytes increased in both solutions. However, with pigeon and lizard erythrocytes, the resistance was unaltered in alkaline solution and decreased in acidic solution. PMID:8085400

  13. Seasonal Variations of Complete Blood Count and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the US Population - Analysis of NHANES Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies reported seasonal differences in gene expression in white blood cells, adipose tissue, and inflammatory biomarkers of the immune system. There is no data on the seasonal variations of these biomarkers in the US general population of both children and adults. Then aim of this study is to explore the seasonal trends in complete blood count (CBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large non-institutionalized US population. Methods Seven cross-sectional data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 1999–2012 were aggregated; participants reporting recent use of prescribed steroids, chemotherapy, immunomodulators and antibiotics were excluded. Linear regression models were used to compare levels of CBC and CRP between winter-spring (November-April) and summer-fall (May-October), adjusting for demographics, personal behavioral factors, and chronic disease conditions. Results A total of 27,478 children and 36,644 adults (?18 years) were included in the study. Levels of neutrophils, white blood cell count (WBC), and CRP were higher in winter-spring than summer-fall (p?0.05). Red blood cell components were lower in winter-spring than in summer-fall, while the opposite was seen for platelets. Conclusions This large population-based study found notable seasonal variations in blood cell composition and inflammatory biomarkers, with a more pro-inflammatory immune system seen in winter-spring than summer-fall. The red blood cell patterns could have implications for the observed cardio-vascular seasonality. PMID:26544180

  14. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 ?L, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible. PMID:26496235

  15. Ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is associated with progression-free survival in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873

  16. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  17. Erythrocyte ion channels in regulation of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Birka, Christina; Myssina, Svetlana; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A; Tanneur, Valerie; Duranton, Christophe; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M

    2004-01-01

    Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei, key organelles in the regulation of apoptosis. Until recently, erythrocytes were thus not considered subject to this type of cell death. However, exposure of erythrocytes to the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin was shown to induce cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing and breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry with subsequent phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface, all typical features of apoptosis. Further studies revealed the participation of ion channels in the regulation of erythrocyte "apoptosis." Osmotic shock, oxidative stress and energy depletion all activate a Ca2(+)-permeable non-selective cation channel in the erythrocyte cell membrane. The subsequent increase of Ca2+ concentration stimulates a scramblase leading to breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry and activates Ca2+ sensitive K+ (Gardos) channels leading to KCl loss and (further) cell shrinkage. Phosphatidylserine exposure and cell shrinkage are blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+, in the presence of the cation channel inhibitors amiloride or ethylisopropylamiloride, at increased extracellular K+ or in the presence of the Gardos channel inhibitors clotrimazole or charybdotoxin. Thus, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and cellular loss of K+ participate in the triggering of erythrocyte scramblase. Nevertheless, phosphatidylserine exposure is not completely abrogated in the nominal absence of Ca2+, pointing to additional Ca2(+)-independent pathways. One of those is activation of sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide which in turn leads to stimulation of erythrocyte scramblase. The exposure of phosphatidylserine at the extracellular face of the cell membrane stimulates phagocytes to engulf the apoptotic erythrocytes. Thus, sustained activation of the cation channels eventually leads to clearance of affected erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Erythropoietin inhibits the non-selective cation channel and thus interferes with erythrocyte "apoptosis." Susceptibility to scramblase activation is enhanced in thalassemia, sickle cell disease and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum leads to activation of the cation channel eventually triggering erythrocyte "apoptosis." PMID:18727242

  18. White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

  19. Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite John P. Mills1 , Lan Qie3 , Ming Dao1 , Kevin S that the malaria parasite Plasmodium (P.) falciparum could result in significant stiffening of infected human red in the advanced stages of parasite development in the erythrocyte, and suggest a significantly greater stiffening

  20. Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  1. Some selected peripheral blood and haemopoietic system indices in Wistar rats with chronic vanadium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Zaporowska, H; Wasilewski, W

    1989-01-01

    1. Wistar rats of both sexes received vanadium in drinking water in the amount of 23-29 mg/kg body weight in the form of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) for a period of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. 2. Animals treated in this way ate less food and drank less AMV solution as compared with the amount of water consumed by the controls; they suffered from diarrhoea, and owing to this the increment in body weight was reduced. 3. Vanadium decreased erythropoiesis and maturation of red blood cells, which was expressed by a reduced erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level and increased reticulocyte and polychromatophilic erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood. 4. The composition percentage of the bone marrow cells and the peripheral blood leukocyte count did not undergo noticeable changes under the influence of vanadium. PMID:2567224

  2. Toward a reference method for leukocyte differential counts in blood: comparison of three flow cytometric candidate methods.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Mikael; Davis, Bruce H; Fest, Thierry; Wood, Brent L

    2012-11-01

    A Complete Blood Count performed by an automated hematology analyzer frequently requires a microscopic slide review. Recently, we and others have proposed combinations of monoclonal antibodies for an extended leukocyte differential by flow cytometry. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of these proposals. Ninety-two samples were analyzed at 2 sites to compare the accuracy of three published methods. Reference methods used were i) cell counter for leukocyte count and ii) microscopic review as defined by CSLI H20-A2 for cell subsets. Comparison of flow cytometers from 2 manufacturers (FC500 and CANTO/LSRII) was performed. Published protocols were adapted to three different models of flow cytometer and each provided similar results in leukocyte subset enumeration, although some discrepancies were noted for each protocol in comparison with the reference method. The conclusion is that each protocol carries advantages and disadvantages and there is no clear "winner". This study supports the fact that flow cytometry is a candidate to become a reference method for the leukocyte differential. None of the tested protocols clearly demonstrated superiority and each had demonstrable deficiencies. Additional work to develop a consensual 8 to 10 color panel is concluded to be necessary for a satisfactory reference method. PMID:22736499

  3. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  4. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  5. Brucella melitensis invades murine erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  6. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  7. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  8. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  9. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  10. Identification of an erythrocyte autoantigen using monoclonal autoantibodies induced by immunization of mice with rat erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Laing, P; Ouaari, C; Culbert, E J; Ponsford, F M; Elson, C J

    1988-01-01

    An erythrocyte autoantigen has been identified by means of monoclonal autoantibodies raised by immunizing mice with rat red blood cells (RBC). The autoantibodies reacted with intact rat and mouse RBC as judged by a cellular radioimmunoassay, and with a 52K band on western blots of rat and mouse RBC. They did not react with intact sheep RBC or blotted sheep erythrocyte membranes. Although anti-rat erythrocyte antibodies did react with bands in the molecular weight region of 50-55 K (on blots of rat erythrocyte membranes), these bands were susceptible to neuraminidase digestion, thus distinguishing them from the 52 K band recognized by monoclonal autoantibodies. The implications of the above results for the known autoantibody specificity of suppression is discussed, and it is suggested that they favour the existence of autoantigen-specific suppressor cells. PMID:2979612

  11. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  12. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

  13. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  14. Cloning and expression of chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Weraarchakul-Boonmark, N; Jeong, J M; Murthy, S N; Engel, J D; Lorand, L

    1992-01-01

    We report the sequences of cDNAs encoding chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13). The complete mRNA consists of 3345/3349 nucleotides and predicts a single open reading frame. Nine peptide sequences derived from partial digests of the isolated protein agreed with the corresponding translation of the open reading frame. Approximately 60% identities between the avian protein and three related mammalian enzymes were found. Chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase mRNA is most abundant in red blood cells and kidney, and it accumulates during erythroid cell differentiation. Images PMID:1357669

  15. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  16. Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Carolyn N.; Fry, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds. PMID:25477546

  17. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by

  18. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapy Know as thrombocytosis: Cancer (lung, gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia) MPV (Not always ...

  19. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or surgery) Burns Kidney failure Lupus Rheumatoid arthritis Malnutrition, thyroid problems Certain medicines Bleeding Mild to moderate ... Inflammatory bowel disease Other diseases that might cause malnutrition Certain drugs Infection Chemotherapy and other medicines Malaria ...

  20. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity. PMID:26196576

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Plateletworks® in the Measurement of Blood Cell Counts as compared to the Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Erick; Qureshi, A. Mabood; Bally, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Prior to undergoing cardiac surgery many patients may have impaired platelet function due to platelet inhibition. Point of care testing (POCT) that produces quick results of platelet counts and function allow earlier clinician interpretation, diagnosis and treatment. Before being adopted for routine clinical use, a POCT device’s performance must be evaluated by standard laboratory techniques to ensure high quality results. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of the Plateletworks® BC 3200 automated hematology analyzer by correlating its precision, accuracy and linearity for the measurement of blood counts to our hospital central laboratory analyzer (Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800). The study utilizes well described methods for Within-Run and Day-to-Day precision, comparison of methods (bias), and linearity. Control samples from the manufacturer were used for the precision studies, blood samples from 115 cardiac surgical subjects were used for comparison of methods and accuracy, and pre-diluted control samples from the manufacturer were used for the linearity studies. The precision of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable. The overall coefficient of variation (CV) for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Within-Run precision was acceptable ranging from 0.65–6.4%. Likewise, the CV for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Day-to-Day precision was acceptable ranging from 1.45% to 6.7%. The correlation and accuracy between the two analyzers for the evaluated parameters (platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin) was acceptable. The linearity for the measured parameters was also acceptable with a range between 98–100%. The performance of the Plateletworks® analyzer was acceptable for providing blood cell counts as compared to our central hospital laboratory analyzer. PMID:26405360

  2. Association of White Blood Cell Count and Differential with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Misialek, Jeffrey R.; Bekwelem, Wobo; Chen, Lin Y.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Norby, Faye L.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although inflammation is involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the association of white blood cell (WBC) count and differential with AF has not been thoroughly examined in large cohorts with extended follow-up. Methods We studied 14,500 men and women (25% blacks, 55% women, mean age 54) free of AF at baseline (1987–89) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a community-based cohort in the United States. Incident AF cases through 2010 were identified from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge records and death certificates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AF associated with WBC count and differential. Results Over a median follow-up time of 21.5 years for the entire cohort, 1928 participants had incident AF. Higher total WBC count was associated with higher AF risk independent of AF risk factors and potential confounders (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase). Higher neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively associated with AF risk, while an inverse association was identified between lymphocyte count and AF (multivariable adjusted HRs 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.23; 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11; 0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.97 per 1-SD, respectively). No significant association was identified between eosinophils or basophils and AF. Conclusions High total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts were each associated with higher AF risk while lymphocyte count was inversely associated with AF risk. Systemic inflammation may underlie this association and requires further investigation for strategies to prevent AF. PMID:26313365

  3. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/?L, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/?L and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/?L for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and immunologic parameters in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:26622258

  4. Fatigue damage to pig erythrocytes during repeated swelling and shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lili; Ding, Weiping; Sun, Sijie; Tang, Fangqiong; Gao, Dayong

    2015-10-01

    During the removal of cryoprotectants from cryopreserved-thawed blood with the dialysis-based or dilution-filtration method, due to the change in the extracellular osmolality, erythrocytes usually undergo repeated swelling and shrinkage. However, the erythrocyte fatigue damage induced by this repeated volume change has not yet been studied. In this work, by successively loading hypotonic and hypertonic solutions, we mimicked the repeated swelling and shrinkage of pig erythrocytes and then examined the effect of the number of cycle loops on the steady-state volume and the mortality of the pig erythrocytes. The results suggest that because of cell leakage in the swelling process, the steady-state volume of the pig erythrocytes after one cycle is smaller than the volume before the cycle, even though the cell performs a self-protective regulatory procedure. If the number of cycle loops is increased, the repeated swelling and shrinkage will cause a continuous decrease in the steady-state volume, and the ability of the pig erythrocytes to resist osmotic damage will decrease; as a result, the mortality of the pig erythrocytes increases as the number of cycle loops increases. The viability of the cells is also affected by the hypotonic and isotonic processing times: a short processing time may contribute to a decrease in the mortality of the pig erythrocytes. This work is of significance to optimizing the process of removing cryoprotectants. PMID:26143742

  5. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated (/sup 14/C)sucrose, (/sup 3/H)inulin, and /sup 51/Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated (/sup 3/H)inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs.

  6. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNF?, IFN?) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid population indicating a stress response. In short cadmium exposure causes preferential clearance of older erythrocytes from circulation along with a depressed erythropoietic activity at higher doses. PMID:26161863

  7. Cord blood porphyrins. A quantitative assay in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Handa, F; Sharma, S C

    1977-05-01

    A quantitative assay of free erythrocyte porphyrins was done in umbilical cord blood of 30 newborn babies by a spectrophotometric method. The mean value of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin in umbilical cord blood was found to be 74.58 microng/100 ml packed erythrocytes and that of free erythrocyte coproporphyrin to be 0.77 microng/100 ml packed erythrocytes with a standard deviation of +/-29.99 and +/-1.48 respectively. Relationship between free erythrocyte protoporphyrin and free erythrocyte comproporphyrin and their correlations with birth weight and sex of the newborn baby were found to be statistically significant. PMID:868508

  8. Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2002-07-01

    The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

  9. Conductometric study of erythrocytes during centrifugation. II. Erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    1995-05-17

    Erythrocyte deformability was studied by continuous reading of sediment conductance during centrifugation. The decrease in sediment conductivity during centrifugation reflects erythrocyte deformation in the pellet. The degree of erythrocyte deformation depends on the duration of centrifugation and the magnitude of centripetal acceleration. When constant centrifugal force is applied over an extended period of time, a gradual decrease in pellet conductivity occurs. Stepwise enhancement of centripetal acceleration during centrifugation induces a rapid increase in erythrocyte deformation. After centrifugation, the relaxation of erythrocyte deformation is observed. However, the relaxation and the recovery of cell shape are incomplete. The difference in compressibility of previously centrifuged and noncentrifuged cells demonstrates that centrifugation causes irreversible alteration in erythrocyte deformability. The results show that the time-dependent resistance of erythrocyte sediment during centrifugation may serve as a useful index for the kinetics of erythrocyte deformation. PMID:7766698

  10. Peripheral Erythrocytes Decrease upon Specific Respiratory Challenge with Grass Pollen Allergen in Sensitized Mice and in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmutz, René; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlböck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, René; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). Methods and Results BALB/c mice (n?=?20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n?=?10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n?=?10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n?=?42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Conclusion Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate for hypoxia is a possible explanation for these findings. PMID:24466205

  11. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  12. Invasion of Erythrocytes by Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Horzempa, Joseph; O'Dee, Dawn M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Franks, Jonathan M.; Clay, Doris

    2011-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Conlan, on pages 6–8.) Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a category A biodefense agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its highly infectious nature. F. tularensis infects leukocytes and exhibits an extracellular phase in the blood of the host. It is unknown, however, whether F. tularensis can infect erythrocytes; thus, we examined this possibility in vivo and in vitro. In the murine model of pulmonary type A tularemia, we showed the presence of intraerythrocytic bacteria by double-immunofluorescence microscopy and ex vivo gentamicin protection of the purified erythrocyte fraction. In vitro, F. tularensis invaded human erythrocytes, as shown in the gentamicin protection assays, double-immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy with immunogold labeling of the bacteria. Additional in vitro tests indicated that serum complement-dependent and complement-independent mechanisms contribute to erythrocyte invasion. Our results reveal a novel intraerythrocytic phase during F. tularensis infection. PMID:21628658

  13. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). PMID:24790773

  14. CBC blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells ( WBC count ) The total amount of hemoglobin in the blood The fraction of the blood ... following measurements: Average red blood cell size (MCV) Hemoglobin amount per red blood cell (MCH) The amount ...

  15. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  16. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  17. Influence of glucose solution on the erythrocyte scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, Elena K.

    2007-02-01

    The scattering characteristics of erythrocytes (the coefficients of extinction, scattering, absorption and indicatrixes) were calculated with using the theory Mie for spherical homogeneous spherical particles and the theory for two-layered spherical concentric particles. Transmission spectrums were measured with the spectrophotometer Cary500 in the wavelength range 460-860 n m. Specimens of liquid for imbedding of erythrocytes were preparing by mixing blood plasma a nd 50-% glucose solution with the different concentrations. The volume concentrations (hematocrit) of red blood cells (RBC) were maintained to have the same values in all specimens by adding equal volume of whole blood to immersion liquid of equal volumes. It has been shown that, contrary to theretical prediction, transmission is decreasing for all wavelengths with the addition of glucose solution in interval glucose volume concentrations 0.05 - 0.35-0.4. The subsequent increase of the glucose concentration leads to increasing of spectral transmission as a result of erythrocyte hemolysis.

  18. HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature

    E-print Network

    HEMOLYISIS · Within the Macrophages of the Spleen, liver, or BM · Causes · Inherited RBC Defects · Acquired EXTRINSIC DEFECTS · Antagonistic Plasma Factors · Traumatic Physical Cell Injury · Immune Medicated Cell of the Newborn HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA CAUSED BY PHYSICAL INJURY TO THE ERYTHROCYTE · Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia

  19. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  20. Accuracy and Feasibility of Point-Of-Care White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein Measurements at the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Pia; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background Several point-of-care (POC) tests are available for evaluation of febrile patients, but the data about their performance in acute care setting is sparse. We investigated the analytical accuracy and feasibility of POC tests for white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods In the first part of the study, HemoCue WBC and Afinion AS100 CRP POC analyzers were compared with laboratory’s routine WBC (Sysmex XE-2100) and CRP (Modular P) analyzers in the hospital central laboratory in 77 and 48 clinical blood samples, respectively. The POC tests were then adopted in use at the pediatric ED. In the second part of the study, we compared WBC and CRP levels measured by POC and routine methods during 171 ED patient visits by 168 febrile children and adolescents. Attending physicians performed POC tests in capillary fingerprick samples. Results In parallel measurements in the laboratory both WBC and CRP POC analyzers showed good agreement with the reference methods. In febrile children at the emergency department (median age 2.4 years), physician performed POC determinations in capillary blood gave comparable results with those in venous blood analyzed in the laboratory. The mean difference between POC and reference test result was 1.1 E9/L (95% limits of agreement from -6.5 to 8.8 E9/L) for WBC and -1.2 mg/L (95% limits of agreement from -29.6 to 27.2 mg/L) for CRP. Conclusions POC tests are feasible and relatively accurate methods to assess CRP level and WBC count among febrile children at the ED. PMID:26034987

  1. Exposure to ozone and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemi, Y.; Ohmori, K.; Ito, T.; Osaka, F.; Matuura, Y. )

    1992-10-01

    In order to learn the biological effect of photochemical oxidants on living bodies, we exposed newborn and adult rats, of both sexes, to ozone at a concentration of 0.25 ppm, which can be encountered in an urban environment, and then measured the osmotic resistance of their erythrocytes. The results of experiments using newborn rats indicated a positive increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in whole blood following ozone exposure for 4 weeks. An increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in the top part obtained by centrifugation was observed following ozone exposure for 12 weeks. This tendency was especially evident among male rats. On the other hand, no increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes was recognized in the adult animals which had been exposed to the same concentration of ozone for 18 months.

  2. Effects of periodontal therapy on white blood cell count and levels of transforming growth factor beta in serum of subjects with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimarães, M C M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF—?) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.36±6.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.18±6.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (9—12 months). A well—controlled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF—? levels, accessed by enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF—? levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes. PMID:25817350

  3. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  4. CELLS, PROTEINS, AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...

  5. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic-a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-?m-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0-4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  6. Decreased coronary blood flow velocity in patients with aortic insufficiency but normal coronary arteries: the use of TIMI frame count in aortic insufficiency cases

    PubMed Central

    Icli, Abdullah; Mutlu, Halil; Karabag, Turgut; Kahraman, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with aortic insufficiency (AI) may suffer from anginapector is in the absence of obstructive coronaryartery disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate coronary blood flow using the thrombolysis in myocardialinfarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) method in patients with AI and normal coronaryarteries. The study included 64 patients (Group 1; meanage 62.4 ± 13.2 years) with moderate to severe AI who had under gonecoronaryangio graphy that resulted in angiographically normal coronaries, and 42 patients with a typical chest pain and angiographically normal coronaryarteriogram (Group 2; meanage 58.8 ± 9.8 years). All patients under went coronaryangiography either to exclude coronaryartery disease or to evaluate their coronaryanatomy before aorticvalve replacement. TFC was calculated and compared for each artery, including the left anterior descending (LAD), circumflex (LCX), and right coronaryartery (RCA) in both groups. The base line characteristics of the study groups were similar. In both groups, TIMI-3 flow was present in eachartery at the time of arteriography, and the coronaryarteries were entirely normal. LCx and RCA frame counts and corrected LAD frame counts were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (26.4 ± 2.1 vs. 24.3 ± 3.6, P < 0.05; 22.1 ± 2.3 vs. 20.5 ± 2.9, P < 0.05; and 22.5 ± 1.8 vs. 20.5 ± 2.4, P < 0.05, respectively). The TFC method may be used as a marker forcoronary flowvelocity in patients with aortic insuffiency and angiographically normal coronaryarteries toestimate decreased coronary blood flowve locity. PMID:26629157

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth

  8. [The normal ultrastructure of the erythrocytes and in experimental portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Ga?voronski?, I V; Chepur, S V; Nichiporuk, G I; Tikhonova, L P

    1997-01-01

    Erythrocyte types were studied in portal and femoral veins blood in intact dog and in the experimental portal hypertension under scanning electron microscope. Three basic types (discoid, polygonal and spherocyte) were distinguished. Analysis of the material obtained confirmed the suggestion on the existence of stable erythrocyte types both in normal conditions and pathology. Content of these types in blood of vessels named is different. Inferior caval vein system is inaccessible for erythrocytes with significantly altered shape because they are unable to penetrate liver sinusoids. In portal hypertension essential increase of these erythrocytes number occurs and they are encountered in femoral vein blood. These forms obviously pass into the general blood flow through multiple collaterals. One of the criteria for portal hypertension diagnostics is suggested so as the method of evaluating portal vein shunts in conditions of the formed collateral blood stream. PMID:9244552

  9. Insect erythrocyte agglutinins. In vitro opsonization experiments with Clitumnus extradentatus and Periplaneta americana haemocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, A F; Ratcliffe, N A

    1980-01-01

    The effect of naturally occurring haemagglutinins on the in vitro phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes by the blood cells (haemocytes) of Clitumnus extradentatus and Periplaneta americana was studied. The results showed that the haemagglutinins in both species failed to act as opsonins. Indeed, in some instances, incubation of erythrocytes in haemolymph resulted in less avid ingestion as compared with the saline-incubated controls. This reduced phagocytosis was probably caused by the clumping of erythrocytes on the haemocyte monolayers, leaving fewer single red cells available for uptake. The possible roles of these erythrocyte agglutinins in the host defence systems of insects are discussed. Images Figures 1-3 Figures 6-7 PMID:7000682

  10. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development - A study based on The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Lindegaard, Hanne; Vestergaard, Hanne; Felding, Peter; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-12-20

    Background. Eosinophilia may represent an early paraclinical sign of malignant disease and a host anti-tumor effect. The association between eosinophilia and the development of solid tumors has never before been examined in an epidemiological setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. Material and methods. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007. From these, one DIFF was randomly chosen and categorized according to no (< 0.5 × 10(9)/l), mild (? 0.5-1.0 × 10(9)/l) or severe (? 1.0 × 10(9)/l) eosinophilia. From the Danish Cancer Registry we ascertained solid tumors within the first three years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer and Charlson's comorbidity index. Results. The risk for breast cancer was significantly lower in individuals exhibiting mild eosinophilia than in individuals with normal eosinophil counts [OR (95% confidence intervals) = 0.51 (0.35-0.76), p = 0.0005]. The risk of bladder cancer, however, increased with severity of eosinophilia [2.27 (1.53-3.39), p < 0.0001 and 2.62 (0.96-7.14), p = 0.0592 for mild and severe eosinophilia, respectively]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for remaining solid cancers. Conclusion. We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associate with a decreased risk of breast cancer and an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution. PMID:24358991

  11. Association of abnormal erythrocyte morphology with oxidative stress and inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Prajwal; Richards, Ross S; Bwititi, Phillip T; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

    2015-04-01

    In carrying out their role of free radical scavenging, erythrocytes become damaged due to oxidation of membrane lipids and proteins. Such damage may change the morphology of the erythrocytes. The present study aims to demonstrate change in erythrocyte morphology in MetS and associate the changes with increased oxidative stress and inflammation that were shown in our recent study. One hundred participants were recruited from a rural town of Australia. Whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability, lipid profile and blood sugar level, oxidative stress markers (erythrocyte reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, urinary isoprostanes) and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured. Erythrocyte morphological study was performed by scanning electron microscopy. Recruited participants were classified into MetS and non-MetS following the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS 20 software. The mean percentages of biconcave cells were decreased whereas acanthocytes, stomatocytes and echinocytes were increased in MetS group compared to healthy controls. Morphologically abnormal erythrocytes were significantly correlated with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation markers. Free radicals generated in increased concentration in MetS seem to damage erythrocyte changing its morphology which possibly could affect other hemorheological parameters. PMID:25616368

  12. [Cytospectrophotometric research on hemoglobin in human erythrocytes. I. The methemoglobin content in intact erythrocytes and its alteration under the influence of chromosmon, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and glutathione].

    PubMed

    Filev, L V; Zakharov, I I; Selivanova, G V; Zhiburt, E B; Kuznetsov, V A

    1989-03-01

    The blood of healthy men and patients with methemoglobinemia of different genesis was incubated with chromosmon, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and glutathione, the percentage of erythrocytes with thorn-shaped protuberances-echinocytes being subsequently determined in the blood smears. The absorbtion spectra at the range 400-650 nm were investigated both in the smooth erythrocytes and in echinocytes. A correlation was found between the percentage of echinocytes and the methemoglobin content in the blood. The methemoglobin amount in the echinocytes was determined to be higher than in the smooth erythrocytes. It is discovered that effects of chromosmon, glutathione and riboflavin on production of methemoglobin depend on the dose, individual peculiarities of erythrocytes and on the illness that caused methemoglobinemia. The calculation of echinocyte percentage may be used as an express-diagnostics of methemoglobinemia and for purposes of studying the effect of methemoglobin-producing substances and drugs. PMID:2749902

  13. l-Arginine supplementation enhances antioxidant activity and erythrocyte integrity in sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, M O; Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Jaja, S I

    2015-09-01

    The effect of oral, low-dose l-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) on antioxidant activity, haematological parameters and osmotic fragility of red blood cells was investigated in sickle cell disease sufferers. Twenty eight sickle cell anaemia subjects were recruited for the study. Five millilitres of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), total antioxidant enzymes (TAE) activity, malondialdehyde concentration ([MDA]), RBC count, [Hb], PCV, MCHC, MCV, MCH, percent irreversibly sickled cells (%ISC)) and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the subjects. l-arginine supplementation increased [R] (p<0.001), TAE activity (p<0.05) and MCV (<0.05) but reduced plasma [MDA], MCHC, MCH and %ISC (p<0.001, respectively). ?[R] correlated positively with ?TAE (r=0.8) and negatively with ?[MDA] (r=-0.7) and ?%ISC (r=-0.5). Also ?TAE activity correlated negatively with ?[MDA] (r=-0.7) and ?%ISC (r=-0.6). Supplementation shifted the osmotic fragiligram to the right and reduced the concentrations of NaCl at which initial and complete lyses of erythrocytes occurred. Study showed that low-dose, oral l-arginine increased antioxidant activity, red blood cell resistance to osmotic lysis but reduced red cell density in SCD. PMID:26051155

  14. Simulation of Platelet, Thrombus and Erythrocyte Hydrodynamic Interactions in a 3D Arteriole with In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    or more of the following components: hydrodynamics, coagulation cascade, platelet activation, fibrinSimulation of Platelet, Thrombus and Erythrocyte Hydrodynamic Interactions in a 3D Arteriole of America Abstract Cylindrical blood vessels, ellipsoid platelets and biconcave-shaped deformable

  15. Erythrocyte-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate stabilizes basal hydraulic conductivity and solute permeability in rat microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. F.; Adamson, R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator in blood, attenuates acute microvascular permeability increases via receptor S1P1 to stabilize the endothelium. To evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes as an endogenous source of S1P to the regulation of basal permeability, we measured permeability coefficients in intact individually perfused venular microvessels of rat mesentery. This strategy also enabled the contributions of other endogenous S1P sources to be evaluated. Apparent permeability coefficients (PS) to albumin and ?-lactalbumin and the hydraulic conductivity of mesenteric microvessels were measured in the presence or absence of rat erythrocytes or rat erythrocyte-conditioned perfusate. Rat erythrocytes added to the perfusate were the principal source of S1P in these microvessels. Basal PS to albumin was stable and typical of blood-perfused microvessels (mean 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s) when erythrocytes or erythrocyte-conditioned perfusates were present. When they were absent, PS to albumin or ?-lactalbumin increased up to 40-fold (over 10 min). When exogenous S1P was added to perfusates, permeability returned to levels comparable with those seen in the presence of erythrocytes. Addition of SEW 2871, an agonist specific for S1P1, in the absence of red blood cells reduced PSBSA (40-fold reduction) toward basal. The specific S1P1 receptor antagonist (W-146) reversed the stabilizing action of erythrocytes and increased permeability (27-fold increase) in a manner similar to that seen in the absence of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are a primary source of S1P that maintains normal venular microvessel permeability. Absence of erythrocytes or conditioned perfusate in in vivo and in vitro models of endothelial barriers elevates basal permeability. PMID:22865384

  16. CSF cell count

    MedlinePLUS

    A CSF cell count is a test to measure the number of red and white blood cells that are in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is ... The CSF cell count may help detect: Meningitis and infection of the brain or spinal cord Tumor, abscess, or area of ...

  17. Stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death by ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Gergely; Alzoubi, Kousi; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2014-04-01

    Ribavirin is widely used in the treatment for viral disease such as chronic viral hepatitis. Side effects limiting the use of the drug include haemolytic anaemia. If challenged by stimulators of haemolysis, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, thus preventing the release of haemoglobin into circulating blood. Eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered by increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). This study explored whether ribavirin modifies [Ca2+]i and elicits eryptosis. Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface from annexin V binding, haemolysis from haemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence. A 48-hr exposure to ribavirin (?8 ?g/ml) was followed by a significant increase in [Ca2+]i, a significant decrease in forward scatter and a significant increase in annexin V binding. The annexin V binding after ribavirin treatment was significantly blunted but not abolished in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, ribaverin stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+. PMID:24164926

  18. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  19. Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2007-01-01

    The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. PMID:17360346

  20. T-cell count

    MedlinePLUS

    A T-cell count measures the number of T cells in the blood. Your doctor may order this test if you ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune ...

  1. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to the liver, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin. PMID:26195804

  2. Effect of pre-warming EDTA blood samples to 37oC on platelet count measured by Sysmex XT-2000iV in dogs, cats and horses

    E-print Network

    Williams, Tim L.; Archer, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pseudothrombocytopenia secondary to platelet clumping is a common cause of pre-analytical error for platelet counts in dogs, cats and horses. In humans, it is suggested that pre-warming blood samples to 37oC prior to haematology analysis...

  3. Plasmodium vivax Pre-Erythrocytic–Stage Antigen Discovery: Exploiting Naturally Acquired Humoral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Douglas M.; Finney, Olivia C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing

    2012-01-01

    The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy? individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic–stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy? donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

  4. Identification of the phorbol ester receptor in human and avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.M.; Sando, J.J.; Speizer, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    The ability of phorbol esters to inhibit the uptake of a fluorescent glucose analogue in goose but not human erythrocytes is consistent with earlier reports that the human red blood cell lacks the phorbol ester receptor. However, they have located specific phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding sites in both human and goose erythrocytes. Human and goose red blood cells contain 2 classes of phorbol ester receptors with similar affinities, however the human erythrocyte contains 1/3 as many phorbol ester receptors as does the goose red blood cell. An additional contrast in the binding of phorbol esters to human and goose red blood cells is the temperature-induced enhancement of binding to goose, but not human erythrocytes. Equilibrium phorbol ester binding to goose red blood cells at 37/sup 0/C is enhanced 3.3 +/- 0.4 times that amount bound at 4/sup 0/C. Equilibrium binding of phorbol esters to human erythrocytes is identical at both temperatures. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation profiles of C-kinase substrates also differ between the human and goose erythrocyte.

  5. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (?=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  7. Cation channels, cell volume and the death of an erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Lang, Karl S; Wieder, Thomas; Myssina, Svetlana; Birka, Christina; Lang, Philipp A; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kempe, Daniela; Duranton, Christophe; Huber, Stephan M

    2003-11-01

    Similar to a variety of nucleated cells, human erythrocytes activate a non-selective cation channel upon osmotic cell shrinkage. Further stimuli of channel activation include oxidative stress, energy depletion and extracellular removal of Cl-. The channel is permeable to Ca2+ and opening of the channel increases cytosolic [Ca2+]. Intriguing evidence points to a role of this channel in the elimination of erythrocytes by apoptosis. Ca2+ entering through the cation channel stimulates a scramblase, leading to breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, and stimulates Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels, thus leading to KCl loss and (further) cell shrinkage. The breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry is evidenced by annexin binding, a typical feature of apoptotic cells. The effects of osmotic shock, oxidative stress and energy depletion on annexin binding are mimicked by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 microM) and blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Nevertheless, the residual annexin binding points to additional mechanisms involved in the triggering of the scramblase. The exposure of phosphatidylserine at the extracellular face of the cell membrane stimulates phagocytes to engulf the apoptotic erythrocytes. Thus, sustained activation of the cation channels eventually leads to clearance of affected erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Susceptibility to annexin binding is enhanced in several genetic disorders affecting erythrocyte function, such as thalassaemia, sickle-cell disease and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The enhanced vulnerability presumably contributes to the shortened life span of the affected erythrocytes. Beyond their role in the limitation of erythrocyte survival, cation channels may contribute to the triggering of apoptosis in nucleated cells exposed to osmotic shock and/or oxidative stress. PMID:12905029

  8. Genetic analysis of inheritance of rates of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-cotransport, calcium concentration in erythrocytes, and blood pressure of F/sub 2/ hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kotelevtsev, Yu.V.; Orlov, S.N.; Pokudin, N.I.; Agnaev, V.M.; Postnov, Yu.V.

    1987-09-01

    Inheritance of the rates of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-cotransport, measured as the furosemide-sensitive component of the /sup 86/Rb inflow, the /sup 4//sub 5/Ca concentration in the erythrocytes in the presence of orthovanadate, and BP were analyzed in second generation hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive Kyoto-Wistar rats and normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats of the control line.

  9. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  10. Trauma to erythrocytes induced by long term in vitro pumping using a roller pump.

    PubMed

    Ding, M J; Xu, S W; Zhang, J; Wang, Q; Chang, Y; Chen, F; Zeng, Y J

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of trauma on erythrocyte caused by long term in vitro pumping using roller pump. Ten bags of human blood (400 ml each) were provided by a local blood bank and they were divided into two groups with five bags in each group. Each blood bag was subject to pumping in a closed circuit, which was composed of silica gel tubes and a roller pump. Polystan and COBE pumps were used for the two groups, respectively. The blood was pumped for 16 h in vitro. Free hemoglobin (FHb), platelets (PLT), erythrocyte fragility (EF), and morphological analysis of erythrocytes observed under scanning electron microscope were measured to evaluate the impact of trauma on erythrocytes. A small amount of blood was collected for analysis before pumping, at the end of the 4th hour and then every 2 h till the end of the 16th hour. Some blood samples were also collected for electron microscope scanning before pumping and every 4 h during pumping. It was found that FHb and PLT linearly increased with the pumping time. There was a significant correlation between the two parameters (r=0.7745, p<0.001). The hemolysis indexes of the two groups were 0.296 and 0.3993 mg/L/h, respectively, with no significant difference. During the pumping process, EF changed slightly. The observation of scanning electron microscopy showed various deformed erythrocytes after pumping, including the distortion of cell membrane and the appearance of echinocytes, which increased with pumping time. This study demonstrated that long term pumping using roller pump not only caused the immediate rupture of red blood cells, i.e. the immediate hemolysis, but also caused sub-trauma to a large number of erythrocytes, which led to the delayed hemolysis. The change of erythrocyte morphology was the basis of the delayed hemolysis. PMID:17344073

  11. Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

  12. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of ?eff=7.6 ?B per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for ?eff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  13. A simplified algorithm for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by laser ektacytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. Yu; Yurchuk, Yu S.

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of measuring the dispersion of red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry) is analysed theoretically. A diffraction pattern parameter is found, which is sensitive to the dispersion of erythrocyte deformability and to a lesser extent - to such parameters as the level of the scattered light intensity, the shape of red blood cells, the concentration of red blood cells in the suspension, the geometric dimensions of the experimental setup, etc. A new algorithm is proposed for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by using data of laser ektacytometry.

  14. Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

  15. Impact of Admission White Blood Cell Count on Short- and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohan; Huang, Bi; Lu, Haisong; Zhao, Zhenhua; Lu, Zhinan; Yang, Yanmin; Zhang, Shu; Hui, Rutai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown inflammation is involved in the development of acute aortic dissection (AAD). The hypothesis that white blood cell count (WBCc) on admission may have an impact on the short- and long-term outcomes of type A AAD was tested in a large-scale, prospective observational cohort study. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 570 consecutive patients with type A AAD in Fuwai hospital were enrolled and were followed up. Baseline characteristics and WBCc on admission were collected. The primary outcomes were 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. During a median of 1.89 years of follow-up, the 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality were 10.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified admission WBCc as an independent predictor of 30-day mortality when considered as a continuous variable or as a categorical variable using the cutoff of 11.0??×?109?cells/L (all P?11.0?×?109?cells/L) remained an independent predictor of 30-day mortality of AAD (hazard ratio?=?3.31, 95% confidence interval 1.38–7.93, P?=?0.007). No impact of admission WBCc was observed on the long-term all-cause mortality. In conclusion, elevated admission WBCc may be valuable as a predictor of 30-day mortality, and may be useful in the risk stratification of type A AAD during hospitalization. PMID:26496299

  16. 40 CFR 799.9539 - TSCA mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Normochromatic erythrocyte is a mature erythrocyte that lacks ribosomes and...and therefore can be distinguished from mature, normochromatic erythrocytes by stains...the principal endpoint. The number of mature (normochromatic) erythrocytes in...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9539 - TSCA mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Normochromatic erythrocyte is a mature erythrocyte that lacks ribosomes and...and therefore can be distinguished from mature, normochromatic erythrocytes by stains...the principal endpoint. The number of mature (normochromatic) erythrocytes in...

  18. Spectrin-Level Modeling of the Cytoskeleton and Optical Tweezers Stretching of the Erythrocyte

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    (Mohandas and Evans, 1994) in such cases as sickle cell anemia (Platt, 1995) and malaria (Cooke et al., 2001-dimensional computational study of whole-cell equilibrium shape and deformation of human red blood cell (RBC) using spectrin. INTRODUCTION The deformation of the human erythrocyte or red blood cell (RBC) has been the topic of detailed

  19. Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    . 1. Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia is an inherited autosomal bloodOptical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell July 2012 Available online 20 July 2012 Keywords: Sickle cell disease Red blood cell Cell biomechanics

  20. Aberrant secondary antibody responses to sheep erythrocytes in rabbits with experimental syphilis.

    PubMed Central

    Baughn, R E; Musher, D M

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits infected with Treponema pallidum have strikingly depressed in vivo immunoglobulin G responses to sheep erythrocytes. To gain further insight into the nature of this suppression, the immune responses of splenic and peripheral blood lymphocytes from infected rabbits to sheep erythrocytes were studied in vitro. Spleen cells from rabbits that had been sensitized with sheep erythrocytes during active syphilis had greatly decreased immunoglobulin M and G responses after in vitro incubation with sheep erythrocytes, when compared to the results obtained with cells from sensitized uninfected animals. Suppressor cells could be demonstrated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of control rabbits 6 months after sensitization with sheep erythrocytes; these cells could be removed by nylon wool filtration. When primary sensitization with sheep erythrocytes was carried out during active syphilis, these suppressor cells were not detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes 6 to 9 months later. These findings provide further evidence that induction of immune responses may be abnormal early in treponemal infection and may help to explain the failure of the host to produce antibodies which eradicate the organism during the first 2 to 3 months of infection. PMID:157977

  1. Counting Quail 

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

    2005-10-05

    Landowners and managers need a way of estimating quail populations to determine whether quail management practices are successful. Several direct and indirect methods of counting quail are described, including roadside counts, helicopter surveys...

  2. The erythrocyte sedimentation rates: some model experiments.

    PubMed

    Cerny, L C; Cerny, E L; Granley, C R; Compolo, F; Vogels, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), several models are presented. The first directs attention to the importance of geometrical models to represent the structure of mixtures. Here it is our intention to understand the effect of the structure on the packing of red blood cells. In this part of the study, "Cheerios" (trademark General Mills) are used as a macroscopic model. It is interesting that a random sampling of "Cheerios" has the same volume distribution curve that is found for erythrocytes with a Coulter Sizing Apparatus. In order to examine the effect of rouleaux formation, the "Cheerios" are stacked one on top of another and then glued. Rouleaux of 2,3,4,5, 7 and 10 discs were used. In order to examine a more realistic biological model, the experiments of Dintenfass were used. These investigations were performed in a split-capillary photo viscometer using whole blood from patients with a variety of diseases. The novel part of this research is the fact that the work was performed at 1g and at near zero gravity in the space shuttle "Discovery." The size of the aggregates and/or rouleaux clearly showed a dependence upon the gravity of the experiment. The purpose of this model was to examine the condition of self-similarity and fractal behavior. Calculations are reported which clearly indicate that there is general agreement in the magnitude of the fractal dimension from the "Cheerios" model, the "Discovery" experiment with those determined with the automatic sedimentimeter. The final aspect of this work examines the surface texture of the sedimention tube. A series of tubes were designed with "roughened" interiors. A comparison of the sedimentation rates clearly indicates a more rapid settling in "roughened" tubes than in ones with a smooth interior surface. PMID:3196839

  3. A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Philip; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel…

  4. Investigation of deformability, viscosity, and aggregation of mPEG-modified erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leach, J Kent; Hinman, Alissa; O'Rear, Edgar A

    2002-01-01

    Several techniques for the development of a universal blood type are under investigation in order to address the vast shortage of blood required during times of crisis and for those receiving chronic transfusions. Recently, the covalent attachment of methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) has received attention as a means to conceal the major and minor blood antigens that can invoke an immune response. We have utilized a simple method to covalently bind mPEG to the surface of red blood cells and monitored the rheological properties including cellular deformability and suspension viscosity as a function of shear rate and aggregation. In order to simulate the deformability of mPEG-modified erythrocytes through small blood vessels, we have studied the flow of cells through a nickel-mesh membrane with a pore size of 5.8 microns. Using a gravity-based nickel-mesh filtration device, dilute solutions of red blood cells were filtered through a membrane. The pressure drop was monitored with time. We have examined the filterability of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, mPEG-altered erythrocytes, and mixtures of altered erythrocytes with whole blood. Results from this apparatus have suggested that there is a significant decrease in deformability using mPEG-modified erythrocytes compared to unaltered red blood cells at identical concentrations. Increasing the ratio of modified cells to unmodified cells resulted in decreased deformability of the suspension. Viscosity measurements of mPEG-modified red cells have shown a shear-thinning property, while results of aggregation measurements indicate reduced aggregation compared to whole blood. PMID:12085627

  5. AB157. Evaluation of thalassemia screening program by using red blood count in pregnant women at Hung Vuong Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thong Van; Van Nguyen Le, Khanh; Pham, Van Hung; Nguyen, Truc Thanh Thi; Le, Linh Khanh Thi; Le, Khoa Kieu; Nguyen, Truong Van

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate thalassemia carrier screening program using red blood count indices (RBC) at Hung Vuong hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, from June 2010 to March 2013. Methods All pregnant women visiting Hung Vuong hospital were screened thalassemia carrier by using RBC. Serum ferritin and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed among microcytic hypochromic anemia women [mean cellular volume (MCV) <80 fL or mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH) <28 pg]. Their partners were also asked to be screened by these tests. The anemia couples were consulted to identify thalassemia mutation. The couples who were at high risk of having thalassemia major fetus were then advised to undergo invasive procedure such as amniocentesis or cordocentesis. The couples having confirmed thalassemia major fetus were offered pregnancy termination. Results Among 2,982 microcytic hypochromic anemia pregnant women, 21% of them (633/2,982) have their partners detected to have the same condition. Among those anemia couples, 51% (324/633) were both alpha thalassemia carriers, 10% (62/633) were both beta thalassemia carriers and 39% (247/633) were two different types of thalassemia carriers. Among alpha thalassemia mutations, --SEA mutation has the highest proportion (67%, 337/502). The mean of MCV and MCH of --SEA mutation carriers were 67.9±4.7 and 21.9±1.5 respectively. Among 1,249 beta thalassemia cases diagnosed through RBC and hemoglobin electrophoresis, 54% (678/1,249) had HbE peak with 75.7±5.1 MCV and 25.2±1.9 MCH and the other 46% (571/1,249) had 67.7±6.7 MCV and 22±2.3 MCH. Among the couples who were both microcytic hypochromic anemia, only 33% (209/633) of them agreed to undergo amniocentesis or cordocentesis to identify the affected fetuses. We found 40 hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome cases and 4? thalassemia major cases. All the thalassemia major fetuses were terminated, except 1? thalassemia major fetus carrying Cd 26 (HbE disease) and Cd 41/42 mutations. Conclusions Thalassemia is a common inherited condition in Viet Nam. The number of ? thalassemia carriers is twice as many as beta thalassemia carriers. --SEA and CD 26 (HbE disease) mutations are the most common mutations of ? thalassemia and beta thalassemia, respectively. In order to reduce the number of major thalassemia fetuses, thalassemia screening strategy by RBC in preconceptional couples or in first-visit pregnant women is effective and applicable in Viet Nam.

  6. Dynamic study of intramembranous particles in human fresh erythrocytes using an "in vitro cryotechnique".

    PubMed

    Terada, Nobuo; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Baba, Takeshi; Ohno, Shinichi

    2006-04-01

    For analyses of dynamic ultrastructures of erythrocyte intramembranous particles (IMPs) in situ, a quick-freezing method was used to stabilize the flow behavior of erythrocytes embedded in vitreous ice. Fresh human blood was jetted at various pressures through artificial tubes, in which the flowing erythrocytes were elongated from biconcave discoid shapes to elliptical ones, and quickly frozen in liquid isopentane-propane cryogen (-193 degrees C). They were freeze-fractured using a scalpel in liquid nitrogen, and routinely prepared for replica membranes. Many IMPs were observed on the protoplasmic freeze-fracture face (P-face) of the erythrocyte membranes. Some control erythrocytes under nonflowing or stationary conditions showed IMPs with their random distribution. However, other jetted erythrocytes under flowing conditions showed variously sized IMPs with much closer distribution. They were also arranged into parallel rows in some parts, and aggregated together. This quick-freezing method enabled for the first time the visualization of time-dependent topology and the molecular alteration of IMPs in dynamically flowing erythrocytes. PMID:16586489

  7. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  8. Linoleic acid induces red blood cells and hemoglobin damage via oxidative mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Fan, Wen-Bin; Cong, Yu; Xu, Hai-Dong; Li, Cheng-Jun; Meng, Jia; Bao, Ni-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Hidden blood loss typically occurs following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and is thought to be related to free fatty acid (FFA). To study the effect of linoleic acid on red blood cells and to examine the pathogenesis of hidden blood loss in vivo, we generated an animal model by injecting linoleic acid into the tail veins of rats. We collected blood samples and determined red blood cell count (RBC) and levels of hemoglobin (Hb), as well as the oxidation and reducing agents in the blood, including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferryl hemoglobin (Fe4+=O2-), which is generated by the oxidation of Hb. Hidden blood loss occurred when linoleic acid was administered at a concentration of 60 mmol/L; RBC and Hb levels were significantly reduced by 24 h post-injection. This was followed by erythrocyte deformation, reduced activity of GSH-PX and T-SOD, and decreased levels of H2O2. This was accompanied by an increase in ferryl species, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in vivo. Our findings suggest that linoleic acid enhances acute red blood cell injury. Hb and RBC began to increase by 72 h, potentially resulting from linoleic acid metabolism. Thus, elevated levels of linoleic acid in the blood cause acute oxidative damage to red blood cells, eventually leading to partial acute anemia. These findings highlight the pathophysiology underlying hidden blood loss. PMID:26191198

  9. A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature.

  10. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...a device intended to measure the circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...a device intended to measure the circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...a device intended to measure the circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...a device intended to measure the circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...a device intended to measure the circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and...

  16. Whole blood pumping with a microthrottle pump

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M. J.; Johnston, I. D.; Tan, C. K. L.; Tracey, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that microthrottle pumps (MTPs) display the capacity to pump solid phase suspensions such as polystyrene beads which prove challenging to most microfluidic pumps. In this paper we report employing a linear microthrottle pump (LMTP) to pump whole, undiluted, anticoagulated, human venous blood at 200 ?l min?1 with minimal erythrocyte lysis and no observed pump blockage. LMTPs are particularly well suited to particle suspension transport by virtue of their relatively unimpeded internal flow-path. Micropumping of whole blood represents a rigorous real-world test of cell suspension transport given blood’s high cell content by volume and erythrocytes’ relative fragility. A modification of the standard Drabkin method and its validation to spectrophotometrically quantify low levels of erythrocyte lysis by hemoglobin release is also reported. Erythrocyte lysis rates resulting from transport via LMTP are determined to be below one cell in 500 at a pumping rate of 102 ?l min?1. PMID:21264059

  17. Lead poisoning: association with hemolytic anemia, basophilic stippling, erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency, and intraerythrocytic accumulation of pyrimidines.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, W N; Paglia, D E; Fink, K; Madokoro, G

    1976-01-01

    Lead intoxication is accompanied by an acquired deficiency of erythrocyte pryimidine-specific, 5'-nucleotidase. Genetically determined deficiency of this enzyme is associated with chronic hemolysis, marked basophilic stippling of erythrocytes on stained blood films, and unique intraerythrocytic accumulations of pyrimidine-containing nucleotides. The present report documents that lead-induced deficiency when sufficiently severe gives rise to findings similar to the hereditary disorder. Whereas pyrimidine-containing nucleotides are virutally absent in the erythrocytes of normal and reticulocyte-rich blood, 12% of erythrocyte nucloetides in the blood of a patient with lead intoxication contained cytidine. Nucleotidase activity was about 25% that in normal erythrocytes and 15% or less of that expected in comparable reticulocyte-rich blood. The distribution of nucleotidase activity in patient erythrocytes is unknown, and much more severe deficiency could have been present in subsets of the cell populations analyzed. The findings indicate that the hemolytic anemia and increased basophilic stippling characteristic of certain cases of lead intoxication may share a common etiology with essentially identical features of the genetically determined disorder. Images PMID:965496

  18. Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light scattering

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light to various diseases and acute conditions, the shape and composition of erythrocytes (red blood cells. To the right is a figure depicting the initial stages of a beam traversal through a sample of blood cells

  19. Effect of nitazoxanide on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Markus; Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2014-05-01

    Nitazoxanide, a drug effective against a variety of pathogens, triggers apoptosis and is thus considered to be employed against malignancy. Similar to nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo an apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ). The Ca(2+) -sensitivity of eryptosis is increased by ceramide. This study explored whether nitazoxanide triggers eryptosis. [Ca(2+) ]i was estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, ceramide abundance utilizing fluorescent antibodies and haemolysis from haemoglobin release. A 48-hr exposure to nitazoxanide (1-50 ?g/ml) did not significantly modify [Ca(2+) ]i but significantly increased ceramide formation, decreased forward scatter (?10 ?g/ml), increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding erythrocytes (?10 ?g/ml) and, at higher concentrations (?20 ?g/ml), stimulated haemolysis. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the absence of calcium. Nitazoxanide thus stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to ceramide formation. PMID:24215285

  20. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Sponsorship Opportunities Foundation for America's Blood Centers ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... Our Partners PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  1. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Sponsorship Opportunities Foundation for America's Blood Centers ABC Meetings, Workshops & Events Education. Advocacy. Innovation. What We ... someone's future. PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter Annual Reports Blood Counts Press Releases Videos ...

  2. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  3. Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

  4. Ca(2+) and caspases are involved in hydroxyl radical-induced apoptosis in erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Li, HuaTao; Feng, Lin; Jiang, WeiDan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, YongAn; Wu, Pei; Zhou, XiaoQiu

    2015-10-01

    There are young erythrocytes and mature erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of fish. The present study explored the apoptosis in hydroxyl radical ((·)OH)-induced young and mature erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Carp erythrocytes from the peripheral blood were separated into the young fraction, the intermediate fraction and the mature fraction using fixed-angle centrifugation. The erythrocytes in three age fractions were treated with the caspase inhibitors (zVAD-fmk) in physiological carp saline (PCS) or Ca(2+)-free PCS in the presence of 40 ?M FeSO4/20 ?M H2O2. The results showed that the (·)OH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and DNA fragmentation are caspase dependent in carp erythrocytes. Furthermore, the ROS generation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in the more young fraction are more dependent on the caspase activity. This suggested that the caspases are involved in the (·)OH-induced apoptosis in the young erythrocytes of fish. Results also indicated that Ca(2+) is involved in (·)OH-induced calpain activation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in carp erythrocytes. Moreover, the calpain activation, DNA fragmentation and PS exposure in the more mature fraction are more dependent on the levels of Ca(2+). This revealed that (·)OH-induced apoptosis is Ca(2+) dependent in the mature erythrocytes of fish. Taken together, there might be two apoptosis pathways in fish erythrocytes: one is the caspase-dependent apoptosis in the young erythrocytes and the other is the Ca(2+)-involved apoptosis in the mature erythrocytes. PMID:26080678

  5. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  6. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE?/? mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE?/? mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE?/? mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  7. Transcriptome analyses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) erythrocytes infected with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV).

    PubMed

    Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Wessel, Øystein; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Nyman, Ingvild Berg; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Rimstad, Espen; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a widespread disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and is associated with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection. PRV is detectable in blood long before development of pathology in cardiac- and skeletal muscle appear, and erythrocytes have been identified as important target cells for the virus. The effects of PRV infection on cellular processes of erythrocytes are not known, but haemolytic anemia or systemic lysis of erythrocytes does not seem to occur, even with high virus loads in erythrocytes. In this study, gene expression profiling performed with high-density oligonucleotide microarray showed that PRV infection of erythrocytes induced a large panel of virus responsive genes. These involved interferon-regulated antiviral genes, as well as genes involved in antigen presentation via MHC class I. PRV infection also stimulated negative immune regulators. In contrast, a large number of immune genes expressed prior to infection were down-regulated. Moderate reduction of expression was also found for many genes encoding components of cytoskeleton and myofiber, proteins involved in metabolism, ion exchange, cell-cell interactions as well as growth factors and regulators of differentiation. PRV did not affect expression of genes involved in heme biosynthesis, gas exchange or erythrocyte-specific markers, but some regulators of erythropoiesis showed decreased transcription levels. These results indicate that PRV infection activates innate antiviral immunity in salmon erythrocytes, but suppresses other gene expression programs. Gene expression profiles suggest major phenotypic changes in PRV infected erythrocytes, but the functional consequences remain to be explored. PMID:26057463

  8. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60?mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10?mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5?ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  9. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe(3+) protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 21±2?M, ca. 100× higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  10. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation. PMID:25817802

  11. EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPY ON THE IN VIVO FREQUENCY OF GLYCOPHORIN A "NULL" VARIANT ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...

  12. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  13. A microfluidic platform to isolate avian erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria parasites based

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    A microfluidic platform to isolate avian erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria to isolate and study avian red blood cells (RBCs) infected to various degrees by the malaria parasite on the surface of the malaria infected avian RBC (miaRBCs) as biomarkers for diagnosis. A glass substrate

  14. On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

  15. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  16. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  17. Serum Pantetheinase/Vanin Levels Regulate Erythrocyte Homeostasis and Severity of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Rihet, Pascal; Atwell, Scott; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Chasson, Lionel; Beaumont, Carole; Chimini, Giovanna; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Viallat, Annie; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Therefore, scoring pantetheinase in serum may serve as a severity marker in malaria infection. This disease triggers an acute stress in erythrocytes, which enhances cytoadherence and hemolysis. We speculated that serum pantetheinase might contribute to erythrocyte resistance to stress under homeostatic conditions. We show that mutant mice with a reduced serum PA are anemic and prone to phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. A cytofluorometric and spectroscopic analysis documented an increased frequency of erythrocytes with an autofluorescent aging phenotype. This is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and shear stress-induced hemolysis. Red blood cell transfer and bone marrow chimera experiments show that the aging phenotype is not cell intrinsic but conferred by the environment, leading to a shortening of red blood cell half-life. Therefore, serum pantetheinase level regulates erythrocyte life span and modulates the risk of developing complicated malaria. PMID:26343328

  18. Relationship between fermented papaya preparation supplementation, erythrocyte integrity and antioxidant status in pre-diabetics.

    PubMed

    Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2014-03-01

    Erythrocytes and their membranes are favorable models to study the relationship between diabetes and susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress damage. The recommendation for the use of fermented papaya preparation (FPP) as a functional food for dietary management of type 2 diabetes was evaluated by assessing its effect on the human antioxidant status and erythrocyte integrity on a multi-ethnical pre-diabetic population. The in vivo effect of FPP was compared with its in vitro free radical scavenging potentials. FPP exhibited potent in vitro free radical scavenging activities thought to be attributed to residual phenolic or flavonoid compounds. Low doses of FPP significantly reduced the susceptibility of human erythrocytes to undergo free radical-induced hemolysis. The intake of 6g FPP/day for a period of 14weeks was observed to significantly reduce the rate of hemolysis and accumulation of protein carbonyls in the blood plasma of pre-diabetics. That FPP consumption on a daily basis can strengthen the antioxidant defense system in vivo was clearly demonstrated by the marked increase of total antioxidant status in the FPP-supplemented pre-diabetics. That FPP maintains the integrity of erythrocytes could benefit the strategies to improve the quality of future blood products. PMID:24316314

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation promotes erythrocyte antioxidant defense and reduces protein nitrosative damage in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Martorell, M; Capó, X; Bibiloni, Mdel M; Sureda, A; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Batle, J M; Llompart, I; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long-term docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and oxidative balance in soccer players after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male athletes (age 20.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to a placebo group that consumed an almond-based beverage (n = 6), or to an experimental group that consumed the same beverage enriched with DHA (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken in resting conditions at the beginning and after 8 weeks of nutritional intervention and training in resting and in post-exercise conditions. Oxidative damage markers (malonyldialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes) and the activity and protein level of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase) were assessed. The results showed that training increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes. The experimental beverage increased DHA from 34.0 ± 3.6 to 43.0 ± 3.6 nmol/10(9) erythrocytes. DHA supplementation increased the catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 10.5 ± 0.35 pkat/10(9) erythrocytes, and brought about a reduction in peroxidative damage induced by training or exercise. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DHA changed the erythrocyte membrane composition, provided antioxidant defense and reduced protein peroxidative damage in the red blood cells of professional athletes after an 8-week training season and acute exercise. PMID:25503390

  20. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ (Group HM: 3 cats) or ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P < 0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P < 0.001) and HM (P < 0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 °C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 °C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P = 0.006) and HM (P = 0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832

  1. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Knowles, Toby G; Day, Michael J; Helps, Chris R

    2009-11-18

    The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' (Group HM: 3 cats) or 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P<0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P<0.001) and HM (P<0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 degrees C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 degrees C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P=0.006) and HM (P=0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832

  2. EFFECT OF RESIDUAL SPLENIC FUNCTION AND FOLATE LEVELS ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS IN SPLENECTOMIZED HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rates of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of splenectomized individuals can be used as an index of genetic damage to erythrocyte recursor cells in the bone marrow. his is in contrast to non-splenectomized humans, whose micronucleated erythrocytes are removed by...

  3. Structural alterations of erythrocyte membrane components induced by exhaustive exercise.

    PubMed

    Brzeszczynska, Joanna; Pieniazek, Anna; Gwozdzinski, Lukasz; Gwozdzinski, Krzysztof; Jegier, Anna

    2008-12-01

    Physical exercise was used as a model of the physiological modulator of free radical production to examine the effects of exercise-induced oxidative modifications on the physico-biochemical properties of erythrocyte membrane. The aim of our work was to investigate conformational changes of erythrocyte membrane proteins, membrane fluidity, and membrane susceptibility to disintegration. Venous blood was taken before, immediately after, and 1 h after an exhaustive incremental cycling test (30 W.min-1 ramp), performed by 11 healthy untrained males on balanced diets (mean age, 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index, 25 +/- 4.5 kg.m-2). In response to this exercise, individual maximum heart rate was 195 +/- 12 beats.min-1 and maximum wattage was 292 +/- 27 W. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate alterations in membrane proteins and membrane dynamics, and to measure production of radical species. The reducing potential of plasma (RPP) was measured using the reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric-reducing ability of plasma. Exercise induced decreases in erythrocyte membrane fluidity in the polar region (p < 0.0001) and alterations in the conformational state of membrane proteins (p < 0.05). An increase in RPP was observed immediately after exercise (p < 0.001), with a further increase 1 h postexercise (p < 0.0001). Supporting measurements of lipid peroxidation showed an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances immediately after exercise (p < 0.05) and at 1 h of recovery (p < 0.001); however, free radicals were not detected. Results indicate the existence of early postexercise mild oxidative stress after single-exercise performance, which induced structural changes in erythrocyte membrane components (protein aggregation) and in the membrane organization (lipids rigidization) that followed lipid peroxidation but did not lead to cellular hemolysis. PMID:19088781

  4. Prevention of nonspecific lysis in liposomal and erythrocyte immunoassay systems by small lipid vesicles and erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed

    Schreier, H; Valentino, K; Heath, B P; Kung, V T

    1989-01-01

    Large unilamellar liposomes prepared by the reverse-phase evaporation method (REVs) were made immunoreactive by incorporating dinitrophenylaminocaproyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DNP-Cap-PE) or 8-(3-carboxypropyl)-theophylline-dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (Th-DPPE) into the phospholipid bilayer. Specific lysis in the presence of anti-DNP-BSA and goat anti-theophylline serum respectively, was induced by adding guinea pig serum as source for complement to these liposomes. However, specific lysis was found to be compromised by high levels of nonspecific lysis as monitored by the release of the fluorescent aqueous-space marker 6-carboxyfluorescein. Nonspecific lysis could be prevented without affecting specific lysis by pretreatment of complement or incubation of the reaction mixture with small unilamellar liposomes (SUVs). SUVs of various lipid compositions produced the desired effect; however, when the fraction of negative charge in the SUVs was increased to 30 mol%, specific lysis was inhibited as well. In a similar assay system consisting of hemolysin-sensitized sheep red blood cells it was also found that nonspecific lysis could be inhibited by addition of erythrocyte ghosts to the incubation medium, although specific lysis was somewhat depressed. However, SUVs or REVs of a composition similar to sheep erythrocytes were ineffective indicating a more selective nature of complement-mediated immunoreaction with erythrocyte membranes than with synthetic bilayer membranes. PMID:2601559

  5. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Waibel, Sabrina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections, has later been shown to be effective in various infectious diseases including malaria. Nelfinavir may trigger mitochondria-independent cell death. Erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a mitochondria-independent suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). During malaria, accelerated death of infected erythrocytes may decrease parasitemia and thus favorably influence the clinical course of the disease. In the present study, phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with nelfinavir significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (?5µg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (?2.5µg/mL), significantly increased ROS abundance (10 µg/mL), and significantly increased [Ca2+]i (?5 µg/mL). The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following nelfinavir treatment was significantly blunted, but not abolished by either addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) or removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, exposure of erythrocytes to nelfinavir induces oxidative stress and Ca2+ entry, thus leading to suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling. PMID:26008229

  6. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Egler, Jasmin; Briglia, Marilena; Fazio, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The natural phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin, primarily used for topical treatment of warts, has later been shown to trigger tumor cell apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of tumor cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of cell membrane phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), ceramide, oxidative stress and dysregulation of several kinases. Phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface was quantified utilizing annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide from antibody binding, and reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with cantharidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (?10 ?g/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (?25 ?g/mL), significantly increased [Ca2+]i (?25 ?g/mL), but did not significantly modify ceramide abundance or ROS. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following cantharidin treatment was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was abolished by kinase inhibitor staurosporine (1 ?M) and slightly decreased by p38 inhibitor skepinone (2 ?M). Exposure of erythrocytes to cantharidin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death with erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect sensitive to kinase inhibitors staurosporine and skepinone. PMID:26226001

  7. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to measure the number of the unborn baby's red blood cells in a pregnant woman's blood. See also: Rh incompatibility ... draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  8. Irradiation Can Selectively Kill Tumor Cells while Preserving Erythrocyte Viability in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Qing; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-Ju; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of how to safely apply intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery has not yet been obtained. Here, we investigated the optimal dose of 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation for killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901), and colonic carcinoma (SW620) tumor cells while preserving co-cultured erythrocytes obtained from 14 healthy adult volunteers. HepG2, SGC7901, or SW620 cells were mixed into the aliquots of erythrocytes. After the mixed cells were treated with 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation (30, 50, and 100 Gy), tumor cells and erythrocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll with a density of 1.063 g/ml. The viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, tumorigenicity, and apoptosis of the tumor cells were determined by MTT assay, plate colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, subcutaneous xenograft implantation into immunocompromised mice, and annexin V/7-AAD staining, respectively. The ATP concentration, 2,3-DPG level, free Hb concentration, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, blood gas variables, reactive oxygen species levels, and superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes were analyzed. We found that 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation at 50 Gy effectively inhibited the viability, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells without markedly damaging the oxygen-carrying ability or membrane integrity or increasing the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrated that 50 Gy irradiation in a standard 137Cs blood irradiator might be a safe and effective method of inactivating HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells mixed with erythrocytes, which might help to safely allow IBS in cancer surgery. PMID:26018651

  9. Spectroscopic analysis of irradiated erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Nabila S.; Desouky, Omar S.; Ismail, Nagla M.; Dakrory, Amira Z.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma radiation on the lipid part of the erythrocyte membrane, and to test the efficiency of lipoic acid as a radioprotector. This effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in the number of spin density by 14%, 22% and 65% after exposure to 25, 50 and 100 Gy respectively; whereas there was a decline in the obtained density after incubation with lipoic acid by a factor of approximately 32%. The FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocytes samples showed a marked decrease in the intensity of all characteristic peaks, which increased as the irradiation dose increased. The second-derivative of these spectra, allow the conformationally sensitive membrane acyl chain methylene stretching modes to be separated from the protein (mostly hemoglobin) vibrations that dominate the spectra of intact cells. The 2850 cm -1 band showed changes in the band shape and position after exposure to 50 and 100 Gy. Therefore it can be concluded that the band at 2850 cm -1 only is useful in monitoring the radiation effect of the lipids cell membrane intact cells.

  10. [The influence of extracorporeal laser radiation on structural indices of erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Khetsuriani, R G; Aladashvili, L M; Arabuli, M B; Tophuria, D Z; Tchlikadze, N G

    2015-01-01

    Object of the research was to study the diffractometric indices of erythrocytes, while 1 ml of the blood of the experimental animals was irradiated extracorporally by helium-neon laser. For this purpose 1 ml blood was taken from normal weight, (1200 gr) grown up shinshila rabbits, that we divided into 7 groups and irradiated with 10 vat helium-neon laser during 0.5-1 minutes. After irradiation blood was injected back to the organism of rabbits. After 2-6 hours from irradiation blood was taken from veins, to study by electronic microscope and later to be processed by diffractometric analysis method. The examinations testify that after extracorporeal irradiation diffractometric characteristics of erythrocytes' membranes are lower than after general irradiation, which indicates to the different energetic possibilities of laser. The extracorporeal irradiation, performed by laser and input of radiated blood back to organism is considered to be a shock therapy from the side of erythrocytes, which promote the defense function of the organism itself. The base for the shock therapy should be important factors such as homeostasis, compensative-adaptive mechanisms and so on. Exactly this above mentioned should be manifested after the sensitized cells are led back to the body (1 ml of blood) and with their existence they should promote display of the defense mechanisms. PMID:25693223

  11. Feasibility of conducting the micronucleus test in circulating erythrocytes from different mammalian species: an anatomical perspective.

    PubMed

    Udroiu, Ion

    2006-12-01

    The in vivo mammalian micronucleus test can be conducted easily on peripheral blood samples since the maturation of erythrocytes involves the loss of the major nucleus. In addition, mature erythrocytes are relatively long-lived, so that the test potentially can detect genotoxic damage caused by chronic exposures. However, some species have spleens that remove micronuclei from the peripheral circulation, making such measurements problematical. This report summarises haematological and mutagenesis studies dealing with this subject and provides an anatomical interpretation of the phenomenon. Anatomical features can be used to identify those species in which micronuclei are removed by the spleen. PMID:17111424

  12. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  13. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  14. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  15. Triggering of programmed erythrocyte death by alantolactone.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (?20 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 ?M), ceramide abundance (60 ?M) and DCFDA fluorescence (?40 ?M). The effect of alantolactone (60 ?M) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  16. Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (?20 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 ?M), ceramide abundance (60 ?M) and DCFDA fluorescence (?40 ?M). The effect of alantolactone (60 ?M) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  17. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  18. Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

    2013-09-01

    Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants. PMID:23732483

  19. Importance of convection to the enhancement of erythrocyte sedimentation rates in inclined tubes.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B; O'Brien, R N

    1987-01-01

    Erythrocytes were settled from whole blood in standard 200 x 2.5 mm erythrocyte settling rate tubes placed vertically and at various angles from 85 degrees to 15 degrees from the horizontal. In all cases sedimentation rates measured along the slope increased with decreasing angle from the horizontal. Vertical settled distances rapidly increased down to an angle of 70 degrees and then changed very little even down to angles as shallow as 30 degrees. Evidence is presented that convection plays a significant role in the inclined settling of erythrocytes, as has already been demonstrated with clay, or glass bead suspensions in water. Inclined settling enhancements obtained are quite similar to those observed under similar conditions with yeast cells in aqueous glucose. PMID:3328634

  20. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion **

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Elizabeth S.; Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Moechtar, Mischka A.; Barteneva, Natasha S.; Weekes, Michael P.; Nobre, Luis V.; Gygi, Steven P.; Paulo, Joao A.; Frantzreb, Charles; Tani, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Junko; Watanabe, Seishi; Goldberg, Jonathan; Paul, Aditya S.; Brugnara, Carlo; Root, David E.; Wiegand, Roger C.; Doench, John G.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify host determinants for malaria have been hindered by the absence of a nucleus in erythrocytes, precluding genetic manipulation in the cell where the parasite replicates. We used cultured red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells to carry out a forward genetic screen for Plasmodium falciparum host determinants. We found that CD55 is an essential host factor for P. falciparum invasion. CD55-null erythrocytes were refractory to invasion by all isolates of P. falciparum because parasites failed to attach properly to the erythrocyte surface. Thus, CD55 is an attractive target for the development of malaria therapeutics. Hematopoietic stem cell-based forward genetic screens may be valuable for the identification of additional host determinants of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25954012

  1. Hemoglobin degradation in malaria-infected erythrocytes determined from live cell magnetophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lee R.; Fujioka, Hisashi; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Grimberg, Brian; Zimmerman, Peter; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    During intra-erythrocytic development, malaria trophozoites digest hemoglobin, which leads to parasite growth and asexual replication while accumulating toxic heme. To avoid death, the parasite synthesizes insoluble hemozoin crystals in the digestive vacuole through polymerization of ?-hematin dimers. In the process, the heme is converted to a high-spin ferriheme whose magnetic properties were studied as early as 1936 by Pauling et al. Here, by magnetophoretic cell motion analysis, we provide evidence for a graduated increase of live cell magnetic susceptibility with developing blood-stage parasites, compatible with the increase in hemozoin content and the mechanism used by P. falciparum to avoid heme toxicity. The measured magnetophoretic mobility of the erythrocyte infected with a late-stage schizont form was m = 2.94 × 10?6 mm3 s/kg, corresponding to the net volume magnetic susceptibility (relative to water) of ?? = 1.80 × 10?6, significantly higher than that of the oxygenated erythrocyte (?0.18×10?6) but lower than that of the fully deoxygenated erythrocyte (3.33×10?6). The corresponding fraction of hemoglobin converted to hemozoin, calculated based on the known magnetic susceptibilities of hemoglobin heme and hemozoin ferriheme, was 0.50, in agreement with the published biochemical and crystallography data. Magnetophoretic analysis of live erythrocytes could become significant for antimalarial drug susceptibility and resistance determination. PMID:16461330

  2. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  3. Quercetin protected isolated human erythrocytes against mancozeb-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Bhaskar; Rajendar, Bandi; Ramanathan, Muthiah

    2014-07-01

    Mancozeb is a fungicide belonging to the ethylene-bisdithiocarbamate group and is widely used in agriculture. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of quercetin (QRN) against oxidative stress induced by mancozeb in human erythrocytes. In order to verify this, 5 ml of venous blood was collected and the erythrocytes were separated and divided into equal parts. One part was incubated with different concentrations of mancozeb (0, 10, 30, 100 µM) for 4 h at 37°C. The other part was preincubated with QRN (40 and 80 ?M) for 30 min, followed by mancozeb (0, 10, 30, 100 µM) incubation for 4 h. We found reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) along with elevated levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) in erythrocytes incubated with 30 and 100 µm of mancozeb. Pre-incubation with QRN (80 ?M) reversed oxidative stress induced by mancozeb (30 ?M) and inhibited LPO induced at 100 ?M by 64.36%. QRN also reduced the haemolytic effect on erythrocytes but could not prevent the induction of haemolysis by mancozeb. Therefore, these results suggest that QRN may play a role in preventing the oxidative stress induced by mancozeb in human erythrocytes. PMID:23024109

  4. Identification and expression of maebl, an erythrocyte-binding gene, in Plasmodium gallinaceum

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Criseyda; Marzec, Timothy; Smith, Christopher D.; Tell, Lisa A.; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is of significant ecological importance and serves as a model system to study broad patterns of host switching and host-specificity. The erythrocyte invasion mechanism of the malaria parasite Plasmodium is mediated, in large part, by proteins of the erythrocyte binding-like (ebl) family of genes. However, little is known about how these genes are conserved across different species of Plasmodium, especially those that infect birds. Using bioinformatical methods in conjunction with PCR and genetic sequencing, we identified and annotated one member of the ebl family, maebl (merozoite apical erythrocyte binding ligand) from the chicken parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We then detected the expression of maebl in P. gallinaceum by PCR analysis of cDNA isolated from the blood of infected chickens. We found that maebl is a conserved orthologous gene in avian, mammalian, and rodent Plasmodium species. The duplicate extracellular binding domains of MAEBL, responsible for erythrocyte binding, are the most conserved regions. Our combined data corroborate the conservation of maebl throughout the Plasmodium genus, and may help elucidate the mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion in P. gallinaceum and the host specificity of Plasmodium parasites. PMID:23224610

  5. Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6–26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., “positive controls”), and healthy controls (i.e., “negative controls”). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

  6. Low blood lymphocyte count at 30 days post transplant predicts worse acute GVHD and survival but not relapse in a large retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Gul, Z; Van Meter, E; Abidi, M; Ditah, I; Abdul-Hussein, M; Deol, A; Ayash, L; Lum, L G; Waller, E K; Ratanatharathorn, V; Uberti, J; Al-Kadhimi, Z

    2015-03-01

    Multiple reports have shown that low absolute lymphocyte count at day 30 (ALC30) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (AHSCT) is associated with higher risk of disease relapse and worse OS. However, these reports included heterogeneous populations with different grafts and GVHD prophylaxis. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the association of ALC30 with transplant outcomes in a cohort of 381 consecutive patients who underwent AHSCT between 2005 and 2010 and received T-replete PBSC grafts and Tacrolimus/Mycophenolate combination as GVHD prophylaxis. Median follow-up was 57 months. Lower ALC30 (?400 × 10(6)/L) was associated with lower OS and increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) for the whole cohort as well as for recipients of SD and UD grafts separately. Lower ALC30 was associated with more severe acute GVHD (aGVHD; III-IV) for the entire cohort as well as for the SD and UD groups. No association was found between lower ALC30 and relapse. Pretransplant factors associated with lower ALC30 were: unrelated donors; HLA mismatch; older donors; lower recipient age; and lower CD34+ cell dose. In this large retrospective study, ALC30?400 × 10(6)/L was associated with worse OS, increased NRM and severe aGVHD. PMID:25599169

  7. ERYTHROCYTE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...

  8. Triggering of Erythrocyte Death by Triparanol

    PubMed Central

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor Triparanol has been shown to trigger apoptosis in several malignancies. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress which may activate erythrocytic Ca2+ permeable unselective cation channels with subsequent Ca2+ entry and increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). The present study explored whether and how Triparanol induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Triparanol (20 µM) significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence and significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. Triparanol (15 µM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased the forward scatter. The effect of Triparanol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Triparanol leads to eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Triparanol is at least in part effective by stimulating ROS formation and Ca2+ entry. PMID:26305256

  9. Triggering of Erythrocyte Death by Triparanol.

    PubMed

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2015-08-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor Triparanol has been shown to trigger apoptosis in several malignancies. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress which may activate erythrocytic Ca(2+) permeable unselective cation channels with subsequent Ca(2+) entry and increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i). The present study explored whether and how Triparanol induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Triparanol (20 µM) significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence and significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. Triparanol (15 µM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased the forward scatter. The effect of Triparanol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In conclusion, Triparanol leads to eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Triparanol is at least in part effective by stimulating ROS formation and Ca(2+) entry. PMID:26305256

  10. Fullerenol C??(OH)?? could associate to band 3 protein of human erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Grebowski, Jacek; Krokosz, Anita; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2013-09-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of fullerenol C60(OH)36 on chosen parameters of the human erythrocyte membrane and the preliminary estimation of the properties of fullerenol as a potential linking agent transferring the compounds (e.g., anticancer drugs) into the membrane of erythrocytes. The results obtained in this study confirm the impact of fullerenol on erythrocyte cytoskeletal transmembrane proteins, particularly on the band 3 protein. The presence of fullerenol in each of the concentrations used prevented degradation of the band 3 protein. The results show that changes in the morphology of red blood cells caused by high concentrations of fullerenol (up to 150mg/L) did not lead to increased red blood cell hemolysis or the leakage of potassium. Moreover, fullerenol slightly prevented hemolysis and potassium efflux. The protective effect of fullerenol at the concentration of 150mg/L was 20.3%, and similar results were obtained for the efflux of potassium. The study shows that fullerenol slightly changed the morphology of the cells and, therefore, altered the intracellular organization of erythrocytes through the association with cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:23702461

  11. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  12. Microfluidic impedance cytometry of tumour cells in blood

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Daniel; Morgan, Hywel

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric properties of tumour cells are known to differ from normal blood cells, and this difference can be exploited for label-free separation of cells. Conventional measurement techniques are slow and cannot identify rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in a realistic timeframe. We use high throughput single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry to measure the dielectric properties of the MCF7 tumour cell line (representative of CTCs), both as pure populations and mixed with whole blood. The data show that the MCF7 cells have a large membrane capacitance and size, enabling clear discrimination from all other leukocytes. Impedance analysis is used to follow changes in cell viability when cells are kept in suspension, a process which can be understood from modelling time-dependent changes in the dielectric properties (predominantly membrane conductivity) of the cells. Impedance cytometry is used to enumerate low numbers of MCF7 cells spiked into whole blood. Chemical lysis is commonly used to remove the abundant erythrocytes, and it is shown that this process does not alter the MCF7 cell count or change their dielectric properties. Combining impedance cytometry with magnetic bead based antibody enrichment enables MCF7 cells to be detected down to 100 MCF7 cells in 1?ml whole blood, a log 3.5 enrichment and a mean recovery of 92%. Microfluidic impedance cytometry could be easily integrated within complex cell separation systems for identification and enumeration of specific cell types, providing a fast in-line single cell characterisation method. PMID:25553198

  13. Numerical analysis of the effects of a high gradient magnetic field on flowing erythrocytes in a membrane oxygenator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to clarify the effect of a high gradient magnetic field on pressure characteristics of blood in a hollow fiber membrane oxygenator in a solenoid coil by means of numerical analysis. Deoxygenated erythrocytes are paramagnetic, and oxygenated erythrocytes are diamagnetic. Blood changes its magnetic susceptibility depending on whether it is carrying oxygen or not. Motion of blood was analyzed by solving the continuous equation and the Navier-Stokes equation. It was confirmed that oxygenation of deoxygenated blood in the downstream side of the applied magnetic field was effective for pressure rise in a non-uniform magnetic field. The pressure rise was enhanced greatly by an increase in magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that a membrane oxygenator works as an actuator and there is a possibility of self-circulation of blood through an oxygenator in a non-uniform magnetic field.

  14. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and ?-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (?0 or ?+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. ?-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0?MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In ?0 and ?+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  15. Increased erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure in sickle cell disease: flow-cytometric measurement and clinical associations.

    PubMed

    Wood, B L; Gibson, D F; Tait, J F

    1996-09-01

    Increased exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) in erythrocytes has been postulated to contribute to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease because of its possible effects on blood coagulation, cell adhesion, and cell clearance. We developed a flow-cytometric assay to measure exposure of PS on the outer face of the erythrocyte membrane based on addition of fluorescein-annexin V to whole-blood specimens. The assay correlated linearly with binding of 125I-annexin V (r2 = .95, n = 125 samples). Normal donors (n = 30) showed virtually no annexin-positive cells (0.34% +/- 0.18% for 24-hour old samples). In contrast, annexin V binding was above the upper limit of normal in 96% of 205 specimens from 17 adult sickle cell and 2 beta-thalassemia patients; the mean percentage of annexin-positive cells was 2.86% +/- 2.00% (range, 0.4% to 12.0%). Values varied substantially over time for some patients, and mean values varied between patients. The percentage of annexin-positive cells always decreased after transfusion (11 events in 6 patients), and out of proportion to the amount of blood transfused. In conclusion, increased exposure of PS on a subpopulation of erythrocytes in vivo is a virtually universal feature of sickle cell disease, and its measurement may be useful to evaluate clinical status and response to therapeutic measures such as blood transfusion. PMID:8781447

  16. Sodium nitrite-induced oxidative stress causes membrane damage, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and alters major metabolic pathways in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Fariheen Aisha; Ali, Shaikh Nisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-10-01

    Nitrite salts are present as contaminants in drinking water and in the food and feed chain. In this work, the effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) on human erythrocytes was studied under in vitro conditions. Incubation of erythrocytes with 0.1-10.0 mM NaNO2 at 37 °C for 30 min resulted in dose dependent decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione, total sulfhydryl and amino groups. It was accompanied by increase in hemoglobin oxidation and aggregation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and hydrogen peroxide levels suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Activities of all major erythrocyte antioxidant defense enzymes were decreased in NaNO2-treated erythrocytes. The activities of enzymes of glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways were also compromised. However, there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase and also AMP deaminase, a marker of erythrocyte oxidative stress. Thus, the major metabolic pathways of cell were altered. Erythrocyte membrane damage was suggested by lowered activities of membrane bound enzymes and confirmed by electron microscopic images. These results show that NaNO2-induced oxidative stress causes hemoglobin denaturation and aggregation, weakens the cellular antioxidant defense mechanism, damages the cell membrane and also perturbs normal energy metabolism in erythrocytes. This nitrite-induced damage can reduce erythrocyte life span in the blood. PMID:26231821

  17. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 168 healthy volunteer. Genotyping was performed by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Complete blood analyses were conducted for the participants. Significant association was observed between AQP1 rs1049305 and the hematological traits including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count (P?=?0.012, 0.008, and 0.011, respectively). The AQP1 rs10244884 status was also significantly linked to hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the study cohort (P?=?0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, ABO rs2073823 polymorphism was identified as a hemoglobin and hematocrit levels modifier (both with P?=?0.004). AQP1 and ABO variants appear to predict hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but not other erythrocyte phenotype parameters including red blood cell counts and red blood cell indices. PMID:26632894

  18. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals.Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 168 healthy volunteer. Genotyping was performed by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Complete blood analyses were conducted for the participants.Significant association was observed between AQP1 rs1049305 and the hematological traits including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count (P?=?0.012, 0.008, and 0.011, respectively). The AQP1 rs10244884 status was also significantly linked to hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the study cohort (P?=?0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, ABO rs2073823 polymorphism was identified as a hemoglobin and hematocrit levels modifier (both with P?=?0.004).AQP1 and ABO variants appear to predict hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but not other erythrocyte phenotype parameters including red blood cell counts and red blood cell indices. PMID:26632894

  19. High blood pressure tests (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, blood chemistry (potassium, sodium, creatinine, fasting glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol), and an ECG (electrocardiogram). Additional tests may be recommended based on your condition.

  20. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?-Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  1. Conductometric study of erythrocytes during centrifugation. I. Size distribution of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    1995-05-17

    Sedimentation of hardened erythrocytes in a centrifugal field was studied by time recording of the current chamber in the longitudinal and the transversal directions relative to the cells' movement. The results clearly indicate the existence of an erythrocyte concentration profile during centrifugation. The rates of both longitudinal and transversal current alteration increase with centripetal acceleration and with falling cell concentration. The pellet formed from hardened cells represents virtually incompressible body. It is shown that erythrocyte shape affects the pellet conductivity. Analysis of the data using the modified Stokes' law enables calculation of the cell size distribution. The modal size of macrocytes, normal erythrocytes and two samples of microcytes thus measured was 3.40, 3.01, 2.63 and 2.83 microns, respectively. These data demonstrate that conductometric analysis is useful for investigating abnormalities in erythrocyte size. PMID:7766697

  2. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  7. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  8. Platelet and not erythrocyte microparticles are procoagulant in transfused thalassaemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Agouti, Imane; Cointe, Sylvie; Robert, Stéphane; Judicone, Coralie; Loundou, Anderson; Driss, Fathi; Brisson, Alain; Steschenko, Dominique; Rose, Christian; Pondarré, Corinne; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Badens, Catherine; Dignat-George, Françoise; Lacroix, Romaric; Thuret, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The level of circulating platelet-, erythrocyte-, leucocyte- and endothelial-derived microparticles detected by high-sensitivity flow cytometry was investigated in 37 ?-thalassaemia major patients receiving a regular transfusion regimen. The phospholipid procoagulant potential of the circulating microparticles and the microparticle-dependent tissue factor activity were evaluated. A high level of circulating erythrocyte- and platelet-microparticles was found. In contrast, the number of endothelial microparticles was within the normal range. Platelet microparticles were significantly higher in splenectomized than in non-splenectomized patients, independent of platelet count (P < 0·001). Multivariate analysis indicated that phospholipid-dependent procoagulant activity was influenced by both splenectomy (P = 0·001) and platelet microparticle level (P < 0·001). Erythrocyte microparticles were not related to splenectomy, appear to be devoid of proper procoagulant activity and no relationship between their production and haemolysis, dyserythropoiesis or oxidative stress markers could be established. Intra-microparticle labelling with anti-HbF antibodies showed that they originate only partially (median of 28%) from thalassaemic erythropoiesis. In conclusion, when ?-thalassaemia major patients are intensively transfused, the procoagulant activity associated with thalassaemic erythrocyte microparticles is probably diluted by transfusions. In contrast, platelet microparticles, being both more elevated and more procoagulant, especially after splenectomy, may contribute to the residual thrombotic risk reported in splenectomized multi-transfused ?-thalassaemia major patients. PMID:26205481

  9. [Erythrocyte protoporphyrin during recovery from malnutrition in rats].

    PubMed

    Haydée Langini, S; Río de Gómez del Río, M E; Pita Martín de Portela, M L

    1999-09-01

    Interrelationships between Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin (EP), dietary Iron/Protein ratio (Fe/Prot) and Fe liver content (Feh) were studied during nutritional recovery in an experimental model: weanling female Wistar rats (To) were depleted with a protein-free diet (LP), losing 20% of their initial body weight. Then they were recovered until 45 days of age (T45) with diets containing: casein: 20 g/100 g; Fe (ammonium Fe citrate) (ppm.): 0, 75 or 100 (groups A1, A2 and A3, respectively). Hematocrit, Hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dL). Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin (EP) (microgram/dL Red Blood Cells) and Feh (microgram) were determined at To, LP and T45. Results were compared with control rats (C) fed with 20% of casein and Fe, 50 ppm. EP: a) decreased in C from To to T45 (99 +/- 24; 36 +/- 9; p < 0.01); b) increased in A1 and A2 at T45 (123 +/- 21; 93 +/- 29, respectively, p < 0.01) while A3 did not show significant difference (45 +/- 7) regarding to C: c) correlated inversely with Feh. According to the inverse correlation between EP and Fe/Prot (r = -0.99), we found that 92 ppm was an adequate Fe amount to prevent EP increase. These results confirm that during recovery from undernutrition EP depends on iron liver content, being an adequate indicator of iron nutritional status; therefore, EP would be useful as a predictor of the optimum Fe/Prot ratio for nutritional recovery. PMID:10667263

  10. In vitro effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on blood: a quantitative and morphologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Borrero, E.; Rosenthal, D.; Otis, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Use of the Neodymium: yttrium -aluminum -garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to recanalize stenosed arteries may require delivery of the beam through blood. To assess the degree of hemolysis and debris formation, 54 samples of citrated whole blood were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation of varying powers (10, 20 and 30 watts) and duration (1, 2.5 and 5 seconds). Compared to control samples which were not subjected to laser light, there was no significant decrease in hematocrit (41 to 40.5 +/- 5%), hemoglobin concentration (13.8 to 13.8 +/- .06 g/1OO ml), or increase in free hemoglobin concentration. Debris weight (from .45 +/- .002 to .45 +/- .002 mg), as well as the white blood cell count, was also not significantly changed (from 5,400 to 5,200 +/- 240 WBC/cm). Light microscopy examination of debris from samples of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma subjected to the laser at 30 watts for five seconds failed to demonstrate the presence of membrane denaturation of blood elements, as compared with the morphologic changes observed in whole blood samples exposed to a hot tip rather than Nd:YAG laser radiation. Nd:YAG laser can be used intravascularly without fear of hemolysis or debris micro-embolization up to a power of 30 watts for five seconds.

  11. Genetic models in applied physiology: selected contribution: effects of spaceflight on immunity in the C57BL/6 mouse. II. Activation, cytokines, erythrocytes, and platelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Peters, Luanne L.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Morony, Sean; Stodieck, Louis S.; Lacey, David L.; Simske, Steven J.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    This portion of the study quantified the effects of a 12-day space shuttle mission (Space Transport System-108/UF-1) on body and lymphoid organ masses, activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and erythrocyte and thrombocyte characteristics in C57BL/6 mice. Animals in flight (Flt group) had 10-12% lower body mass compared with ground controls housed either in animal enclosure modules or under standard vivarium conditions (P < 0.001) and the smallest thymus and spleen masses. Percentages of CD25(+) lymphocytes, CD3(+)/CD25(+) T cells, and NK1.1(+)/CD25(+) natural killer cells from Flt mice were higher compared with both controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD71 expression was depressed in the Flt and animal enclosure module control mice compared with vivarium control animals (P < 0.001). Secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-5, by splenocytes from Flt mice was decreased relative to either one or both ground controls (P < 0.05). Flt mice also had high red blood cell and thrombocyte counts compared with both sets of controls; low red blood cell volume and distribution width, percentage of reticulocytes, and platelet volume were also noted (P < 0.05) and were consistent with dehydration. These data indicate that relatively short exposure to the spaceflight environment can induce profound changes that may become significant during long-term space missions.

  12. [Fatty acid composition of phospholipids of erythrocytes of lamprey, frog, rat, and absorption spectra of their lipid extracts].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskii, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Shukolyukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with study of content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids as well as of absorption spectra of lipid extracts of blood erythrocytes poikilothermal and homoiothermal animals of different evolutionary levels. Objects of study were poikilothermal lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) consuming oxygen from water and the common frog (Rana temporatia) consuming it both from water and from air. Homoiothermal animals were white rats (Rattus rattus) inhabiting in the air medium. The animals were studied at the winter-spring periods. There was established the twofold predominance of the phospholipid content in the lamprey plasma as compared with erythrocytes. In frog and rat the reverse ratio was observed. Based on study of the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phospholipids it is suggested the higher density of membranes of lamprey as compared with frog membranes. As to fatty acides of the rat blood erythrocytic fraction, they turned out to be less diverse, with almost twofold predominance of saturated over unsaturated acids and not containing the long-chained (C22) ?3 acids. All this leads to the low unsaturation index and, accordingly, to a dense packing of fatty acids in membrane structures of rat erythrocytes. Mechanism of reversible binding of O2 molecules by hemoglobin in erythrocytes is discussed. The mechanism of interaction of O2 molecules with water molecules is likely to interfere with exchange interaction electrons of hemoglobin iron atoms and oxygen molecule. This confirms our obtained absorption spectra showing that in the lipid extract practically not containing water the heme isolated from erythrocytes is converted to hemin. PMID:25775862

  13. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma?czak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bo?ena; Micha?owicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500?g/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA. PMID:26232583

  14. Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Fluorescence as a Biomarker to Monitor the Anticancer Effect of Semecarpus Anacardium in DMBA Induced Mammary Carcinoma Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vani, S; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2015-07-01

    Endogenous fluorescence has been proposed as a means of aiding the diagnosis of various malignancies. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the spectrofluorimetric analysis of blood components as a marker for the analysis of mammary carcinoma treatment and also to bring about the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium on oxidative stress mediated damage of erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectra of the blood components were studied and also the level of lipid per oxides and antioxidant enzymes status in erythrocytes were determined in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rats treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of blood components are altered under cancer conditions and the drug effectively ameliorated these alterations in mammary carcinoma induced rats. The drug also effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced erythrocyte damage thereby restoring the erythrocytes antioxidant status. These results suggest that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and hence acts as new biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25943985

  15. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  16. Effects of Dietary Coptis Chinensis Herb Extract on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, T. X.; Zhang, Z. F.; Kim, I. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary Coptis chinensis herb extract (CHE) on growth performance, blood characteristics, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs were investigated in an 18-wk feeding trial. A total of 36 Landrace×Yorkshire-Duroc pigs with an initial body weight of 20±1.0 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A maize-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a control diet and other treatment diets were supplemented with 0.5, or 1 g CHE/kg, respectively. After the feeding period, meat samples were collected from those pigs that had reached the market BW. During the experimental periods, growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were unaffected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of CHE. Plasma erythrocytes counts were increased (Linearly, p<0.05) in response to application of CHE at the end of the experiment. Moreover, pigs fed the CHE diets had better (p<0.05) meat color, pH and water holding capacity (WHC) than pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHE could increase blood erythrocytes counts and improve meat quality in growing-finishing pigs but not improve growth performance. PMID:25049712

  17. Venous versus arterial iron administration in haemodialysis. Influence on erythrocytes antioxidant parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dogaru, CB; Capusa, C; Gaman, L; Torac, E; Lixandru, D; Gilca, M; Iosif, L; Muscurel, C; Stoian, I; Mircescu, G; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous iron administration in patients treated by haemodialysis for end stage renal disease can exacerbate oxidative stress by increasing the level of free redox active iron. A way to reduce the impact of iron on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients may be the administration of iron through arterial extracorporeal circuit. Objective The aim of our study was to compare the influence of iron route of administration (venous versus arterial extracorporeal circuit infusion) on antioxidant parameters in red blood cells of haemodialysis patients in order to clarify if arterial iron administration can have positive impacts related to iron induced oxidative stress. Method Twenty stable patients on regular haemodialysis treatment were selected for the study. They were investigated in a cross-over design at 3 mid-week HD sessions, one week apart, without iron [HD basal] and with either IV infusion of 100mg iron sucrose over the first 20 minutes of HD session, via venous line [HDvenous], or the same solution infused on the arterial extracorporeal circulation [HDarterial]. Blood samples were drawn at 0 min, 40 min and 270 min. Erythrocytes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, non-protein thiol levels and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were analysed. Conclusion Haemodialysis significantly decreases the total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes. Iron supplementation, through venous or arterial extracorporeal route has no impact on the total antioxidant activity in red blood cells. Venous iron administration increases GPx activity in erythrocytes suggesting increased lipid peroxidation compared with arterial extracorporeal administration. PMID:26361515

  18. Venous versus arterial iron administration in haemodialysis. Influence on erythrocytes antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    Dogaru, C B; Capusa, C; Gaman, L; Torac, E; Lixandru, D; Gilca, M; Iosif, L; Muscurel, C; Stoian, I; Mircescu, G; Atanasiu, V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous iron administration in patients treated by haemodialysis for end stage renal disease can exacerbate oxidative stress by increasing the level of free redox active iron. A way to reduce the impact of iron on oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients may be the administration of iron through arterial extracorporeal circuit. Objective The aim of our study was to compare the influence of iron route of administration (venous versus arterial extracorporeal circuit infusion) on antioxidant parameters in red blood cells of haemodialysis patients in order to clarify if arterial iron administration can have positive impacts related to iron induced oxidative stress. Method Twenty stable patients on regular haemodialysis treatment were selected for the study. They were investigated in a cross-over design at 3 mid-week HD sessions, one week apart, without iron [HD basal] and with either IV infusion of 100mg iron sucrose over the first 20 minutes of HD session, via venous line [HDvenous], or the same solution infused on the arterial extracorporeal circulation [HDarterial]. Blood samples were drawn at 0 min, 40 min and 270 min. Erythrocytes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, non-protein thiol levels and total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were analysed. Conclusion Haemodialysis significantly decreases the total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes. Iron supplementation, through venous or arterial extracorporeal route has no impact on the total antioxidant activity in red blood cells. Venous iron administration increases GPx activity in erythrocytes suggesting increased lipid peroxidation compared with arterial extracorporeal administration. PMID:26361515

  19. Metabolism of acetylcholine in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to examine the possible role of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase in the maintenance of membrane phospholipid content and membrane fluidity, experiments were performed to monitor the activity of the enzyme and follow the fate of one of its hydrolytic products, choline. Intact human erythrocytes were incubated with acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C). The incubation resulted in the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline; the reaction was catalyzed by membrane acetylcholinesterase. The studies demonstrate the further metabolism of choline. Experiments were carried out to determine rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, uptake of choline, identification of intracellular metabolites of choline, and identification of radiolabeled membrane components. Erythrocytes at a 25% hematocrit were incubated in an isoosmotic bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4, containing glucose, adenosine, streptomycin and penicillin with 0.3 {mu}Ci of acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C), for 24 hours. Aliquots of the erythrocyte suspension were taken throughout for analysis. Erythrocytes were washed free of excess substrate, lysed, and the hemolysate was extracted for choline and its metabolites. Blank samples containing incubation buffer and radiolabeled acetylcholine only, and erythrocyte hemolysate extracts were analyzed for choline content, the difference between blank samples and hemolysate extracts was the amount of choline originating from acetylcholine and attributable to acetylcholinesterase activity. The conversion of choline to {sup 14}C-betaine is noted after several minutes of incubation; at 30 minutes, more than 80% of {sup 14}C-choline is taken up and after several hours, detectable levels of radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine were present in the hemolysate extract.

  20. Evaluation of lead exposure in workers at a lead-acid battery factory in Korea: with focus on activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N).

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y; Harada, K; Ohmori, S; Lee, B K; Miura, H; Ueda, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Korea, to evaluate in more detail the erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) test for lead exposure, and to evaluate the abnormal accumulation of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides in the battery workers. METHODS--Activity of P5N and other biological variables were examined in 66 exposed workers in a lead-acid battery factory and in 26 non-exposed workers in Korea. RESULTS--At the factory the time-weighted average of 13 (72%) of 18 air samples for lead exceeded 0.05 (range 0.012-0.468) mg/m3. Blood lead concentration (PbB) in 39 of the 66 exposed workers was above 40 micrograms/dl, and the mean (SD) PbB in the exposed group was 45.7 (15.7) micrograms/dl. Compared with the nonexposed group, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin in the exposed group was significantly increased, whereas erythrocyte P5N activity and activity of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were significantly inhibited. Erythrocyte P5N activity had valid correlation biologically with PbB and with other biological variables, such as ALAD activity. In 28 exposed workers, the concentration of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides (uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucose and cytidine 5'-triphosphate) correlated inversely with P5N activity and positively with PbB. CONCLUSIONS--These findings show that the depression of erythrocyte P5N activity by lead exposure results in the accumulation of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides. In general, the standard analysis of PbB performed in laboratories around the world remains the most useful index of recent exposure. The results indicate that the erythrocyte P5N activity test provides supporting evidence of lead exposure and shows the effect of lead on nucleotide metabolism. PMID:7670624

  1. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  2. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary C-reactive protein is a better indicator of inflammation than the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. It is more sensitive and responds more quickly to changes in the clinical situation. False negative and false positive results are more common when measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Renal disease, female sex and older age increase the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate has value in detecting low-grade bone infection, and in monitoring some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

  3. Properties of erythrocyte light refraction in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Mazarevica, Gunta; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Jurka, Antra

    2002-04-01

    Since hyperglycaemia changes the erythrocyte cell membrane fluidity and impairs cell deformity, our goal was to characterize hemoglobin and red blood cell (RBC) light refractive property changes in diabetic patients. Microscopic investigation was carried out on intact and fixed RBCs. To determine the refractive index (RI): smears of peripheral blood were air dried and fixed for 3 min in methanol. Mixtures of polyvinylpyrolidine and buffer of different pH (1:1) were used as embedding media. Intact RBCs were mixed with a buffered embedding medium, placed on a slide and overlaid with a coverslip. Interference microscopy was used for RI measurements at 18 different pH (pH=2-13). The results showed that curves of the RI of diabetic patients and of a control group were of similar configuration, with one branch in the acidic portion of the pH scale, a maximum and two minima in the neutral (middle) portion, and one branch in the alkaline portion. The curves of the individuals from the control group overlapped each other. To the contrary, the curves of the diabetic patients were not uniform in the neutral portion and the alkaline portion. The curves of the diabetic patients in the neutral zone were shifted towards the alkaline end of the pH scale, and the RBC RI curves were lower in comparison to the control curves. The center maximum of the curves of diabetic patients corresponded to pH=6.6 whereas the central maximum of the control group curves was at pH=6.2-6.8. Contrary to in the diabetic group, intact RBC RI curves in the control group revealed only one significantly different minimum at pH of 7.2 in the neutral zone. Using this method it is possible to show phenotypic differences between uniform type intact and fixed cells, erythrocytes of diabetic patients and of healthy donors. PMID:11966310

  4. Associations of erythrocyte ?-3 fatty acids with biomarkers of ?-3 fatty acids and inflammation in breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shuvro; Brasky, Theodore M; Belury, Martha A; Krishnan, Shiva; Cole, Rachel M; Marian, Catalin; Yee, Lisa D; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-12-15

    There is increasing evidence that chronic inflammation is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC?-3PUFA) may reduce circulating biomarkers of inflammation; however associations of blood LC?-3PUFA with breast tissue LC?-3PUFA and breast tissue biomarkers of inflammation are not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of breast tissue and blood samples from n?=?85 women with no history of breast cancer, who underwent breast reduction surgery. Fatty acids of erythrocytes and undissected breast tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography; C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in plasma and tissue were measured by ELISA. Multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to estimate associations between erythrocyte LC?-3PUFA and breast tissue biomarkers. Women in the highest erythrocyte LC?-3PUFA tertile had LC?-3PUFA concentrations in the breast 73% (95% CI: 31-128%; p trend?erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid had a nonsignificant 32% (95% CI: -23 to 62%) reduced breast tissue CRP. No correlation was observed between erythrocyte ?-3 PUFA and tissue IL-6 or IL-8 concentrations. Our findings provide evidence that erythrocyte ?-3 fatty acids are valid measures of breast tissue concentrations, and limited evidence that inverse associations from prospective epidemiologic studies of blood LC?-3PUFA and breast cancer risk may be partly explained by reductions in breast tissue inflammation; however, these findings require replication. PMID:26137879

  5. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  6. Chronic training increases blood oxidative damage but promotes health in elderly men.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Fernández-García, Benjamín; de Luxán-Delgado, Beatriz; Rodríguez-González, Susana; García-Macia, Marina; Suárez, Francisco Manuel; Solano, Juan José; Rodríguez-Colunga, María Josefa; Coto-Montes, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate a large panel of oxidative stress biomarkers in long-term trained elderly men to analyse the effects of chronic training on an aged population. We collected blood samples from two groups of male volunteers older than 65 years who maintain a measure of functional independence: one group of sedentary subjects without a history of regular physical activity and the other of subjects who have sustained training, starting during middle age (mean training time=49 ± 8 years). We studied morbidity and polypharmacy, as well as haematological parameters including red cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and several oxidative biomarkers including protein carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation in plasma and erythrocytes, red blood cell H2O2-induced haemolysis test, plasma total antioxidant activity and the main antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. After adjusting for confounding factors, we observed an increase in all oxidative damage biomarkers in the plasma and erythrocytes of the long-term exercise group. However, we reported a decrease in the number of diseases per subject with statistical differences nearly significant (p=0.061), reduced intake of medications per subject and lower levels of red cell distribution width in the chronic exercise group. These results indicate that chronic exercise from middle age to old age increases oxidative damage; however, chronic exercise appears to be an effective strategy to attenuate the age-related decline in the elderly. PMID:22215375

  7. Studies of the pathogenesis of anemia of inflammation: erythrocyte survival

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.J.; Krehbiel, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Erythrocyte survival was investigated in healthy cats and in cats with sterile abscesses. Erythrocyte survival time in cats with sterile abscesses was found to be significantly reduced. The erythrocyte destruction appeared to be the major factor in the early stages of anemia of inflammation.

  8. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of alpha-tocopherol for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05%. Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t50%). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t50% values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt50%) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  9. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05% Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t/sub 50%/). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t/sub 50%/ values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt/sub 50%/) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Fluoride on Na(+),K(+) ATPase Activity in Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    A, Shashi; G, Meenakshi

    2015-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the role of long-term consumption of excessive fluoride on electrolyte homeostasis and their transporting mechanisms in erythrocytes of subjects afflicted with dental and skeletal fluorosis. A total of 620 adult (20-50 years) Indian residents participated in this study: 258 men and 242 women exposed to high concentrations of fluoride and 120 age and gender-matched control subjects. Erythrocytes were isolated from blood samples, washed, and used for the estimation of intraerythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations. Na(+),K(+) ATPase activity was determined spectrophotometrically from a ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Erythrocyte analytes were correlated with the water and serum fluoride concentrations by Pearson's bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results indicated a significant increase in intraerythrocyte sodium (F?=?14306.265, P?

  11. The Serum Levels of Malondialdehyde, Vitamin E and Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in Psoriasis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ireddy, Shankargouda; Itagi, Inderraj; Kumar H., Siddesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common skin disease which is characterized by increased epidermal proliferation and dermal inflammation affecting 0.1-3% of general population. Most of the psoriasis patients are young or middle aged adults, although no age exempted. The oxidative stress develops due to imbalance in oxidants and antioxidants, which was proposed to have role in psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: The presented research work was planned to evaluate oxidative stress by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as oxidant and serum vitamin E, erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity as antioxidants in psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: Total 90 clinically diagnosed psoriasis patients of age group of 20 to 60 years and without any drug therapy for preceding two months and 90 matched healthy controls were included in the presented study. The severity of psoriasis was determined by PASI score. The fasting blood sample collected and accessed for serum MDA, serum vitamin E and erythrocyte catalase activity. Results: The study results were compiled and statistical analysis was done using students t-test. Our results showed significantly increased levels of serum MDA (p<0.001) and significantly decreased serum vitamin E (p<0.001) as well as erythrocyte catalase activity (p<0.001) in psoriasis patients as compared to controls. Conclusion: The presented study concluded the oxidative stress in psoriasis, indicated by increased serum MDA and decreased Vitamin E, erythrocyte catalase activity. Our study also supports the possibility of involvement of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:25584212

  12. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo; Zhao, Hongxia; Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 ; Chen, Yong; Huang, Xun; Ma, Shuyuan; The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 ; Ye, Hongyan; Cai, Jiye

    2010-01-22

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  13. Influence of hot environments on some blood variables of sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes da Silva, Roberto; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus J. R.; Silva Sobrinho, Américo G.

    1992-12-01

    Thirty-two Polwarth sheep of ages up to 1 year were observed under temperatures varying from 10.5 to 46.5°C. The following blood cell counts were made: erythrocyte (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), eosinophil (EOS), neutrophil (NEU), lymphocyte (LYM) and monocyte (MON). Other traits measured were: haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HT), blood glucose (GLU) and serum protein (PROT). Multivariate analysis of variance was used and the results showed a significant ( P<0.001) effect for the interaction of shearing and temperature treatment. Under temperatures >25°C, sheep presented a decrease of RBC, WBC, HB and HT, these differences being greater in the shorn than in the unshorn animals. Unshorn animals presented higher variations in EOS, NEU, LYM, MON and GLU. Blood glucose increased under high temperatures in the shorn animals (from 56.36±0.65 mg/100 ml to 60.52±0.69 mg/100 ml) as in the unshorn animals (from 54.72±0.74 mg/100 ml to 57.56±0.77 mg/100 ml).

  14. Toxic effects of silver nanoparticles and nanowires on erythrocyte rheology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Shin, Sehyun

    2014-05-01

    Rapid developments in the food applications of silver nanomaterials (Ag-NMs) have resulted in concerns related to the risk of overexposure of human blood. We investigated the effect of size and aspect ratio of Ag-NMs on rheological characteristics of human erythrocytes, including hemolysis, deformability, aggregation, and morphological changes. Red blood cells (RBCs) were exposed to two different sizes of spherical particles (d?30 nm or 100 nm) or nanowires (d?40 nm, l-2 ?m in length) at a range of concentrations and incubation times. The concentrations of Ag-NMs were carefully chosen to avoid any hemorheological alteration due to hemolysis. Rheological properties were measured using microfluidic-laser diffractometry and aggregometry. RBC deformability apparently decreased after treatment with a low concentration of Ag-NPs for a short exposure time. However, RBC aggregation was significantly altered after treatment with a low concentration of either Ag-NWs or large Ag-NPs compared to small Ag-NPs. Additional experiments with Ag ions confirmed that the observed rheological changes were mainly caused by the Ag-NMs rather than the Ag ions. These hemorheological findings provide a better understanding of the interaction between RBCs and Ag-NMs and will help in assessing the risk of nanomaterial toxicity in blood. PMID:24534065

  15. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  16. Stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death by sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetable, counteracts malignancy. The effect is at least in part due to the stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumour cells. Mechanisms invoked in sulforaphane-induced apoptosis include mitochondrial depolarization and altered gene expression. Despite the lack of mitochondria and nuclei, erythrocytes may, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, enter eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). This study explored whether sulforaphane stimulates eryptosis. Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from annexin V binding and [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence. A 48-hr treatment of human erythrocytes with sulforaphane (50-100 ?M) significantly decreased forward scatter, significantly increased the percentage of annexin V binding cells and significantly increased [Ca(2+)]i. The effect of sulforaphane (100 ?M) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted but not abrogated by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Sulforaphane (100 ?M) significantly increased ceramide formation. In conclusion, sulforaphane stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially, but not exclusively, due to the stimulation of Ca(2+) entry and ceramide formation. PMID:25134969

  17. Stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death by ellipticine.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Salvatrice; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-06-01

    Ellipticine is a potent antineoplastic alkaloid effective in part by triggering apoptosis. Mechanisms involved in ellipticine-induced apoptosis include mitochondrial depolarization and DNA damage. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may nevertheless enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i), ceramide formation and oxidative stress. This study tested whether ellipticine stimulates eryptosis. Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter (FSC), [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of specific antibodies and reactive oxygen species from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. A 24-hr exposure of human erythrocytes to ellipticine (5 ?g/ml) significantly increased the percentage of annexin V binding cells, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. Ellipticine did not significantly modify [Ca(2+)]i , and the stimulation of annexin V binding by ellipticine (5 ?g/ml) did not require the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). Ellipticine (5 ?g/ml) did not significantly modify FSC. Ionomycin (1 ?M, 1 hr) decreased FSC, an effect slightly but significantly blunted by ellipticine (5 ?g/ml). Ellipticine thus stimulates phosphatidylserine translocation in the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least partially due to stimulation of oxidative stress and ceramide formation. PMID:25395331

  18. Polymorphism in the M sub r 32,000 Rh protein purified from Rh(D)-positive and -negative erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saboori, A.M.; Smith, B.L.; Agre, P. )

    1988-06-01

    A M{sub r} 32,000 integral membrane protein has previously been identified on erythrocytes bearing the Rh(D) antigen and is thought to contain the antigenic variations responsible for the different Rh phenotypes. To study it on a biochemical level, a simple large-scale method was developed to purify the M{sub r} 32,000 Rh protein from multiple units of Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood. Erythrocyte membrane vesicles were solubilized in NaDodSO{sub 4}, and a tracer of immunoprecipitated {sup 125}I surface-labeled Rh protein was added. The Rh protein was purified to homogeneity by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by preparative NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE. Approximately 25 nmol of pure Rh protein was recovered from each unit of Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood. Rh protein purified from both Rh phenotypes appeared similar by one-dimensional NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences for the first 20 residues were identical. Rh proteins purified from Rh(D)-positive and -negative blood were compared by two-dimensional iodopeptide mapping after {sup 125}I-labeling and {alpha}-chymotrypsin digestion. The peptide maps were very similar. These data indicate that a similar core Rh protein exists in both Rh(D)-positive and -negative erythrocytes, and the Rh proteins from erythrocytes with different Rh phenotypes contain distinct structural polymorphisms.

  19. CATION EXCHANGE IN MAMMALIAN ERYTHROCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, C. W.; Beyl, Gertrude E.

    1951-01-01

    Freshly drawn heparinized human whole blood is exposed to x-rays in amounts up to 54,000 r in vitro and then equilibrated under a controlled atmosphere at 24 or 38°C. For as long as 26 hours following exposure, potassium is progressively lost from the cells and quantitatively replaced by sodium with little, if any, osmotic disturbance. The mean rate of loss at 20,000 r and 24°C. is about 0.4 per cent of the initial cell potassium per hour and approximately doubles for a 20,000 r increase. It is accentuated if blood is stored at low temperature (5°C.) following radiation exposure. Isotope experiments show that the rate of entrance of potassium into the cells is practically unaltered, the principal effect being an acceleration of the rate from cells to plasma. This suggests that radiation may have interfered with a mechanism of selective potassium accumulation based on preferential retention of the element. The sodium which enters the cells following irradiation contributes to the rapidly exchanging portion of the cellular sodium, suggesting that this fraction is ionic sodium. PMID:14832447

  20. Allergy Blood Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... known as: Allergy Screen Formal name: Allergen-specific IgE Antibody Test Related tests: Total IgE , Complete Blood Count , ... know? How is it used? The allergen-specific IgE antibody test is a blood test used to help ...

  1. INTRODUCTION In air-breathing vertebrates, changes in bloodO2 affinity provide

    E-print Network

    Storz, Jay F.

    the erythrocyte and does not require structural modification of Hb itself. In the mature erythrocytes of most availability. An increase in blood­O2 affinity that is mediated by structural changes in the Hb protein (a on a daily or seasonal basis, it may be more advantageous to retain some capacity for the continuous

  2. Characterization of triiodothyronine transport and accumulation in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Osty, J; Jego, L; Francon, J; Blondeau, J P

    1988-11-01

    The transport of L-T3 was studied in washed rat erythrocytes. L-T3 uptake was temperature sensitive: the initial velocity of uptake at low substrate concentration was 40 times higher at 37 C than at 0C whereas, at equilibrium, the ratio of cell-associated to extracellular L-T3 was about 7 times lower at 37 C than at 0 C. When [125I]L-T3-loaded erythrocytes were diluted into a serum albumin-containing medium, the efflux of L-T3 proceeded at a rate similar to that of influx. A large excess of unlabeled L-T3 in the medium blocked influx and efflux of labeled L-T3, indicating a saturable carrier-mediated transport process across the plasma membrane. the transport obeyed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with an apparent Km of 53 nM and a Vmax of 4.3 pmol/min.10(8) cells at 0 C. The Km increased only slightly with temperature whereas the Vmax was 100 times higher at 37 than at 0 C. The Arrhenius activation energy of uptake was 21 Cal/mol. The nonsaturable adsorption of L-T3 to the cells did not exceed 1% of the equilibrium levels at 0 C and 10% at 37 C. Uptake of L-T3 was very specific: unlabeled L-T4, D-T3, triiodothyroacetic acid, rT3, and DL-thyronine inhibited uptake with inhibition constant (Ki) values which were 35, 60, 65, 110, and 250 times, respectively, greater than the Km of L-T3. [125I]L-T4 uptake was negligible. L-T3 uptake and L-T4 inhibition of L-T3 uptake were pH dependent. It is suggested that only the unionized 4'-OH forms of the hormones were recognized by the transport system. At equilibrium, L-T3 was accumulated within the cell (apparent intracellular concentration approximately 50 times higher than that in the medium at 37 C). However, uptake was not dependent on the transmembrane Na+ gradient, suggesting facilitated rather than active transport. Analysis of L-T3 binding to erythrocyte cytosolic proteins suggested that they were implicated in the intracellular trapping of L-T3. At a concentration of 5 x 10(9) erythrocytes/ml (approximately the blood concentration), the amount of L-T3 accumulated in the cells was 13.5 times higher than the extracellular amount. We conclude that L-T3 is solely transported by a saturable, stereospecific, and Na+-independent carrier system. The intracellular accumulation and the rapid transmembrane movements of L-T3 suggest that erythrocytes might play a role in the interorgan transport of L-T3. PMID:3168926

  3. Micronucleated erythrocytes in newborns of rat dams exposed to ultraviolet-A light during pregnancy; protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zamora-Perez, Ana L; Martínez-González, María A; Muñoz de Haro, Ilse A; Pérez-Navarro, Adhoksaja E; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Gallegos-Arreola, Martha P

    2015-04-01

    Pregnant hairless rat dams were exposed to ultraviolet-A light (UVA) to induce micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in their fetuses. The control group was exposed to conventional light; the experimental groups were exposed to UVA (365nm) during gestational days 16-21. In some cases, ascorbic acid (Asc) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 15 until delivery. Dams were sampled at 48-h intervals during gestation, from day 16 until delivery. Blood was also obtained from neonates at birth; MNE, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were scored. Increased MNE and MNPCE were observed in neonates born to mothers exposed to UVA for 40, 80 or 160min, compared to the control group. Asc treatment reduced MNE and MNPCE induction. PMID:25868130

  4. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Random blood sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test ... hours (fasting) At any time of the day (random) ... dL) is considered normal. If you had a random blood glucose test, a normal result depends on ...

  5. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 ?M FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 ?M FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  6. In vivo biodistribution of a radiolabeled blood substitute: sup 99m Tc-labeled liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin in an anesthetized rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, A.S.; Goins, B. ); Klipper, R.W.; Phillips, W.T. )

    1991-12-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) is an erythrocyte substitute that is a potential resuscitative fluid for the in vivo delivery of oxygen. The authors had noninvasively imaged radiolabeled LEH in vivo with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) to study the biodistribution in an anesthetized rabbit. Rabbits were infused with 30 ml of LEH and imaged with a {gamma} camera continuously for 2 hr. At 20 hr postinfusion, the animals were imaged again and sacrificed; the organs were weighed and their radioactivity was determined for autopsy organ distribution. Organ uptake from the images was corrected for organ-associated blood pool, which was determined by infusion of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled rabbit erythrocytes. Blood pool and decay-corrected biodistribution data reveal the kinetics of LEH distribution. Image biodistribution data was also validated at 20 hr by tissue sampling. At 20 hr postinfusion, autopsy biodistribution data reveals approximately 42.6% of the total counts remaining in the blood, 15.4% in the liver, 18.1% in spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, 2.4% in muscle, 1.6% in urine, and trace levels in the kidney, brain, and heart (<1%). There is no evidence of hemoglobin release from LEH or kidney dysfunction at any time over the course of the study.

  7. Rapid detection of haemotropic mycoplasma infection of feline erythrocytes using a novel flow cytometric approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The haemotropic mycoplasmas Mycoplasma haemofelis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum cause feline infectious anaemia with infection rates in feline populations reflecting widespread subclinical infection. Clinically significant infections are much rarer but can be life-threatening. Current diagnosis is dependent upon visualising organisms in stained blood smears, PCR or quantitative PCR (qPCR). These procedures are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Furthermore, PCR-based approaches offer limited insight into the disease burden of the infected animal. Methods We have developed a novel and rapid flow cytometric system that permits diagnosis of haemotropic mycoplasma infections and quantitation of the percentage of erythrocytes that are parasitized. The method exploits the fact that mature mammalian erythrocytes, the host cell for haemoplasmas, are enucleated and thus lack nucleic acid. DRAQ5 is a synthetic anthrocycline dye which rapidly crosses cell membranes and binds to nucleic acids. The presence of exogenous bacterial DNA in mammalian erythrocytes can, therefore, be detected by DRAQ5 uptake and flow cytometric detection of DRAQ5 fluorescence. Results Here, we show that this system can detect epi-erythrocytic infection of companion felines by haemotropic mycoplasma. Due to their differences in size, and hence the quantity of DNA, the two major feline hemoplasmas M. haemofelis and Candidatus M. haemominutum can be distinguished according to DRAQ5 fluorescence. We have also shown the usefulness of DRAQ5 uptake in monitoring a cat infected with M. haemofelis sequentially during treatment with doxycycline. Conclusions The technique described is the first report of a flow cytometric method for detecting haemotropic mycoplasmas in any species and could be applied to widespread screening of animal populations to assess infection by these epi-erythrocytic parasites. PMID:23725366

  8. Nanoscale Surface Characterization of Human Erythrocytes by Atomic Force Microscopy: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rashmi; Saha, Monjoy; Routray, Aurobinda; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2015-09-01

    Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs), the most common type of blood cells in humans are well known for their ability in transporting oxygen to the whole body through hemoglobin. Alterations in their membrane skeletal proteins modify shape and mechanical properties resulting in several diseases. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), a new emerging technique allows non-invasive imaging of cell, its membrane and characterization of surface roughness at micrometer/nanometer resolution with minimal sample preparation. AFM imaging provides direct measurement of single cell morphology, its alteration and quantitative data on surface properties. Hence, AFM studies of human RBCs have picked up pace in the last decade. The aim of this paper is to review the various applications of AFM for characterization of human RBCs topology. AFM has been used for studying surface characteristics like nanostructure of membranes, cytoskeleton, microstructure, fluidity, vascular endothelium, etc., of human RBCs. Various modes of AFM imaging has been used to measure surface properties like stiffness, roughness, and elasticity. Topological alterations of erythrocytes in response to different pathological conditions have also been investigated by AFM. Thus, AFM-based studies and application of image processing techniques can effectively provide detailed insights about the morphology and membrane properties of human erythrocytes at nanoscale. PMID:25935044

  9. Attenuation of erythrocyte membrane oxidative stress by Sesbania grandiflora in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Chandrabose; Ramesh, Thiyagarajan; Begum, Vavamohaideen Hazeena

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Sesbania grandiflora flower (SGF) extract on erythrocyte membrane in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 190-220 g, were made diabetic by an intraperitonial administration of STZ (45 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with SGF, and diabetic rats were also treated with glibenclamide as drug control, for 45 days. In this study plasma insulin and haemoglobin levels were decreased and blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation markers, and osmotic fragility levels were increased in diabetic rats. Moreover, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were altered. Similarly, the activities of total ATPases, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and Mg(2+)-ATPase were also decreased in the erythrocytes of diabetic rats. Administration of SGF to STZ-induced diabetic rats reduced blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels with increased levels of insulin and haemoglobin. Moreover, SGF reversed the protein and lipid peroxidation markers, osmotic fragility, membrane-bound ATPases activities, and antioxidant status in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that SGF could provide a protective effect on diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress-associated diabetic complications. PMID:26176361

  10. Effects of Hyul-Bu-Chuke-Tang on Erythrocyte Deformability and Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Sang; Park, Joo-Young; Byeon, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Young-Jee; Park, Jung-Mi; Park, Seong-Uk; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Moon, Sang-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Hyul-bu-chuke-tang (HCEt) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that is used for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the acute effects of HCEt on erythrocyte deformability and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR) in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods. We examined erythrocyte deformability in an HCEt group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 10). CVR was measured using hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the middle cerebral artery and transcranial Doppler (TCD) in the HCEt group (n = 11). A historical control group (n = 10) of CVR measurements was also created from our previous study. All measurements were performed prior to and 1, 2, and 3 hours after HCEt administration. Results. HCEt significantly improved erythrocyte deformability 1 hour after administration compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.1% versus ?0.6 ± 1.0%, P = 0.034). HCEt significantly improved the CVR 2 hours after administration compared to the historical control group (9.1 ± 4.0% versus ?8.1 ± 4.1%, P = 0.007). The mean blood pressure and pulse rate did not vary from baseline values in either group. Conclusions. We demonstrated that HCEt improved erythrocyte deformability and CVR. Our findings suggest that an improvement in erythrocyte deformability contributes to HCEt's effect on cerebral microcirculation. PMID:22690250

  11. Effects of different levels of compression during sub-maximal and high-intensity exercise on erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patrick; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim; Born, Dennis-Peter; Sperlich, Billy

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis whether different levels of sock compression (0, 10, 20, and 40 mmHg) affect erythrocyte deformability and metabolic parameters during sub-maximal and maximal running. Nine well-trained, male endurance athletes (age 22.2 ± 1.3 years, peak oxygen uptake 57.7 ± 4.5 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) carried out four periods of sub-maximal running at 70% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min followed by a ramp test until exhaustion with and without compression socks that applied different levels of pressure. Erythrocyte deformability, blood lactate, heart rate and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) were monitored before and during all of these tests. Erythrocyte deformability, heart rate, pO(2) and lactate concentration were unaffected by compression, whereas exercise itself significantly increased erythrocyte deformability. However, the increasing effects of exercise were attenuated when high compression was applied. This first evaluation of the potential effects of increasing levels of compression on erythrocyte deformability and metabolic parameters during (sub-) maximal exercise, revealed no effects whatsoever. PMID:21964909

  12. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image. PMID:26380843

  13. In vitro culture of Plasmodium berghei-ANKA maintains infectivity of mouse erythrocytes inducing cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with Plasmodium berghei is a widely used model of murine malaria and a powerful tool for reverse genetic and pathogenesis studies. However, the efficacy of in vitro reinvasion of erythrocytes is generally low, limiting in vitro studies. Methods Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected blood obtained from a susceptible infected mouse was cultured in various conditions and in vitro parasitaemia was measured every day to evaluate the rate of reinvasion. Results High quality culture media were used and reinvasion rates were improved by vigorous orbital shaking of the flask and increasing density of the medium with gelatin. Discussion Using these settings, reinvasion of normal mouse erythrocytes by the parasite was obtained in vitro over two weeks with preservation of the infectivity in vivo. PMID:22118493

  14. Phospholipid fatty acid turnover in erythrocyte membranes from humans exposed to hyperbaric hyperoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine phospholipid fatty acid turnover in erythrocyte membranes from human subjects exposed to hyperbaric, hyperoxic conditions. Seven males breathed 100% oxygen at two atmospheres of pressure for nine hours. Venous blood was collected one hour before the oxygen exposure; one hour, five hours, and nine hours into the exposure; and one hour, 24 hours, 48 hours and one week after the exposure ended. Washed erythrocytes were incubated with ({sup 3}H) oleic acid for thirty minutes at 37{degree}C. Phospholipids were extracted with methanol and chloroform, separated by thin layer chromatography, and quantitated by spectrodensitometry. Radioactivity was measured in four phospholipid classes and incorporation of ({sup 3}H) oleic acid into phospholipids calculated. Phospholipid fatty acid turnover was used as an indicator of membrane metabolism.

  15. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-08-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L.

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ALDEHYDES ON THE HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE

    PubMed Central

    Vassar, P. S.; Hards, J. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Hagenberger, B.; Seaman, G. V. F.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glutaraldehyde on human red blood cells were investigated. It was found that (a) The surface negative charge of the erythrocytes at pH 7 was increased 10% by glutaraldehyde, but not by the other two aldehydes. (b) The effect of incomplete fixation of the red blood cells was demonstrated by hemoglobin leakage studies The leakage of hemoglobin subsequent to formaldehyde treatment was especially pronounced Acetaldehyde-fixed cells showed some leakage of hemoglobin after an hour of exposure to the fixative, whereas glutaraldehyde-fixed cells showed no hemoglobin leakage. (c) All three aldehydes caused K+ leakage during fixation. The concentrations of K+ in the fixing solutions all reached the same level, but whereas the leakage with glutaraldehyde was immediate, that with formaldehyde was more gradual and that with acetaldehyde reached a steady state only after 24 hr. (d) The effects of the aldehydes on red cell deformability and swelling revealed that glutaraldehyde hardened the cells within 15 min, formaldehyde within 5 hr, while acetaldehyde required at least 24 hr to produce appreciable fixation. (e) The hematocrit changes accompanying the fixation process depended upon cell volume changes and loss of deformability. PMID:5028261

  17. Intravascular Clearance of Parasitized Erythrocytes in Rodent Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Thomas C.; Wyler, David J.

    1979-01-01

    Little is known about host defense mechanisms responsible for protective immunity in malaria. The intravascular location of the infection suggested that removal of parasitized erythrocytes by reticuloendothelial organs might be important. To study this possibility, we examined the clearance of 51Crlabeled Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes in rats. Infected erythrocytes were removed more rapidly from circulation than homologous uninfected erythrocytes. The rate of clearance of infected cells during the 1st hour after inoculation was approximately three times greater in rats rendered immune by prior infection than in control rats. This accelerated clearance resulted from greater splenic uptake in immune rats and appeared to correlate with spleen size. Since the clearance pattern of infected erythrocytes more closely resembled the clearance of Heinz body-containing uninfected erythrocytes than of antibody-coated (immunoglobulin G) uninfected erythrocytes, rheologic alterations of parasitized erythrocytes might be a more important determinant of clearance than an antibody-dependent process. During the phase of malaria infection in which increasing parasitemia is observed, organ uptake of infected erythrocytes did not increase despite splenic and hepatic enlargement. However during the spontaneous onset of resolution of malaria infection characterized by decreasing parasitemia, a marked enhancement of splenic clearance was noted. These observations suggest that sudden alteration in splenic clearance of parasitized erythrocytes might be important in the resolution of acute malaria. PMID:376554

  18. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer. PMID:26378663

  19. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  20. [PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND FATTY ACIDS IN ERYTHROCYTES OF THE LAMPREY LAMPETRA FLUVIATILIS DURING AUTUMN PRESPAWNING PERIOD AND THE ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF THEIR LIPID EXTRACT].

    PubMed

    Zabelinskii, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Shukolyukova, E P; Krivchenko, A I

    2015-01-01

    The content of some classes of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition in erythrocytes of the lamprey Lampetrafluviatilis during the autumn period of its prespawning migration are investigated. It is found that the phospholipid spectrum of erythrocytes of the lamprey, the oldest representative of vertebrates, is similar to that of many mammals. A four-fold prevalence of phosphatidilcholine content over sphingomyelin content as well as prevalence of (?3-acids over ?6-acids indicates the of lamprey's erythrocyte membranes - an important indicator of deformational ability of lamprey's erythrocytes. Phosphatidilethanol amine and its plasmalogenic form are the most unsaturated phospholipids (their unsaturation indices are 230 and 342, correspondingly). Phosphatidilcholine is the most saturated one (UI is 167). It is found that the basic acid indicators characterizing the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes remain unchanged during the whole period of prespawning migration of lampreys up to spawning. The blood contains several buffer systems, in particular, membrane phospholipids which neutralize acids and alkali incoming into the blood. In the process of organism life a change of pH inside erythrocytes occurs. One can suppose that the base of the system associated with buffer properties of the blood is water dissociation. Inside thin vessels of the circulatory system the hemoglobin attaches and returns molecules of oxygen due to interaction of the buffer systems with water. The property of water to dissociate as well as ion transfer produce in erythrocytes, lying within narrow vessels of the circulatory system, a local pH alteration allowing displacing/attaching the molecule of oxygen from hemoglobin. PMID:26547949

  1. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  2. Mobilisation of heavy metals into the urine by CaEDTA: relation to erythrocyte and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Murata, K

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (CaEDTA) on the urinary excretion, erythrocyte, and plasma concentrations and exposure indicators of seven heavy metals, CaEDTA was administered by intravenous infusion to 20 workers exposed to lead, zinc, and copper. The workers' blood lead concentrations ranged from 22 to 59 micrograms/dl (mean 38 micrograms/dl (1.8 mumol/l]. The 24 hour urinary excretion of metals after CaEDTA administration (mobilisation yield) was on average 13 times the background excretion for lead, 11 times for zinc, 3.8 times for manganese, 3.4 times for cadmium, 1.3 times for copper, and 1.1 times for chromium; no significant increase was found for mercury. The mobilisation yield of lead (MPb) was significantly correlated with whole blood and erythrocyte concentrations and the urinary excretion of lead but not with its plasma concentration; similarly, the mobilisation yield of cadmium was significantly correlated with its erythrocyte concentration. In addition, MPb was significantly correlated with intra-erythrocytic enzyme delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase activity and urinary coproporphyrin excretion. The relation between the mobilisation yield of heavy metals and their body burden (and toxic signs) is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:3092853

  3. Molecular Mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granule, a Complex Chinese Medicine, on Thalassemia Patients Suffering from Hemolysis and Anemia of Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Na-Li; Wu, Zhi-kui; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Fang, Su-Ping; Wang, Wen-Juan; Cheng, Yan-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic biological mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granule (YSSXG), a complex Chinese medicine, on the hemolysis and anemia of erythrocytes from patient with thalassemia disease. Sixteen patients with thalassemia (8 cases of ?-thalassemia and 8 cases of ?-thalassemia) disease were collected and treated with YSSXG for 3 months. The improvements of blood parameter demonstrated that YSSXG had a positive clinical effect on patients with thalassemia disease. For patients with ?-thalassemia disease, RT-PCR showed that YSSXG upregulated the relative mRNA expression level of ?-globin to ?-globin and downregulated DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b mRNA compared with pretreatment. Western blotting showed that YSSXG downregulated the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3a. For patients with ?-thalassemia disease, the relative expression level of A?-globin to ?-globin had an increasing trend and the level of BCL11A mRNA expression obviously increased. For all patients, RT-PCR showed that YSSXG upregulated mRNA expression of SPTA1 and SPTB. Activities of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased and MDA obviously reduced on erythrocyte and blood serum after YSSXG treatment. TEM showed that YSSXG decreased the content of inclusion bodies. Activities of Na+K+-ATPtase and T-ATPtase of erythrocyte increased significantly after YSSXG treatment. This study provides the basis for mechanisms of YSSXG on thalassemia suffering with hemolysis and anemia of erythrocytes from patient. PMID:25574177

  4. Erythrocyte autoantibodies, autoimmune haemolysis, and carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, R J; Booker, D J; Stamps, R

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To examine a large series of patients in whom both red cell autoantibodies and carcinoma are present; and to determine whether this rare occurrence is a true association or a chance event. METHODS--The laboratory records of 160 patients (76 men, 84 women; mean age 68 years) with erythrocyte autoantibodies and confirmed carcinoma were examined for site of tumour origin and clinical and immunohematological findings. To test whether the concomitant occurrence of autoantibodies and carcinoma was fortuitous, data on total population and carcinoma incidence were included in a chi 2 analysis. RESULTS--The association was significant (chi 2 = 97.5, p < 0.0005); erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma were found together 12-13 times more often than expected from their relative frequencies. Autoantibodies occurred with a variety of carcinomas, particularly those of breast, lung, colon, rectum, and prostate; this largely reflected tumour incidence. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, anaplastic, and transitional cell types were all represented. Warm, cold, and mixed autoantibodies were not associated with particular tumour sites or histology. Eighty six patients had haemolysis of varying severity, 37 had metastatic disease, and 28 died within a few months of presentation. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma in the same patient is a true association and probably reflects a fundamental disturbance in immune homeostasis. It tends to occur with a large tumour mass and metastatic disease, and generally indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:8027372

  5. Plasmodium falciparum Reticulocyte Binding-Like Homologue Protein 2 (PfRH2) Is a Key Adhesive Molecule Involved in Erythrocyte Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Sahar, Tajali; Reddy, K. Sony; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Pandey, Alok K.; Singh, Shailja; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Gaur, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium merozoites is a complex, multistep process that is mediated by a number of parasite ligand-erythrocyte receptor interactions. One such family of parasite ligands includes the P. falciparum reticulocyte binding homologue (PfRH) proteins that are homologous with the P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins and have been shown to play a role in erythrocyte invasion. There are five functional PfRH proteins of which only PfRH2a/2b have not yet been demonstrated to bind erythrocytes. In this study, we demonstrated that native PfRH2a/2b is processed near the N-terminus yielding fragments of 220 kDa and 80 kDa that exhibit differential erythrocyte binding specificities. The erythrocyte binding specificity of the 220 kDa processed fragment of native PfRH2a/2b was sialic acid-independent, trypsin resistant and chymotrypsin sensitive. This specific binding phenotype is consistent with previous studies that disrupted the PfRH2a/2b genes and demonstrated that PfRH2b is involved in a sialic acid independent, trypsin resistant, chymotrypsin sensitive invasion pathway. Interestingly, we found that the smaller 80 kDa PfRH2a/2b fragment is processed from the larger 220 kDa fragment and binds erythrocytes in a sialic acid dependent, trypsin resistant and chymotrypsin sensitive manner. Thus, the two processed fragments of PfRH2a/2b differed with respect to their dependence on sialic acids for erythrocyte binding. Further, we mapped the erythrocyte binding domain of PfRH2a/2b to a conserved 40 kDa N-terminal region (rPfRH240) in the ectodomain that is common to both PfRH2a and PfRH2b. We demonstrated that recombinant rPfRH240 bound human erythrocytes with the same specificity as the native 220 kDa processed protein. Moreover, antibodies generated against rPfRH240 blocked erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum through a sialic acid independent pathway. PfRH2a/2b thus plays a key role in erythrocyte invasion and its conserved receptor-binding domain deserves attention as a promising candidate for inclusion in a blood-stage malaria vaccine. PMID:21386888

  6. In vitro kinetics of oxygen transport in erythrocyte suspension or unmodified hemoglobin solution from human and other animals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weiyan; Wang, Xiang; Gao, Wei; Lan, Ke

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen transport behavior in erythrocyte suspension or in hemoglobin solution was studied as a potential therapeutic model for the clinical treatment of blood loss, and this can also provide physiological data with which to evaluate blood substitutes. In the present project, we examined the in vitro kinetics of hemoglobin binding to and releasing oxygen, to provide detailed oxygen-flux measurements for unmodified hemoglobin solutions and erythrocyte suspensions in human, as well as other vertebrates. An in vitro method was used, based on a widely used artificial system, with the oxygen saturation level being detected in real time. Results from this study indicated that the kinetic curves of human erythrocyte suspensions and hemoglobin solutions were either S-shaped or hyperbolic, respectively. Based on these curves, the significance of T(50) emerged in our investigation, where T(50) is defined as the time needed for 50% hemoglobin to be saturated with oxygen, and reflects the efficiency with which hemoglobin carries oxygen. This parameter may be used to diagnose blood diseases, and could be a standard for evaluating blood substitutes. In this study, we also compared the T(50) of 4 species of vertebrates, and found that it shows a distinct efficiency of oxygen binding related to species, and potentially reveals the evolutionary function of hemoglobin and its possible adaptation to the environment. PMID:21851162

  7. Uric acid protects erythrocytes from ozone-induced changes

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, J.; Smith, R.C.

    1987-08-01

    Uric acid effectively reduced hemolysis and methemoglobin formation in bovine and swine erythrocytes bubbled with ozone in vitro. In bovine erythrocytes, formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material was inhibited by uric acid, but there was little immediate protection for the swine cells. Antioxidant protection was due to preferential degradation of the uric acid by ozone. These results provide evidence to support the hypothesis that in plasma, uric acid can provide antioxidant protection for erythrocytes.

  8. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 ?M) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 ?m-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 ?m-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. PMID:26169206

  9. Sperm functional parameters and erythrocytes oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during municipal landfill leachate treatment withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Lawal, Tajudeen A; Adesina, Adebayo A; Oyebiyi, Oluwatosin O; Ebokaiwe, Azubike P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2014-01-01

    Adequate information on how leachates affect hematological and reproductive functions is necessary to help in linking causality with predictable response. The present study investigated the effects of Olushosun municipal landfill leachate (OMLL) exposure and withdrawal on sperm characteristics and erythrocytes oxidant-antioxidant balance in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 0%, 12.5% and 25% OMLL in drinking water for 28 days. One-half of the rats in each group were sacrificed on day 29 while the remaining one-half stayed an additional 28 days without treatment. OMLL exposure significantly decreased sperm functional parameters, disrupted antioxidant systems with concomitant elevation in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes and sperm. Following withdrawal of treatment, OMLL-mediated decrease in sperm count and daily sperm production were reversed to near control. However, erythrocytes and sperm oxidative damage, increased sperm abnormalities, decreased epididymis weight, sperm progressive motility and testicular sperm number persisted and were consistent with results obtained from rats sacrificed immediately after OMLL treatment. Collectively, OMLL-induced irreversible oxidative damage to erythrocytes and sperm in rats within the time course of investigation. These findings highlight potential adverse effects of OMLL on individuals unduly exposed to leachates contaminated substances. PMID:24486716

  10. Hepatic or splenic targeting of carrier erythrocytes: a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Zocchi, E.; Guida, L.; Benatti, U.; Canepa, M.; Borgiani, L.; Zanin, T.; De Flora, A.

    1987-10-01

    Carrier mouse erythrocytes, i.e., red cells, subjected to a dialysis technique involving transient hypotonic hemolysis and isotonic resealing were treated in vitro in three different ways: (a) energy depletion by exposure for 90 min at 42 degrees C; (b) desialylation by incubation with neuroaminidase; and (c) oxidative stress by incubation with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaN3. Procedure (c) afforded maximal damage, as shown by analysis of biochemical properties of the treated erythrocytes. Reinfusion in mice of the variously manipulated erythrocytes following their /sup 51/Cr labeling showed extensive fragilization as indicated by rapid clearance of radioactivity from the circulation. Moreover, both the energy-depleted and the neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes showed a preferential liver uptake, reaching 50 and 75%, respectively, within 2 h. On the other hand, exposure of erythrocytes to the oxidant stress triggered a largely splenic removal, accounting for almost 40% of the reinjected cells within 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of liver from mice receiving energy-depleted erythrocytes demonstrated remarkable erythrocyte congestion within the sinusoids, followed by hyperactivity of Kupffer cells and by subsequent thickening of the perisinusoidal Disse space. Concomitantly, levels of serum transaminase activities were moderately increased. Each of the three procedures of manipulation of carrier erythrocytes may prove applicable under conditions where selective targeting of erythrocyte-encapsulated chemicals and drugs to either the liver or the spleen has to be achieved.

  11. Physicochemical Aspects of the Plasmodium chabaudi-Infected Erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Eri H.; Kobayashi, Seiki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Membrane electrochemical potential is a feature of the molecular profile of the cell membrane and the two-dimensional arrangement of its charge-bearing molecules. Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria, are intracellular parasites that remodel host erythrocytes by expressing their own proteins on erythrocyte membranes. Although various aspects of the modifications made to the host erythrocyte membrane have been extensively studied in some human Plasmodium species (such as Plasmodium falciparum), details of the structural and molecular biological modifications made to host erythrocytes by nonhuman Plasmodium parasites have not been studied. We employed zeta potential analysis of erythrocytes parasitized by P. chabaudi, a nonhuman Plasmodium parasite. From these measurements, we found that the surface potential shift was more negative for P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes than for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. However, electron microscopic analysis of the surface of P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes did not reveal any modifications as compared with nonparasitized erythrocytes. These results suggest that differences in the membrane modifications found herein represent unique attributes related to the pathogenesis profiles of the two different malaria parasite species in different host animals and that these features have been acquired through parasite adaptations acquired over long evolutionary time periods. PMID:26557685

  12. Site-Specific GlcNAcylation of Human Erythrocyte Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zihao; Park, Kyoungsook; Comer, Frank; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.; Saudek, Christopher D.; Hart, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is upregulated in diabetic tissues and plays a role in insulin resistance and glucose toxicity. Here, we investigated the extent of GlcNAcylation on human erythrocyte proteins and compared site-specific GlcNAcylation on erythrocyte proteins from diabetic and normal individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—GlcNAcylated erythrocyte proteins or GlcNAcylated peptides were tagged and selectively enriched by a chemoenzymatic approach and identified by mass spectrometry. The enrichment approach was combined with solid-phase chemical derivatization and isotopic labeling to detect O-GlcNAc modification sites and to compare site-specific O-GlcNAc occupancy levels between normal and diabetic erythrocyte proteins. RESULTS—The enzymes that catalyze the cycling (addition and removal) of O-GlcNAc were detected in human erythrocytes. Twenty-five GlcNAcylated erythrocyte proteins were identified. Protein expression levels were compared between diabetic and normal erythrocytes. Thirty-five O-GlcNAc sites were reproducibly identified, and their site-specific O-GlcNAc occupancy ratios were calculated. CONCLUSIONS—GlcNAcylation is differentially regulated at individual sites on erythrocyte proteins in response to glycemic status. These data suggest not only that site-specific O-GlcNAc levels reflect the glycemic status of an individual but also that O-GlcNAc site occupancy on erythrocyte proteins may be eventually useful as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of diabetes. PMID:18984734

  13. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 ...864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 ...864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 ...864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device...

  16. Membrane peroxidation and methemoglobin formation are both necessary for band 3 clustering: mechanistic insights into human erythrocyte senescence.

    PubMed

    Arashiki, Nobuto; Kimata, Naoki; Manno, Sumie; Mohandas, Narla; Takakuwa, Yuichi

    2013-08-27

    Oxidative damage and clustering of band 3 in the membrane have been implicated in the removal of senescent human erythrocytes from the circulation at the end of their 120 day life span. However, the biochemical and mechanistic events leading to band 3 cluster formation have yet to be fully defined. Here we show that while neither membrane peroxidation nor methemoglobin (MetHb) formation on their own can induce band 3 clustering in the human erythrocytes, they can do so when acting in combination. We further show that binding of MetHb to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 in peroxidized, but not in untreated, erythrocyte membranes induces cluster formation. Age-fractionated populations of erythrocytes from normal human blood, obtained by a density gradient procedure, have allowed us to examine a subpopulation, highly enriched in senescent cells. We have found that band 3 clustering is a feature of only this small fraction, amounting to ?0.1% of total circulating erythrocytes. These senescent cells are characterized by an increased proportion of MetHb as a result of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent reductase activity and accumulated oxidative membrane damage. These findings have allowed us to establish that the combined effects of membrane peroxidation and MetHb formation are necessary for band 3 clustering, and this is a very late event in erythrocyte life. A plausible mechanism for the combined effects of membrane peroxidation and MetHb is proposed, involving high-affinity cooperative binding of MetHb to the cytoplasmic domain of oxidized band 3, probably because of its carbonylation, rather than other forms of oxidative damage. This modification leads to dissociation of ankyrin from band 3, allowing the tetrameric MetHb to cross-link the resulting freely diffusible band 3 dimers, with formation of clusters. PMID:23889086

  17. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: Sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, Sarah C.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Casida, John E.

    2007-10-01

    Brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE), associated with organophosphorus (OP)-induced delayed neuropathy, has the same OP inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles assayed in the classical way (paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive hydrolysis of phenyl valerate) or with lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as the substrate. Extending our earlier observation with mice, we now examine human erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and brain LysoPC hydrolases as possible sensitive targets for OP delayed neurotoxicants and insecticides. Inhibitor profiling of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes gave the surprising result of essentially the same pattern as with brain. Human erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolases are highly sensitive to OP delayed neurotoxicants, with in vitro IC{sub 50} values of 0.13-85 nM for longer alkyl analogs, and poorly sensitive to the current OP insecticides. In agricultural workers, erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolyzing activities are similar for newborn children and their mothers and do not vary with paraoxonase status but have high intersample variation that limits their use as a biomarker. Mouse erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity is also of low sensitivity in vitro and in vivo to the OP insecticides whereas the delayed neurotoxicant ethyl n-octylphosphonyl fluoride inhibits activity in vivo at 1-3 mg/kg. Overall, inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE as a predictor of OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. The relative contributions of NTE and LysoPLAs to LysoPC hydrolysis and clearance from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain remain to be defined.

  18. Hematin promotes complement alternative pathway-mediated deposition of C3 activation fragments on human erythrocytes: potential implications for the pathogenesis of anemia in malaria.

    PubMed

    Pawluczkowycz, Andrew W; Lindorfer, Margaret A; Waitumbi, John N; Taylor, Ronald P

    2007-10-15

    Childhood malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is often characterized by severe anemia at low parasite burdens; the mechanism(s) responsible for this pathology remain to be defined. We have reported, based on clinical observations and in vitro models, that complement control proteins on erythrocytes such as CR1, the immune adherence receptor specific for C3b, may be reduced in childhood malaria, suggesting a possible role for complement in erythrocyte destruction. Intravascular lysis of iE by P. falciparum leads to release of erythrocyte breakdown products such as hemoglobin and hematin, which have inflammatory properties. In the present article, we demonstrate that in serum and in anticoagulated whole blood, moderate concentrations of hematin activate the alternative pathway of complement and promote deposition of C3 activation and breakdown products on erythrocytes. The degree of C3 fragment deposition is directly correlated with erythrocyte CR1 levels, and erythrocytes opsonized with large amounts of C3dg form rosettes with Raji cells, which express CR2, the C3dg receptor which is expressed on several types of B cells in the spleen. Thus, the reaction mediated by hematin promotes opsonization and possible clearance of the youngest (highest CR1) erythrocytes. A mAb specific for C3b, previously demonstrated to inhibit the alternative pathway of complement, completely blocks the C3 fragment deposition reaction. Use of this mAb in nonhuman primate models of malaria may provide insight into mechanisms of erythrocyte destruction and thus aid in the development of targeted therapies based on inhibiting the alternative pathway of complement. PMID:17911641

  19. Transport of thyroid hormones by human erythrocytes: kinetic characterization in adults and newborns.

    PubMed

    Osty, J; Valensi, P; Samson, M; Francon, J; Blondeau, J P

    1990-12-01

    The uptake of [125I]T3 and [125I]T4 by human erythrocytes was studied. The erythrocytes were obtained from adult subjects (28-41 yr old) and suspended in a protein-free medium. The half-times of equilibration for both T3 and T4 were 6 min. At equilibrium, T3 was concentrated 55-fold inside the cells, while T4 was concentrated 40 times, but these accumulations were not dependent on either cellular ATP or the transmembrane Na+ gradient. The amounts of cell-associated thyroid hormones were 20 times (T3) and 17 times (T4) higher than the amounts of free extracellular hormones at 5 X 10(9) erythrocytes/mL (the blood concentration). Oligomycin and phloretin inhibited T3-saturable transport (but not T4 transport) independently of cellular energy. We suggest that thyroid hormones are concentrated by intracellular trapping. The rates of T3 and T4 efflux from preloaded erythrocytes were similar to the influx rates. The initial velocities of T3 (but not T4) uptake and efflux were 70% saturable. The uptake was specific because the unlabeled analogs T4, triiodothyroacetic acid, rT3, D-T3, and D,L-thyronine inhibited [125I]T3 uptake 60, 125, 160, 190, and 1600 times less, respectively, than did unlabeled T3. The kinetic parameters of T3-saturable uptake, Km, and maximum velocity were determined for three groups of subjects: newborns, 28 to 41-yr-old adults, and 76 to 90-yr-old adults. The Km (67 nmol/L in 28 to 41-yr-old adults) was not age dependent, BUT the maximum velocity was significantly higher in newborns than in adults. We conclude that T3 transport across the human erythrocyte membrane is mediated mainly by facilitated diffusion, whereas T4 transport results from free diffusion. Human erythrocytes might act as a circulating pool of thyroid hormones, especially T3 in newborns. PMID:2229315

  20. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Wai-Hong; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Weiss, Greta E.; Lopaticki, Sash; Ansell, Brendan R. E.; Bird, Megan; Lucet, Isabelle; Dorin-Semblat, Dominique; Doerig, Christian; Gilson, Paul R.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Cowman, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh) protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process. PMID:26694741

  1. Hemoglobin S and C affect protein export in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Nicole; Srismith, Sirikamol; Dittmer, Martin; Ouermi, Djeneba; Bisseye, Cyrille; Simpore, Jacques; Cyrklaff, Marek; Sanchez, Cecilia P.; Lanzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malaria is a potentially deadly disease. However, not every infected person develops severe symptoms. Some people are protected by naturally occurring mechanisms that frequently involve inheritable modifications in their hemoglobin. The best studied protective hemoglobins are the sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) and hemoglobin C (HbC) which both result from a single amino acid substitution in ?-globin: glutamic acid at position 6 is replaced by valine or lysine, respectively. How these hemoglobinopathies protect from severe malaria is only partly understood. Models currently proposed in the literature include reduced disease-mediating cytoadherence of parasitized hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasite, dampened inflammatory responses, or a combination thereof. Using a conditional protein export system and tightly synchronized Plasmodium falciparum cultures, we now show that export of parasite-encoded proteins across the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane is delayed, slower, and reduced in amount in hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes as compared to parasitized wild type red blood cells. Impaired protein export affects proteins targeted to the host cell cytoplasm, Maurer's clefts, and the host cell plasma membrane. Impaired protein export into the host cell compartment provides a mechanistic explanation for the reduced cytoadherence phenotype associated with parasitized hemoglobinopathic erythrocytes. PMID:25701664

  2. Endogenous sphingomyelin segregates into submicrometric domains in the living erythrocyte membrane[S

    PubMed Central

    Carquin, Mélanie; Pollet, Hélène; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Cominelli, Antoine; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; N’kuli, Francisca; Emonard, Hervé; Henriet, Patrick; Mizuno, Hideaki; Courtoy, Pierre J.; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that trace insertion of exogenous fluorescent (green BODIPY) analogs of sphingomyelin (SM) into living red blood cells (RBCs), partially spread onto coverslips, labels submicrometric domains, visible by confocal microscopy. We here extend this feature to endogenous SM, upon binding of a SM-specific nontoxic (NT) fragment of the earthworm toxin, lysenin, fused to the red monomeric fluorescent protein, mCherry [construct named His-mCherry-NT-lysenin (lysenin*)]. Specificity of lysenin* binding was verified with composition-defined liposomes and by loss of 125I-lysenin* binding to erythrocytes upon SM depletion by SMase. The 125I-lysenin* binding isotherm indicated saturation at 3.5 × 106 molecules/RBC, i.e., ?3% of SM coverage. Nonsaturating lysenin* concentration also labeled sub­micrometric domains on the plasma membrane of partially spread erythrocytes, colocalizing with inserted green BODIPY-SM, and abrogated by SMase. Lysenin*-labeled domains were stable in time and space and were regulated by temperature and cholesterol. The abundance, size, positioning, and segregation of lysenin*-labeled domains from other lipids (BODIPY-phosphatidylcholine or -glycosphingolipids) depended on membrane tension. Similar lysenin*-labeled domains were evidenced in RBCs gently suspended in 3D-gel. Taken together, these data demonstrate submicrometric compartmentation of endogenous SM at the membrane of a living cell in vitro, and suggest it may be a genuine feature of erythrocytes in vivo. PMID:24826836

  3. Facilitated Uptake of a Bioactive Metabolite of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol) into Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite ?-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-?-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate ?-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated. PMID:23646194

  4. Plasmodium falciparum Adhesins Play an Essential Role in Signalling and Activation of Invasion into Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tham, Wai-Hong; Lim, Nicholas T Y; Weiss, Greta E; Lopaticki, Sash; Ansell, Brendan R E; Bird, Megan; Lucet, Isabelle; Dorin-Semblat, Dominique; Doerig, Christian; Gilson, Paul R; Crabb, Brendan S; Cowman, Alan F

    2015-12-01

    The most severe form of malaria in humans is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The invasive form of malaria parasites is termed a merozoite and it employs an array of parasite proteins that bind to the host cell to mediate invasion. In Plasmodium falciparum, the erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) and reticulocyte binding-like (Rh) protein families are responsible for binding to specific erythrocyte receptors for invasion and mediating signalling events that initiate active entry of the malaria parasite. Here we have addressed the role of the cytoplasmic tails of these proteins in activating merozoite invasion after receptor engagement. We show that the cytoplasmic domains of these type 1 membrane proteins are phosphorylated in vitro. Depletion of PfCK2, a kinase implicated to phosphorylate these cytoplasmic tails, blocks P. falciparum invasion of red blood cells. We identify the crucial residues within the PfRh4 cytoplasmic domain that are required for successful parasite invasion. Live cell imaging of merozoites from these transgenic mutants show they attach but do not penetrate erythrocytes implying the PfRh4 cytoplasmic tail conveys signals important for the successful completion of the invasion process. PMID:26694741

  5. Plasmodium vivax Invasion of Human Erythrocytes Inhibited by Antibodies Directed against the Duffy Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Grimberg, Brian T; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Xainli, Jia; McHenry, Amy; Panichakul, Tasanee; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cui, Liwang; Bockarie, Moses; Chitnis, Chetan; Adams, John; Zimmerman, Peter A; King, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax invasion requires interaction between the human Duffy antigen on the surface of erythrocytes and the P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) expressed by the parasite. Given that Duffy-negative individuals are resistant and that Duffy-negative heterozygotes show reduced susceptibility to blood-stage infection, we hypothesized that antibodies directed against region two of P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBPII) would inhibit P. vivax invasion of human erythrocytes. Methods and Findings Using a recombinant region two of the P. vivax Duffy binding protein (rPvDBPII), polyclonal antibodies were generated from immunized rabbits and affinity purified from the pooled sera of 14 P. vivax–exposed Papua New Guineans. It was determined by ELISA and by flow cytometry, respectively, that both rabbit and human antibodies inhibited binding of rPvDBPII to the Duffy antigen N-terminal region and to Duffy-positive human erythrocytes. Additionally, using immunofluorescent microscopy, the antibodies were shown to attach to native PvDBP on the apical end of the P. vivax merozoite. In vitro invasion assays, using blood isolates from individuals in the Mae Sot district of Thailand, showed that addition of rabbit anti-PvDBPII Ab or serum (antibodies against, or serum containing antibodies against, region two of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein) (1:100) reduced the number of parasite invasions by up to 64%, while pooled PvDBPII antisera from P. vivax–exposed people reduced P. vivax invasion by up to 54%. Conclusions These results show, for what we believe to be the first time, that both rabbit and human antibodies directed against PvDBPII reduce invasion efficiency of wild P. vivax isolated from infected patients, and suggest that a PvDBP-based vaccine may reduce human blood-stage P. vivax infection. PMID:18092885

  6. The novel nucleotide 4KNTP, in high concentrations in erythrocytes of renal failure children: a comparison with accumulation of other putative precursors in the plasma.

    PubMed

    Carrey, E A; Synesiou, E; Simmonds, H A; Fairbanks, L D

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the concentrations of metabolites related to the turnover of NAD, which accumulate in the blood of children with renal failure. One is a novel nucleotide, identified as the N1-riboside triphosphate of 4-pyridone-3-carboxamide (4PYTP), also described as 4KNTP, which accumulates in the erythrocytes in parallel with renal failure. PMID:17065063

  7. Taking the Count 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    The counting of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) used as alpha particle detectors is made quick and easy through a computer-assisted counting program. The software was developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The use...

  8. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  9. What the Erythrocytic Nuclear Alteration Frequencies Could Tell Us about Genotoxicity and Macrophage Iron Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Juliana M. M.; Ribeiro, Heder J.; Procópio, Marcela S.; Alvarenga, Betânia M.; Castro, Antônio C. S.; Dutra, Walderez O.; da Silva, José B. B.; Corrêa Junior, José D.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytic nuclear alterations have been considered as an indicative of organism’s exposure to genotoxic agents. Due to their close relationship among their frequencies and DNA damages, they are considered excellent markers of exposure in eukaryotes. However, poor data has been found in literature concerning their genesis, differential occurrence and their life span. In this study, we use markers of cell viability; genotoxicity and cellular turn over in order to shed light to these events. Tilapia and their blood were exposed to cadmium in acute exposure and in vitro assays. They were analyzed using flow cytometry for oxidative stress and membrane disruption, optical microscopy for erythrocytic nuclear alteration, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for cadmium content in aquaria water, blood and cytochemical and analytical electron microscopy techniques for the hemocateretic aspects. The results showed a close relationship among the total nuclear alterations and cadmium content in the total blood and melanomacrophage centres area, mismatching reactive oxygen species and membrane damages. Moreover, nuclear alterations frequencies (vacuolated, condensed and blebbed) showed to be associated to cadmium exposure whereas others (lobed and bud) were associated to depuration period. Decrease on nuclear alterations frequencies was also associated with hemosiderin increase inside spleen and head kidney macrophages mainly during depurative processes. These data disclosure in temporal fashion the main processes that drive the nuclear alterations frequencies and their relationship with some cellular and systemic biomarkers. PMID:26619141

  10. Effects of rhythmic exercise performed to music on the rheological properties of blood in women over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Anna; Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; D?browski, Zbigniew; Teleg?ó, Aneta

    2015-10-12

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of motor rehabilitation, in the form of rhythmic exercise to music, on the rheological characteristics of blood in older women. The study included 30 women (65-80 years of age), and the control group was comprised of 10 women of corresponding age. Women from the experimental group were subjected to a five-month rehabilitation program, in the form of rhythmic exercise performed to music (three 30-minute sessions per week); women from the control group were not involved in any regular physical activity. Blood samples from all the women were examined for hematological, rheological, and biochemical parameters prior to the study and five months thereafter. The rehabilitation program was reflected by a significant improvement of erythrocyte count and hematocrit. Furthermore, an improvement of erythrocyte deformability was observed by lower shear stress levels, while no significant changes were noted by the higher shear stress values. The rehabilitation resulted in a marked decrease of the aggregation amplitude while no significant changes were observed in aggregation index and total aggregation half-time. Additionally, the training regimen was reflected by a significant increase in the plasma viscosity, while no significant changes in fibrinogen levels were noted. PMID:24169095

  11. Hemolysis induced by an extreme mountain ultra-marathon is not associated with a decrease in total red blood cell volume.

    PubMed

    Robach, P; Boisson, R-C; Vincent, L; Lundby, C; Moutereau, S; Gergelé, L; Michel, N; Duthil, E; Féasson, L; Millet, G Y

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged running is known to induce hemolysis. It has been suggested that hemolysis may lead to a significant loss of red blood cells; however, its actual impact on the erythrocyte pool is unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that prolonged running with high hemolytic potential decreases total red blood cell volume (RCV). Hemolysis (n?=?22) and RCV (n?=?19) were quantified in ultra-marathon runners before and after a 166-km long mountain ultra-endurance marathon (RUN) with 9500?m of altitude gain/loss. Assessment of total hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and RCV was performed using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique. RUN induced a marked acute-phase response and promoted hemolysis, as shown by a decrease in serum haptoglobin (P?count after RUN were indicative of erythropoietic stimulation. Following RUN, runners experienced hemodilution, mediated by a large plasma volume expansion and associated with a large increase in plasma aldosterone. However, neither Hbmass nor RCV were found to be altered after RUN. Our findings indicate that mechanical/physiological stress associated with RUN promotes hemolysis but this has no impact on total erythrocyte volume. We therefore suggest that exercise 'anemia' is entirely due to plasma volume expansion and not to a concomitant decrease in RCV. PMID:22672635

  12. Modeling Red Blood Cell and Iron Dynamics in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    E-print Network

    Modeling Red Blood Cell and Iron Dynamics in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease H. T. Banks1, that stimulates red blood cell (RBC) production. Without intervention, patients suffer from anemia. Patients treatment. Keywords: mathematical model, mathematical biology, erythropoiesis, erythrocyte, red blood cell

  13. Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: Comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic and aqueous hemoglobin

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: Comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic cells. The exper- iments were conducted on living erythrocytes (red blood cells), and examined quality data on Hb­CO dynamics in spite of the virtually opaque nature of the red blood cell sample

  14. Modeling Red Blood Cell and Iron Dynamics in Patients Undergoing Periodic EPO and Iron Treatments

    E-print Network

    Modeling Red Blood Cell and Iron Dynamics in Patients Undergoing Periodic EPO and Iron Treatments H in the kidneys, that stimulates red blood cell (RBC) production. Without intervention, patients suffer from, erythrocyte, red blood cell, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, iron, neocytolysis, hepcidin, EPO, hemoglobin e

  15. [Erythrocytes of hetero- and homoiothermal animals in natural and artificial hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Lomako, V V; Shilo, A V; Kovalenko, I F; Babi?chuk, G A

    2015-01-01

    By the low-angle light scattering technique there are revealed peculiarities of dynamics of transformation (osmotic fragility, level of hemolysis and ratio of forms by index of sphericity) of erythrocytes of hetero- (golden hamsters Mesocricetus auratus) and homoiothermal (white rats Rattus norbegicus) animals in natural hibernation and suspended animation, craniocerebral and immersion hypothermia. In control in hamsters the osmotic fragility and the level of hemolysis of erythrocytes were higher than in rats, predominant were modified forms (in particular stomatocytes). Under artificial hypothermia, regardless of the way of achievement, depth and duration, we observed changes similar in direction, but different in expression: the osmotic fragility and hemolysis increased, the portion of discocytes decreased (especially sharply in hamsters under suspended animation), the number of changed erythrocytic forms rose. In contrast, under hiberation the osmotic fragility, hemolysis and the amount of stomatocytes declined, the portion of discocytes increased, but at the same time the amount of prehemolytic forms (spherocytes) rose too. In 24 hs there occurred a decrease of osmotic fragility (after suspended animation more pronounced in hamsters) and the level of hemolysis (especially after immersion hypothermia), the portion of discocytes was restored, in hamsters after suspended animation and in rats after immersion hypothermia it even exceeded the control level; spherocytes in blood of hamsters were not revealed, in rats they were elevated. Possibly, the observed qualitative change of population of spherocytes 24 h after hypothermia toward its homogeneity is determined not only at the level of elimination of old and defected cells, activation of erythropoiesis, the appearance of highly resistant erythrocytes, but also at the level of time membrane-stabilizing mechanisms. PMID:25859606

  16. Activities of three erythrocyte enzymes of hyperglycemic rats (Rattus norvegicus) treated with Allium sativa extract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study sought to investigate erythrocyte glutathione S-transferases (GST), NADH-Methaemoglobin reductase (NADH-MR) and Na+/K+-ATPase activities of hypoglycemic rats treated with ethanol/water (1:2?v/v) extract of A. sativa as agent of glycemic control. Methods Hyperglycemia was induced by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 0.1 mol/L alloxan monohydrate in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution (pH = 7.4); dosage = 140 mg/kg. At the end of the experimental time (t?=?76 h), erythrocyte GST, NADH-MR and Na+/K+-ATPase activities as well as serum fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods. Results Serum FBS levels of control/normal (C/N) rats ranged between 72.93?±?0.82–95.12?±?0.92 mg/dL, whereas experimental rats without glycemic control gave: 249.41?±?1.03–256.11?±?1.23 mg/dL. Hyperglycemic rats treated with ethanol/water (1:2?v/v) extract of A. sativa exhibited comparative reduced serum levels of FBS alongside with erythrocyte GST, NADH-MR and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. The average relative activities of the three enzymes and corresponding order of enzyme activity in hyperglycemic rats treated with ethanol/water (1:2?v/v) extract of A. sativa was: NADH-MR = 60.99% > GST = 47.81%?>?Na+/K+-ATPase = 46.81%. In the same order, relative activities of the three enzymes in rats without glycemic control were: NADH-MR = 49.65% > GST = 23.69% >?Na+/K+-ATPase = 17.02%. Conclusion Erythrocyte GST, NADH-MR and Na+/K+-ATPase activities gave insights into the pathophysiology of diabetic state and served as biomarkers for ascertaining therapeutic control in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24918092

  17. [Some aspects of structural alterations of erythrocyte membranes under the effect of uranyl chloride at low concentrations].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, O G

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nanomolar concentrations of the uranyl ion on the parameters of some membrane structures of rodent erythrocytes (laboratory mice and tundra voles--classical objects of radioecological monitoring) was investigated in vitro. A high sensitivity of the tundra vole red blood cells to the uranyl influence was shown. This fact may be determined by the cross-species difference in the membrane structures of erythrocytes--the low sphingomyelin content in tundra voles. Investigation into the phospholipid composition of the erythrocytes incubated in vitro with uranyl ions demonstrates the absence of the membrane lipid component reactions "typical" for the cells circulating in blood and also the changes pointing to the initial stages of eryptosis. Latent alterations in the membrane structure of red blood cells of both species induced by a short time contact with uranyl ions were confirmed by the increase in their sensitivity to nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and indicate the changes in orderliness of the membrane lipid phase. PMID:25962280

  18. Dipole relaxation in erythrocyte membrane: involvement of spectrin skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B; Slavov, T

    2012-12-01

    Polarization of spectrin-actin undermembrane skeleton of red blood cell (RBC) plasma membranes was studied by impedance spectroscopy. Relatedly, dielectric spectra of suspensions that contained RBCs of humans, mammals (bovine, horse, dog, cat) and birds (turkey, pigeon, duck), and human RBC ghost membranes were continuously obtained during heating from 20 to 70°C. Data for the complex admittance and capacitance were used to derive the suspension resistance, R, and capacitance, C, as well as the energy loss as a function of temperature. As in previous studies, two irreversible temperature-induced transitions in the human RBC plasma membrane were detected at 49.5°C and at 60.7°C (at low heating rate). The transition at 49.5°C was evident from the abrupt changes in R, and C and the fall in the energy loss, due to dipole relaxation. For the erythrocytes of indicated species the changes in R and C displayed remarkable and similar frequency profiles within the 0.05-13MHz domain. These changes were subdued after cross-linking of membranes by diamide (0.3-1.3mM) and glutaraldehyde (0.1-0.4%) and at the presence of glycerol (10%). Based on the above results and previous reports, the dielectric changes at 49.5°C were related to dipole relaxation and segmental mobility of spectrin cytoskeleton. The results open the possibility for selective dielectric thermolysis of cell cytoskeleton. PMID:22513264

  19. Evaluation of the automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV ™ compared to the ADVIA ® 2120 for its use in dogs, cats, and horses. Part II: Accuracy of leukocyte differential and reticulocyte count, impact of anticoagulant and sample aging.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Nakagawa, Julia; Dunker, Cathrin; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The automated laser-based hematology analyzer Sysmex XT-2000iV™ provides a 5-part differential count and specific cytograms that are of great interest for large veterinary laboratories. The aim of the study was to validate the Sysmex XT-2000iV compared to the laser-based hematology analyzer ADVIA® 2120 and manual differential in dogs, cats, and horses as well as the impact of anticoagulant (heparin, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid [EDTA], and citrate) and storage at 22°C and 4°C. Consecutive fresh K(3)-EDTA blood samples from 216 cats, 314 dogs, and 174 horses were included. The impact of anticoagulant and sample storage was assessed in specimens obtained from an additional 9 cats, 10 dogs, and 10 horses. Agreement between both analyzers was excellent to good except for monocytes and canine reticulocytes. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r (s)) between Sysmex XT-2000iV and manual differential were good to fair and ranged from 0.91 (cat lymphocytes) to 0.44 (cat monocytes). Hematocrit value (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC; all: P < 0.001), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV; P < 0.01) were higher in canine citrated blood compared to heparin and EDTA. In cats, lymphocytes and monocytes were lower in heparinized blood compared to EDTA (P < 0.05), whereas in horses no significant effect was seen. Regarding storage time and temperature, white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and MCH were stable. Hct, MCV, and MCHC were influenced by erythrocyte swelling. Differential count remained stable for 24 hr (22°C) and nearly 72 hr (4°C) except for monocytes. The overall performance of the Sysmex XT-2000iV was excellent and compared favorably with that of the ADVIA 2120. A special strength was the excellent detection of feline eosinophils. PMID:22362937

  20. Light-induced protoporphyrin release from erythrocytes in erythropoietic protoporphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, S.; Brun, A.

    1982-09-01

    The photohemolysis of normal erythrocytes incubated with protoporphyrin is reduced in the presence of albumin. When globin is added to normal erythrocytes loaded with protoporphyrin, protoporphyrin is bound to globin. During irradiation protoporphyrin moves from globin to the erythrocyte membrane and photohemolysis is initiated. Erythrocytes in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria contain large amounts of protoporphyrin bound to hemoglobin. Upon irradiation of these cells in the absence of albumin, 40% of protoporphyrin and 80% of hemoglobin is released after 240 kJ/m2. The released protoporphyrin is hemoglobin bound. In contrast, when albumin is present only 8% of hemoglobin is released whereas protoporphyrin is released to 76%. The released protoporphyrin is albumin bound. A hypothesis for the release of erythrocyte protoporphyrin in erythropoietic protoporphyria without simultaneous hemolysis is proposed. Upon irradiation protoporphyrin photodamages its binding sites on hemoglobin, moves through the plasma membrane, and is bound to albumin in plasma.

  1. Encapsulation of thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase by mouse erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, P.; Ray, L.E.; Sander, C.; Way, J.L.; Sylvester, D.M.; Way, J.L.

    1986-03-30

    Murine carrier erythrocytes, prepared by hypotonic dialysis, were employed in the encapsulation of several compounds including (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and bovine thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese), a mitochondrial enzyme which converts cyanide to thiocyanate. Approximately 30% of the added (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and rhodanese was encapsulated by predialyzed erythrocytes, and a decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin was observed. In the encapsulation of rhodanese a recovery of 95% of the erythrocytes was achieved and an 85% equilibrium was established. The addition of potassium cyanide (50 mM) to intact, rhodanese-loaded erythrocytes containing sodium thiosulfate resulted in its metabolism to thiocyanate. These results establish the potential use of erythrocytes as biodegradable drug carrier in drug antagonism.

  2. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    SciTech Connect

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  3. Effects of Aggregation on Blood Sedimentation and Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhbanov, Alexander; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test has been used for over a century. The Westergren method is routinely used in a variety of clinics. However, the mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation remains unclear, and the 60 min required for the test seems excessive. We investigated the effects of cell aggregation during blood sedimentation and electrical conductivity at different hematocrits. A sample of blood was drop cast into a small chamber with two planar electrodes placed on the bottom. The measured blood conductivity increased slightly during the first minute and decreased thereafter. We explored various methods of enhancing or retarding the erythrocyte aggregation. Using experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, we show that the initial increase in blood conductivity was indeed caused by aggregation, while the subsequent decrease in conductivity resulted from the deposition of erythrocytes. We present a method for calculating blood conductivity based on effective medium theory. Erythrocytes are modeled as conducting spheroids surrounded by a thin insulating membrane. A digital camera was used to investigate the erythrocyte sedimentation behavior and the distribution of the cell volume fraction in a capillary tube. Experimental observations and theoretical estimations of the settling velocity are provided. We experimentally demonstrate that the disaggregated cells settle much slower than the aggregated cells. We show that our method of measuring the electrical conductivity credibly reflected the ESR. The method was very sensitive to the initial stage of aggregation and sedimentation, while the sedimentation curve for the Westergren ESR test has a very mild slope in the initial time. We tested our method for rapid estimation of the Westergren ESR. We show a correlation between our method of measuring changes in blood conductivity and standard Westergren ESR method. In the future, our method could be examined as a potential means of accelerating ESR tests in clinical practice. PMID:26047511

  4. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in stable patients on chronic hemodiaysis.

    PubMed

    Alsomaili, Mohammed Ibraheem; Yousuf, Muhammad; Hejaili, Fayez; Almotairi, Waleed; Al-Sayyari, Abdulla A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value and determinants of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in stable patients on regular hemodialysis (HD). Pre-dialysis and post-dialysis ESR was measured in a group of stable adult patients on regular HD and the results were compared. The results were also correlated with the patients' demographic and laboratory data. Only stable patents were included in the study. Patients with evidence of current infection, active inflammatory processor malignancy and severe anemia were excluded. We recruited 161 patients in the study of whom 44.1% were males, 53.4% had diabetes mellitus and 40.4% had an episode of sepsis previously. Only 15.5% of the patients had less than one year of dialysis and 54.3% were over the age of 60 years. The mean post-dialysis ESR was significantly higher than the pre-dialysis ESR (55.6 ± 30.4 and 49.8 ± 28.5, respectively; P = 0.003). Pre-dialysis, 79.5% of the patients had raised ESR. ESR was significantly correlated with C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, plasma albumin and fibrinogen (P <0.05). Patient factors (age, gender, duration of dialysis, previous renal transplantation, type of dialysis access and sepsis or thrombosis of dialysis access site) and blood laboratory parameters (hemoglobin, serum creatinine and serum parathormone) had no statistically significant correlation with ESR ( P ?0.05). Post-dialysis the ESR was raised in most of the stable patients on regular HD and was significantly higher than the pre-dialysis ESR (by, on average, 5.8 mm/h). ESR had variable correlation with different blood factors. PMID:26586052

  5. Sickle erythrocytes inhibit human endothelial cell DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.; Zhou, M.A.; Bartlett-Pandite, A.; Wenc, K. )

    1990-11-15

    Patients with sickle cell anemia experience severe vascular occlusive phenomena including acute pain crisis and cerebral infarction. Obstruction occurs at both the microvascular and the arterial level, and the clinical presentation of vascular events is heterogeneous, suggesting a complex etiology. Interaction between sickle erythrocytes and the endothelium may contribute to vascular occlusion due to alteration of endothelial function. To investigate this hypothesis, human vascular endothelial cells were overlaid with sickle or normal erythrocytes and stimulated to synthesize DNA. The erythrocytes were sedimented onto replicate monolayers by centrifugation for 10 minutes at 17 g to insure contact with the endothelial cells. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into endothelial cell DNA was markedly inhibited during contact with sickle erythrocytes. This inhibitory effect was enhanced more than twofold when autologous sickle plasma was present during endothelial cell labeling. Normal erythrocytes, with or without autologous plasma, had a modest effect on endothelial cell DNA synthesis. When sickle erythrocytes in autologous sickle plasma were applied to endothelial monolayers for 1 minute, 10 minutes, or 1 hour and then removed, subsequent DNA synthesis by the endothelial cells was inhibited by 30% to 40%. Although adherence of sickle erythrocytes to the endothelial monolayers was observed under these experimental conditions, the effect of sickle erythrocytes on endothelial DNA synthesis occurred in the absence of significant adherence. Hence, human endothelial cell DNA synthesis is partially inhibited by contact with sickle erythrocytes. The inhibitory effect of sickle erythrocytes occurs during a brief (1 minute) contact with the endothelial monolayers, and persists for at least 6 hours of 3H-thymidine labeling.

  6. Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep: parasite fecundity correlates with worm size and host lymphocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Anthony; McMaster, Kate; Emery, David; Sangster, Nicholas

    2008-05-31

    Two experiments were conducted to elucidate the timing and nature of the sheep immune response to Haemonchus contortus (Barber's pole worm). The first experiment examined the establishment of H. contortus populations and the immune response by comparing a bolus infection of third-stage larvae in naïve sheep with a group previously primed by a trickle infection. The second experiment used staggered doses of ivermectin-resistant larvae to compare the development of adult worms during different durations of trickle infection with ivermectin-sensitive larvae. Infections successfully generated pathological signs of haemonchosis such as anaemia. Image analysis software was used to measure the area and perimeter of worms collected at post-mortem, and the number of eggs present in individual adult females (fecundity) was significantly correlated with worm size. A significant inverse correlation was found between blood lymphocyte counts and worm fecundity. The absence of correlation between worm fecundity and other leukocyte and erythrocyte counts highlighted the specificity of the lymphocyte response. This is the first report of a link between haematology profiles and worm fecundity in haemonchosis. The correlation observed between adult worm size and egg content leads to the hypothesis that egg production in H. contortus is limited by immune regulation of worm size and presumably growth. Mean worm size and fecundity declined as sheep received more prolonged trickle infections before necropsy, confirming previous reports that immune responses to adult worms are enhanced by ongoing larval challenge. Immunohistochemical results showed trends consistent with a Th2 (humoral) immune response which has been implicated in reducing nematode burdens in several species. PMID:18337014

  7. Differential blood cell separation using a high gradient magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Paul, F; Roath, S; Melville, D

    1978-02-01

    A technique for the separation of erythrocytes from whole blood is described which exploits the magnetic property of haemoglobin in the reduced state. The technique is characterized by the use of a filter consisting of a cylinder, containing stainless steel wire mesh, placed between the jaws of an electro magnet. When activated, the electromagnet induces a magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of each of the constituent wires, sufficient to attract and trap erythrocytes in suspension. The number of erythrocytes captured varies with the applied field (0-1.4 Tesla in these experiments) and flow rate (1.9-12.9 x 10(-4) m s-1). The capture process does not cause haemolysis or observable surface damage to the erythrocytes and neither leucocytes nor platelets are retained by the filter. PMID:638075

  8. Differential light scattering cuvettes for the measurement of thromboemboli in high shear blood flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, L.O.; Solen, K.A.; Mohammad, S.F.; Pantalos, G.M.; Kim, J. )

    1990-07-01

    Newly developed optical scattering cuvettes were constructed as a modification of our existing 1.0 mm and 3.0 mm internal diameter (ID) cuvettes to facilitate the measurement of platelet microemboli ranging from 20 microns to 1,000 microns diameter in whole blood in 0.9 mm ID flows ranging from 250 to 4,000 ml/min. A perturbation solution to the one-speed radiative transport equation was used in the design and calibration of these cuvettes. A series of tests were performed with these cuvettes in an extracorporeal left ventricular assist device bovine model, and in a recirculating closed-loop flow system containing anticoagulated whole baboon blood, to determine to what extent they affect platelet and erythrocyte function ex vivo and in vitro. Serial hemolysis tests, thromboxane radioimmunoassay measurements, platelet counts, and activated partial thromboplastin times were measured. All of these tests with cuvettes in the extracorporeal and in vitro circuits were statistically indistinguishable from baseline measurements, suggesting the usefulness of this system for the measurement of microemboli in blood-contacting materials of extracorporeal circuits and cardiac assist devices.

  9. Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the bioeffects of nitroglycerin on Hb-O II in single red blood cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Huihua Kenny; Ruan, Hung-Shiang; Cheng, Hung-You; Fang, Tung-Ting

    2007-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been shown to have the potential for providing oxygenated ability of erythrocytes. Raman line at 1638 cm-1 has also been reported as one significant oxygenic indicator for erythrocytes. In this research, we develop the Raman spectroscopic monitoring of the bioeffects of Nitroglycerin on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a single red blood cell (RBC). Nitroglycerin has been frequently used in the management of angina pectoris. Nitroglycerin liberates nitric oxide (NO) to blood vessels. NO is an oxidizer that easily converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin. The conversion may cause the decrease of oxygenated ability of erythrocytes. In this study, we observed the oxidize state of erythrocytes caused by the over dosage of Nitroglycerin. When the dose of Nitroglycerin exceeds 2x10 -4 M, the oxygenic state of erythrocytes decreases significantly. The Raman spectroscopic results demonstrate the observation of the bioeffects of Nitroglycerin on hemoglobin.

  10. Expedited CO2 respiration in people with Miltenberger erythrocyte phenotype GP.Mur

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kate; Kuo, Mei-Shin; Yao, Ching-Che; Lee, Ting-Ying; Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Han-Chih; Lin, Chia-Hao; Yu, Tzung-Han; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, Miltenberger antigen subtype III (Mi.III; GP.Mur) is considered one of the most important red blood cell antigens in the field of transfusion medicine. Mi.III functions to promote erythrocyte band 3 expression and band 3-related HCO3? transport, with implications in blood CO2 metabolism. Could Mi.III affect physiologic CO2 respiration in its carriers? Here, we conducted a human trial to study the impacts of Mi.III expression in respiration. We recruited 188 healthy, adult subjects for blood typing, band 3 measurements, and respiratory tests before and after exercise. The 3-minute step exercise test forced the demand for CO2 dissipation to rise. We found that immediately following exercise, Mi.III?+?subjects exhaled CO2 at greater rates than Miltenberger-negative subjects. Respiration rates were also higher for Mi.III?+?subjects immediately after exercise. Blood gas tests further revealed distinct blood CO2 responses post-exercise between Mi.III and non-Mi.III. In contrast, from measurements of heart rates, blood O2 saturation and lactate, Mi.III phenotype was found to be independent of one’s aerobic and anaerobic capacities. Thus, Mi.III expression supported physiologic CO2 respiration. Conceivably, Mi.III?+?people may have advantages in performing physically enduring activities. PMID:26000803

  11. Expedited CO2 respiration in people with Miltenberger erythrocyte phenotype GP.Mur.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kate; Kuo, Mei-Shin; Yao, Ching-Che; Lee, Ting-Ying; Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Han-Chih; Lin, Chia-Hao; Yu, Tzung-Han; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, Miltenberger antigen subtype III (Mi.III; GP.Mur) is considered one of the most important red blood cell antigens in the field of transfusion medicine. Mi.III functions to promote erythrocyte band 3 expression and band 3-related HCO3(-) transport, with implications in blood CO2 metabolism. Could Mi.III affect physiologic CO2 respiration in its carriers? Here, we conducted a human trial to study the impacts of Mi.III expression in respiration. We recruited 188 healthy, adult subjects for blood typing, band 3 measurements, and respiratory tests before and after exercise. The 3-minute step exercise test forced the demand for CO2 dissipation to rise. We found that immediately following exercise, Mi.III + subjects exhaled CO2 at greater rates than Miltenberger-negative subjects. Respiration rates were also higher for Mi.III + subjects immediately after exercise. Blood gas tests further revealed distinct blood CO2 responses post-exercise between Mi.III and non-Mi.III. In contrast, from measurements of heart rates, blood O2 saturation and lactate, Mi.III phenotype was found to be independent of one's aerobic and anaerobic capacities. Thus, Mi.III expression supported physiologic CO2 respiration. Conceivably, Mi.III + people may have advantages in performing physically enduring activities. PMID:26000803

  12. The erythrocyte sodium and potassium in patients treated with digoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D B; Cumberbatch, M; Cohn, S; Scott, D; Gunasuntharam, T; Davidson, C; Chapman, C

    1980-01-01

    1 Four healthy persons and ten patients with heart failure were studied for 5 to 20 days after they started taking digoxin. The sodium content of their erythrocytes increased and there was an equimolar decrease in potassium content. 2 The increase in erythrocyte sodium for a given increase in plasma digoxin during this acute digitalization was less on average and varied more in the patients than in the healthy persons, that is the patients' erythrocytes were less responsive to digoxin. 3 The average erythrocyte sodium was greater in 183 patients who had been taking digoxin for at least 2 months than in 100 healthy persons not taking digoxin but there was no significant correlation between the plasma digoxin concentrations and erythrocyte sodium concentration in the patients. Indeed, there was no apparent change in the erythrocyte sodium in many of the patients taking digoxin. 4 If the erythrocyte sodium concentration is a reliable guide to the tissue effects of digoxin then the results suggest that there is a wide variation in the response to digoxin between patients both during acute digitalization and during chronic treatment with digoxin. PMID:7426274

  13. Imaging Babesia bovis Infected Erythrocytes And Free Parasites Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Imaging Babesia bovis Infected Erythrocytes And Free Parasites Using Atomic Force Microscopy Jerome nanoparticles can bind to already bound antibodies on the erythrocytes. We can use the AFM to image these gold (AFM) was used to image infected erythrocytes, normal erythrocytes, and free merozoites. · Gold

  14. The Central Role of cAMP in Regulating Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Invasion of Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    More, Kunal R.; Siddiqui, Faiza Amber; Pachikara, Niseema; Ramdani, Ghania; Langsley, Gordon; Chitnis, Chetan E.

    2014-01-01

    All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. Here, we identify cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion. We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K+ environment, typical of blood plasma, activates a bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase to raise cytosolic cAMP levels and activate protein kinase A, which regulates microneme secretion. We also show that cAMP regulates merozoite cytosolic Ca2+ levels via induction of an Epac pathway and demonstrate that increases in both cAMP and Ca2+ are essential to trigger microneme secretion. Our identification of the different elements in cAMP-dependent signaling pathways that regulate microneme secretion during invasion provides novel targets to inhibit blood stage parasite growth and prevent malaria. PMID:25522250

  15. Advanced Glycation-Modified Human Serum Albumin Evokes Alterations in Membrane and Eryptosis in Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Gayathiri, S K; Ramya, R; Duraichelvan, R; Dhason, A; Saraswathi, N T

    2015-11-01

    Increased burden of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in case of hyperglycemic conditions leads to the development of retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. AGEs are considered as pro-oxidants, and their accumulation increases the oxidative stress. The prolonged exposure to these AGEs is the fundamental cause of chronic oxidative stress. Abnormal morphology of red blood cells (RBCs) and excessive eryptosis has been observed in diabetes, glomerulonephritis, dyslipidemia, and obesity, but yet the contribution of extracellular AGEs remains undefined. In this study, we investigated the effect of AGEs on erythrocytes to determine their impact on the occurrence of different pathological forms of these blood cells. Specifically, carboxymethyllysine (CML), carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and Arg-pyrimidine (Arg-P) which have been reported to be the most pre-dominant AGEs formed under in vivo conditions were used in this study. Results suggested the eryptotic properties of CML, CEL, and Arg-P for RBCs, which were evident from the highly damaged cell membrane and occurrence of abnormal morphologies. Methylglyoxal-modified albumin showed more severe effects, which can be attributed to the high reactivity and pro-oxidant nature of glycation end products. These findings suggest the possible role of AGE-modified albumin towards the morphological changes in erythrocyte's membrane associated with diabetic conditions. PMID:26276445

  16. Simvastatin and GGTI-2133, a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor, increase erythrocyte deformability but reduce low O(2) tension-induced ATP release.

    PubMed

    Clapp, K M; Ellsworth, M L; Sprague, R S; Stephenson, A H

    2013-03-01

    Statin drugs inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, which reduces the synthesis of both cholesterol and isoprenoids (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate), with the latter being lipid molecules responsible for the posttranslational modification of small GTP-binding proteins such as Rho. Effects of statins, independent of lowering blood cholesterol levels, are thought to occur by inhibition of Rho/Rho kinase. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 has been reported to increase both erythrocyte deformability and low O2 tension-induced ATP release. Here, we tested the hypothesis that by inhibiting Rho/Rho kinase, simvastatin would increase both erythrocyte deformability and low O2 tension-induced ATP release. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups, control or simvastatin treated [simvastatin-supplemented chow (0.02%)], for 4 wk. Simvastatin treatment increased rat erythrocyte deformability compared with controls (n = 6, P < 0.05). However, erythrocytes of simvastatin-treated rats (n = 9, P < 0.05) exhibited impaired low O2 tension-induced ATP release. Similarly, the geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-2133 (10 ?M) also increased deformability and impaired low O2 tension-induced ATP release in healthy human erythrocytes (P < 0.05). Interestingly, ATP release in response to mastoparan 7 (n = 7, P < 0.05), which directly activates Gi, and isoproterenol (n = 5, P < 0.05), which signals through Gs, was not altered by incubation with GGTI-2133. These results suggest that although statins increase erythrocyte deformability, likely by inhibiting geranylgeranylation, the finding that both statins and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor attenuated low O2 tension-induced ATP release demonstrates that factors in addition to erythrocyte deformability are critical for ATP release in response to this physiological stimulus. PMID:23335799

  17. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  18. Blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  19. Participation of free oxygen radicals in damage of porcine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, J.; Helszer, Z.

    1981-10-01

    Gamma radiation causes disturbances in energy metabolism, decreases in (Na/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase, Mg/sup 2 +/-APTase activity, and increase in the degree of hemolysis in porcine erythrocytes. Our results indicated a contribution of exogenous free radicals in radiation damage to porcine erythrocytes. In the presence of biological and chemical radioprotectors a protective effect with respect to ATPase activity and energy metabolism was observed in the presence of catalase, histidine, glucose, and sulfhydryl compounds. It appears that radiation damage to porcine erythrocytes is due to the action of various radicals formed upon irradiation which react at different rates with various cell constituents.

  20. Quantitative non-invasive intracellular imaging of Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-05-01

    Malaria is a virulent pathological condition which results in over a million annual deaths. The parasitic agent Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in connection with this epidemic but much remains unknown about its development inside the red blood cell host. Optical and fluorescence imaging are among the two most common procedures for investigating infected erythrocytes but both require the introduction of exogenous contrast agents. In this letter, we present a procedure for the non-invasive in situ imaging of malaria infected red blood cells. The procedure is based on the utilization of simultaneously acquired quantitative phase and independent topography data to extract intracellular information. Our method allows for the identification of the developmental stages of the parasite and facilitates in situ analysis of the morphological changes associated with the progression of this disease. This information may assist in the development of efficacious treatment therapies for this condition.

  1. A Nature-Inspired Betalainic Probe for Live-Cell Imaging of Plasmodium-Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Letícia Christina Pires; Tonelli, Renata Rosito; Bagnaresi, Piero; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Bastos, Erick Leite

    2013-01-01

    A model betalainic dye was semisynthesized from betanin, the magenta pigment of the red beet, and was effective for live-cell imaging of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells. This water-soluble fluorescent probe is photostable, excitable in the visible region and cell membrane-permeable, and its photophysical properties are not notably pH-sensitive. Fluorescence imaging microscopy of erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of malaria in humans, showed that only the parasite was stained. Z-stacking analysis suggested that the probe accumulates proximal to the nucleus of the parasite. Indicaxanthin, one of the natural fluorescent betalains found in the petals of certain flowers, did not stain the parasite or the red blood cell. PMID:23342028

  2. A Computational Model of a Microfluidic Device to Measure the Dynamics of Oxygen-Dependent ATP Release from Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sove, Richard J.; Ghonaim, Nour; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocytes are proposed to be involved in blood flow regulation through both shear- and oxygen-dependent mechanisms for the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a potent vasodilator. In a recent study, the dynamics of shear-dependent ATP release from erythrocytes was measured using a microfluidic device with a constriction in the channel to increase shear stress. The brief period of increased shear stress resulted in ATP release within 25 to 75 milliseconds downstream of the constriction. The long-term goal of our research is to apply a similar approach to determine the dynamics of oxygen-dependent ATP release. In the place of the constriction, an oxygen permeable membrane would be used to decrease the hemoglobin oxygen saturation of erythrocytes flowing through the channel. This paper describes the first stage in achieving that goal, the development of a computational model of the proposed experimental system to determine the feasibility of altering oxygen saturation rapidly enough to measure ATP release dynamics. The computational model was constructed based on hemodynamics, molecular transport of oxygen and ATP, kinetics of luciferin/luciferase reaction for reporting ATP concentrations, light absorption by hemoglobin, and sensor characteristics. A linear model of oxygen saturation-dependent ATP release with variable time delay was used in this study. The computational results demonstrate that a microfluidic device with a 100 µm deep channel will cause a rapid decrease in oxygen saturation over the oxygen permeable membrane that yields a measurable light intensity profile for a change in rate of ATP release from erythrocytes on a timescale as short as 25 milliseconds. The simulation also demonstrates that the complex dynamics of ATP release from erythrocytes combined with the consumption by luciferin/luciferase in a flowing system results in light intensity values that do not simply correlate with ATP concentrations. A computational model is required for proper interpretation of experimental data. PMID:24312316

  3. Genome-wide association analysis of red blood cell traits in African Americans: the COGENT Network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Tang, Hua; Qayyum, Rehan; Schick, Ursula M; Nalls, Michael A; Handsaker, Robert; Li, Jin; Lu, Yingchang; Yanek, Lisa R; Keating, Brendan; Meng, Yan; van Rooij, Frank J A; Okada, Yukinori; Kubo, Michiaki; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Keller, Margaux F; Lange, Leslie; Evans, Michele; Bottinger, Erwin P; Linderman, Michael D; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Papanicolaou, George; Zonderman, Alan B; Gottesman, Omri; Thomson, Cynthia; Ziv, Elad; Singleton, Andrew B; Loos, Ruth J F; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Ganesh, Santhi; McCarroll, Steven; Becker, Diane M; Wilson, James G; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alexander P

    2013-06-15

    Laboratory red blood cell (RBC) measurements are clinically important, heritable and differ among ethnic groups. To identify genetic variants that contribute to RBC phenotypes in African Americans (AAs), we conducted a genome-wide association study in up to ~16 500 AAs. The alpha-globin locus on chromosome 16pter [lead SNP rs13335629 in ITFG3 gene; P < 1E-13 for hemoglobin (Hgb), RBC count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), MCH and MCHC] and the G6PD locus on Xq28 [lead SNP rs1050828; P < 1E - 13 for Hgb, hematocrit (Hct), MCV, RBC count and red cell distribution width (RDW)] were each associated with multiple RBC traits. At the alpha-globin region, both the common African 3.7 kb deletion and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) appear to contribute independently to RBC phenotypes among AAs. In the 2p21 region, we identified a novel variant of PRKCE distinctly associated with Hct in AAs. In a genome-wide admixture mapping scan, local European ancestry at the 6p22 region containing HFE and LRRC16A was associated with higher Hgb. LRRC16A has been previously associated with the platelet count and mean platelet volume in AAs, but not with Hgb. Finally, we extended to AAs the findings of association of erythrocyte traits with several loci previously reported in Europeans and/or Asians, including CD164 and HBS1L-MYB. In summary, this large-scale genome-wide analysis in AAs has extended the importance of several RBC-associated genetic loci to AAs and identified allelic heterogeneity and pleiotropy at several previously known genetic loci associated with blood cell traits in AAs. PMID:23446634

  4. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing. PMID:26368847

  5. Monoclonal antibody OKM5 inhibits the in vitro binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to monocytes, endothelial, and C32 melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barnwell, J.W.; Ockenhouse, C.F.; Knowles, D.M. II

    1985-11-01

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes bind in vitro to human endothelial cells, monocytes, and a certain melanoma cell line. Evidence suggests that this interaction is mediated by similar mechanisms which lead to the sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in vivo through their attachment to endothelial cells of small blood vessels. They show here the monoclonal antibody OKM5, previously shown to react with the membranes of endothelial cells, monocyte,s and platelets, also reacts with the C32 melanoma cell line which also binds P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. At relatively low concentrations, OKM5 inhibits and reverses the in vitro adherence of infected erythrocytes to target cells. As with monocytes, OKM5 antibody recognizes an /sup 125/I-labeled protein of approximately 88 Kd on the surface of C32 melanoma cells. It seems likely, therefore, that the 88 Kd polypeptide plays a role in cytoadherence, possibly as the receptor or part of a receptor for a ligand on the surface of infected erythrocytes.

  6. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  7. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids. PMID:22331960

  8. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  9. ?-Lapachone induces heart morphogenetic and functional defects by promoting the death of erythrocytes and the endocardium in zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background ?-Lapachone has antitumor and wound healing-promoting activities. To address the potential influences of various chemicals on heart development of zebrafish embryos, we previously treated zebrafish embryos with chemicals from a Sigma LOPAC1280™ library and found several chemicals including ?-lapachone that affected heart morphogenesis. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ?-lapachone on zebrafish embryonic heart development. Methods Embryos were treated with ?-lapachone or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 24 or 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 4 h at 28°C. Heart looping and valve development was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization and histological analysis. For fractional shortening and wall shear stress analyses, AB and Tg (gata1:DsRed) embryos were recorded for their heart pumping and blood cell circulations via time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Dextran rhodamine dye injection into the tail reticular cells was used to analyze circulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by incubating embryos in 5-(and 6-)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and recorded using fluorescence microscopy. o-Dianisidine (ODA) staining and whole mount in situ hybridization were used to analyze erythrocytes. TUNEL assay was used to examine DNA fragmentation. Results We observed a linear arrangement of the ventricle and atrium, bradycardia arrhythmia, reduced fractional shortening, circulation with a few or no erythrocytes, and pericardial edema in ?-lapachone-treated 52-hpf embryos. Abnormal expression patterns of cmlc2, nppa, BMP4, versican, and nfatc1, and histological analyses showed defects in heart-looping and valve development of ?-lapachone-treated embryos. ROS production was observed in erythrocytes and DNA fragmentation was detected in both erythrocytes and endocardium of ?-lapachone-treated embryos. Reduction in wall shear stress was uncovered in ?-lapachone-treated embryos. Co-treatment with the NQO1 inhibitor, dicoumarol, or the calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, rescued the erythrocyte-deficiency in circulation and heart-looping defect phenotypes in ?-lapachone-treated embryos. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis of endocardium and erythrocytes by ?-lapachone is mediated through an NQO1- and calcium-dependent pathway. Conclusions The novel finding of this study is that ?-lapachone affects heart morphogenesis and function through the induction of apoptosis of endocardium and erythrocytes. In addition, this study further demonstrates the importance of endocardium and hemodynamic forces on heart morphogenesis and contractile performance. PMID:21936955

  10. The sorting of blood group active proteins during enucleation

    PubMed Central

    Satchwell, Timothy J.; Bell, Amanda J.; Toye, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Enucleation represents the critical stage during red blood cell development when the nucleus is extruded from an orthochromatic erythroblast in order to generate a nascent immature reticulocyte. Extrusion of the nucleus results in loss of a proportion of the erythroblast plasma membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, the bulk of the endoplasmic reticulum and a small region of cytoplasm. For this reason enucleation provides an important point in erythroblast differentiation at which proteins not required for the function of the erythrocyte can be lost, whilst those that are important for the structure-function properties of the mature erythrocyte must be efficiently retained in the reticulocyte plasma membrane. Disturbances in protein distribution during enucleation are envisaged to occur during human diseases such as Hereditary Spherocytosis. This article will discuss the current knowledge of erythroblast enucleation in the context of retention and loss of proteins that display antigenic blood group sites and that exist within multiprotein complexes within the erythrocyte membrane.

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation of vesicles shed by erythrocytes at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Vodyanoy, V

    2015-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo structural transformation and shed small vesicles at elevated temperatures. To characterize mechanisms of the phenomenon, the Arrhenius and Eyring equations were used for analysis of the literature, experimental data on vesiculation of human and rat erythrocytes after the temperature was elevated by physical exercise or by exposure to external heat. The thermodynamic analysis of the data showed that erythrocyte transformation, vesicle release, and other associated processes are driven by entropy with enthalpy-entropy compensation. It is suggested that the physical state of the hydrated cell membrane is responsible for the compensation. The increase of vesicle number related to elevated temperatures may be indicative of the heat stress level and serve as diagnostic of erythrocyte stability and human performance. PMID:26117803

  12. Magnesium concentration in plasma and erythrocytes in MS.

    PubMed

    Stelmasiak, Z; Solski, J; Jakubowska, B

    1995-07-01

    There are few reports of Mg in MS and none dealing with Mg content in erythrocytes. Mg concentration was determined in serum and in erythrocytes with the help of a BIOTROL Magnesium Calmagite colorimetric method (average sensitivity: 0.194 A per mmol/I) and a Hitachi autoanalyzer in 24 MS patients (7 men and 17 women, age 29-60; 37 years on average with the duration of the disease: 3-19; 11 years on average, at clinical disability stages according to the Kurtzke scale: 1-7; 3.2 on average, in remission stage. A statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) of Mg concentration in erythrocytes and no changes in plasma of MS patients were found. The results obtained suggest the presence of changes in membrane of erythrocytes which could be connected with their shorter life and with affection of their function. PMID:7572055

  13. Automatic Identification of Human Erythrocytes in Microscopic Fecal Specimens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lei, Haoting; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Zhenglong; Liu, Juanxiu; Xie, Yu; Ni, Guangming; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Traditional fecal erythrocyte detection is performed via a manual operation that is unsuitable because it depends significantly on the expertise of individual inspectors. To recognize human erythrocytes automatically and precisely, automatic segmentation is very important for extraction of characteristics. In addition, multiple recognition algorithms are also essential. This paper proposes an algorithm based on morphological segmentation and a fuzzy neural network. The morphological segmentation process comprises three operational steps: top-hat transformation, Otsu's method, and image binarization. Following initial screening by area and circularity, fuzzy c-means clustering and the neural network algorithms are used for secondary screening. Subsequently, the erythrocytes are screened by combining the results of five images obtained at different focal lengths. Experimental results show that even when the illumination, noise pollution, and position of the erythrocytes are different, they are all segmented and labeled accurately by the proposed method. Thus, the proposed method is robust even in images with significant amounts of noise. PMID:26349804

  14. Multiple loci influence erythrocyte phenotypes in the CHARGE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Santhi K.; Zakai, Neil A.; van Rooij, Frank J A.; Soranzo, Nicole; Smith, Albert V.; Nalls, Michael A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Kottgen, Anna; Glazer, Nicole L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Aspelund, Thor; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Jaffe, Andrew; Bis, Joshua C M.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Teumer, Alexander; Fox, Caroline S.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ehret, Georg B.; Rice, Kenneth; Felix, Janine F.; Rendon, Augusto; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Levy, Daniel; Patel, Kushang V.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hofman, Albert; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hernandez, Dena; Zheng, Gang; Bandinelli, Stefania; Singleton, Andrew B.; Coresh, Josef; Lumley, Thomas; Uitterlinden, André G.; vanGils, Janine M.; Launer, Lenore J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Oostra, Ben A.; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Thein, Swee-Lay; Meisinger, Christa; Deloukas, Panos; Nauck, Matthias; Spector, Tim; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Greinacher, Andreas; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Witteman, Jacqueline C M.; Furth, Susan; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Lin, Jing-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Erythrocyte measures are heritable and have important health implications, yet their genetic determinants are largely unknown. We performed genome-wide association analyses in 24,167 European-ancestry individuals for six erythrocyte traits and identified associations at 23 loci (P values 5×10-8 to 1×10-57). Replication testing in an independent set of 9,456 European-ancestry individuals showed strong evidence of association in all 23 loci in meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts. Our findings include previously identified loci (HBS1L/MYB, HFE, TMPRSS6, TFR2, SPTA1) and novel associations (EPO, TFRC, SH2B3, and 15 other loci). This study has identified novel determinants of erythrocyte traits, offering insight into common variants underlying variation in erythrocyte measures. PMID:19862010

  15. Biophysics of Malarial Parasite Exit from Infected Erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Chandramohanadas, Rajesh

    Upon infection and development within human erythrocytes, P. falciparum induces alterations to the infected RBC morphology and bio-mechanical properties to eventually rupture the host cells through parasitic and host derived ...

  16. Hematological indices of peripheral blood in workers occupationally exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene.

    PubMed

    Moszczy?ski, P; Lisiewicz, J

    1983-12-01

    In 106 workers occupationally exposed to benzen, toluen and xylene through 1 to 122 months basic hematological indices of peripheral blood were evaluated. The benzene, toluene and xylene concentrations in the air at workplaces were equal to 0-370, 0-580 and 0-506 mg/m3, respectively. The workers were subdivided into three subgroups according to the service time corresponding to 1-29, 31-54 and 55-122 months. The first hematological changes noted in the workers studied consisted of diminishing the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes. Increased numbers of reticulocytes, lowered total count of leukocytes due to decreased numbers of T and "non-T, non-B" cells as well as increased numbers of monocytes were other signs of exposure investigated. Increased numbers of reticulocytes were noted in all workers independently of service time whereas other hematological alterations presented above were marked only in the subgroup of workers exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene through 55 to 122 months. It was stated that the T cell count decreased gradually in relationship with an extent of exposure time (negative correlation). Since laboratory examinations serving the evaluation of health state of workers exposed are only few it was postulated that the E rosette test may be of practical use for monitoring the toxic effect of benzene, toluene and xylene on the lymphocyte system. PMID:6670413

  17. Proteome analysis of the triton-insoluble erythrocyte membrane skeleton.

    PubMed

    Basu, Avik; Harper, Sandra; Pesciotta, Esther N; Speicher, Kaye D; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Speicher, David W

    2015-10-14

    Erythrocyte shape and membrane integrity is imparted by the membrane skeleton, which can be isolated as a Triton X-100 insoluble structure that retains the biconcave shape of intact erythrocytes, indicating isolation of essentially intact membrane skeletons. These erythrocyte "Triton Skeletons" have been studied morphologically and biochemically, but unbiased proteome analysis of this substructure of the membrane has not been reported. In this study, different extraction buffers and in-depth proteome analyses were used to more fully define the protein composition of this functionally critical macromolecular complex. As expected, the major, well-characterized membrane skeleton proteins and their associated membrane anchors were recovered in good yield. But surprisingly, a substantial number of additional proteins that are not considered in erythrocyte membrane skeleton models were recovered in high yields, including myosin-9, lipid raft proteins (stomatin, flotillin1 and 2), multiple chaperone proteins (HSPs, protein disulfide isomerase and calnexin), and several other proteins. These results show that the membrane skeleton is substantially more complex than previous biochemical studies indicated, and it apparently has localized regions with unique protein compositions and functions. This comprehensive catalog of the membrane skeleton should lead to new insights into erythrocyte membrane biology and pathogenic mutations that perturb membrane stability. Biological significance Current models of erythrocyte membranes describe fairly simple homogenous structures that are incomplete. Proteome analysis of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton shows that it is quite complex and includes a substantial number of proteins whose roles and locations in the membrane are not well defined. Further elucidation of interactions involving these proteins and definition of microdomains in the membrane that contain these proteins should yield novel insights into how the membrane skeleton produces the normal biconcave erythrocyte shape and how it is perturbed in pathological conditions that destabilize the membrane. PMID:26271157

  18. Hematopoiesis specific loss of Cdk2 and Cdk4 results in increased erythrocyte size and delayed platelet recovery following stress

    PubMed Central

    Jayapal, Senthil Raja; Wang, Chelsia Qiuxia; Bisteau, Xavier; Caldez, Matias J.; Lim, Shuhui; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Osato, Motomi; Kaldis, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Mouse knockouts of Cdk2 and Cdk4 are individually viable whereas the double knockouts are embryonic lethal due to heart defects, and this precludes the investigation of their overlapping roles in definitive hematopoiesis. Here we use a conditional knockout mouse model to investigate the effect of combined loss of Cdk2 and Cdk4 in hematopoietic cells. Cdk2fl/flCdk4?/?vavCre mice are viable but displayed a significant increase in erythrocyte size. Cdk2fl/flCdk4?/?vavCre mouse bone marrow exhibited reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and reduced expression of E2F target genes such as cyclin A2 and Cdk1. Erythroblasts lacking Cdk2 and Cdk4 displayed a lengthened G1 phase due to impaired phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. Deletion of the retinoblastoma protein rescued the increased size displayed by erythrocytes lacking Cdk2 and Cdk4, indicating that the retinoblastoma/Cdk2/Cdk4 pathway regulates erythrocyte size. The recovery of platelet counts following a 5-fluorouracil challenge was delayed in Cdk2fl/flCdk4?/?vavCre mice revealing a critical role for Cdk2 and Cdk4 in stress hematopoiesis. Our data indicate that Cdk2 and Cdk4 play important overlapping roles in homeostatic and stress hematopoiesis, which need to be considered when using broad-spectrum cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy. PMID:25616574

  19. Alterations in viscosity and filterability of whole blood and blood cell subpopulations in diabetic cats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L W; Barden, C A; Tiedeman, J S; Hatchell, D L

    1993-03-01

    Capillary closure and venous dilatation occur early in diabetic retinopathy, and altered blood rheology may play a role. For example previous studies have shown leukocytes are less deformable, are more activated, and occlude retinal capillaries more often in diabetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if rheologic changes developed in diabetic cats, a model in which we have documented retinal capillary basement membrane thickening, microaneurysms, and intraretinal hemorrhage characteristics of early diabetic retinopathy. Viscosity of blood, plasma and purified erythrocyte suspensions was measured by rotational viscometry and plasma fibrinogen content was determined by heat precipitation. Filterability of blood and purified erythrocyte, mononuclear leukocyte, and granulocyte suspensions was determined at constant flow, measuring the increase in pressure over 2 min relative to the pressure generated by buffer alone. Viscosity of whole blood and plasma, but not erythrocytes, was significantly elevated (P < 0.005) in the diabetic cats over normals at all shear rates studied (450, 225 and 90 sec-1). Furthermore, fibrinogen levels were significantly elevated in diabetic cats compared to normals (P < 0.004), and were positively correlated with the viscosity of whole blood and plasma. The filterability of mononuclear leukocytes and whole blood in diabetic cats was decreased 56% and 74% when compared to normals, P < 0.0006 and P < 0.025, respectively. In contrast, the filterability of granulocytes and erythrocytes was not significantly different between the two groups. These results suggest that the rheologic alterations in diabetes are numerous, and involve both cellular and plasma protein changes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8472789

  20. Direct rheological, cytometric, and cardiological effect of intravenous laser irradiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, I. V.; Malashevich, P. N.; Volkova, E. G.; Kovkova, A. V.; Pashkevich, O. I.; Podol'Tsev, A. S.

    2008-11-01

    As a result of the first session of intravenous laser irradiation of blood, it has been established that changes in the blood cellular elements, according to the data of cytometry, and in the blood and plasma viscosity are analogous to the changes occurring when a blood specimen is being incubated at a temperature of 48°C for 1 h or during its storage for 18 days at 12°C in a refrigerator: average dimensions of leukocytes decrease, thrombocytes decline in number, the deformability of erythrocytes is impaired, and the viscosity of the blood increases. Analogous changes in the cytometric and rheological indices, as well as a small hemolysis of eryth-rocytes, were observed on irradiation of a blood specimen in vitro. The suggestion has been made that the therapeutic effect of intravenous laser irradiation of blood is due to the generation of young cellular elements and their ejection into the blood channel instead of those damaged by the laser radiation.

  1. Artesunate versus chloroquine infection-treatment-vaccination defines stage-specific immune responses associated with prolonged sterile protection against both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic Plasmodium yoelii infection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaohong; Keitany, Gladys J; Vignali, Marissa; Chen, Lin; Gibson, Claire; Choi, Kimberly; Huang, Fusheng; Wang, Ruobing

    2014-08-01

    Sterile protection against malaria infection can be achieved through vaccination of mice and humans with whole Plasmodium spp. parasites. One such method, known as infection-treatment-vaccination (ITV), involves immunization with wild type sporozoites (spz) under drug coverage. In this work, we used the different effects of antimalarial drugs chloroquine (CQ) and artesunate (AS) on blood stage (BS) parasites to dissect the stage-specific immune responses in mice immunized with Plasmodium yoelii spz under either drug, as well as their ability to protect mice against challenge with spz or infected RBCs (iRBCs). Whereas CQ-ITV induced sterile protection against challenge with both spz and iRBCs, AS-ITV only induced sterile protection against spz challenge. Importantly, AS-ITV delayed the onset of BS infection, indicating that both regimens induced cross-stage immunity. Moreover, both CQ- and AS-ITV induced CD8(+) T cells in the liver that eliminated malaria-infected hepatocytes in vitro, as well as Abs that recognized pre-erythrocytic parasites. Sera from both groups of mice inhibited spz invasion of hepatocytes in vitro, but only CQ-ITV induced high levels of anti-BS Abs. Finally, passive transfer of sera from CQ-ITV-treated mice delayed the onset of erythrocytic infection in the majority of mice challenged with P. yoelii iRBCs. Besides constituting the first characterization, to our knowledge, of AS-ITV as a vaccination strategy, our data show that ITV strategies that lead to subtle differences in the persistence of parasites in the blood enable the characterization of the resulting immune responses, which will contribute to future research in vaccine design and malaria interventions. PMID:24958899

  2. Identification of Bartonella Trw host-specific receptor on erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hon Kuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Bonnet, Sarah; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Each Bartonella species appears to be highly adapted to one or a limited number of reservoir hosts, in which it establishes long-lasting intraerythrocytic bacteremia as the hallmark of infection. Recently, we identified Trw as the bacterial system involved in recognition of erythrocytes according to their animal origin. The T4SS Trw is characterized by a multiprotein complex that spans the inner and outer bacterial membranes, and possesses a hypothetical pilus structure. TrwJ, I, H and trwL are present in variable copy numbers in different species and the multiple copies of trwL and trwJ in the Bartonella trw locus are considered to encode variant forms of surface-exposed pilus components. We therefore aimed to identify which of the candidate Trw pilus components were located on the bacterial surface and involved in adhesion to erythrocytes, together with their erythrocytic receptor. Using different technologies (electron microscopy, phage display, invasion inhibition assay, far western blot), we found that only TrwJ1 and TrwJ2 were expressed and localized at the cell surface of B. birtlesii and had the ability to bind to mouse erythrocytes, and that their receptor was band3, one of the major outer-membrane glycoproteins of erythrocytes, (anion exchanger). According to these results, we propose that the interaction between TrwJ1, TrwJ2 and band 3 leads to the critical host-specific adherence of Bartonella to its host cells, erythrocytes. PMID:22848496

  3. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  4. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  5. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  6. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8185 - Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting... Calibrator for red cell and white cell counting. (a) Identification. A calibrator for red cell and white cell counting is a device that resembles red or white blood cells and that is used to set instruments...

  8. Optoelectronic tweezers for the measurement of the relative stiffness of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Steven L.; Mody, Nimesh; Selman, Colin; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we describe the first use of Optoelectronic Tweezers (OET), an optically controlled micromanipulation method, to measure the relative stiffness of erythrocytes in mice. Cell stiffness is an important measure of cell health and in the case of erythrocytes, the most elastic cells in the body, an increase in cell stiffness can indicate pathologies such as type II diabetes mellitus or hypertension (high blood pressure). OET uses a photoconductive device to convert an optical pattern into and electrical pattern. The electrical fields will create a dipole within any polarisable particles in the device, such as cells, and non-uniformities of the field can be used to place unequal forces onto each side of the dipole thus moving the particle. In areas of the device where there are no field gradients, areas of constant illumination, the force on each side of the dipole will be equal, keeping the cell stationary, but as there are opposing forces on each side of the cell it will be stretched. The force each cell will experience will differ slightly so the stretching will depend on the cells polarisability as well as its stiffness. Because of this a relative stiffness rather than absolute stiffness is measured. We show that with standard conditions (20Vpp, 1.5MHz, 10mSm-1 medium conductivity) the cell's diameter changes by around 10% for healthy mouse erythrocytes and we show that due to the low light intensities required for OET, relative to conventional optical tweezers, multiple cells can be measured simultaneously.

  9. Angiotensin II restricted analogs with biological activity in the erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marcelo Der Torossian; Silva, Adriana Farias; de Souza Silva, Leandro; de Sá Pinheiro, Ana Acácia; Oliveira, Vani Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The anti-plasmodial activity of conformationally restricted analogs of angiotensin II against Plasmodium gallinaceum has been described. To observe activity against another Plasmodium species, invasion of red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum was analyzed. Analogs restricted with lactam or disulfide bridges were synthesized to determine their effects and constraints in the peptide-parasite interaction. The analogs were synthesized using tert-butoxycarbonyl and fluoromethoxycarbonyl solid phase methods, purified by liquid chromatography, and characterized by mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the lactam bridge restricted analogs 1 (Glu-Asp-Arg-Orn-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) and 3 (Asp-Glu-Arg-Val-Orn-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) showed activity toward inhibition of ring formation stage of P. falciparum erythrocytic cycle, preventing invasion in about 40% of the erythrocytes. The disulfide-bridged analog 10 (Cys-Asp-Arg-Cys-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe) was less effective yet significant, showing a 25% decrease in infection of new erythrocytes. In all cases, the peptides presented no pressor activity, and hydrophobic interactions between the aromatic and alkyl amino acid side chains were preserved, a factor proven important in efficacy against P. gallinaceum. In contrast, hydrophilic interactions between the Asp(1) carboxyl and Arg(2) guanidyl groups proved not to be as important as they were in the case of P. gallinaceum, while interactions between the Arg(2) guanidyl and Tyr(4) hydroxyl groups were not important in either case. The ?-turn conformation was predominant in all of the active peptides, proving importance in anti-plasmodial activity. This approach provides insight for understanding the importance of each amino acid residue on the native angiotensin II structure and a new direction for the design of potential chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25420772

  10. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bank will store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ... to make blood. There's currently no man-made alternative to human blood. However, researchers have developed medicines ...

  12. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you need a blood transfusion after surgery. Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days ... blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. It is important to note that there is ...

  13. Quality Counts Exhibitor Card 

    E-print Network

    Chilek, Kevin; Gregory, Elizabeth

    2004-01-27

    This exhibitor card identifies young livestock exhibitors as participants in the Quality Counts! program. The card is printed with a leather-style background on heavy card stock. It features the 4-H clover and the FFA logo, ...

  14. Counting Knights and Knaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  15. Steroid-derived phospholipid scramblases induce exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of red blood cells

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bradley D.

    of red blood cells Kristy M. DiVittorio, Timothy N. Lambert and Bradley D. Smith* Department of Chemistry of endogenous phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Some of the compounds. The asymmetric distri- bution, a fundamental feature of normal cell operation, is generated and maintained

  16. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins in erythrocytes treated with lead.

    PubMed Central

    Belloni-Olivi, L; Annadata, M; Goldstein, G W; Bressler, J P

    1996-01-01

    In immature rat microvessels, endothelial cells and glioma cells, exposure to lead results in an increase in the level of protein kinase C in membranes. In this paper we have extended these studies to human erythrocytes and, in addition, studied the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. A significant increase in the phosphorylation of membrane cytoskeletal proteins of molecular mass 120, 80, 52 and 45 kDa was observed in human erythrocytes treated for 60 min with lead acetate at concentrations greater than 100 nM. These same proteins were phosphorylated when erythrocytes were treated for 10 min with 50 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Similarly, protein kinase C activity was elevated and an increase in the amount of protein kinase C-alpha was observed in membranes from erythrocytes exposed to concentrations of lead acetate above 100 nM. No changes, however, in the activities of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein phosphatases I and IIA or casein kinase were observed. Phosphorylation of these membrane proteins stimulated by lead acetate or by PMA was not observed in erythrocytes depleted of protein kinase C by a 72-h treatment with 500 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. Finally, no changes in the levels of calcium or diacylglycerol were observed in erythrocytes stimulated with 100 nM lead acetate. These results indicate that, in erythrocytes, lead acetate stimulates the phosphorylation of membrane cytoskeletal proteins by a mechanism dependent on protein kinase C. Since levels of calcium or diacylglycerols did not increase, it appears that lead may activate the enzyme by a direct interaction. PMID:8615806

  17. [Comparison of photodynamic effect with respect to human and rabbit erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Galebskaia, L V; Solovtsova, I L; Solov'eva, M A; Zammoeva, D B; Kuz'menkov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Parameters of photoinduced lysis are studied for human and rabbit erythrocytes (photosensibilizer--Radachlorin, the light source--Shuttle HeNe lazer, lambda = 633 nm). The higher sensitivity to irradiation is revealed for rabbit erythrocytes. Treatment of erythrocytes with trypsin showed the surface proteins in human cells to produce a protective effect. Trypsynization of rabbit erythrocytes produced the opposite action--the rate of photohemolysis increased. Results of the study indicate the differences in sensitivity to the photoinduced lysis of erythrocytes of different species and participation of erythrocytes proteins in the effect of photohemolysis. PMID:21780641

  18. Determination of the mean cell age of erythrocytes from diabetic subjects with pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Ng, F M; Babacan, E; Dowsing, B

    1986-08-01

    The pyruvate kinase activity of erythrocytes from normal and diabetic subjects was examined in order to establish this enzyme as a valid indicator of mean cell age in the studies of age-dependent erythrocyte functions. This study reveals that the enzyme activity in the erythrocytes was not affected by the condition of diabetes and suggests that it may provide a simple means for the determination of cell age in erythrocyte insulin binding studies. Present data further indicate that the mean cell age of the erythrocytes from diabetic patients was not significantly different from normal although insulin binding to erythrocytes was markedly reduced when compared with that in the normal subjects. PMID:3533076

  19. Enhancement of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity: effects on cellular oxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Scott, M D; Eaton, J W; Kuypers, F A; Chiu, D T; Lubin, B H

    1989-11-15

    To delineate further the role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in red blood cell (RBC) oxidant defense, normal human erythrocytes were osmotically lysed and resealed in the presence of varying concentrations of exogenous SOD. This resulted in a dose-dependent increase in SOD activity in the resealed erythrocytes while maintaining nearly normal RBC hemoglobin concentration (less than 10% decrease from the control value), cell volume, and cellular deformability. Surprisingly, a five- or ninefold increase in SOD activity yielded no additional protection against superoxide-generating drugs (phenazine methosulfate or menadione sodium bisulfite). No significant differences were observed between the control and SOD-loaded RBCs in O2-driven methemoglobin formation or generation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. In contrast, RBCs with elevated SOD activity pretreated with sodium azide (to block catalase activity) or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (to deplete reduced glutathione, GSH) showed significantly enhanced methemoglobin generation in response to superoxide generating drugs. No differential response was noted between the control, control-resealed, and SOD-loaded RBCs to oxidants other than superoxide. Based on our results and other data, we conclude that elevated SOD activity may imbalance cellular oxidant defense, resulting in enhanced oxidation due to the accelerated generation of H2O2, the product of O2- dismutation. This effect is significantly exacerbated under conditions in which H2O2 catabolism is altered. PMID:2553167

  20. IHP entrapment into human erythrocytes: comparison between hypotonic dialysis and DMSO osmotic pulse.

    PubMed

    Mosca, A; Paleari, R; Russo, V; Rosti, E; Nano, R; Boicelli, A; Villa, S; Zanella, A

    1992-01-01

    Three different blood units were treated separately by the hypotonic dialysis (HD) and the dimethylsulphoxide osmotic pulse (DMSO) method, in order to load the erythrocytes with inositol hexaphosphate. A detailed comparison between the two loading techniques was performed by monitoring the red cell distribution patterns on discontinuous Percoll density gradients, the RBC oxygen affinity and the amount of the main intracellular organic phosphates with the 31P-NMR. The results obtained showed that: (1) The HD loading produces a redistribution of the RBC fractions with a concomitant smoothing of the relative differences among distinct fractions (2) only a minor portion of erythrocytes (from 8.5 to 24.9% of total RBCs) are loaded with IHP after the DMSO treatment. All of these cells move to the lightest fraction (d = 1.080 g/ml). (3) Both HD and DMSO IHP-loaded cells show an increase in P50 (basal vs. after loading, means +/- SD: 25.8 +/- 3.0 vs. 52.5 +/- 3.2 mm Hg) correlated to the IHP incorporation (mean intracellular IHP concentration: 4.2 mmol/l RBC). (4) probably the IHP incorporation efficiency could be probably improved at least by increasing the IHP concentration during the treatment. PMID:1295306

  1. Proteases involved in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite: function and potential as chemotherapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Blackman, M J

    2000-07-01

    Malaria places an increasing burden on global public health resources. In the face of growing resistance of the malaria parasite to available antimalarial drugs, there is a need for new drugs and the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. The malaria parasite has a complex life cycle which includes a number of obligate intracellular stages. Clinical malaria results from cyclic asexual replication of the blood-stage parasite in circulating erythrocytes of the human host. Erythrocyte entry and host cell rupture require the activity of parasite proteases, and these enzymes are, therefore, attractive targets for rational approaches to new drug development. Malarial proteases play a role in at least two distinct aspects of host cell invasion; modification of parasite proteins involved in host cell recognition and entry; and restructuring of the host cell itself, during and following invasion, and in order to allow parasite release from the host cell. This review details recent advances in the identification of these proteases, describes current understanding of their activation and functional role, and discusses their potential as targets for protease inhibitor-based drugs. PMID:11475536

  2. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Beaudet, Julie M.; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji; Kamhi, Eyal; Yang, Bo; Clausen, Thomas M; Salanti, Ali; Zhang, Fuming

    2013-01-01

    Placental malaria is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Young women are particular susceptible to contracting this form of malaria during their first or second pregnancy despite previously acquired immunity from past infections. Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing VAR2CSA on the erythrocyte surface. This protein adheres to a low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A found in placental tissue causing great harm to both mother and developing fetus. In rare cases, the localization of infected erythrocytes to the placenta can even result in the vertical transmission of malaria. In an effort to better understand this infection, chondroitin sulfate was isolated from the cotyledon part of the placenta, which should be accessible for parasite adhesion, as well as two non-accessible parts of the placenta to serve as controls. The placental chondroitin sulfate structures and their VAR2CSA binding were characterized. All portions of human placenta contained sufficient amounts of the appropriate low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A to display high-affinity binding to a recombinant truncated VAR2CSA construct, as determined using surface plasmon resonance. The cotyledon is the only placental tissue accessible to parasites in the bloodstream, suggesting it is the primary receptor for parasite infected red blood cells. PMID:24158546

  3. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Beaudet, Julie M; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji; Kamhi, Eyal; Yang, Bo; Clausen, Thomas M; Salanti, Ali; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Placental malaria is a serious problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Young women are particular susceptible to contracting this form of malaria during their first or second pregnancy despite previously acquired immunity from past infections. Placental malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing VAR2CSA on the erythrocyte surface. This protein adheres to a low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A found in placental tissue causing great harm to both mother and developing fetus. In rare cases, the localization of infected erythrocytes to the placenta can even result in the vertical transmission of malaria. In an effort to better understand this infection, chondroitin sulfate was isolated from the cotyledon part of the placenta, which should be accessible for parasite adhesion, as well as two non-accessible parts of the placenta to serve as controls. The placental chondroitin sulfate structures and their VAR2CSA binding were characterized. All portions of human placenta contained sufficient amounts of the appropriate low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A to display high-affinity binding to a recombinant truncated VAR2CSA construct, as determined using surface plasmon resonance. The cotyledon is the only placental tissue accessible to parasites in the bloodstream, suggesting it is the primary receptor for parasite infected red blood cells. PMID:24158546

  4. The monovalent cation "leak" transport in human erythrocytes: an electroneutral exchange process.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, S; Hamann, J; Kummerow, D; Bernhardt, I

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of the "ground permeability" of the human erythrocyte membrane for K+ and Na+ was investigated with respect to a possible involvement of a previously unidentified specific transport pathway, because earlier studies showed that it cannot be explained on the basis of simple electrodiffusion. In particular, we analyzed and described the increase in the (ouabain+bumetanide+EGTA)-insensitive unidirectional K+ and Na+ influxes as well as effluxes (defined as "leak" fluxes) observed in erythrocytes suspended in low-ionic-strength media. Using a carrier-type model and taking into account the influence of the ionic strength on the outer surface potential according to the Gouy-Chapman theory (i.e., the ion concentration near the membrane surface), we are able to describe the altered "leak" fluxes as an electroneutral process. In addition, we can show indirectly that this electroneutral flux is due to an exchange of monovalent cations with protons. This pathway is different from the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger present in the human red blood cell membrane and can be characterized as a K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger. PMID:9251790

  5. Effects of copper supplementation on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.T.; DiSilvestro, R.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are reported to possess lower than normal levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The contribution of copper status to these low values has not been examined. To address this issue, blood samples were obtained from 10 RA patients before and after 28 days of daily oral copper supplementation (2 mg/day). All patients were receiving gold therapy. Each RA subject, before supplementation, displayed lower erythrocyte SOD values than any of 25 age matched controls. The mean value for the RA subjects was about 40% lower than the control mean, whether expressed as units per ml packed cells or per mg hemoglobin. Erythrocyte SOD activity levels were increased in all subjects by the 4 week copper supplementation, with 7 of the patients showing at least a 22% increase. Presupplement SOD activities showed no correlation with serum C-reactive protein contents, an indicator of acute phase response. Serum levels of the copper containing acute phase protein ceruloplasmin, showed variable responses to copper supplementation. The studies described here are currently being extended to include RA subjects not being treated with gold and to include supplemented controls.

  6. Chromatin supraorganization, DNA fragmentation, and cell death in snake erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Maristela; Vidal, Benedicto C; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2005-02-01

    In nucleate erythrocytes of several vertebrate groups, the frequency and intensity of DNA fragmentation associated with programmed cell death vary considerably. Although hemoglobin efficiency may be related to erythrocyte life span, and hemoglobin types and erythrocyte life spans are assumed to vary in reptiles, no data on DNA fragmentation and chromatin organization as related to cell death exist for snakes. In the present study, chromatin supraorganization, DNA fragmentation, and cell death were investigated in four snake species (Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops alternatus, and Bothrops neuwiedii), which differ in their geographical distribution and habitats, by using image analysis of Feulgen hydrolysis kinetics, the TUNEL assay, single-cell gel electrophoresis, and transmission electron microscopy. Relatively few circulating erythrocytes were found to be simultaneously committed to cell death, although there was some variation among the snake species. Conspicuous nuclear and cytoplasmic organelles suggestive of metabolic activity were seen ultrastructurally in most snake erythrocytes. The DNA of the snake erythrocyte chromatin was much more resistant to Feulgen acid hydrolysis (DNA depurination and breakdown) than that of young adult bullfrog erythrocytes, which had a high frequency and intensity of DNA fragmentation. Of the species studied, B. neuwiedii and C. d. terrificus showed the greatest resistance to Feulgen acid hydrolysis and to the DNA fragmentation, revealed by the TUNEL assay. Although B. neuwiedii also showed the lowest frequency of cells with more damaged DNA in the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, C. d. terrificus had the highest frequency of damaged cells, possibly because of the abundance of alkaline-sensitive DNA sites. The results for DNA fragmentation and cell death in erythrocytes of B. jararaca and B. alternatus generally differed from those for C. d. terrificus and B. neuwiedii and may reflect differences in the biology of these species selected under different geographical habitats. The differences in erythrocyte cell biology reported here may be related to hemoglobin variants selected in the mentioned snake species and that would lead the cells to different resistances to unfavorable environmental conditions. PMID:15746963

  7. Effects of alcohol on membrane fluidity of human erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Mori, I; Hiramatsu, M; Toda, N; Koide, Y; Miyagawa, F

    1994-06-01

    Membrane fluidity in human erythrocytes was measured by a spin label method using an electron spin resonance spectrometer in healthy volunteers after ingestion of alcohol (1.5 ml of whisky/kg body weight). Fluidity in the lipid bilayer closer to the hydrophilic face decreased at 30 min and 90 min, and fluidity in the hydrophobic core decreased at 90 min after ingestion of alcohol. In the same experiment, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the serum decreased 30 min after ingestion of alcohol, and the triglyceride level increased and free fatty acid level decreased, and serum superoxide dismutase activity increased 150 min after ingestion. Furthermore, membrane fluidity in human erythrocytes was examined in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome who had not any alcohol for about 26 months. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity of patients with alcohol dependence syndrome was not different from that of healthy controls. However, erythrocyte membrane fluidity of the lipid bilayer closer to the hydrophilic face increased in patients who had concomitant liver cirrhosis compared with those who did not. These results suggest that alcohol affects temporal change of membrane fluidity in human erythrocytes. PMID:7942069

  8. Interaction of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin with Erythrocyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklai, N.; Sharma, V. S.; Ranney, H. M.

    1981-01-01

    The interactions of hemoglobin S with the erythrocyte membrane were compared with the corresponding interactions of hemoglobin A by measuring in both steady-state and kinetic experiments the quenching of the fluorescence of a probe embedded in erythrocyte membranes. Whereas hemoglobin A could be dissociated from membranes, a fraction of hemoglobin S was irreversibly bound even in the oxy state. Deoxyhemoglobin S interacted much more strongly with erythrocyte membranes than did deoxyhemoglobin A: a portion of the deoxyhemoglobin S was irreversibly bound, and the reversibly bound fraction of hemoglobin S dissociated more slowly than did deoxyhemoglobin A. It is suggested that the binding of deoxyhemoglobin S is a two-step reaction in which the first step involves electrostatic interaction with band III erythrocyte membrane protein and the second step involves a hydrophobic interaction with membrane lipids. The latter reaction reflects the greater hydrophobicity of hemoglobin S. The unique interaction of hemoglobin S with erythrocyte membranes may be important in the formation of irreversibly sickled cells.

  9. Atomic force microscopy of asymmetric membranes from turtle erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongmei; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Ding, Bohua; Hao, Xian; Jiang, Junguang; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2014-08-01

    The cell membrane provides critical cellular functions that rely on its elaborate structure and organization. The structure of turtle membranes is an important part of an ongoing study of erythrocyte membranes. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy and single-molecule force spectroscopy, we characterized the turtle erythrocyte membrane structure with molecular resolution in a quasi-native state. High-resolution images both leaflets of turtle erythrocyte membranes revealed a smooth outer membrane leaflet and a protein covered inner membrane leaflet. This asymmetry was verified by single-molecule force spectroscopy, which detects numerous exposed amino groups of membrane proteins in the inner membrane leaflet but much fewer in the outer leaflet. The asymmetric membrane structure of turtle erythrocytes is consistent with the semi-mosaic model of human, chicken and fish erythrocyte membrane structure, making the semi-mosaic model more widely applicable. From the perspective of biological evolution, this result may support the universality of the semi-mosaic model. PMID:25134535

  10. Investigation of erythrocyte membrane damage under the action of ? radiation in a wide dose range using electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. P.; Krasavin, E. A.; Boreyko, A. V.; Chernyaev, A. P.; Alekseeva, P. Yu.; Bliznyuk, U. A.

    2008-03-01

    Human erythrocyte membrane damage under the impact of ? radiation on blood suspension is studied in a wide dose range (2-1000 Gy, irradiation dose rate 2.75 Gy/min). It is shown that the irradiation in the absorbed dose range from 600 Gy and higher results in hemolysis of erythrocytes immediately (or within several hours) after irradiation, and the value of the hemolysis rate constant increases with increasing absorbed dose. For finding hidden membrane damage occurring several hours after irradiation with smaller doses, the suspension was affected by a high voltage pulsed electric field (PEF). It is shown that, for an absorbed dose range from 2 to ˜350 Gy, no noticeable increase in the erythrocyte hemolysis rate was observed after the action of PEF on the suspension, as compared to the nonirradiated suspension. This testifies that, in this dose range, the degree of membrane damage is small and practically independent of absorbed dose value. For doses from 400 to ˜550 Gy, a noticeable increase in the hemolysis rate after the action of PEF growing with increasing absorbed dose was observed.

  11. Dynamics of viral hemorrhagic septicemia, viral erythrocytic necrosis and ichthyophoniasis in confined juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Hart, A.; Gregg, J.; Elder, N.; Winton, J.

    2006-01-01

    Capture of wild, juvenile herring Clupea pallasii from Puget Sound (Washington, USA) and confinement in laboratory tanks resulted in outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) and ichthyophoniasis; however, the timing and progression of the 3 diseases differed. The VHS epidemic occurred first, characterized by an initially low infection prevalence that increased quickly with confinement time, peaking at 93 to 98% after confinement for 6 d, then decreasing to negligible levels after 20 d. The VHS outbreak was followed by a VEN epidemic that, within 12 d of confinement, progressed from undetectable levels to 100% infection prevalence with >90% of erythrocytes demonstrating inclusions. The VEN epidemic persisted for 54 d, after which the study was terminated, and was characterized by severe blood dyscrasias including reduction of mean hematocrit from 42 to 6% and replacement of mature erythrocytes with circulating erythroblasts and ghost cells. All fish with ichthyophoniasis at capture died within the first 3 wk of confinement, probably as a result of the multiple stressors associated with capture, transport, confinement, and progression of concomitant viral diseases. The results illustrate the differences in disease ecology and possible synergistic effects of pathogens affecting marine fish and highlight the difficulty in ascribing a single causation to outbreaks of disease among populations of wild fishes. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  12. Specific antibody responses against membrane proteins of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum of individuals briefly exposed to malaria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum infections could lead to severe malaria, principally in non-immune individuals as children and travellers from countries exempted of malaria. Severe malaria is often associated with the sequestration of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in deep micro-vascular beds via interactions between host endothelial receptors and parasite ligands expressed on the surface of the infected erythrocyte. Although, serological responses from individuals living in endemic areas against proteins expressed at surface of the infected erythrocyte have been largely studied, seldom data are available about the specific targets of antibody response from travellers. Methods In order to characterize antigens recognized by traveller sera, a comparison of IgG immune response against membrane protein extracts from uninfected and P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC), using immunoblots, was performed between non exposed individuals (n = 31) and briefly exposed individuals (BEI) (n = 38) to malaria transmission. Results Immune profile analysis indicated that eight protein bands from iRBC were significantly detected more frequently in the BEI group. Some of these antigenic proteins were identified by an original immuno-proteomic approach. Conclusion Collectively, these data may be useful to characterize the singular serological immune response against a primary malaria infection in individuals briefly exposed to transmission. PMID:20932351

  13. In vivo cross-match by chromium-51 urinary excretion from labeled erythrocytes: A case of anti-Gerbich

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, T.; Tauxe, W.N.; Ramsey, G. )

    1990-12-01

    We studied a patient with an alloantibody to the high-frequency red blood cell (RBC) antigen Gerbich. A nationwide search for rare Gerbich-negative blood (less than 1:45,000 donors) located only seven units, and our supply was quickly exhausted. By using an in vivo cross-matching method, we demonstrated that this anti-Gerbich did not cause RBC destruction. Regular Gerbich-positive transfusions could then proceed without hemolysis. This cross-match test was based on the determination of the urinary excretion rates of injected radioactive chromium-labeled donor erythrocytes by which it was possible to determine compatibility only 24 hr after the test was begun. The procedure provides an easy and accurate means for in vivo cross-matching of conventionally incompatible donor blood.

  14. Red blood cell transfusion strategies and Maximum surgical blood ordering schedule.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shivakumar S; Shah, Jignesh

    2014-09-01

    Blood transfusion is one of the practices that is in vogue because it expands blood volume and purportedly improves the oxygen carrying capacity. Despite this supposed physiological benefit, paradoxically, both anaemia and transfusion are independently associated with organ injury and increased morbidity. Historically, transfusion was used to maintain blood haemoglobin concentration above 10 g/dL and a haematocrit above 30%. There is now a greater emphasis on interventions to reduce the use of transfusion as it is a scarce and expensive resource with many serious adverse effects. Institutional maximum surgical blood ordering schedule algorithm developed with data analysis and consensus of surgeons, anaesthesiologists and blood banks can reduce the overuse of blood. A PubMed search was performed with search words/combination of words 'erythrocyte transfusion, adverse effects, economics, mortality, therapy, therapeutic use and utilisation'. Search yielded a total of 1541 articles that were screened for clinical relevance for the purpose of this review. PMID:25535420

  15. Repeatability and standardization in cattle blood typing.

    PubMed

    KIDDY, C A; HOOVEN, N W

    1961-09-01

    Thirteen laboratories engaged in cattle blood typing have participated in tests to compare their blood-typing reagents. Over 75,000 individual tests of cattle erythrocytes were made. When the laboratories tested duplicate samples without knowing they were duplicates, the results were in agreement 99 percent of the time. Tests on samples from the same 199 animals with 56 different reagents from two or more of the laboratories showed agreement 89 percent of the time. The agreement was unexpectedly good, since the primary purpose of the tests was to allow comparison of independently developed reagents and since the sources of error were numerous. PMID:13755822

  16. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  17. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  18. Characterization of the deoxyhemoglobin binding site on human erythrocyte band 3: implications for O2 regulation of erythrocyte properties

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Haiyan; Breite, Andrew; Ciraolo, Peter; Franco, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Band 3, the major protein of the human erythrocyte membrane, associates with multiple metabolic, ion transport, and structural proteins. Functional studies demonstrate that the oxygenation state of the erythrocyte regulates cellular properties performed by these and/or related proteins. Because deoxyhemoglobin, but not oxyhemoglobin, binds band 3 reversibly with high affinity, these observations raise the hypothesis that hemoglobin might regulate erythrocyte properties through its reversible, oxygenation-dependent association with band 3. To explore this hypothesis, we have characterized the binding site of deoxyHb on human erythrocyte band 3. We report that (1) deoxyHb binds to residues 12-23 of band 3; (2) mutation of residues on either side of this sequence greatly enhances affinity of deoxyHb for band 3, suggesting that evolution of a higher affinity interaction would have been possible had it been beneficial for survival; (3) Hb does not bind to 2 other sequences in band 3 despite their high sequence homology to residues 12-23, and (4) the Hb binding site on band 3 lies proximal to binding sites for glycolytic enzymes, band 4.1 and ankyrin, suggesting possible mechanisms through which multifarious erythrocyte properties might be regulated by the oxygenation state of the cell. PMID:17942752

  19. Study of erythrocytes in a hereditary hemolytic syndrome (HHS): comparison with erythrocytes in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Godin, D V; Gray, G R; Frohlich, J

    1980-02-01

    Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities in 3 members of a family with a hereditary haemolytic syndrome (HHS) were compared to those previously described in a family with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency. Despite similarities including an increase in membrane phosphatidylcholine, a decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine, stomatocytosis, and a marked decrease in erythrocyte osmotic fragility a number of differences were observed. These included membrane cholesterol content (increased in homozygotes with LCAT deficiency), changes in sodium and potassium content and Na+,k+-ATPase activity (the latter being increased in HHS), changes in acetylcholinesterase and sulfhydryl group latency (present in LCAT deficiency, but not in HHS) and 2,3 DPG content (decreased in HHS, normal in LCAT deficiency. Full compensation of the erythrocyte defect occurred in HHS but the homozygotes for LCAT deficiency were slightly anaemic. It is concluded that, although similar abnormalities in phospholipid composition, osmotic fragility, and erythrocyte morphology exist in these two disorders, the molecular nature of the erythrocyte membrane structural and functional changes in HHS and LCAT deficiency is clearly different. PMID:6246569

  20. Specific binding of beta-endorphin to normal human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chenet, B.; Hollis, V. Jr.; Kang, Y.; Simpkins, C.

    1986-03-05

    Beta-endorphin (BE) exhibits peripheral functions which may not be mediated by interactions with receptors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated binding of BE to both opioid and non-opioid receptors on lymphocytes and monocytes. Abood has reported specific binding of /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine in erythrocytes. Using 5 x 10/sup -11/M /sup 125/I-beta-endorphin and 10/sup -5/M unlabeled BE, they have detected 50% specific binding to human erythrocytes. This finding is supported by results from immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit anti-BE antibody and biotinylated secondary antibody with avidin-biotin complexes horseradish peroxidase. Binding is clearly observed and is confined to only one side of the cells. Conclusions: (1) BE binding to human erythrocytes was demonstrated by radioreceptor assay and immunoelectron microscopy, and (2) BE binding sites exist on only one side of the cells.

  1. Simulation of dielectric spectra of erythrocytes with various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji

    2009-07-01

    Dielectric spectra of erythrocyte suspensions were numerically simulated over a frequency range from 1 kHz to 100 MHz to study the effects of erythrocyte shape on the dielectric spectra. First, a biconcave-discoid model for normal erythrocytes or discocytes was compared with an equivalent oblate spheroid model. The two models showed similar dielectric spectra to each other, suggesting that the oblate spheroid model can be approximately used for discocytes. Second, dielectric spectra were simulated for discocytes deformed by osmotic cell swelling. The deformation resulted in the increase in relaxation intensity and the sharpening of spectrum shape. Finally, dielectric spectra were simulated for echinocytes, stomatocytes and sickle cells that are induced by chemical agents and diseases. The dielectric spectra of echinocytes and stomatocytes were similar to each other, being distinguishable from that of discocytes and quite different from that of sickle cells.

  2. Frequency of enzyme deficiency variants in erythrocytes of newborn infants

    SciTech Connect

    Mohrenweiser, H.W.

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of enzyme deficiency variants, defined as alleles whose products are either absent or almost devoid of normal activity in erythrocytes, was determined for nine erythrocyte enzymes in some 675 newborn infants and in approximately 200 adults. Examples of this type of genetic abnormality, which in the homozygous condition are often associated with significant health consequences, were detected for seven of the nine enzymes studied. Fifteen inherited enzyme deficiency variants in 1809 determinations from adults were identified. Seven of the deficiency variants involved triosephosphate isomerase, a frequency of 0.01 in the newborn population. The average frequency of 2.4/1000 is 2 to 3 times the frequency observed for rare electrophoretic variants of erythrocyte enzymes in this same population.

  3. Dark effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gawron, A; Pawlikowska, B

    1993-12-01

    Furanocoumarin 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) (1-100 micrograms mL-1) in the dark showed a protective affect against hypotonic haemolysis of the erythrocyte membrane. However, the effect against heat-induced haemolysis was dependent on the concentration of 8-MOP; lower concentrations of 8-MOP showed an inhibiting effect, whereas higher concentrations caused acceleration of haemolysis. 8-MOP was not able to induce haemolysis in isotonic solution at 20 or 37 degrees C. Reaction of erythrocytes with 8-MOP in the dark resulted in a shrinkage of the cells and alterations of their shapes. We conclude that modification of erythrocyte membrane by 8-MOP proceeds via reaction with membrane lipids and proteins. This indicates that the effect on the cell membrane plays an important role in the mechanism of the action of 8-MOP on the cells. PMID:7908980

  4. Effects of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on Cell Membrane And Secondary Protein Structure in Rat Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Hadeethi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on biological cells have been reported in several literatures. Most of them were mainly concerned with doses greater than 0.01 Gy and were also concerned with gamma rays. On the other hand, the studies on very low dose fast neutrons (VLDFN) are rare. In this study, we have investigated the effects of VLDFN on cell membrane and protein secondary structure of rat erythrocytes. Twelve female Wistar rats were irradiated with neutrons of total dose 0.009 Gy (241Am-Be, 0.2 mGy/h) and twelve others were used as control. Blood samples were taken at the 0, 4th, 8th, and 12th days postirradiation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of rat erythrocytes were recorded. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analysis FTIR spectra. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify group spectra. The second derivative and curve fitting of FTIR spectra revealed that the most significant alterations in the cell membrane and protein secondary structure upon neutron irradiation were detected after 4 days postirradiation. The increase in membrane polarity, phospholipids chain length, packing, and unsaturation were noticed from the corresponding measured FTIR area ratios. This may be due to the membrane lipid peroxidation. The observed band shift in the CH2 stretching bands toward the lower frequencies may be associated with the decrease in membrane fluidity. The curve fitting of the amide I revealed an increase in the percentage area of ?-helix opposing a decrease in the ?-structure protein secondary structure, which may be attributed to protein denaturation. The results provide detailed insights into the VLDFN effects on erythrocytes. VLDFN can cause an oxidative stress to the irradiated erythrocytes, which appears clearly after 4 days postirradiation. PMID:26436416

  5. Export of virulence proteins by malaria-infected erythrocytes involves remodeling of host actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Cyrklaff, Marek; Mikkonen, Antti; Lemgruber, Leandro; Kuelzer, Simone; Sanchez, Cecilia P.; Thompson, Jennifer; Hanssen, Eric; O’Neill, Matthew; Langer, Christine; Lanzer, Michael; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Maier, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Following invasion of human red blood cells (RBCs) by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, a remarkable process of remodeling occurs in the host cell mediated by trafficking of several hundred effector proteins to the RBC compartment. The exported virulence protein, P falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is responsible for cytoadherence of infected cells to host endothelial receptors. Maurer clefts are organelles essential for protein trafficking, sorting, and assembly of protein complexes. Here we demonstrate that disruption of PfEMP1 trafficking protein 1 (PfPTP1) function leads to severe alterations in the architecture of Maurer's clefts. Furthermore, 2 major surface antigen families, PfEMP1 and STEVOR, are no longer displayed on the host cell surface leading to ablation of cytoadherence to host receptors. PfPTP1 functions in a large complex of proteins and is required for linking of Maurer's clefts to the host actin cytoskeleton. PMID:25139348

  6. The challenges of analysing blood stains with hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuula, J.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Rinta, H.; Pölönen, I.

    2014-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a potential noninvasive technology for detecting, separating and identifying various substances. In the forensic and military medicine and other CBRNE related use it could be a potential method for analyzing blood and for scanning other human based fluids. For example, it would be valuable to easily detect whether some traces of blood are from one or more persons or if there are some irrelevant substances or anomalies in the blood. This article represents an experiment of separating four persons' blood stains on a white cotton fabric with a SWIR hyperspectral camera and FT-NIR spectrometer. Each tested sample includes standardized 75 _l of 100 % blood. The results suggest that on the basis of the amount of erythrocytes in the blood, different people's blood might be separable by hyperspectral analysis. And, referring to the indication given by erythrocytes, there might be a possibility to find some other traces in the blood as well. However, these assumptions need to be verified with wider tests, as the number of samples in the study was small. According to the study there also seems to be several biological, chemical and physical factors which affect alone and together on the hyperspectral analyzing results of blood on fabric textures, and these factors need to be considered before making any further conclusions on the analysis of blood on various materials.

  7. Modulation of suicidal erythrocyte cation channels by an AMPA antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Föller, Michael; Mahmud, Hasan; Gu, Shuchen; Kucherenko, Yuliya; Gehring, Eva-Maria; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Floride, Elisa; Sprengel, Rolf; Lang, Florian

    2009-01-01

    In neurons alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are heteromeric cation channels composed of different sub-units, including GluA1-GluA4. When expressed without GluA2, AMPA receptors function as Ca2+-permeable cation channels. In erythrocytes, activation of Ca2+-permeable cation channels triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Activators of the channels and thus eryptosis include removal of extracellular Cl? (replaced by gluconate) and energy depletion (removal of glucose). The present study explored whether GluA1 is expressed in human erythrocytes and whether pharmacological AMPA receptor inhibition modifies Ca2+ entry and suicidal death of human erythrocytes. GluA1 protein abundance was determined by confocal microscopy, phosphatidylserine exposure was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration from Fluo3 fluorescence and channel activity by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. As a result, GluA1 is indeed expressed in the erythrocyte cell membrane. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide) inhibited the cation channels following Cl? removal and the eryptosis following Cl? removal or energy depletion. The present study reveals a novel action of AMPA receptor antagonists and raises the possibility that GluA1 or a pharmacologically related protein participates in the regulation of Ca2+ entry into and suicidal death of human erythrocytes. PMID:19320779

  8. Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

    2013-08-01

    A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

  9. Calpain-1 knockout reveals broad effects on erythrocyte deformability and physiology

    PubMed Central

    Wieschhaus, Adam; Khan, Anwar; Zaidi, Asma; Rogalin, Henry; Hanada, Toshihiko; Liu, Fei; De Franceschi, Lucia; Brugnara, Carlo; Rivera, Alicia; Chishti, Athar H.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibitors of cysteine proteases have provided useful insights into the regulation of calpain activity in erythrocytes. However, the precise biological function of calpain activity in erythrocytes remains poorly understood. Erythrocytes express calpain-1, an isoform regulated by calpastatin, the endogenous inhibitor of calpains. In the present study, we investigated the function of calpain-1 in mature erythrocytes using our calpain-1-null [KO (knockout)] mouse model. The calpain-1 gene deletion results in improved erythrocyte deformability without any measurable effect on erythrocyte lifespan in vivo. The calcium-induced sphero-echinocyte shape transition is compromised in the KO erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membrane proteins ankyrin, band 3, protein 4.1R, adducin and dematin are degraded in the calcium-loaded normal erythrocytes but not in the KO erythrocytes. In contrast, the integrity of spectrin and its state of phosphorylation are not affected in the calcium-loaded erythrocytes of either genotype. To assess the functional consequences of attenuated cytoskeletal remodelling in the KO erythrocytes, the activity of major membrane transporters was measured. The activity of the K+–Cl? co-transporter and the Gardos channel was significantly reduced in the KO erythrocytes. Similarly, the basal activity of the calcium pump was reduced in the absence of calmodulin in the KO erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the calmodulin-stimulated calcium pump activity was significantly elevated in the KO erythrocytes, implying a wider range of pump regulation by calcium and calmodulin. Taken together, and with the atomic force microscopy of the skeletal network, the results of the present study provide the first evidence for the physiological function of calpain-1 in erythrocytes with therapeutic implications for calcium imbalance pathologies such as sickle cell disease. PMID:22870887

  10. Study of the Structure, Oxygen-Transporting Functions, and Ionic Composition of Erythrocytes at Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Revin, Viktor V.; Gromova, Natalia V.; Revina, Elvira S.; Mel'nikova, Natalya A.; Balykova, Larisa A.; Solomadin, Ilia N.; Tychkov, Alexander Yu.; Revina, Nadezhda V.; Gromova, Oksana Yu.; Anashkina, Irina V.; Yakushkin, Viktor A.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper explores the role of erythrocytes in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. The state of erythrocytes, their ionic composition and structure, and properties of erythrocytes hemoglobin were studied by using laser interference microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and capillary electrophoresis. In patients suffering from vascular disorders we identified statistically significant changes in the shape of erythrocytes, their ionic composition, and redistribution of hemoglobin throughout cells. PMID:26601112

  11. Demonstration of specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kitabchi, A.E.; Wimalasena, J.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-RRR-alpha-tocopherol (/sup 3/H-d alpha T) in membranes of rat adrenal cells. As tocopherol deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility of red blood cells to hemolysis, we investigated tocopherol binding sites in human RBCs. Erythrocytes were found to have specific binding sites for /sup 3/H-d alpha T that exhibited saturability and time and cell-concentration dependence as well as reversibility of binding. Kinetic studies of binding demonstrated two binding sites--one with high affinity (Ka of 2.6 x 10(7) M-1), low capacity (7,600 sites per cell) and the other with low affinity (1.2 x 10(6) M-1), high capacity (150,000 sites per cell). In order to localize the binding sites further, RBCs were fractionated and greater than 90% of the tocopherol binding was located in the membranes. Similar to the findings in intact RBCs, the membranes exhibited two binding sites with a respective Ka of 3.3 x 10(7) M-1 and 1.5 x 10(6) M-1. Specificity data for binding demonstrated 10% binding for RRR-gamma-tocopherol, but not other tocopherol analog exhibited competition for /sup 3/H-d alpha T binding sites. Instability data suggested a protein nature for these binding sites. Preliminary studies on Triton X-100 solubilized fractions resolved the binding sites to a major component with an Mr of 65,000 and a minor component with an Mr of 125,000. We conclude that human erythrocyte membranes contain specific binding sites for RRR-alpha-tocopherol. These sites may be of physiologic significance in the function of tocopherol on the red blood cell membrane.

  12. Serine repeat antigen peptides which bind specifically to red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Puentes, A; Garcia, J; Vera, R; Lopez, Q R; Urquiza, M; Vanegas, M; Salazar, L M; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-08-01

    It has been reported that serine repeat antigen (SERA) binds directly to human erythrocyte membranes, inside-out vesicles and intact mouse erythrocytes. Similarly, mAbs specific against SERA are effective in blocking red blood cell (RBC) invasion by P. falciparum merozoites. Furthermore, the N-terminal recombinant SERA fragment inhibits the merozoite invasion of erythrocyte. In this study of 49 non-overlapping 20-residue-long peptides encompassing the whole SERA protein FCR3 strain, seven peptides having high RBC binding activity were found. Six of these peptides (three from the SERA N-terminal domain) are located in conserved regions and show affinity constants between 150 and 1100 nM, Hill coefficients between 1.5 and 3.0 and 30000-120000 binding sites per cell. Some of these peptides inhibited in vitro merozoite invasion of erythrocyte and intra-erythrocytic development. Residues which are critical in the binding to erythrocytes (in bold face), i.e. 6725 (YLKETNNAISFESNSGSLEKK), 6733 (YALGSDIPEKCDTLASNCFLS), 6737 (YDNILVKMFKTNENNDKSELI), 6746 (DQGNCDTSWIFASKYHLETI), 6754 (YKKVQNLCGDDTADHAVNIVG) and 6762 (NEVSERVHVYHILKHIKDGK), were determined by means of competition assays with high-binding peptide glycine analogues. The identification of peptides which bind to erythrocyte membrane is important in understanding the process of RBC invasion by P. falciparum merozoites. PMID:10882900

  13. Glycosylation of Erythrocyte Spectrin and Its Modification in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Sajal; Dutta, Devawati; Ghoshal, Angana; Mukhopadhyay, Sumi; Saha, Bibhuti; Sundar, Shyam; Jarmalavicius, Saulius; Forgber, Michael; Mandal, Chhabinath; Walden, Peter; Mandal, Chitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a lectin, Achatinin-H, having preferential specificity for glycoproteins with terminal 9-O-acetyl sialic acid derivatives linked in ?2-6 linkages to subterminal N-acetylgalactosamine, eight distinct disease-associated 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins was purified from erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniaisis (VL) patients (RBCVL). Analyses of tryptic fragments by mass spectrometry led to the identification of two high-molecular weight 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins as human erythrocytic ?- and ?-spectrin. Total spectrin purified from erythrocytes of VL patients (spectrinVL) was reactive with Achatinin-H. Interestingly, along with two high molecular weight bands corresponding to ?- and ?-spectrin another low molecular weight 60 kDa band was observed. Total spectrin was also purified from normal human erythrocytes (spectrinN) and insignificant binding with Achatinin-H was demonstrated. Additionally, this 60 kDa fragment was totally absent in spectrinN. Although the presence of both N- and O-glycosylations was found both in spectrinN and spectrinVL, enhanced sialylation was predominantly induced in spectrinVL. Sialic acids accounted for approximately 1.25 kDa mass of the 60 kDa polypeptide. The demonstration of a few identified sialylated tryptic fragments of ?- and ?-spectrinVL confirmed the presence of terminal sialic acids. Molecular modelling studies of spectrin suggest that a sugar moiety can fit into the potential glycosylation sites. Interestingly, highly sialylated spectrinVL showed decreased binding with spectrin-depleted inside-out membrane vesicles of normal erythrocytes compared to spectrinN suggesting functional abnormality. Taken together this is the first report of glycosylated eythrocytic spectrin in normal erythrocytes and its enhanced sialylation in RBCVL. The enhanced sialylation of this cytoskeleton protein is possibly related to the fragmentation of spectrinVL as evidenced by the presence of an additional 60 kDa fragment, absent in spectrinN which possibly affects the biology of RBCVL linked to both severe distortion of erythrocyte development and impairment of erythrocyte membrane integrity and may provide an explanation for their sensitivity to hemolysis and anemia in VL patients. PMID:22164239

  14. Erythrocyte-derived optical nano-vesicles as theranostic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Jenny T.; Nunez, Vicente; Bahmani, Baharak; Guerrero, Yadir; Tang, Jack; Vullev, Valentine I.; Anvari, Bahman

    2015-07-01

    We have engineered nano-vesicles, derived from erythrocytes, which can be doped with various near infrared (NIR) organic chromophores, including the FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these vesicles as NIR erythrocyte-mimicking transducers (NETS) since in response to NIR photo-excitation they can generate heat or emit fluorescent light. Using biochemical methods based on reduction amination, we have functionalized the surface of NET with antibodies to target specific biomolecules. We present results that demonstrate the effectiveness of NETs in targeted imaging of cancer cells that over-express the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2).

  15. Blood Cell Profiles of the Tadpoles of the Dubois's Tree Frog, Polypedates teraiensis Dubois, 1986 (Anura: Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Das, Madhusmita; Mahapatra, Pravati Kumari

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a sequential study of the leukocyte profiles and the changes in morphometry and morphology of erythrocytes in the tadpoles of Polypedates teraiensis during their development and metamorphosis, that is, transfer from an aquatic mode to a terrestrial mode of life. Blood smears of 21 different stages (Gosner stage 26 to 46) of tadpoles were investigated. Population of erythrocytes was heterogeneous in population represented by various forms (oval, elliptical or rounded cells, comma shaped, teardrop shaped, schistocytes, senile erythrocytes, crenulated RBCs). Correlation between various morphometric values of erythrocytes was determined with different developing stages of tadpoles. Amongst the leucocytes, the lymphocytes were the most abundant cells followed by neutrophils. Neutrophils and monocytes showed varied morphologic forms. The percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils showed a negative whereas percentage of eosinophil, basophil, and monocytes showed a positive correlation with the developmental stages of tadpoles. Blood platelets were also observed, which were rounded in shape and found in aggregates. PMID:22649312

  16. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  19. Rapid Transbilayer Movement of Ceramides in Phospholipid Vesicles and in Human Erythrocytes*

    E-print Network

    in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and in human erythrocytes. Incorporation of a very small percentageRapid Transbilayer Movement of Ceramides in Phospholipid Vesicles and in Human Erythrocytes unilamellar ves- icles. Shape change experiments were also carried out with human erythrocytes to determine

  20. Counting digital filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Several embodiments of a counting digital filter of the non-recursive type are disclosed. In each embodiment two registers, at least one of which is a shift register, are included. The shift register received j sub x-bit data input words bit by bit. The kth data word is represented by the integer.

  1. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  2. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  3. Imaging of blood antigen distribution on blood cells by thermal lens microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Sekiguchi, Kazuya; Nagao, Fumiko; Mukaida, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2000-05-01

    Blood group antigens on a cell were measured by a new microscopic method, i.e. thermal lens microscopy which involves spectrometry using a laser-induced thermal-lens effect. The blood group antigen was immunologically stained using antibody labeled with colloidal gold. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) on lymphocytes and mononuclear leukocytes were observed by the thermal lens microscope, and Lewis blood group antigens on erythrocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were also observed. The antigen distribution on each cell-surface was imaged using this technique. In spite of convex surface of living cells, colloidal gold was correctly quantified by adjusting the deviation of the focal point of the probe laser by the phase of the signal. In the measurement of leukocyte antigens, antigens of HLA-A, -B, -C loci on the lymphocytes were identified and quantitated by using a single cell. The image of HLA-A, -B, -C antigen distribution on a mononuclear leukocyte was obtained. In the measurement of erythrocyte antigens, a small quantity of Lewis antigens was detected on the cord erythrocytes. Localized small quantities of membrane antigens are better quantitated without extraction or cytolysis. Our thermal lens microscope is a powerful and highly sensitive analytical tool for detecting and quantitating localized antigens in single cells and/or cell-surface-associated molecules.

  4. Maternal smoking and cord blood immunity function.

    PubMed Central

    Paganelli, R; Ramadas, D; Layward, L; Harvey, B A; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Thymidine uptake in PHA-stimulated culture of cord blood cells from smoking mothers is greater than that from non-smoking mothers. There was no such difference when separated lymphocytes were studied; this suggests that smoking suppresses a suppressor cell. No difference was detected in haemoglobin, immunoglobulins, transferrin, cell counts, E-rosette counts and leucocyte mobility. PMID:477029

  5. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin B12 and Folate ; Haptoglobin ; G6PD ; Iron Tests ; Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy At ... include: Iron studies Vitamin B12 and Folate Haptoglobin G6PD Erythropoietin Sometimes a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy ...

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  7. Estimates of plasma, packed cell and total blood volume in tissues of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Total blood volume and relative blood volumes in selected tissues were determined in non-anesthetized, confined rainbow trout by using super(51)Cr-labelled trout erythrocytes as a vascular space marker. Mean total blood volume was estimated to be 4.09 plus or minus 0.55 ml/100 g, or about 75% of that estimated with the commonly used plasma space marker Evans blue dye. Relative tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly perfused tissues such as kidney, gills, brain and liver and least in mosaic muscle. Estimates of tissue vascular spaces, made using radiolabelled erythrocytes, were only 25-50% of those based on plasma space markers. The consistently smaller vascular volumes obtained with labelled erythrocytes could be explained by assuming that commonly used plasma space markers diffuse from the vascular compartment.

  8. Effects of the hydrodynamic environment and shear protectants on survival of erythrocytes in suspension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Chisti, Y; Moo-Young, M

    1995-11-21

    Survival of media-suspended porcine erythrocytes exposed to various hydrodynamic environments was investigated with and without such shear protectant additives as bovine serum albumin, dextran and the non-ionic surfactant Pluronic F68. Erythrocytes provided a model cell population with cells of a uniform size, metabolic state and shear tolerance. Because the cells were non-growing, any shear adaptation effects were avoided. Cell lysis was followed by microscopic counts or release of haemoglobin. The cells were susceptible to agitation damage in unaerated shake flasks agitated at 100 rpm or greater. Relative to additives-free operation, the presence of 0.1% (w/v) dextran or albumin prolonged cell survival, but Pluronic F68 actually enhanced cell lysis in flasks agitated at 100 rpm. The protective effect of the additives depended on the hydrodynamic conditions. The protective effect of albumin was demonstrated also in aerated conditions in a split-cylinder airlift bioreactor (aspect ratio of 8.8; riser-to-downcomer cross-sectional area ratio of 1.0; specific power input of 0.34 W m-3). Comparison of the cell lysis characteristics in the airlift device and the best case performance of the shake flask showed longer survival in the flask (100 rpm); however, the length of survival in the reactor (approx. 70 h) was sufficient for practical purposes. In all cases, the cell lysis pattern conformed initially to zero-order dependence in cell concentration, becoming first-order after varying degrees of exposure to hydrodynamic forces. Fatigue failure of cells was inferred. PMID:8573320

  9. Dynamics of interaction between complement-fixing antibody/dsDNA immune complexes and erythrocytes. In vitro studies and potential general applications to clinical immune complex testing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Hooper, M.; Burge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble antibody//sub 3/H-double-stranded PM2 DNA (dsDNA) immune complexes were briefly opsonized with complement and then allowed to bind to human erythrocytes (via complement receptors). The cells were washed and subsequently a volume of autologous blood in a variety of media was added, and the release of the bound immune complexes from the erythrocytes was studied as a function of temperature and time. After 1-2 h, the majority of the bound immune complexes were not released into the serum during blood clotting at either 37 degrees C or room temperature, but there was a considerably greater release of the immune complexes into the plasma of blood that was anticoagulated with EDTA. Similar results were obtained using various conditions of opsonization and also using complexes that contained lower molecular weight dsDNA. Thus, the kinetics of release of these antibody/dsDNA immune complexes differed substantially from the kinetics of release of antibody/bovine serum albumin complexes that was reported by others. Studies using the solution phase C1q immune complex binding assay confirmed that in approximately half of the SLE samples that were positive for immune complexes, there was a significantly higher level of detectable immune complexes in plasma vs. serum. Freshly drawn erythrocytes from some SLE patients exhibiting this plasma/serum discrepancy had IgG antigen on their surface that was released by incubation in EDTA plasma. Thus, the higher levels of immune complexes observed in EDTA plasma vs. serum using the C1q assay may often reflect the existence of immune complexes circulating in vivo bound to erythrocytes.

  10. [The effect of hemosorption on the intensity of spontaneous chemiluminescence of the blood].

    PubMed

    Barabo?, V A; Lisetski?, V A; Orel, V E; Skliar, V N; Starosel'ski?, I V; Fokin, A V; Chernichenko, V A

    1989-01-01

    1 day after intensive irradiation of cancer patients chemiluminescent (CL) signal of blood sera is considerably enhanced. Hemoperfusion (HP) decreases it by 62%, with the following slight increase in CL intensity. 42-47% increase in electrokinetic erythrocyte potential registered in patients after HP, as well as a certain decrease in blood viscosity may be considered as an indirect explanation of the mechanism of triboluminescence of human blood during HP. PMID:2629541

  11. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  12. Triple-label beta liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, T R; Moffett, T C; Revkin, J H; Ploger, J D; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    1992-07-01

    The detection of radioactive compounds by liquid scintillation has revolutionized modern biology, yet few investigators make full use of the power of this technique. Even though multiple isotope counting is considerably more difficult than single isotope counting, many experimental designs would benefit from using more than one isotope. The development of accurate isotope counting techniques enabling the simultaneous use of three beta-emitting tracers has facilitated studies in our laboratory using the multiple tracer indicator dilution technique for assessing rates of transmembrane transport and cellular metabolism. The details of sample preparation, and of stabilizing the liquid scintillation spectra of the tracers, are critical to obtaining good accuracy. Reproducibility is enhanced by obtaining detailed efficiency/quench curves for each particular set of tracers and solvent media. The numerical methods for multiple-isotope quantitation depend on avoiding error propagation (inherent to successive subtraction techniques) by using matrix inversion. Experimental data obtained from triple-label beta counting illustrate reproducibility and good accuracy even when the relative amounts of different tracers in samples of protein/electrolyte solutions, plasma, and blood are changed. PMID:1514684

  13. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  14. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  17. 21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section 864.6700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6700...

  18. MODULATION OF HYPOXIC PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION BY ERYTHROCYTIC NITRIC OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    American Heart Association 2001

    Modulation of Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction by Erythrocytic NO
    McMahon TJ1, Gow AJ1, Huang YCT4, Stamler JS1,2,3
    Departments of Medicine1 and Biochemistry2, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute3,
    Duke University Med...

  19. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-04-01

    The uptake of exogenous /sup 32/Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-(/sup 32/P)ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments.

  20. Biophysics of Malarial Parasite Exit from Infected Erythrocytes

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    Biophysics of Malarial Parasite Exit from Infected Erythrocytes Rajesh Chandramohanadas1 , Yong the host cells through parasitic and host derived proteases of cysteine and serine families. We used and impede rupture to analyze mechanical signatures associated with parasite escape. Treatment of late