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Sample records for blood count erythrocyte

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  3. The effects of transport by pneumatic tube system on blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation and coagulation tests

    PubMed Central

    Koak, Fatma Emel; Yntem, Mustafa; Ycel, zlem; ilo, Mustafa; Gen, zlem; Meral, Ayfer

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Today, the pneumatic tube transport system (PTS) is used frequently because of its advantages related to timing and speed. However, the impact of various types of PTS on blood components is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of PTS on the quality of routine blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, and certain blood coagulation tests. Materials and methods: Paired blood samples were obtained from each of 45 human volunteers and evaluated by blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation, and several coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Blood samples were divided into 2 groups: Samples from group 1 were transported to the laboratory via the PTS, and samples from group 2 were transported to the laboratory manually. Both groups were evaluated immediately by the tests listed above. Results: The blood sample test results from groups 1 and 2 were evaluated and compared. No statistically significant differences were observed (P = 0.0690.977). Conclusion: The PTS yielded no observable effects on blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, or PT and aPTT test results. We concluded that the PTS can be used to transport blood samples and yield reliable results for blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, and several coagulation tests. PMID:23894866

  4. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  5. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  6. Erythrocyte mechanics and blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Cokelet, G.R.; Meiselman, H.J.; Brooks, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph includes the proceedings of a conference on erythrocyte mechanics and blood flow. The topics discussed include: the bilayer and shell model of the erythrocyte membrane; protein-protein interactions in red cell membranes; mechano-chemical study of red cell membrane structure in situ; viscoelastic solid behavior of red cell membrane; measures of blood rheology and erythrocyte mechanics; mechanisms of erythrocyte aggregation; dynamics of red blood cell deformation and aggregation, and in vivo flow; physical and mathematical models of blood flow - theoretical analysis; physical and mathematical models of blood flow - experimental studies; behavior or abnormal erythrocytes in capillaries; reduced erythrocyte deformability and vascular pathology; and microvascular transit of normal, immature, and altered red blood cells in spleen versus skeletal muscle. Summary remarks on in vitro erythrocyte characteristics and in vivo erythrocyte behavior are also indcluded. (RJC)

  7. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Gonzlez-Alonso, Jos; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 0.5 and 15.8 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterialvenous (av) O2 difference (r2 = 0.890.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules. PMID:16439430

  8. Erythrocyte and blood antibacterial defense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is an axiom that blood cellular immunity is provided by leukocytes. As to erythrocytes, it is generally accepted that their main function is respiration. Our research provides objective video and photo evidence regarding erythrocyte bactericidal function. Phase-contrast immersion vital microscopy of the blood of patients with bacteremia was performed, and the process of bacteria entrapping and killing by erythrocytes was shot by means of video camera. Video evidence demonstrates that human erythrocytes take active part in blood bactericidal action and can repeatedly engulf and kill bacteria of different species and size. Erythrocytes are extremely important integral part of human blood cellular immunity. Compared with phagocytic leukocytes, the erythrocytes: a) are more numerous; b) are able to entrap and kill microorganisms repeatedly without being injured; c) are more resistant to infection and better withstand the attacks of pathogens; d) have longer life span and are produced faster; e) are inauspicious media for proliferation of microbes and do not support replication of chlamidiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, viruses, etc.; and f) are more effective and uncompromised bacterial killers. Blood cellular immunity theory and traditional view regarding the function of erythrocytes in human blood should be revised. PMID:24883200

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching childrens hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute phase reactants can help in the diagnosis of a UTI, they are not pathognomonic. CRP, ESR and WBC were neither completely sensitive nor specific for detecting a UTI and its localisation site in Iranian children. Therefore, in a country where advanced clinical diagnostic tests are available, the advanced test should be used in conjunction with CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. Finally, a combination of laboratory tests along with history and exact clinical examination are needed for the diagnosis of a UTI and its localisation site. PMID:24643248

  10. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Annuities & Planned Gifts Shop Resources Disease Information Treatment Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Click here × ... individuals of similar age and sex. Nearly all lab reports include a "normal" range or high and ...

  11. A multicentre study of reference intervals for haemoglobin, basic blood cell counts and erythrocyte indices in the adult population of the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nordin, G; Mårtensson, A; Swolin, B; Sandberg, S; Christensen, N J; Thorsteinsson, V; Franzson, L; Kairisto, V; Savolainen, E-R

    2004-01-01

    Eight haematological quantities were measured in EDTA anticoagulated venous blood specimens collected from 1826 healthy male and female individuals between 18 and 90 years of age in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). The samples, collected between November 1999 and November 2001 as part of the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP), were analysed on 12 different types of modern automated haematology instruments currently in use among the 60 laboratories participating in the study. Non-parametric reference intervals (between 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles) have been calculated for B-Haemoglobin (females 117-153 g/L, males 134-170 g/L), B-Erythrocytes (females 3.94-5.16 x 10(12)/L, males 4.25-5.71 x 10(12)/L), B-EVF (females 0.348-0.459, males 0.395-0.500), B-MCV (82-98 fL), Erc-MCH (27.1-33.3 pg), Erc-MCHC (317-357 g/L), B-Trc (females 165-387 x 10(9)/L, males 145 x 348 x 10(9)/L) and B-Lkc (3.5-8.8 x 10(9)/L). Partitioning of data according to age and gender was done according to a standardized procedure. For most variables the calculated reference intervals corresponded well with older and less well-defined reference intervals. The mean concentration of B-Haemoglobin increased by 0.08 g/L per year of age in women, and decreased by 0.1 g/L per year of age in men. B-Haemoglobin increased with body mass index in both men and women. Smoking increased the mean of B-Lkc by 1.1 x 10(9)/L and regular use of alcohol increased the mean of B-MCV by 0.8 fL. The influence of these factors was small overall and did not promote specific reference intervals. PMID:15223702

  12. Erythrocyte dynamics in flow affects blood rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkova, V.; Farutin, A.; Polack, B.; Misbah, C.; Podgorski, T.

    2012-12-01

    Normal blood consists of highly deformable particles (red blood cells, RBC, or erythrocytes) suspended in a Newtonian fluid (blood plasma). As a rough physical model of erythrocytes, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) are successfully used to probe their membrane properties. In shear flows vesicles and red blood cells show rich variety of dynamical behaviours influencing the rheological properties of their suspensions. Here, we focus on new experimental aspects of the problem in the case, when a combination of an oscillatory shear rate and a basic constant shear rate is applied to suspensions. Experimental examples with concentrated RBC suspensions are presented together with a discussion on the importance of the superposition of a constant shear flow to the pure oscillation, which is usually used to extract the viscoelastic properties of a complex fluid.

  13. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the lungs to the rest of the body. These measurements are usually done to test for anemia, a common condition that occurs when the body has insufficient red blood cells. White blood cells: ...

  14. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or on the back of the hand) and blood is withdrawn and collected in a vial or syringe. After the procedure, the elastic band is removed. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed and ...

  15. Extracorporeal irradiation of blood: dosimetry corrected for shortened erythrocyte lifespans

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Pate, H.R.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of radiation delivered to erythrocytes during extracorporeal irradiation of blood (ECIB) has been described using Poisson distribution statistics. The Poisson expression for erythrocyte radiation dose distribution was simplified by considering the slight dilution of blood with fluid that is initially in the extracorporeal tubing. An algorithm was devised that allows curtailed lifespans of irradiated erythrocytes to be taken into account in a short computer program of radiation dosimetry for ECIB. Radiation doses to erythrocytes with and without lifespan corrections are compared.

  16. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  17. Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

  18. Influence of counting methodology on erythrocyte ratios in the mouse micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2013-04-01

    The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test is widely used to investigate the potential interaction of a test substance with chromosomes or mitotic apparatus of replicating erythroblasts. In addition to the primary endpoint, micronucleated erythrocyte frequency, the proportion of immature erythrocytes is measured to assess the influence of treatment on erythropoiesis. The guideline recommendation for an acceptable limit of the immature erythrocyte fraction of not < 20% of the controls was based on traditional scoring methods that consider RNA content. Flow-based sample analysis (e.g., MicroFlow) characterizes a subpopulation of RNA-containing reticulocytes (RETs) based on CD71 (transferrin receptor) expression. As CD71+ cells represent a younger cohort of RETs, we hypothesized that this subpopulation may be more responsive than the RNA+ fraction for acute exposures. This study evaluated RET population in the peripheral blood of two strains of mice treated by oral gavage with three clastogens (cyclophosphamide, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and methyl methanesulfonate). Although CD71+ frequencies correlated with RNA-based counts, the relative treatment-related reductions were substantially greater. Accordingly, when using the flow cytometry-based CD71+ values for scoring RETs in an acute treatment design, it is suggested that a target value ? 5% CD71+ reticulocytes (i.e., 95% depression in reticulocytes proportion) be considered as acceptable for a valid assay. PMID:23224994

  19. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Interfering factors: Acute emotional or physical stress can increase WBC counts. There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally appear in the blood: neutrophils (polymorphonuclear ...

  20. Blood oxygen consumption and erythrocyte types in embryonic and postnatal chicken.

    PubMed

    Grima, M; Girard, H; Dejours, P

    1983-01-01

    In an extension of previous work showing that oxygen consumption (MO2) of chick blood cells declines from 5 to 14-15 days incubation age, declines more steeply to hatching, rises abruptly up to 4-6 posthatch days, and declines thereafter, we investigated the succession of embryonic and posthatch erythrocytic types by performing differential erythrocyte (RBC) counts. MO2 of RBC groups separated by density gradients and fractionation into younger and older RBC populations were measured in 1- to 22-day-old posthatch chicks. The embryonic MO2 decline can be attributed to the appearance of erythrocytic types with successively lower metabolism. The MO2 slope change at 14-15 days incubation coincides with the predominance of definitive erythrocytes with oval nuclei over other cell types. The posthatch MO2 rise is due to a temporary invasion of immature RBC, especially postnatal polychromatic erythroblasts. MO2 then decreases as these cells mature. PMID:6849377

  1. Estimation of platelet counts on feline blood smears.

    PubMed

    Sverine, Tasker; Cripps, Peter J.; Mackin, Andrew J.

    1999-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 50 cats admitted for hematologic evaluation at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies. Manual platelet counts were done using a hemacytometer, and the average number of platelets per oil immersion field (1,000X magnification) was determined on stained blood smears. A hemacytometer count was not obtained for one sample because of a failure in erythrocyte lysing. In nine samples, obvious platelet clumps in the blood smear prevented accurate determination of the number of platelets per oil immersion field. Hemacytometer counts on these nine samples ranged from 260-587 X 10 (3) platelets/microliter, suggesting that platelet clumps on a blood smear were usually associated with adequate platelet numbers. Simple regression analysis of hemacytometer counts and the average umber of platelets per oil immersion field for the remaining 40 samples yielded correlation coefficients (r) of 0.776 on untransformed data, and 0.892 on log10-transformed data. Each platelet per oil immersion field represented a circulating platelet count of approximately 20 X 10(3)/microliter, similar to conversion factors reported for dogs and human beings. It was concluded that estimation of platelet number on stained blood smears is a simple and quick method that appears to be reliable over a wide range of platelet counts in cats. PMID:12075521

  2. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  3. Morphofunctional characteristics of the glutathione cycle in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with a history of cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation during gestation.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A; Kutepova, O L

    2014-06-01

    We studied factors influencing peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection during gestation. Cytomegalovirus infection was associated with a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and glutathione peroxidase, which leads to H2O2 accumulation in the blood. Exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection was associated with reduction of glutathione reductase and SOD activities. Erythrocyte antioxidant function and the peripheral blood discocyte count decreased. Accumulation of degenerative erythrocytes is fraught with the risk of anemia in pregnant women. PMID:24952498

  4. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  5. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

  6. Complete blood count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Results: Normal values vary with altitude and gender. What abnormal results may mean: Low numbers of red blood cells may indicate anemia, which has many causes including: Blood loss Iron deficiency ...

  7. White blood cell counts: reference methodology.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Richards, Devon S; George, Tracy I

    2015-03-01

    Modern hematology laboratories use automated hematology analyzers to perform cell counts. These instruments provide accurate, precise, low-cost differential counts with fast turnaround times. Technologies commonly used include electrical impedance, radiofrequency conductivity, laser light scattering, and cytochemistry. This article reviews the principles of these methodologies and possible sources of error, provides guidance for selecting flagging criteria, and discusses novel, clinically relevant white blood cell parameters provided by new instruments, including immature granulocyte count and granularity index. PMID:25676369

  8. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  9. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  13. Effect of adriamycin on the morphology of the erythrocytes and blood parameters of the toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A; Osman, S I; Daabees, A Y; Toulan, B A

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the anticancer drug adriamycin on the morphology of the erythrocytes as well as some blood parameters were studied in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Injecting the toads subcutaneously in the dorsal lymph sac with adriamycin at a dose level of 2 mg/kg body weight once every three weeks for 12 weeks induced the formation of abnormalities in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the erythrocytes. Its administration also caused severe anaemia, since the number of red blood corpuscles, haemoglobin content and haematocrit values were obviously decreased throughout the whole experimental period. The total leucocytic count was also diminished. On the other hand, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was increased all over the experiment. PMID:1490008

  14. Changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes resulting from blood storage.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-08-01

    The storage of blood for 24 h at 10 degrees C caused significant changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes of pigeons, peafowls, domestic fowls, lizards and toads. Significant decreases in fragility were seen with pigeon and peafowl erythrocytes. However, the osmotic fragility of domestic fowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased significantly. PMID:7863738

  15. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  16. Correlation between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) dynamics and blood luminescence studied using optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Cyril N.; Bouravleva, Ekaterina V.; Fadyukova, Olga E.; Voeikov, Vladimir V.; Koshelev, Vladimir B.

    2003-10-01

    Simultaneous temporal analysis of whole human or rat blood luminescence and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) in same blood using special computerized optoelectronic devices for single photon counting and for high temporal resolution of the rate of sedimentation of red blood/plasma boundary revealed correlation between both time series. Correlation was observed in vitro in normal blood, after action of physical (height of blood column) and of chemical (hydrogen peroxide) factors, and in experimental cerebral ischemia. An ischemia was invoked in rats by occlusion of both common carotid arteries. ESR was studied with the device "ESR-scan" and the dynamics of respiratory burst (RB) by a luminol-dependent luminescence method on the same blood samples. There was a noticeable increase of intensity of RB in whole rat blood and significant acceleration of ESR in blood diluted on 50% in 90 minutes after applying a ligature on carotid arteries. The individual differences between animals attesting to different degree of RB and ESR activation in blood both in intact animals and after operational intervention was obtained. Revealed correlation points to considerable relation between blood energy and its mechanical properties.

  17. Elimination of young erythrocytes from blood circulation and altered erythropoietic patterns during paraquat induced anemic phase in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice. PMID:24945144

  18. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, D.W.; Knoll, J.H.M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Flint, A.F. ); Pizzimenti, M.F. ); Latt, S.A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1990-05-01

    Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, they were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations.

  19. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. PMID:25721975

  20. Hemoperfusion effect on oxygen-carrying function of preserved donor blood and erythrocytic mass.

    PubMed

    Khodas MYa; Belkin, A L; Mosolova, L A; Povzhitkova, M S; Leonova, S F; Penkrak, K A; Grischenko, M N; Pyatnitskaya, G K

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the preserved (7-21 days) donor blood and erythrocytic mass, following perfusion through hemosorbent SKN-D. After the sorption the oxygen-transport function of erythrocytes was found to improve considerably (oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve was shifted to the right on average by 4-4.2 mm Hg). The energy supply became better (ATP level was increased by 38-59%). In view of the above, long-preserved blood and erythrocytic mass following their perfusion through SKN-D hemosorbent can be considered a sufficiently valid transfusion medium. PMID:2718544

  1. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 ?l of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 ?l EDTA blood were mixed with 10 ?l of a DRAQ5 solution (500?M, Biostatus) and 10 ?l of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 ?l of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 ?l of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 ?l instead of 500?l). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for resource poor settings.

  2. Biophotonics of the interaction of low-intensity laser radiation with blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blood erythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.

  3. Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 85.1 and 5.9 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 9.0 and 0.8 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ?13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely. PMID:24734183

  4. In vitro and in vivo validation of stored swine erythrocyte viability to establish an experimental model of homologous red blood cell transfusion: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Silvana; Costa, Paulo Aguirre; Wendel, Silvano; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop experimental models of erythrocyte transfusion, the first step is to ensure the viability of the red blood cells transfused. In this pilot study, we assessed the viability of transfused red blood cells with validation in vitro and in vivo of homologous swine erythrocytes stored for 14 days. Methods Blood collected from one Agroceres swine was stored in two red blood cell units. In vivo validation was performed by labeling the red blood cells with Na251CrO4 and recovering the viable erythrocytes after 24 hours of infusion in one autologous and four homologous animals. In vitro validation was performed at baseline and after 14 days in sixteen red blood cell units by measuring hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis index and free hemoglobin. A post-mortem splenectomy was performed to evaluate the splenic sequestration of erythrocytes, and the radioactivity of the supernatant samples was counted to evaluate intravascular hemolysis. Results After 14 days of storage, the red blood cell units had lower volumes and equivalent total concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to human standards. The free hemoglobin concentration increased from 31.09.3 to 112.431.4mg/dL (p<0.001), and the hemolysis index increased from 0.10.1 to 0.50.1% (p<0.001). However, these tests were within the acceptable range for human standards. The percentage of radioactivity in supernatant samples was similar at baseline and after 24 hours, thus excluding significant hemolysis. No evidence of splenic sequestration of radioactive erythrocytes was found. Conclusion Swine red blood cells stored for 14 days are viable and can be used in experimental studies of transfusion. These validation experiments are important to aid investigators in establishing experimental models of transfusion. PMID:25295823

  5. Local defects in the nanostructure of the membrane of erythrocytes upon ionizing radiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, E. K.; Sergunova, V. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Boreyko, A. V.; Zavialova, A. V.; Kozlov, A. P.; Chernysh, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate local topological defects in the erythrocyte membranes resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of blood in vitro. Biological effects in the erythrocytes after exposure to UV radiation at a wavelength of 254 nm are equivalent to those after γ radiation. It has been shown that oxidative processes developing in a suspension upon UV radiation result in the disruption of the nanostructure of the membranes of erythrocytes. In the experiments, typical topological defects in the membrane nanostructure were observed. The parameters of the defects differed from the characteristics of the nanostructure of the control cell membrane without irradiation. The characteristic dimensions of the topological defects are commensurate with the size of the spectrin matrix. As a result of the exposure to the UV radiation, polymorphism of the erythrocytes was observed.

  6. Influence of erythrocyte iodothyronine-binding proteins on radioimmunoassay of thyroxin in dried blood spots

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, W.A.; Lynskey, C.P.

    1982-01-01

    Three erythrocyte proteins, one identified as hemoglobin, bind thyroid hormones. Using a dextran/charcoal radioimmunoassay for thyroxin in dried blood spots, we demonstrate that such binding differs with the buffer used. Barbital, phosphate, and borate buffers significantly enhance the binding more than glycine and tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine buffers. Binding is not affected by agents commonly used to inhibit thyroxin binding to serum proteins. A highly significant nonlinear direct relationship between sample storage (temperature and duration) and increased thyroxin-erythrocyte binding is documented, together with an associated decrease in assayed concentrations of thyroxin. However, concomitant serial measurement of thyroxin with polyethylene glycol and combined double-antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassays produced no evidence of interference by erythrocyte proteins in the radioimmune reaction. We conclude that erythrocyte proteins act only as low-affinity secondary binders in radioimmunoassay for thyroxin.

  7. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  8. Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Vay, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Suescn, Marta; Rivera, Leonor; Murado, Julian; Romagnoli, Marco; Sol, Eva; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 ?-thalassemia, 20 ?-thalassemia, 20 ??-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor ?-thalassemia (r?=-0.530, p?< ?0.05), and directly in both metabolic syndrome and morbidly obese patients (?=?0.270, p?< ?0.05 and ?=?0.258, p?< ?0.05, respectively). Minor ?-thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:25062717

  9. Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Beaufrre, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mlanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-09-01

    The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

  10. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R (2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R (2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206

  11. Effect of erythrocyte aggregation on optical transmission of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvartsman, L. D.; Fine, I.

    2007-02-01

    We present here a bird-eye view of time-dependent optical transmission of blood in red-near infrared spectral range. This issue is of the key importance both for fundamental understanding and for various applications connected with non-invasive optical blood analysis. A number of experiments measuring kinetics of blood transmission in the case of natural heart pulsations and of artificial kinetics following over-systolic occlusion is reviewed. The comprehensive theoretical approach has to consider scattering-associated mechanism rather than the widely accepted absorption-associated one. Light scattering occurs on RBC aggregates. The size of aggregates and their shape change in time due to blood flow variations. It results in the corresponding changes of optical transmission.

  12. Evaluation of erythrocyte flow at a bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Sakota, Daisuke; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulatory support. In the blood pump, a spiral groove bearing was adopted for a thrust bearing. In the spiral groove bearing, separation of erythrocytes and plasma by plasma skimming has been postulated to occur. However, it is not clarified that plasma skimming occurs in a spiral groove bearing. The purpose of this study is to verify whether plasma skimming occurs in the spiral groove bearing of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. For evaluation of plasma skimming in the spiral groove bearing, an impeller levitation performance test using a laser focus displacement meter and a microscopic visualization test of erythrocyte flow using a high-speed microscope were conducted. Bovine blood diluted with autologous plasma to adjust hematocrit to 1.0% was used as a working fluid. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the spiral groove bearing was estimated using image analysis. As a result, hematocrits on the ridge region with gaps of 45 ?m, 31 ?m, and 25 ?m were calculated as 1.0%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Maximum skimming efficiency in this study was calculated as 70% with a gap of 25 ?m. We confirmed that separation of erythrocyte and plasma occurred in the spiral groove bearing with decrease in bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. PMID:26736252

  13. Plug Effect of Erythrocytes in Capillary Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Lew, H. S.; Fung, Y. C.

    1970-01-01

    As an idealized problem of the motion of blood in small capillary blood vessels, the low Reynolds number flow of plasma (a newtonian fluid) in a circular cylindrical tube involving a series of circular disks is studied. It is assumed in this study that the suspended disks are equally spaced along the axis of the tube, and that their centers remain on the axis of the tube and that their faces are perpendicular to the tube axis. The inertial force of the fluid due to the convective acceleration is neglected on the basis of the smallness of the Reynolds number. The solution of the problem is derived for a quasi-steady flow involving infinitesimally thin disks. The numerical calculation is carried out for a set of different combinations of the interdisk distance and the ratio of the disk radius to the tube radius. The ratio of the velocity of the disk to the average velocity of the fluid is calculated. The different rates of transport of red blood cells and of plasma in capillary blood vessels are discussed. The average pressure gradient along the axis of the tube is computed, and the dependence of the effective viscosity of the blood on the hematocrit and the diameter of the capillary vessel is discussed. PMID:5409778

  14. Erythrocyte rheology.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, J

    1985-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was formerly measured by its contribution to whole blood viscosity. It is now more commonly measured by filtration of erythrocytes through, or aspiration into, pores of 3-5 microns diameter and by the measurement of shear induced erythrocyte elongation using laser diffractometry. Recent improvements in the technology for erythrocyte filtration have included the removal of acute phase reactants from test erythrocyte suspensions, ultrasonic cleaning and reuse of filter membranes, awareness of the importance of mean cell volume as a determinant of flow through 3 microns diameter pores, and the ability to detect subpopulations of less deformable erythrocytes. Measurements of erythrocyte elongation by laser diffractometry, using the Ektacytometer, are also influenced by cell size and need to be corrected for mean cell volume. These advances have greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of rheological methods for measuring the deformability of erythrocytes and for investigating the mode of action of rheologically active drugs. Images PMID:3900147

  15. Determination of microphysical parameters of erythrocytes in human blood from laser radiation scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugeiko, M. M.; Lysenko, S. A.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the sensitivity of the correlation between the unidirectional scattering coefficients ?(?) and the microphysical parameters of erythrocytes in human blood the number concentration (N) and the volume concentration (CV), the modal radius (r), and the half-width (?r) of the size distribution function of the erythrocytes, the real part of their refractive indices n) to variations of the latter in the ranges of their possible values at wavelengths ? = 0.3 1.2 m. We have obtained the multiple regression equations for the microphysical parameters and ?(?) in the transparency window of blood (? = 0.65 m). We have shown that the procedure for determining the microphysical parameters, based on these equations, allows us to rapidly determine the microphysical parameters rapidly and highly accurately within their possible ranges.

  16. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  17. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xian). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  18. Intracellular free magnesium in erythrocytes of essential hypertension: relation to blood pressure and serum divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, L M; Gupta, R K; Laragh, J H

    1984-01-01

    Intracellular levels of free Mg2+ in human erythrocytes were determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy in 26 fasted subjects and were correlated with blood pressures and serum levels of total magnesium (bound and free Mg2+) and ionized calcium from the same subjects in a seated position. Untreated hypertensive individuals consistently demonstrated lower levels of intracellular free magnesium (192 +/- 8 microM, n = 11) than either normotensive (261 +/- 9.8 microM, n = 7, P less than 0.001 vs. untreated hypertensive subjects) or hypertensive subjects whose blood pressure had been normalized on therapy (237 +/- 7.8 microM, n = 8, P less than 0.005 vs. untreated hypertensives). For all subjects, strong relationships existed between intracellular free magnesium and diastolic blood pressure (r = -0.85, P less than 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r = -0.71, P less than 0.001). Significant relationships also were observed between intracellular free magnesium levels and extracellular serum levels of calcium ion (r = -0.77, P less than 0.001) as well as serum concentrations of total magnesium (r = 0.62, P less than 0.001). We conclude that significant depletion of intracellular free magnesium levels are apparent in erythrocytes of subjects with essential hypertension. Furthermore, the close, inverse relationship of free magnesium levels with the height of the blood pressure suggests that abnormalities of intracellular magnesium metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of human essential hypertension. PMID:6593713

  19. Erythrocyte Concentrates Recovered from Under-Collected Whole Blood: Experimental and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Min-Hui; Liu, Yan-Chun; Cai, Li; Li, Zheng-Gang; Huang, Bing; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jun; Zhu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although periodic blood shortages are widespread in major Chinese cities, approximately 1x105 U of whole blood are discarded yearly because of under-collection. To reduce the wastage of acid citrate dextrose solution B (ACD-B) anticoagulated under-collected whole blood (UC-WB), this study was performed to elucidate the effect of extracellular pH and holding time on erythrocyte quality. Mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP) erythrocyte concentrates (UC-RBCs) were prepared with UC-WB to assess the safety and efficacy of this component. Methods The effect of the different extracellular pH levels and storage times on erythrocytes was assessed by fluorescent probes, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, electron microscopy and spectroscopy. In vitro properties of 34 UC-RBCs that were prepared with UC-WB at different times after collection were analyzed and compared to normal RBCs during 35 days of storage. The results of transfusion with UC-RBCs and the incidence of adverse reactions in 49 patients were determined. Results 1) Low extracellular pH levels and long storage time induced increases in RBC fluorescence polarization and mean microviscosity, changes in membrane fluidity, band 1, 2 and 3 protein expression, and erythrocyte morphology. 2) During storage for 35 days, difference in between-subjects effects of K+, hemolysis and supernatant erythrocyte membrane protein (EMP) were statistically significant (P = 0.041, 0.007 and 0.002, respectively), while the differences between these parameters in the 4 h group and comparable controls were less significant. 3) Clinical data from 49 patients confirmed that transfusions with UC-RBCs were satisfactory with no adverse reactions. Conclusion These results suggest that it is feasible to prepare RBCs with ACD-B anticoagulated UC-WB at a minimum of 66% volume of the labeled collection. It was effective and safe to transfuse the UC-RBCs prepared within 4 h after collection and stored within 7 days. The use of UC-WB would be a welcome addition to limited blood resources in China. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-13003967 PMID:25706725

  20. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  1. Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

  2. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM’s captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  3. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  4. Regulation of blood flow distribution in skeletal muscle: role of erythrocyte-released ATP

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Mary L; Sprague, Randy S

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate tissue O2 levels in skeletal muscle is vital for normal physiology and requires a well regulated and appropriately distributed convective O2 supply. Inherent in this fundamental physiological process is the requirement for a mechanism which both senses tissue O2 need and locally adjusts flow to appropriately meet that need. Over the past several years we and others have suggested that, in skeletal muscle, O2 carrying erythrocytes participate in the regulation of total blood flow and its distribution by releasing ATP. Importantly, the release of this vasoactive molecule must be both rapid and well controlled if it is to serve an important physiological role. Here we provide insights into three distinct regulated signalling pathways within the erythrocyte that are activated by exposure to reduced O2 tension or in response to binding of agonists to the prostacyclin or ?-adrenergic receptors. Although much has been learned about the role of the erythrocyte in perfusion of skeletal muscle, much remains to be understood. However, what is clear is that the long established passive carrier of O2 also contributes to the regulation of the distribution of microvascular perfusion in skeletal muscle by virtue of its capacity to release ATP. PMID:22586223

  5. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  6. Dose-response curves for erythrocyte protoporphyrin vs blood lead: effect of iron status

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.H.; Schwartz, J.

    1987-12-01

    An increase in erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) is one of the most useful indicators of adverse biological response to lead exposure. A nonlinear mathematical model relating EP to blood lead concentration (PbB) was fitted to data in a sample of 1677 US children (ages 2-6 years) in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Iron status was defined by percentage transferrin saturation (PTS). The dose-response curves for EP vs PbB increased systematically with decreasing PTS, largely due to decrease of a parameter proportional to red cell lead-holding capacity with decreasing PTS.

  7. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

  8. The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humans.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

    2014-01-01

    Lead-induced oxidative stress has been identified as the essential factor in lead poisoning pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the association between occupational lead exposure and blood rheological parameters with respect to malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product), lipofuscin, and glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. In brief, 129 workers were classified as the low-exposure group, while the high-exposure group was composed of 154 workers. The mean blood levels of lead and zinc-protoporphyrin and the mean urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid were used as exposure markers. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male administrative workers. Whole blood viscosity was elevated in both exposure subgroups compared with the control group. Erythrocyte aggregability increased significantly; although the increase was greater in the low exposure group. Erythrocyte deformability decreased in both subgroups. The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin were significantly elevated, whereas the glutathione content decreased. In conclusion, occupational exposure to lead may induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes. This stress elevates whole blood viscosity and disturbs erythrocyte aggregability and deformability. There is a dose-effect relationship between lead levels and blood rheological parameters. PMID:23370159

  9. Biodynamic parameters of micellar diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sidorkin, Vladimir A.; Fomin, Alexander S.; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu.; Dykman, Lev A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895

  10. [Temporary changes and permanent changes in the erythrocyte blood-group antigens in malignant hemopathies].

    PubMed

    Hafner, V; Coatmelec, M; Niculescu, R

    1996-01-01

    Samples of peripheral blood were taken from 11 patients (blood group A, B and O), suffering from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), before and after chemotherapy, compared to normal control samples. The RBC's typing was done by standard agglutination technique (with conventional human and murine anti-sera) and flow cytometry. While using different reagent dilutions, a lower expression of the A or B antigen was noticed in all patients, even if direct typing of the RBC's revealed an apparently normal pattern. The most important depletion of antigenic expression was found to correspond to the highest concentration of myeloblasts in the bone marrow, with hypoplastic erythrocytic series. The modified H reactivity, detected at admission, was still present after complete remission, as an expression of the residual disease. Studies of the H expression could eventually become a parameter of evaluating the moment of relapse of the myeloproliferative disease. PMID:9221050

  11. Sodium-23 NMR analysis of human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma. Chemical shift, spin relaxation, and intracellular sodium concentration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettegrew, Jay W.; Woessner, Donald E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Glonek, Thomas

    Sodium-23 NMR analysis was performed on freshly obtained human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma. The intracellular and extracellular sodium signals were separated by adding dysprosium: tripolyphosphate to the plasma bathing the erythrocytes. Quantitation of the intracellular sodium content was easily accomplished by sodium NMR and was shown to agree well with the values obtained by flame photometry. T1 and T2 relaxation studies demonstrated that the sodium in human plasma and within human erythrocytes is substantially different in its physical characteristics than sodium in aqueous solution, and that some fraction of the plasma and erythrocyte sodium is relatively immobilized. Sodium NMR would appear therefore to be a useful method for studying sodium biology in inherited and acquired human diseases.

  12. Effect of Occupational Exposure on Blood Cell Counts, Electrocardiogram and Blood Pressure in Rice Mill Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aithala, Manjunatha; Das, Kusal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems interact to regulate the heart rate of about 70 beats per minute. Activation of sympathetic nervous system by emotional or physical stress increases heart rate and the force of heart beat. There are many factors which alter the heart rate. The chemical and mechanical stimulation of receptors can also cause change in blood pressure through autonomic nervous system. Exposure to dust also causes alteration in blood cell counts. This can be due to allergic reactions and inflammation which in turn evoked by dust entering the lungs. Objectives Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and cardiovascular parameters of rice mill workers by analysing Blood Cell Counts, ECG and Blood Pressure. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried on 134 rice mill workers and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individual. The blood cell counts were determined by automated cell counter machine, ECG was recorded by using ECG machine and Blood Pressure was measured by using mercurial sphygmomanometer. Results Neurtrophil, Eosinophil and Lymphocyte count among haematological parameters were significantly increased in exposed individuals. Marked variation was seen in ECG and Blood pressure among cardiovascular parameters of exposed individuals compared with control group. Conclusion The findings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. It is due to high oxidative stress. There are abnormalities seen in cardiovascular system. PMID:26674852

  13. Changes in the composition of erythrocyte membrane during storage of blood in di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate [DEHP] plasticized poly vinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags.

    PubMed

    Manojkumar, V; Deepadevi, K V; Arun, P; Nair, K G; Lakshmi, L R; Kurup, P A

    1999-04-01

    Very little information is available on the changes in the erythrocyte membrane composition during storage of blood at 4 degrees C, particularly with respect to the glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins. In view of this, a detailed study was carried out on the changes in the membrane proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAG), carbohydrate components of glycoproteins, cholesterol, phospholipids and vitamin E in blood stored in glass bottles and a di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) plasticized PVC bag (Penpol blood bag). Blood was collected in CPDA solution in glass bottles and in Penpol blood bags and kept at 4 +/- 1 degrees C. Analysis was made immediately after blood collection and after 28 and 42 days. Significant increase in the total protein in the erythrocyte membrane was observed during storage of whole blood in glass bottles and Penpol blood bag at 4 degrees C. This increase was progressively more with increase in storage time. Significant changes were also observed in GAG, carbohydrate components of glycoproteins, cholesterol, phospholipids and vitamin E in the erythrocyte membrane under these conditions. The protein:GAG ratio, protein:carbohydrate ratio, cholesterol:phospholipid ratio as well as protein:lipid ratio showed significant increase in the membrane. The extent of these changes was lower in the Penpol bag, indicating the stabilizing effect of DEHP on the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:10402764

  14. Erythrocyte-Bound Apolipoprotein B in Relation to Atherosclerosis, Serum Lipids and ABO Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    Klop, Boudewijn; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Bovenberg, Sarah A.; van der Meulen, Noëlle; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Birnie, Erwin; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; van Miltenburg, Addy; Jukema, J. Wouter; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB) are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. Methods Subjects with and without CVD were included (N = 398). Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ≤0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was determined as a measure of (subclinical) atherosclerosis. Results Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80±0.09 mm, N = 140) compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57±0.08 mm, N = 258) (P = 0.007, adjusted P<0.001). CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman’s r: –0.116, P = 0.021). A total of 55 subjects (13.6%) were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04–3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85–2.82). Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56±0.94 a.u.) when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89±1.15 a.u), blood group B (0.73±0.1.12 a.u.) or blood group AB (0.69±0.69 a.u.) (P-ANOVA = 0.002). Conclusion Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant. PMID:24069429

  15. [The fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes in test of glucose tolerance].

    PubMed

    Ameliushkina, V A; Aripovski?, A V; Titov, V N; Kaba, S I; Kotkina, T I; Parkhimovich, R M

    2014-04-01

    The sample of 26 patients with ischemic heart disease and syndrome of insulin resistance was subjected to standard test of glucose tolerance. The content of individual fatty acids was detected using technique of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In blood plasma, after 2 hours of post-prandial hyperglycemia, reliably decreased content of C 16:1 of palmitoleic mono fatty acid, C 18:1 oleic mono fatty acid and in a lesser degree C 18:2 linoleic unsaturated fatty acid (p < 0.05). The level C 14:0 of myristic unsaturated fatty acid, C 16:0 of palmitic unsaturated fatty acid and with 18:0 of stearic unsaturated fatty acid, ratio C 16:0/C 16:1 and C 18:0/C 18:1 had no changes: content of both (omega-6 C 20:3 digomo-gamma-linoleic unsaturated fatty acid and essential polyenoic fatty acids remained the same. The significant differences between initial content in blood plasma of palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic monoenic fatty acid was noted. The alteration in content of fatty acids in membranes of erythrocytes is the most expressed. In erythrocytes reliable (p < or = 0.05) decrease of content of C 16:0 palmitic fatty acid, C 18:0 stearic fatty acid and C 18:1 oleic fatty acid is established. The reliable decrease is noted in content of linoleic unsaturated fatty acid. In erythrocytes, moderate decrease is detected in levels of C 20:4 arachidonic polyenoic fatty acid, C 20:5 eicosapentaenoic polyenoic fatty acid. It is assumed that under post-prandial hyperglycemia insulin regulates metabolism of fatty acids, blocks lipolysis, decreases in cytosol of cells content of oleic and palmitic fatty acids inform of acetyl-KoA and forces mitochondrions intensively oxidate acetyl-KoA formed from pyruvate, from GLU. On surface of membrane, insulin increases number of glucose carriers GLUT4. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin is mediated by regulation first of all of metabolism of fatty acids. Hyperglycemia and insulin are two phylogenetically different humoral regulators. Insulin initiates blockade of lipolysis in adipocytes and positioning on membrane GLUT4. Hyperglycemia passively (activated) increases absorption by cells GLU on gradient of concentration inter-cellular medium--cytosol and synthesis of glycogen. PMID:25080793

  16. Characterization of Human Blood Tissue by Impedance Spectroscopy and Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, Jess; Zavala, Eder; Hernndez, Francisco; Lamadrid, Ral; Guerrero, Carlos; Sosa, Modesto; Villagomez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual

    2006-09-01

    The use of the Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has increased since the middle of 20th century for the characterization of materials which exhibit a frequency dependent behavior over the applied electric field; this behavior is correlated to the substance composition, its structural organization and the interactions between its components. In this work, the human whole blood electrical properties are studied, as well as that of its separated components (plasm, leukocytes, erythrocytes), using an harmonic voltage from 1Hz to 10MHz. The impedance modulus response |Z| and the angular phase lag were registered as functions of the frequency swept. Also, it was studied the variation of the same electrical parameters during sedimentation of blood cells as a function of time. It was found that the use of IS, as a characterization tool for human blood tissue, is an important instrument for the diagnosis and disease tracking of certain pathologies, which could be identified by its correspondent impedance "footprint" in the complex coordinate system.

  17. Control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic cycle: ?? T cells target the red blood cell-invasive merozoites.

    PubMed

    Costa, Giulia; Loizon, Sverine; Guenot, Marianne; Mocan, Iulia; Halary, Franck; de Saint-Basile, Genevive; Pitard, Vincent; Dchanet-Merville, Julie; Moreau, Jean-Franois; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Behr, Charlotte

    2011-12-22

    The control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic parasite density is essential for protection against malaria, because it prevents pathogenesis and progression toward severe disease. P falciparum blood-stage parasite cultures are inhibited by human V?9V?2 ?? T cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both intraerythrocytic parasites and the extracellular red blood cell-invasive merozoites specifically activate V?9V?2 T cells in a ?? T cell receptor-dependent manner and trigger their degranulation. In contrast, the ?? T cell-mediated antiparasitic activity only targets the extracellular merozoites. Using perforin-deficient and granulysin-silenced T-cell lines, we demonstrate that granulysin is essential for the in vitro antiplasmodial process, whereas perforin is dispensable. Patients infected with P falciparum exhibited elevated granulysin plasma levels associated with high levels of granulysin-expressing V?2(+) T cells endowed with parasite-specific degranulation capacity. This indicates in vivo activation of V?9V?2 T cells along with granulysin triggering and discharge during primary acute falciparum malaria. Altogether, this work identifies V?9V?2 T cells as unconventional immune effectors targeting the red blood cell-invasive extracellular P falciparum merozoites and opens novel perspectives for immune interventions harnessing the antiparasitic activity of V?9V?2 T cells to control parasite density in malaria patients. PMID:22045985

  18. Evidence that several high-frequency human blood group antigens reside on phosphatidylinositol-linked erythrocyte membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Telen, M J; Rosse, W F; Parker, C J; Moulds, M K; Moulds, J J

    1990-04-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder associated with absence of expression of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked membrane proteins from circulating hematopoietic cells of multiple lineages. Recent work demonstrated that decay accelerating factor, one such PI-linked protein, bears the Cromer-related blood group antigens. This study demonstrated that other high incidence antigens, including Cartwright (Yta/Ytb), Holley-Gregory (Hy/Gya), John Milton Hagen (JMH), and Dombrock (Doa/Dob), are absent from the complement-sensitive (PNH III) erythrocytes of patients with PNH. The relatively normal, complement-insensitive erythrocytes from the same patients express these antigens normally. Therefore, these antigens most likely reside on PI-linked proteins absent from PNH III, but not PNH I, erythrocytes. PMID:2317557

  19. Flow cytometry analysis using sysmex UF-1000i classifies uropathogens based on bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens among patients with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Tor; Rydn, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/?l), leukocyte (median, 348/?l), and erythrocyte (median, 23/?l) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  20. Flow Cytometry Analysis Using Sysmex UF-1000i Classifies Uropathogens Based on Bacterial, Leukocyte, and Erythrocyte Counts in Urine Specimens among Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rydn, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/?l), leukocyte (median, 348/?l), and erythrocyte (median, 23/?l) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  1. Individual whole-body concentration of ?Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors. PMID:24064533

  2. Interactions of dendritic glycopolymer with erythrocytes, red blood cell ghosts and membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Maly, Jan

    2015-12-30

    Interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s (95% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI A; 33% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI B) and red blood cells (RBCs) and between red blood cell membranes were investigated. We monitored the degree of hemolysis, the change in cell shape, the influence of polymers on the fluidity of the cell membrane and some cell membrane enzymes to determine their possible cytotoxic impact on them. To observe the extent of hemolysis, the RBCs were incubated with different concentrations of Mal-PEIs. The first significant lysis of RBCs was observed after 6h of incubation. Prolongation of the incubation time increased the number of ruptured cells. Moreover, we observed that Mal-PEI B was more hemolytic than Mal-PEI A in buffer solution. In contrast, an incubation of RBCs with Mal-PEIs in human plasma significantly decreased the hemolytic process and showed higher hemolytic property of Mal-PEI A compared to Mal-PEI B. Also several changes in the shape of the RBCs occurred after incubation with Mal-PEIs. Some of the erythrocytes shrank (echinocytes), but their morphology generally remained unchanged during the incubation. As shown by fluorescence experiments, both polymers induced the increase of fluidity of RBCs membranes. In summary, both types of hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s were practically non-hemolytic even at high polymer concentrations. Mal-PEI B was slightly more noxious than the Mal-PEI A in a buffer solution, while in blood plasma, the situation was opposite. Decrease of Na+/K+ ATPase and total ATPase enzymes activity was related with molecule size and number of maltose groups on the surface of molecule. The low hemolytic properties only observed at higher concentration (100μM and 400μM) indicated that Mal-PEIs are promising macromolecules in the area of drug delivery systems. PMID:26498371

  3. Erythrocytic pyruvate kinase deficiency and AB blood types in Australian Abyssinian and Somali cats

    PubMed Central

    Barrs, VR; Giger, U; Wilson, B; Chan, CTT; Lingard, AE; Tran, L; Seng, A; Canfield, PJ; Beattya, JA

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of the mutant pyruvate kinase (PK) allele, haematological parameters and AB blood types of Abyssinian and Somali cats in Australia. Design Complete blood cell and reticulocyte counts, DNA PK mutation testing and blood typing were performed in all cats. Results A total of 60 cats (36 Abyssinians, 24 Somalis) were included (37 females, 23 males). For the mutant PK allele, three female Somalis were homozygous (affected, 5%), 17 cats were heterozygous (carrier, 28%) and 40 cats tested negative (normal, 67%). Pedigree analysis revealed common ancestry of affected and many carrier cats. Of affected cats, two had regenerative anaemias and all had reticulocytosis (range 64-390 109/L; P < 0.001 compared with normal or carrier cats). The only consistent historical sign was lethargy. One affected cat was euthanased 18 months after testing, because of anaemia, neutropenia, anorexia and weight loss. The mutant allele frequency was 0.19 overall (0.29 in Somalis, 0.13 in Abyssinians). All cats had blood type A. The commercial blood typing card method incorrectly identified 12 cats as having type AB blood. Conclusions The frequency of the mutant PK allele is high in Australia. Screening for PK deficiency is indicated before mating and in individual cats of these breeds, even in the absence of anaemia and especially when there is reticulocytosis. Although all cats in the present study had blood type A, blood type B is common in these breeds worldwide. Retyping of any AB typed cats by a laboratory technique is recommended. PMID:19178476

  4. Increased erythrocyte volume in car repair painters and car mechanics.

    PubMed

    Beving, H; Tornling, G; Olsson, P

    1991-07-01

    The biological effect of occupational long term low level exposure to organic solvents was studied in 17 car repair painters and 28 car mechanics, and compared with a control group consisting of 46 healthy men not exposed to organic solvents. The erythrocyte count (RBC) was significantly decreased for both the painters and the mechanics compared with the control group, and a significant increase in the mean erythrocyte volume (MCV) was seen in painters. The mode in size distribution of the erythrocytes (MAXRBC) was shifted towards larger cell volumes for both painters and mechanics. When data from painters and mechanics were combined, the exposed group showed a significantly reduced erythrocyte count (RBC), an increased mean erythrocyte volume (MVC), and an increased mean platelet volume (MPV) compared with the controls. Exposure measurements in combination with analysis of haematological parameters may be a tool for early detection of cellular changes in the blood caused by exposure to solvents, before the appearance of clinical symptoms. PMID:1854652

  5. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID:26555819

  6. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID:26555819

  7. Whole blood lead concentration and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in selected canine populations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Kontos, V S; Koutinas, A F; Papasteriades, A

    1994-12-01

    In a total number of 275 dogs of various ages, sex and breed, blood lead concentrations (BLC) and erythrocyte ALAD activity were measured. Sixty-six of the dogs were living in lead mining areas (Group A), 157 in urban areas (Group B) and 52 in rural areas (Group C) of Greece. Mean BLC differed significantly (P < 0.05) between locations and were 326,97 and 68 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean ALAD activity was significantly different (P < 0.05) only between Groups A and B as between groups A and C. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation existed between BLC and ALAD activity. A normal range of erythrocyte ALAD activity of 807-992 mumol/PBG/LRBC/h was established for dogs. None of the 33 Group A dogs and 2 of the Group B dogs that had a BLC of 350 micrograms/L presented clinical signs indicating acute or chronic lead intoxication. No erythrocyte basophilic stippling or large number of nucleated red blood cells were seen in the 30 dogs of Group A with BLC > 350 micrograms/L. PMID:7599513

  8. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  9. A moderate red wine intake improves blood lipid parameters and erythrocytes membrane fluidity in post myocardial infarct patients.

    PubMed

    Rifler, Jean-Pierre; Lorcerie, Fanny; Durand, Philippe; Delmas, Dominique; Ragot, Kvin; Limagne, Emeric; Mazu, Frdric; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; d'Athis, Philippe; Hudelot, Bernard; Prost, Michel; Lizard, Grard; Latruffe, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    While the cardioprotective effect of moderate and regular wine consumption in primary prevention has been well documented, the goal of the present investigation was to explore the effect of wine intake on blood parameters (lipid, anti-oxidant capacity, and erythrocyte membrane potential and fluidity) in post myocardial infarct patients to evaluate perspectives in secondary prevention. A clinical intervention trial has been undertaken on a group of selected post myocardial infarct patients who gave written informed consent for participation in this study prior to enrolment. This two-week study has been conducted on hospitalized patients during a cardiac readaptation period. During this period, patients were submitted to a "Western prudent" diet (inspired by the Mediterranean diet) and two groups have been compared on a drawn basis: patients receiving red wine (250 mL daily) to patients receiving water. Physical, clinical, and blood parameters were evaluated on Days 1 and 14. The data show a positive effect of low wine consumption on blood parameters (decrease in total cholesterol and LDL; increase in erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status). The results show that a moderate consumption of red wine even for a short period associated with a "Western prudent" diet improves various blood parameters in lipid and anti-oxidative status in patients with previous coronary ischemic accidents. PMID:22419533

  10. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486280 nM in whole blood, 672496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.9930.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood compartments under basal conditions and during hyperemia. PMID:20542745

  11. The effect of osmotic swelling and hemolysis of erythrocytes on the transmission spectra of radiation by a layer of diluted blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumenko, E. K.; Davydovskii, A. G.

    2010-08-01

    We study how the degree of violation of osmotic equilibrium affects the spectral characteristics of radiation scattered by erythrocyte suspensions in media of various osmolarity. The transmission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 450-860 nm for blood samples diluted with NaCl water solutions of various concentration. From an analysis of numerical simulation results and experimental data, we show that measuring the light scattering characteristics constitutes the basis of a new optical method for determining erythrocyte osmotic resistance. The method excludes the necessity of strong action on erythrocytes, differs in its simplicity and expressivity, and can be implemented using standard spectrometers.

  12. Efficiency comparison of two preparative mechanisms for magnetic separation of erythrocytes from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. D.

    1981-03-01

    Separation efficiencies of erythrocytes, made paramagnetic by oxidation of their cellular oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin with sodium nitrite, were compared under identical magnetic separation conditions with those of cells whose oxyhemoglobin had been reduced to deoxyhemoglobin through exposure to sodium dithionite, and the percentage of high-spin hemoglobin was estimated spectrophotometrically. Both parallel and transverse flow/matrix filter configurations gave greater average separation efficiencies, with less variability, for erythrocytes containing the dithionite-reduced hemoglobin. These findings are thought to originate in the characteristics of the oxidative reaction, since the spectrophotometric data indicate a similar variability in oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin.

  13. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

  14. [Fatty acid composition of the lipids in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes during simulation of extravehicular activities of cosmonauts].

    PubMed

    Skedina, M A; Katuntsev, V P; Buravkova, L B; Na?dina, V P

    1998-01-01

    Dynamics of the lipoacidic content of total plasma lipids and erythtocyte membranes was studied in 32 experiments with ten apparently healthy male subjects aged 27 to 41 years who were exposed to repeated decompression from the normal ground down to 40-35 kPa. For two hours of exposure to lowered pressure the subjects were breathing pure oxygen in mask and performing incremental physical work mimicking loading of the upper extremities of cosmonauts doing extravehicular activities (EVA) at the energy cost of 3 kcal/min. Decompression sessions were repeated with intervals from 3 to 5 days. In seven experiments, the subjects developed symptoms of the decompression sickness (DCS). Penetration of gas bubbles (GB) into the pulmonary artery was registered in 27 cases (84.4%). In 24 cases maximal intensity of the US signals from GB reached 3 to 4 Spencer's points. No changes in the lipidoacidic content of blood plasma or erythrocyte membranes were determined following the first exposure to decompression. BY the onset of repeated decompression, total number of lipids in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 to 40.4 mg% in the group of subjects who had not displayed DCS symptoms (n = 5) and from 51.2 to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) in the group of subjects with DCS symptoms (n = 5). In the subjects with DCS, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2) tended to decrease against the upward trend of saturated fatty acids (16:0, 18:0). In these subjects, arachidonic acid in erythrocyte membranes (20:4) decreased following each decompression exposure and significantly increased (p < 0.05) in-between. In both groups, blood plasma showed slight fluctuations in the lipoacidic contents. These data suggest that exposure to the variety of the EVA-simulating factors may entail quite distinct but reversible modifications in the lipid metabolism in blood and the structural/functional state of erythrocyte membranes. The most marked alterations were observed in the subjects with the DCS symptoms during high intensity of US signals from GB in the venous blood flow. PMID:9883330

  15. The effect of radiotherapeutic irradiation on the elemental concentratIon of Iron in human erythrocytes and blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borbly-Kiss, I.; Koltay, E.; Szab, Gy.; Pintye, .; Groska, E.; Kiss, A.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE as a sensitive multielemental method has been used for analysing erythrocyte and plasma samples from humans treated with telecobalt therapy in order to search for possible changes in the concentration of elemental constituents caused by the radiation load of bone marrow. The appearance of such an effect seems to be predicted by earlier radiobiological investigations based on whole-body irradiation of animals. While no systematic variation has been observed for most of the essential and trace elements, the measurements revealed an effect of the radiation load on the iron level of blood plasma in the case of patients treated with multifield irradiation.

  16. [Effect of strophanthin on the electrophoretic mobility of blood erythrocytes in adults and children].

    PubMed

    Matiushichev, V B; Shamratova, V G; Akhunova, A R

    2001-02-01

    As assessed by changes in the erythrograms asymmetry coefficient, selectivity of the strophantin effect on cell populations with different mobility and age specifics of reciprocal responses, was revealed in adult subjects and in children. The data obtained suggest existence of difference in quality of functional condition of the erythrocytes with normal as well as reduced mobility in children and in adults. PMID:11296709

  17. Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in Pregnancies with Idiopathic Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Kaveh, Mahbod; Nemati, Somayeh; Javadian, Pouya; Salmanian, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR. Materials and methods Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups. Results NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001). pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusion Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention. PMID:24971139

  18. Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte membrane lesion is a serious diabetic complication. A number of studies suggested that n-3 fatty acid could reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate ?- or ?-tocopherol contents in membrane of erythrocytes. However, evidence regarding the protective effects of flaxseed oil, a natural product rich in n-3 fatty acid, on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity and membrane deformation of erythrocytes exposed to high glucose is limited. Methods Human peripheral blood erythrocytes were isolated and treated with 50?mM glucose to mimic hyperglycemia in the absence or presence of three different doses of flaxseed oil (50, 100 or 200??M) in the culture medium for 24?h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and L-glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC and LC/MS respectively. The phospholipids symmetry and membrane fatty acid composition of human erythrocytes were detected by flow cytometry and gas chromatograph (GC). The morphology of human erythrocyte was illuminated by ultra scanning electron microscopy. Results Flaxseed oil attenuated hyperglycemia-induced increase of MDA and decrease of GSH in human erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes treated with flaxseed oil contained higher C22:5 and C22:6 than those in the 50?mM glucose control group, indicating that flaxseed oil could reduce lipid asymmetric distribution and membrane perturbation. The ultra scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometer have also indicated that flaxseed oil could protect the membrane of human erythrocytes from deformation at high glucose level. Conclusion The flaxseed oil supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia. PMID:22768971

  19. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.

    1978-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high (6-8 ppm) and moderate (1.5 ppm) amounts of ozone (O3) for various time periods. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone was monitored with red blood cell potassium (rubidium) influx studies, with storage stress combined with ultrastructural studies and with levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Erythrocytes of rats exposed to O3 showed no significant changes either in their potassium influx or in their glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to controls. Erythrocyte differential counts on O3-exposed animals showed significant changes initially as well as following storage stress compared to controls. Rats exposed to 8 ppm O3 for 4 h showed a marked increase in echinocytes. These consistent transformations from discocytes to echinocytes following O3 exposure suggest latent erythrocyte damage has occurred.

  20. Comparison of haemolytic activity of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata in diluted whole blood and erythrocyte suspension: diluted whole blood is a valid test system for haemolysis study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xiao, Liang; He, Qian; Liu, Sihua; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Liming

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we utilized two different test systems to compare the haemolysis of tentacle-only extract (TOE) devoid of nematocysts from jellyfish Cyanea capillata, the 1% whole blood and 0.45% erythrocyte suspension approximately with the same erythrocyte concentration from the blood samples of sheep, rabbit, mouse, rat and human, respectively. Without exception, the haemolytic activity of TOE was dose-dependent in both test systems from all the five kinds of blood samples, while it was generally stronger in erythrocyte suspension than that in diluted whole blood at the relatively high concentration of TOE. When various aliquots of plasma were added into the erythrocyte suspension test system, the haemolytic activity of TOE was declined with the plasma quantity increasing, and dropped to about 20% at the presence of two aliquots of plasma. If serum albumin of 0.5 mg/ml, approximately the same albumin content in 1% whole blood, was added into the erythrocyte suspension test system instead, the haemolysis of TOE was similarly inhibited. The effects of GSH, ascorbic acid and protease inhibitor on the haemolytic activity of TOE were detected in the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood simultaneously, and the test results were coincident between the two systems. These results suggested that the inconsistency of TOE haemolysis between the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood is a universal occurrence in the mammals, and blood plasma plays a dose-dependent protective role against haemolysis which may be due to serum albumin. Diluted whole blood is a valid and convenient test system for haemolysis study in vitro. PMID:21474292

  1. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  2. Endurance training alters basal erythrocyte MCT-1 contents and affects the lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells in T2DM men following maximal exercise.

    PubMed

    Opitz, David; Lenzen, Edward; Opiolka, Andreas; Redmann, Melanie; Hellmich, Martin; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Chronic elevated lactate levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, lactacidosis plays a role in limiting physical performance. Erythrocytes, which take up lactate via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins, may help transport lactate within the blood from lactate-producing to lactate-consuming organs. This study investigates whether cycling endurance training (3 times/week for 3 months) alters the basal erythrocyte content of MCT-1, and whether it affects lactate distribution kinetics in the blood of T2DM men (n = 10, years = 61 9, body mass index = 31 3 kg/m(2)) following maximal exercise (WHO step-incremental cycle ergometer test). Immunohistochemical staining indicated that basal erythrocyte contents of MCT-1 protein were up-regulated (+90%, P = 0.011) post-training. Erythrocyte and plasma lactate increased from before acute exercise (= resting values) to physical exhaustion pre- as well as post-training (pre-training: +309%, P = 0.004; +360%, P < 0.001; post-training: +318%, P = 0.008; +300%, P < 0.001), and did not significantly decrease during 5 min recovery. The lactate ratio (erythrocytes:plasma) remained unchanged after acute exercise pre-training, but was significantly increased after 5 min recovery post-training (compared with the resting value) (+22%, P = 0.022). The results suggest an increased time-delayed influx of lactate into erythrocytes following an acute bout of exercise in endurance-trained diabetic men. PMID:25844530

  3. Single-step preparation and image-based counting of minute volumes of human blood.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary J; Gao, Tingjuan; Chu, Kaiqin; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Tatsukawa, Keith; Heifetz, Laurence; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2014-08-21

    Current flow-based blood counting devices require significant medical infrastructure and are not appropriate for field use. In this article we report on the development of a sample preparation, measurement, and analysis method that permits automated and accurate counting of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets, as well as allowing a 3-part differential of the WBCs to be performed on extremely small volumes of whole blood. This method is compatible with portable instrumentation that can be deployed in the field. The method consists of serially diluting blood samples first with sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, then in acridine orange dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, followed by fluorescence and dark field imaging with low magnification objectives. Image analysis is performed to extract cell counts and differentials. We performed a paired analysis of 20 volunteers with complete blood count values both within and beyond the normal reference range using a commercial automated hematology analyzer and the image-based method, with the new method achieving accuracies comparable to that of the commercial system. Because the sample preparation and imaging are simple and inexpensive to implement, this method has applications for pediatrics, clinician offices, and global health in regions that do not have access to central hematology laboratories. PMID:24955810

  4. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  5. Association between erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and some blood lipids in type 1 diabetic patients from Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Iwalokun, Senapon O

    2007-01-01

    Background Altered levels of erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase, atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipid metabolites have been implicated in diabetic complications but their pattern of interactions remains poorly understood. This study evaluated this relationship in Nigerian patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 34 consented Type 1 diabetic patients and age -matched 27 non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined spectrophotometrically and LDL-cholesterol estimated using Friedewald formula. Total protein content and Na+K+-ATPase activity were also determined spectrophotometrically from ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Results Results indicate significant (P < 0.05) reduction in Na+K+-ATPase activity in the Type 1 diabetic patients (0.38 0.08 vs. 0.59 0.07 uM Pi/mgprotein/h) compared to the control but with greater reduction in the diabetic subgroup with poor glycemic control (n = 20) and in whom cases of hypercholesterolemia (8.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (2.9%) and elevated LDL-cholesterol (5.9% each) were found. Correlation analyses further revealed significant (P < 0.05) inverse correlations [r = -(0.708-0.797] between all the atherogenic lipid metabolites measured and Na+K+-ATPase in this subgroup contrary to group with good glycemic control or non-diabetic subjects in which significant (P < 0.05) Na+K+-ATPase and HDL-C association were found (r = 0.427 - 0.489). The Na+K+-ATPase from the diabetic patients also exhibited increased sensitivity to digoxin and alterations in kinetic constants Vmax and Km determined by glycemic status of the patients. Conclusion It can be concluded that poor glycemic control evokes greater reduction in erythrocyte Na+K+-ATPase activity and promote enzyme-blood atherogenic lipid relationships in Type 1 diabetic Nigerian patients. PMID:17908327

  6. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  7. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  8. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  9. The Positive Association between Peripheral Blood Cell Counts and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwa Young; Park, In Young; Choi, Jin Man; Kim, Min; Jang, Ho Jin; Hwang, Se-Min

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Accumulating evidence has shown a close connection between hematopoiesis and bone formation. Our aim was to evaluate the association between peripheral blood cell counts and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods Three hundreds thirty eight healthy postmenopausal women who underwent BMD measurement during their health check-up were investigated. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray asorptiometry at L1-L4 spine, femoral neck and total proximal femur. BMD was expressed as a T-score: among T-scores obtained from three different sites (L1-L4 spine, femoral neck and total proximal femur), the lowest T-score was considered to be the subject's T-score. Results The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis diagnosed by T-score in the study participants were 49.4% (167/338) and 5.0% (17/338), respectively. Peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and platelet counts had significant positive correlations with T-scores (p<0.001) upon simple linear regression analysis. A multiple linear regression analysis, after controlling of confounders including age, body weight, systolic blood pressure, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine, showed that WBC (β=0.127; standard error=0.043; p=0.014), RBC (β=0.192; standard error=0.139; p<0.001) and platelet (β=0.097; standard error=0.001; p=0.050) counts still had significant positive association with T-scores. Conclusion The study results showed a positive relationship between blood cell counts and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, supporting the idea of a close connection between hematopoiesis and bone formation. The study results also suggest that blood cell counts could be a putative marker for estimating BMD in postmenopausal women. PMID:21786437

  10. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  11. Genetic influences on peripheral blood cell counts: a study in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Mahaney, Michael C.; Brugnara, Carlo; Lease, Loren R.; Platt, Orah S.

    2005-01-01

    Interperson differences in peripheral blood cell counts in healthy individuals result from genetic and environmental influences. We used multivariate genetic analyses to assess the relative impact of genes and environment on baseline blood cell counts and indices using a pedigreed colony of baboons, an animal with well-documented analogies to human blood physiology. After accounting for age, sex, and weight, we found that genetic influences explain a significant proportion of the remaining variability, ranging from a low of 13.7% for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) to a high of 72.4% for red blood cell (RBC) number. Genes influence 38.5% of the variation in baseline white blood cell (WBC) count, a characteristic that correlates with mortality in both the general human population and clinically defined subgroups such as individuals with sickle-cell disease. We examined the interaction between pairs of traits and identified those that share common genetic influences (pleiotropy). We unexpectedly observed that the same gene or group of genes influences both WBC count and mean platelet volume (MPV). We anticipate that this approach will ultimately lead to discovery of novel insights into the biology of related traits, and ultimately identify important genes that affect hematopoiesis. PMID:15870178

  12. A switch in infected erythrocyte deformability at the maturation and blood circulation of Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages

    PubMed Central

    Tibúrcio, Marta; Niang, Makhtar; Deplaine, Guillaume; Perrot, Sylvie; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Silvestrini, Francesco; Khattab, Ayman; Milon, Geneviève; David, Peter H.; Hardeman, Max; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Preiser, Peter R.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Buffet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Achievement of malaria elimination requires development of novel strategies interfering with parasite transmission, including targeting the parasite sexual stages (gametocytes). The formation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the human host takes several days during which immature gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIEs) sequester in host tissues. Only mature stage GIEs circulate in the peripheral blood, available to uptake by the Anopheles vector. Mechanisms underlying GIE sequestration and release in circulation are virtually unknown. We show here that mature GIEs are more deformable than immature stages using ektacytometry and microsphiltration methods, and that a switch in cellular deformability in the transition from immature to mature gametocytes is accompanied by the deassociation of parasite-derived STEVOR proteins from the infected erythrocyte membrane. We hypothesize that mechanical retention contributes to sequestration of immature GIEs and that regained deformability of mature gametocytes is associated with their release in the bloodstream and ability to circulate. These processes are proposed to play a key role in P falciparum gametocyte development in the host and to represent novel and unconventional targets for interfering with parasite transmission. PMID:22517905

  13. A switch in infected erythrocyte deformability at the maturation and blood circulation of Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages.

    PubMed

    Tibrcio, Marta; Niang, Makhtar; Deplaine, Guillaume; Perrot, Sylvie; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Silvestrini, Francesco; Khattab, Ayman; Milon, Genevive; David, Peter H; Hardeman, Max; Vernick, Kenneth D; Sauerwein, Robert W; Preiser, Peter R; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Buffet, Pierre; Alano, Pietro; Lavazec, Catherine

    2012-06-14

    Achievement of malaria elimination requires development of novel strategies interfering with parasite transmission, including targeting the parasite sexual stages (gametocytes). The formation of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the human host takes several days during which immature gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIEs) sequester in host tissues. Only mature stage GIEs circulate in the peripheral blood, available to uptake by the Anopheles vector. Mechanisms underlying GIE sequestration and release in circulation are virtually unknown. We show here that mature GIEs are more deformable than immature stages using ektacytometry and microsphiltration methods, and that a switch in cellular deformability in the transition from immature to mature gametocytes is accompanied by the deassociation of parasite-derived STEVOR proteins from the infected erythrocyte membrane. We hypothesize that mechanical retention contributes to sequestration of immature GIEs and that regained deformability of mature gametocytes is associated with their release in the bloodstream and ability to circulate. These processes are proposed to play a key role in P falciparum gametocyte development in the host and to represent novel and unconventional targets for interfering with parasite transmission. PMID:22517905

  14. Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y L; Carter, N P; Price, C M; Colman, S M; Milton, P J; Hackett, G A; Greaves, M F; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    1993-01-01

    Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching for fetal nucleated erythrocytes which do not express either of these antigens. However, significant maternal contamination was present even after MACS enrichment preventing the accurate analysis of fetal cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). To overcome this problem, we used simultaneous immunophenotyping of cells with the mouse antifetal haemoglobin antibody, UCH gamma, combined with FISH analysis using chromosome X and Y specific DNA probes. This approach enables selective FISH analysis of fetal cells within an excess of maternal cells. Furthermore, we have confirmed the potential of the method for clinical practice by a pilot prospective study of fetal sex in women referred for amniocentesis between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation. Images PMID:8133505

  15. Identification of the Molecular and Genetic Basis of PX2, a Glycosphingolipid Blood Group Antigen Lacking on Globoside-deficient Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Westman, Julia S; Benktander, John; Storry, Jill R; Peyrard, Thierry; Hult, Annika K; Hellberg, sa; Teneberg, Susann; Olsson, Martin L

    2015-07-24

    The x2 glycosphingolipid is expressed on erythrocytes from individuals of all common blood group phenotypes and elevated on cells of the rare P/P1/P(k)-negative p blood group phenotype. Globoside or P antigen is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosyl-ceramide 3-?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by B3GALNT1. It is the most abundant non-acid glycosphingolipid on erythrocytes and displays the same terminal disaccharide, GalNAc?3Gal, as x2. We encountered a patient with mutations in B3GALNT1 causing the rare P-deficient P1 (k) phenotype and whose pretransfusion plasma was unexpectedly incompatible with p erythrocytes. The same phenomenon was also noted in seven other unrelated P-deficient individuals. Thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flow cytometry were used to show that the naturally occurring antibodies made by p individuals recognize x2 and sialylated forms of x2, whereas x2 is lacking on P-deficient erythrocytes. Overexpression of B3GALNT1 resulted in synthesis of both P and x2. Knockdown experiments with siRNA against B3GALNT1 diminished x2 levels. We conclude that x2 fulfills blood group criteria and is synthesized by UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide 3-?-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Based on this linkage, we proposed that x2 joins P in the GLOB blood group system (ISBT 028) and is renamed PX2 (GLOB2). Thus, in the absence of a functional P synthase, neither P nor PX2 are formed. As a consequence, naturally occurring anti-P and anti-PX2 can be made. Until the clinical significance of anti-PX2 is known, we also recommend that rare P1 (k) or P2 (k) erythrocyte units are preferentially selected for transfusion to P(k) patients because p erythrocytes may pose a risk for hemolytic transfusion reactions due to their elevated PX2 levels. PMID:26055721

  16. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  17. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B.; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  18. Preoperative Peripheral Blood Count in Breast Carcinoma: Predictor of Prognosis or a Routine Test.

    PubMed

    Rana, Amrit Pal Singh; Kaur, Manjit; Zonunsanga, B; Puri, Arun; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peripheral blood count is the first investigation to be done in every patient before surgery. As strong relationship exists between cancer and immune response of the body, clinical stage at presentation and altered hematological parameters can influence the progression of cancer and vice versa. Settings and Design. It is a case control study of total 50 cases (35 cases of carcinoma breast and 15 cases of benign breast disease). Methods. A case control study was carried out; 35 cases of breast cancer patients were taken prior to surgery and chemotherapy with 15 cases of benign breast disease as control. Clinical staging according to the tumor, node, and metastasis classification (TNMc) was done and was correlated with complete blood count (CBC). Results. All the cancer patients were females with overall mean age of 47.96 13.84 years. Amongst all altered blood parameters, correlation of absolute lymphocytic count (p value 0.001) with TNMc staging was found significant. Particularly, decrease in absolute leucocytic count was observed with increase in stage of breast carcinoma. Conclusions. The stage-specific mean values of absolute lymphocytic counts of preoperative breast cancer patients can be used as an economical tool to know the evolution of disease. PMID:26697229

  19. Evaluation of blood platelet count and function in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Akdemir, F; Okulu, E; Ener, K; Ozayar, A; Gudeloglu, A

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated and compared blood total platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) values of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and control subjects. A total 57 male patients (mean age 49.712years) with ED and 59 control men (mean age 49.710.7years) were included in the study. All patients were evaluated using medical history with International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, physical examination and routine blood analysis. Total blood count, including white blood cell (WBC), total platelet counts, MPV and PDW parameters, were recorded in both groups. MPV values were detected to be significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 10.71 and 9.721.5, respectively (P=0.001). Similarly, PDW values were significantly higher in patients with ED than control group: 14.62.8 and 12.91.9, respectively (P=0.001). However, mean platelet and mean WBC counts were similar in both groups (P=0.45). We demonstrated that MPV and PDW values significantly increased in patients with ED compared with the control group. According to these findings, platelet function might play an important role in patients with ED that warrants further research. PMID:25923175

  20. The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed. PMID:25562022

  1. No radioadaptive response to micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction in murine peripheral blood in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Ramirez, P.; Vallarino-Kelly, T.; Rodriguez-Reyes, R.

    1997-10-01

    The effect of conditioning pretreatment with 0.025 Gy of gamma rays on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MN-PCE) induction by 1.0 or 0.1 Gy of gamma rays was determined in murine peripheral blood. The adaptive and challenge doses as well as the timing of their administration were taken from a previously reported experiment. The response was determined by the strategy of measuring the area below the curve (ABC) of MN-PCE induction vs. time. This strategy permits one to determine an index of total damage and to establish if conditioning exposure affects the timing of MN-PCE appearance in the blood stream, which in turn could cause an apparent difference in response between the conditioned and the unconditioned groups at specific times. The results indicate that low dose gamma ray pretreatment does not protect against MN-PCE induction by the challenge gamma ray dose, and that there was no change on the kinetics of MN-PCE appearance in peripheral blood. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. [Quality of washed autologous erythrocytes from drainage-suction pumps].

    PubMed

    Bauermann, E; Shin, M; Mhlmann, M L; Kadar, J G; Linde, I

    1999-01-01

    High sub-pressure in high-vacuum suction bottles falls as the bottles fill up. Suction pumps with reservoir have a constant low suction level and decisive advantages. The question is: does the use of a suction pump before processing and retransfusion influence the quality of the erythrocytes? The randomized, controlled, prospective study presented here deals with drainage blood and washed autologous red blood cells (warbc) from 60 patients after hip endoprosthesis surgery. In a comparison between suction pump and redon bottle, the following parameters were studied: haematological-parameter (haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, thrombocyte count, MCV, MCH, MCHC), vitality (osmotic fragility, 2,3-DPG) and haemolysis parameter (GOT, LDH, plasma haemoglobin, potassium). Control samples were taken immediately after operation: sample one from drainage blood before processing and sample two from warbc before retransfusion. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups. The osmotic fragility of the retransfused red blood cells was slightly above normal values, while the 2,3-DPG was normal. "Old" erythrocytes were haemolysed. The concentration of plasma haemoglobin was clearly above the normal range. In the "redon group" GOT and LDH were clearly increased. The quality of erythrocytes from suction pump reservoirs is not decisively impaired. PMID:10528416

  3. Interaction of antidiabetic vanadium compounds with hemoglobin and red blood cells and their distribution between plasma and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daniele; Serra, Maria; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of V(IV)O(2+) ion with hemoglobin (Hb) was studied with the combined application of spectroscopic (EPR), spectrophotometric (UV-vis), and computational (DFT methods) techniques. Binding of Hb to V(IV)O(2+) in vitro was proved, and three unspecific sites (named ?, ?, and ?) were characterized, with the probable coordination of His-N, Asp-O(-), and Glu-O(-) donors. The value of log ? for (VO)Hb is 10.4, significantly lower than for human serum apo-transferrin (hTf). In the systems with V(IV)O potential antidiabetic compounds, mixed species cis-VOL2(Hb) (L = maltolate (ma), 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinonate (dhp)) are observed with equatorial binding of an accessible His residue, whereas no ternary complexes are observed with acetylacetonate (acac). The experiments of uptake of [VO(ma)2], [VO(dhp)2], and [VO(acac)2] by red blood cells indicate that the neutral compounds penetrate the erythrocyte membrane through passive diffusion, and percent amounts higher than 50% are found in the intracellular medium. The biotransformation of [VO(ma)2], [VO(dhp)2], and [VO(acac)2] inside the red blood cells was proved. [VO(dhp)2] transforms quantitatively in cis-VO(dhp)2(Hb), [VO(ma)2] in cis-VO(ma)2(Hb), and cis-VO(ma)2(Cys-S(-)), with the equatorial coordination of a thiolate-S(-) of GSH or of a membrane protein, and [VO(acac)2] in the binary species (VO)xHb and two V(IV)O complexes with formulation VO(L(1),L(2)) and VO(L(3),L(4)), where L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4) are red blood cell bioligands. The results indicate that, in the studies on the transport of a potential pharmacologically active V species, the interaction with red blood cells and Hb cannot be neglected, that a distribution between the erythrocytes and plasma is achieved, and that these processes can significantly influence the effectiveness of a V drug. PMID:24437949

  4. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ackermann, Teresa F; Fller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P; Arthur, J Simon C; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk(+/+)). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk(-/-) mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk(-/-) erythrocytes than in msk(+/+) erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk(-/-) erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk(-/-) mice. The spleens from msk(-/-) mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk(+/+) mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  5. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S.; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M. S. E.; Ackermann, Teresa F.; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk−/−) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk+/+). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk−/− and msk+/+ mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk−/− mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk−/− and msk+/+ erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk−/− erythrocytes than in msk+/+ erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk−/− erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk−/− mice. The spleens from msk−/− mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk+/+ mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  6. Parathyroid hormone ablation alters erythrocyte parameters that are rescued by calcium-sensing receptor gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jose R; Youte, Rodeler; Brown, Edward M; Pollak, Martin R; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Pong, Lie-Chin; Chien, Lawrence; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Rivera, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) produces anemia are unclear. Parathyroid hormone secretion is regulated by the extracellular Ca2+ -sensing receptor. We investigated the effects of ablating PTH on hematological indices and erythrocytes volume regulation in wild-type, PTH-null, and Ca2+ -sensing receptor-null/PTH-null mice. The erythrocyte parameters were measured in whole mouse blood, and volume regulatory systems were determined by plasma membrane K+ fluxes, and osmotic fragility was measured by hemoglobin determination at varying osmolarities. We observed that the absence of PTH significantly increases mean erythrocyte volume and reticulocyte counts, while decreasing erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These changes were accompanied by increases in erythrocyte cation content, a denser cell population, and increased K+ permeability, which were in part mediated by activation of the K+ /Cl- cotransporter and Gardos channel. In addition we observed that erythrocyte osmotic fragility in PTH-null compared with wild-type mice was enhanced. When Ca2+ -sensing receptor gene was deleted on the background of PTH-null mice, we observed that several of the alterations in erythrocyte parameters of PTH-null mice were largely rescued, particularly those related to erythrocyte volume, K+ fluxes and osmotic fragility, and became similar to those observed in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ -sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone are functionally coupled to maintain erythrocyte homeostasis. PMID:23528155

  7. Impulsivity-related Traits Are Associated with Higher White Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.101.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

  8. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 C or 37 C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  9. Evaluation of a citrate-based anticoagulant with platelet inhibitory activity for feline blood cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Norman, Elizabeth J.; Barron, Ronnie C. J.; Nash, Andrew S.; Clampitt, Roger BB.

    2001-01-01

    Aggregation of feline platelets in vitro results in difficulty assessing platelet number. A citrate-based anticoagulant containing the platelet inhibitors theophylline, adenosine, and dipyridamole (CTAD; Diatube-H, Becton Dickinson, Oxford, UK) has been developed for use in human platelet studies and heparin assays. To evaluate the efficacy of CTAD in reducing platelet aggregation in feline blood samples, aliquots of blood from 51 cats were anticoagulated with EDTA, CTAD, and for 12 samples, citrate solution. Samples preserved in CTAD had significantly higher (Pcounts, as determined by an impedance counter, hemacytometer, and smear estimation, than samples preserved in EDTA. In addition, subjective assessment of blood smears showed significantly fewer platelet aggregates (P<.001) in CTAD-treated samples compared with EDTA samples. Although values were similar, automated platelet counts and smear estimates of platelet number were significantly higher (P<.05) and platelet aggregation was significantly less (P<.05) in CTAD samples than in citrate samples. These results suggest that the platelet inhibitory activity of CTAD reduced feline platelet aggregation. Automated total WBC counts in CTAD samples were significantly lower (P<.001) than automated counts in EDTAsamples but were similar to manual WBC counts in EDTAsamples. Differences in both platelet and WBC counts between CTAD and EDTA or citrate samples were clinically relevant. Mean platelet volume and MCV were significantly lower (P<.05) in CTAD samples than in EDTA samples. No effect was seen on cell morphology or staining characteristics. The anticoagulant CTAD offers an advantage over both EDTA and cit-rate for feline hematologic analysis, by decreasing pseudothrombocytopenia and pseudoleukocytosis. PMID:12024311

  10. Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Haugen, T; Scott, C S

    2001-10-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks are required to implement control procedures, and the determination of platelet counts in particular is necessary to confirm that the quality of platelet unit production meets the standards defined by national or international guidelines. Apart from linearity analysis and comparisons of platelet counts given by different instruments, there has been no systematic standardisation of platelet counting methods in blood bank practice because to date there has been no suitable reference method for counting platelets in citrate anticoagulants. The recent introduction of an automated immunoplatelet procedure on the Cell-Dyn CD4000 provides a means of determining a true platelet count that is unaffected by changes induced either by storage or anticoagulant. The CD4000 in its routine configuration also provides simultaneous impedance and optical platelet counts and this study was therefore undertaken in order to compare all three different platelet counting methods in parallel with a representative series of platelet units. Platelet counts determined after sub-sampling of platelet units into EDTA vs plain non-anticoagulated tubes revealed no differences in impedance or immunoplatelet counts but generally lower optical counts when aliquoted into tubes that did not contain EDTA. This study therefore routinely used EDTA for platelet unit sub-samples. Comparative results of platelet counts for buffy coat platelet units (n = 36) aliquoted into EDTA indicated that the impedance count was higher than the reference immunoplatelet count by a mean factor of 1.25 while the optical count was lower by a mean factor of 0.87. The degree of impedance count overestimation was particularly consistent while the optical count underestimation was more variable. Linearity studies of 10 fresh platelet units showed no deviation in the range 0-2305 x 10(9) l(-1) for impedance and 0 to 1420 x 10(9) l(-1) for the optical counts, and the relative numerical relationships between impedance and optical counts were conserved throughout the range of dilutions tested. In the CD4000 optical analysis, blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA showed a distinctive elliptical population distribution that fell within the system thresholds. In contrast, the optical pattern observed for platelet units (in CPD) and ACD-anticoagulated venous blood showed a wider 90 degrees scatter with a population of platelet events above the upper parallel discriminator. As these were excluded from the optical count (but were still identified as platelets by the immunoplatelet method) it meant that the optical counts of samples in citrate-based anticoagulants were systematically lower than immunoplatelet counts. Platelet units (n = 15) analysed daily over a seven day period of storage revealed that the greatest decline in platelet counts was with the optical measurement while the most stable value was obtained by impedance analysis. The results of the immunoplatelet analysis further suggested a progressive increase in small platelets with increasing storage time. The use in this study of a standardised immunoplatelet reference method to examine the question of analyser suitability for determining platelet counts/yields of platelet units thus provided a number of important findings. An impedance platelet counting method is utilised by the great majority of haematology instruments in current use, and in common with the CD4000 analyser, a correction factor is employed to take account of RBC/platelet coincidence. This study found that when analysed samples such as platelet units were RBC-free, that an inappropriate correction factor was applied. Consequently, the CD4000

  11. WBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... is 4,500 to 10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges may vary ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal One ...

  12. Association between absolute blood eosinophil count and CKD stages among cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Rui; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Kizawa, Shun; Sakane, Kazushi; Morita, Hideaki; Ozeki, Michishige; Sohmiya, Koichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2016-02-01

    Elevated eosinophil count was shown to be associated with the development of cholesterol embolization syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, after catheter-based procedures. We investigated the association between stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the absolute eosinophil count (AEC) among cardiac patients. CKD stages were determined solely on the estimated glomerular filtration rate or requirement for hemodialysis. Eosinophilia is defined as an eosinophil count exceeding 500/?L. A total of 1022 patients were enrolled in the current study, and eosinophil counts (/?L) in the first through fourth eosinophil count quartiles were <88, 88 to 154, 155 to <238, and 238?, respectively, and 29 patients (2.8%) had eosinophilia. Correlation coefficient between the AEC and age was -0.188 (P=0.001) in women and -0.042 (n.s.) in men (by Spearman's correlation test). Patients with higher CKD stages had a higher prevalence of the highest AEC quartile or eosinophilia. Logistic regression analysis using severe renal dysfunction (i.e., CKD stage 4 or 5) as the dependent variable, the highest AEC quartile had a significant positive association with an odds ratio of 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.31, P<0.01) after adjustment for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and total white blood cell count. Similarly, after adjustment for the same variables, eosinophilia was associated with severe renal dysfunction with an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.26, P<0.05). Eosinophil count was positively associated with higher CKD stages among cardiology patients, some fraction of which might be related to subclinical cholesterol embolization. PMID:25325991

  13. Brain, blood, and iron: Perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C.M.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J.; Verhaag, Esther M.; Jan J, Vonk; Margolis, Russell L.; Walker, Ruth H.

    2012-01-01

    The terms “neuroacanthocytosis” (NA) and “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation” (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

  14. Brain, blood, and iron: perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C M; Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J; Verhaag, Esther M; Vonk, Jan J; Margolis, Russell L; Walker, Ruth H

    2012-06-01

    The terms "neuroacanthocytosis" (NA) and "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation" (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

  15. Erythrocyte rheology in acute cerebral thrombosis. Effects of ABO blood groups.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D A; Ghitescu, M; Marcu, I; Xenakis, A

    1979-11-01

    Within a few hours after a cerebral thrombosis in 220 patients, the flow-properties of the red blood cells (RBC) were analyzed by a filtration test that expresses quantitatively the deformability and aggregability of the RBC by the filtration indexes pT. Abnormal deformability of the RBC washed clean of plasma was found in 27.5% of the patients. Aggregability disorders, caused by the plasma trapped between the unwashed RBC, were found in 78.6% of the patients: computation of correlation coefficients between pT indexes and fibrinogen, which was found abnormally high in 88.2% of cases, demonstrated significantly that in the patients with A and B blood groups these aggregability disorders were due to fibrinogen and that they were caused by other components of plasma in patients with O and AB blood groups. All these disorders can account for blood hyperviscosity. PMID:508955

  16. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Bruno; Lenfers, Anna; Kelsch, Reinhard; Jger, Kathrin; Brggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.48-1.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  17. Telomere Length Is Not Related to Established Cardiovascular Risk Factors but Does Correlate with Red and White Blood Cell Counts in a German Blood Donor Population

    PubMed Central

    Kelsch, Reinhard; Jger, Kathrin; Brggmann, Nina; van der Harst, Pim; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is considered a marker of biological aging and has been associated with the presence of various coronary risk factors in patients. Much less is known about the relationships between TL and classic coronary risk factors in other populations. We measured TL in peripheral blood leukocytes of 343 middle-aged blood donors (mean age 40.2 12.4 years; 201 men, 142 women) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Median TL was 0.86 (range: 0.481.85) relative TL units. In linear regression analyses with natural log-transformed T to S ratio as the dependent variable, there was a significant association with age (per year: beta = -0.007, p<0.001) and sex (males vs. females: beta = 0.075, p = 0.007) with longer telomeres in men. After adjusting for these two variables, we observed no association of TL with classic coronary risk factors including cholesterol (p = 0.36), triglyceride (p = 0.09), HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.26), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.36), smoking (p = 0.97), and personal (p = 0.46) or family history (p = 0.63) of cardiovascular disease. However, we did find a significant positive association with white (p = 0.011) and red blood cell count (p = 0.031), hemoglobin (p = 0.014) and hematocrit (p = 0.013); we also found a borderline positive association with thrombocytes (p = 0.074). Positive associations remained significant for hemoglobin (p = 0.017), hematocrit (p = 0.023), and leukocytes (p = 0.009) in a subgroup with no reported vascular disease; associations were of borderline significance for erythrocytes (p = 0.053) and thrombocytes (p = 0.088) in this subgroup. The data do not support the concept that classic coronary risk factors contribute to telomere attrition in a blood donor population. However, telomere attrition may be a marker for reduced proliferation reserve in hematopoietic progenitor cells. PMID:26445269

  18. [49 day storage of erythrocyte concentrates in blood bags with the PAGGS-mannitol solution].

    PubMed

    Walker, W H; Netz, M; Gänshirt, K H

    1990-01-01

    The red cell preservation solution PAGGS-Mannitol differs from the well documented PAGGS-Sorbitol only by the exchange from Sorbitol in Mannitol. In a clinical investigation with volunteers, up to 21 of the pure PAGGS-Mannitol solution were infused within 4 h. Blood and urine parameters were determined. The solution was well tolerated, no unexpected change of blood and urine parameters was found. The 24 h red cell in vivo survival rate of PAGGS-Mannitol was found to be 74.5 +/- 4.4%, after 49 days storage, a value which was described for PAGGS-Sorbitol before. In vitro data on storage of red cell concentrates with and without buffy coat were determined for hemolysis, 2,3-DPG and ATP using a blood bag system with DEHP and TOTM plastisized PVC. If 1% hemolysis is regarded as acceptable, red cell concentrates can be stored in PAGGS-Mannitol with a TOTM plastisized blood bag system up to 42 days. Under these conditions the amount of plastisizer in the red cell concentrate was found to be only 1% of the amount determined in a standard DEHP plastisized PVC blood bag system. PMID:1703901

  19. Differences in Rat and Human Erythrocytes Following Blood Component Manufacturing: The Effect of Additive Solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SilveiraCavalcante, Luciana; Acker, Jason P.; Holovati, Jelena L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small animal models have been previously used in transfusion medicine studies to evaluate the safety of blood transfusion products. Although there are multiple studies on the effects of blood banking practices on human red blood cells (RBCs), little is known about the effect of blood component manufacturing on the quality of rat RBCs. Methods Blood from Sprague-Dawley rats and human volunteers (n = 6) was collected in CPD anticoagulant, resuspended in SAGM or AS3, and leukoreduced. In vitro quality was analyzed, including deformability, aggregation, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, percent hemolysis, ATP, 2,3-DPG, osmotic fragility, and potassium concentrations. Results Compared to human RBCs, rat RBCs had decreased deformability, membrane rigidity, aggregability, and microvesiculation after component manufacturing process. Rat RBCs in SAGM showed higher hemolysis compared to human RBCs in SAGM (rat 4.70 0.83% vs. human 0.34 0.07%; p = 0.002). Rat RBCs in AS3 had greater deformability and rigidity than in SAGM. The number of microparticles/l and the percentage PS expression were lower in rat RBCs in AS3 than in rat RBCs in SAGM. Hemolysis was also significantly lower in AS3 compared to SAGM (2.21 0.68% vs. 0.87 0.39%; p = 0.028). Conclusion Rat RBCs significantly differ from human RBCs in metabolic and membrane-related aspects. SAGM, which is commonly used for human RBC banking, causes high hemolysis and is not compatible with rat RBCs. PMID:26195928

  20. Ten-year treatment outcomes including blood cell count disturbances in patients with simple renal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Bryniarski, Piotr; Kaletka, Zbigniew; ?yczkowski, Marcin; Prokopowicz, Grzegorz; Muska?a, Bartosz; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Background The simple renal cyst is the most common benign kidney disease. It may cause pain and hypertension, especially if significantly enlarged. As in polycystic kidney disease, blood cell count disturbances are frequently observed in simple renal cysts. The aim of our study was to assess such disturbances, changes in blood pressure, and complication rate in our patients undergoing surgery due to simple renal cyst in the last 10 years. Material/Methods 210 patients with simple renal cysts were underwent surgery between 2002 and 2012. Two different kinds of operation were conducted: aspiration of cyst fluid with injection of sclerosing agent, and laparoscopic/retroperitoneoscopic decortications of the cyst wall. A control group comprised 134 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. The following data were obtained: cyst burden, hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, thrombocytes, occurrence of pain, and blood pressure before and after the operation. Complications were collected and presented in Clavien score. Results Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cells were significantly increased in the experimental group. A positive correlation was observed between cyst burden and the parameters mentioned above. Of 91 patients with hypertension, 56 (61.7%) had blood pressure reduction after the operation. Treatment relieved the loin pain in 132 (88%) patients. Complications occurred in 15 (7.4%) patients. Conclusions Patients with simple renal cysts have high values of red blood cells, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Treatment decreases blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Complications after treatment are rare and mild. PMID:23811552

  1. AMPK?1 Deletion Shortens Erythrocyte Life Span in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaobin; Dale, George L.; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-hui

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPK?1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPK?1 (AMPK?1?/?), but not in those lacking AMPK?2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPK?1?/? mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPK?1?/? mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPK?1?/? erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPK?1?/? mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPK?1?/? mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPK?1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes. PMID:20392689

  2. A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

  3. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  4. Studies on erythrocytes in malaria infected blood sample with Raman optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Raktim; Shanker Verma, Ravi; Ahlawat, Sunita; Uppal, Abha; Kumar Gupta, Pradeep

    2011-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy was performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) from blood samples of healthy volunteers (h-RBCs) and from patients suffering from P. vivax infection (m-RBCs). A significant fraction of m-RBCs produced Raman spectra with altered characteristics relative to h-RBCs. The observed spectral changes suggest a reduced oxygen-affinity or right shifting of the oxygen-dissociation curve for the intracellular hemoglobin in a significant fraction of m-RBCs with respect to its normal functional state.

  5. The effects of short-term and long-term testosterone supplementation on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability in healthy adult mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Vogel, Johannes; Li, Michelle; Peng, Liming; Pencina, Karol; Serra, Carlo; Sandor, Nicolae L; Jasuja, Ravi; Montano, Monty; Basaria, Shehzad; Gassmann, Max; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-05-01

    Testosterone treatment induces erythrocytosis that could potentially affect blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk. We thus investigated the effects of testosterone administration on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability using mouse models. Blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and hematocrits were measured in normal male and female mice, as well as in females and castrated males after short-term (2 wk) and long-term (5-7 mo) testosterone intervention (50 mg/kg, weekly). Castrated males for long-term intervention were studied in parallel with the normal males to assess the effect of long-term testosterone deprivation. An additional short-term intervention study was conducted in females with a lower testosterone dose (5 mg/kg). Our results indicate no rheological difference among normal males, females, and castrated males at steady-state. Short-term high-dose testosterone increased hematocrit and whole-blood viscosity in both females and castrated males. This effect diminished after long-term treatment, in association with increased erythrocyte deformability in the testosterone-treated mice, suggesting the presence of adaptive mechanism. Considering that cardiovascular events in human trials are seen early after intervention, rheological changes as potential mediator of vascular events warrant further investigation. PMID:25774550

  6. MULTICOMPARTMENT KINETIC MODEL FOR LEAD. PART 3. LEAD IN BLOOD PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...

  7. Sustaining Blood Lymphocyte Count during Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Predictive Marker for Pathologic Complete Response in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jaesung; Chun, Mison; Noh, O Kyu; Oh, Young-Taek; Suh, Kwang Wook; Park, Jun Eun; Cho, Oyeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the circulating lymphocyte level during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and pathologic complete response (pCR) in locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods From May 2010 to May 2013, 52 patients treated with preoperative CRT followed by surgery, were analysed. Patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy (50-54 Gy) with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgical resection was performed at 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of preoperative CRT. Absolute blood lymphocyte counts and their relative percentage in total white blood cell counts were obtained from complete blood count tests performed prior to and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of CRT. We analysed the association between achieving pCR and change in blood lymphocyte level during CRT, as well as clinical parameters. Results Among 52 patients, 14 (26.9%) had evidence of pCR. Sustaining the blood lymphocyte count during CRT (lymphocyte count at 4 weeks/baseline lymphocyte count > 0.35; odds ratio, 8.33; p=0.02) and initial carcinoembryonic antigen < 4.4 ng/mL (odds ratio, 6.71; p=0.03) were significantly associated with pCR in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Sustaining blood lymphocyte count during preoperative CRT was predictive for pCR in rectal cancer. Further studies are warranted to investigate the association between pathologic responses and circulating lymphocyte count with its subpopulation during preoperative CRT. PMID:25779365

  8. Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent. PMID:24453794

  9. An Automated High-Throughput Counting Method for Screening Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengxia; Schiro, Perry G.; Kuo, Jason S.; Koehler, Karen M.; Sabath, Daniel E.; Popov, Viorica; Feng, Qinghua; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has proved valuable for early detection and prognosis in cancer treatment. This paper describes an automated high-throughput counting method for CTCs based on microfluidics and line-confocal microscopy. Peripheral blood was directly labeled with multiple antibodies, each conjugated with a different fluorophore, pneumatically pumped through a microfluidic channel and interrogated by a line-confocal microscope. Based on the fluorescence signals and labeling schemes, the count of CTCs was automatically reported. Due to the high flow rate, 1 mL of whole blood can be analyzed in less than 30 minutes. We applied this method in analyzing CTCs from 90 stage IV breast-cancer patient samples, and performed a side-by-side comparison with the results of the CellSearch assay, which is the only method approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at present for enumeration of CTCs. This method has a recovery rate for cultured breast cancer cells of 94% (n=9), with an average of 1.2 counts/mL of background level of detected CTCs from healthy donors. It detected CTCs from breast-cancer patients, ranging from 15 to 3375 counts/7.5 mL. Using this method, we also demonstrate the ability to enumerate CTCs from breast-cancer patients that were positive for Her2 or CD44+/CD24?, which is a putative cancer stem cell marker. This automated method can enumerate CTCs from peripheral blood with high throughput and sensitivity. It could potentially benefit the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. PMID:23387387

  10. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions. PMID:24138476

  11. Use of longitudinal analysis of peripheral blood counts to validate historical reconstructions of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kipen, H M; Cody, R P; Goldstein, B D

    1989-01-01

    We studied over 17,000 peripheral blood counts, accumulated during hematologic surveillance from 1940 through 1975, from a cohort of 459 benzene-exposed workers. Linear regressions demonstrated significant decreases in white and red cell counts, as well as hemoglobin, for workers exposed during the 1940s, without persistent trends over the ensuing 25 years. Strongly positive correlations were observed between these blood count fluctuations and fluctuations in retrospective estimates of benzene exposures for these workers in the earlier period of surveillance (mean estimated exposure 1940 to 1948, 75 ppm), but not for later years, (mean estimated exposure 1948 to 1975, 15 to 20 ppm). These data suggest substantial limitations of hematologic examination of populations to detect abnormalities in populations currently exposed to benzene. The analysis also demonstrates a novel approach to the biological validation of exposure estimates based upon limited industrial hygiene and historical record data. The application of biologic monitoring data may be useful for assisting decisions in reconstruction of a previous exposure. PMID:2792041

  12. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  13. Reticulocyte count and reticulocyte maturation profile in human umbilical cord blood from healthy newborns.

    PubMed

    Maconi, Mariacaterina; Formisano, Debora; Cavalca, Leandra; Rolfo, Alessandro; Cardaropoli, Simona; Danise, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Most fetal hematologic parameters show a significant relationship with gestational age: a linear increase is evident throughout gestation for several hematologic parameters. A few reports have described reference values for umbilical cord blood reticulocyte counts performed with automated hematology analyzers. Our aim was to use automated hematology analyzers (ADVIA 120; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) to establish reference intervals for reticulocyte parameters in cord blood from healthy newborns of 34 to 42 weeks of gestation. We also investigated whether differences in reticulocyte parameters exist between the sexes and between different weeks of gestation. We enrolled 98 healthy, appropriate for gestational age newborns. In term infants, the reticulocyte percentage, the absolute reticulocyte count, and the reticulocyte hemoglobin content decreased significantly as the gestational age increased, but the maturation subpopulations did not change significantly. We found no significant differences between the sexes. In conclusion, our results contribute to the establishment of reference intervals for cord blood from full-term newborns that are measured with an automated hematology analyzer. PMID:20223743

  14. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free ?-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  15. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

  16. Influence of intermittent hypoxia interval training on exercise-dependent erythrocyte NOS activation and blood pressure in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Ladage, Dennis; Braunroth, Christian; Lenzen, Edward; Berghöfer, Sandra; Graf, Christine; Bloch, Wilhelm; Brixius, Klara

    2012-12-01

    NOS-activation in erythrocytes (eryNOS) is impaired in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of physical exercise on eryNOS activation and whether 6 week hypoxia interval training may alter this process. Male patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (NIDDM, n = 12; age, 61.3 ± 8.4 years; BMI, 29.8 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) underwent physical exercise training before and after 6 week hypoxia interval training. Training was conducted 4 times per week for 90 min at 15.4-12.7 Vol% of inspired oxygen. Vital parameters were recorded. Before hypoxia intervention, eryNOS phosphorylation at serine(1177) decreased significantly during exercise (basal 17.4 ± 12.0 compared with exercise 8.4 ± 9.2 arbitrary grey values (arGV); P < 0.05). After 6 weeks of hypoxia intervention, eryNOS-pSer(1177) (2.2 ± 2.5 arGV) was significantly lower at baseline. Ergometry showed an increase (7.6 ± 3.0 arGV; P < 0.05) followed by a decrease to almost baseline levels after 30 min (3.8 ± 1.5 arGV). Maximal exercise capacity and O(2)-uptake ([Formula: see text]  max) increased significantly. The effects were independent from exercise-induced elevation of blood pressure. Exercise-dependent eryNOS phosphorylation at serine(1177) was increased similar to that described for the endothelium in diabetic patients. EryNOS dysregulation was partially restored after intermittent hypoxia training. PMID:23210438

  17. Normalizing counts and cerebral blood flow intensity in functional imaging studies of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Arndt, S; Cizadlo, T; O'Leary, D; Gold, S; Andreasen, N C

    1996-06-01

    Image intensity normalization is frequently applied to eliminate or adjust for subject or injection global blood flow (gCBF) and other sources of nuisance variation. Normalization has several other positive effects on the analysis of PET images. However, the choice of an intensity normalization technique affects the statistical and psychometric properties of the image data. We compared three normalization procedures, the ratio approach (regional (r)CBF/gCBF), histogram equalization, and ANCOVA, on both PET count and flow data sets. The ratio method presents the proportional increase of regions, the histogram equalization method offers the relative ranking of intensities over the image, and the ANCOVA method provides statistical deviations from an expected linear model of regional values from the subject's gCBF. The original study used 33 normal subjects in a standard subtraction paradigm. The normalization methods were evaluated on their ability to remove extraneous error variation, induce homogeneity of intersubject variation, and remove unwanted dependencies. In general, the normalization modified the subtraction image more than the individual condition images. All three methods worked well at removing the dependency of rCBF on gCBF in count and flow images. For count data, the three methods also reduced the amount of error variation equally well, improving the signal to noise ratio. For flow data, the histogram equalization and ratio methods worked best at reducing statistical error. All three methods dramatically stabilized the variance over the image. PMID:9345488

  18. Erythrocyte Hb-S Concentration AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN THE LOW OXYGEN AFFINITY OF BLOOD IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Seakins, M.; Gibbs, W. N.; Milner, P. F.; Bertles, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The blood in sickle cell anemia has a very low oxygen affinity and, although 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) is increased, there is doubt as to whether this is the only factor responsible. In this study of 15 patients with sickle cell anemia (Hb SS) no correlation was found between oxygen affinity (P50 at pH 7.13) and 2,3-DPG in fresh venous blood. Whole populations of Hb SS erythrocytes were therefore separated, by an ultracentrifuge technique, into fractions of varying density. The packed red cell column was divided into three fractions; a bottom fraction rich in deformed cells or irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), with a very high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); a middle fraction containing cells with the highest content of fetal hemoglobin; and a top fraction containing reticulocytes and discoid cells but free of deformed cells. Oxygen affinity was shifted to the right in all layers (mean P50 (pH 7.13)±1SD: top 46.3±2.9 mm Hg: middle 49.8±4.9 mm Hg; bottom 61.0±5.8 mm Hg) compared with normal blood (top 32.1±0.7 mm Hg: bottom 30.1±0.5 mm Hg). 2.3-DPG was increased in the top fraction, but was low or normal in the bottom fraction (top 21.8±3.4 μmol/g Hb: middle 17.7±2.2 μmol/g Hb; bottom 13.8±3.1 μmol/g Hb; normal whole blood 14.3±1.2 μmol/g Hb). The level of 2,3-DPG in top fractions could not account for the degree of right shift of P50, and in the middle and bottom fractions the even greater right shifts were associated with lower levels of 2,3-DPG. Top fraction cells depleted of 2,3-DPG had a higher, but still abnormally low, oxygen affinity. A strong relationship was found between oxygen affinity and MCHC. The fractions with the greatest right shift in P50 had the highest MCHC (top 32.4±2.0; middle 36.2±3.1; bottom 44.6±3.2 g/100 ml, respectively) and the plot of P50 vs. MCHC showed a positive correlation (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). The red cell population in sickle cell anemia is not homogeneous but contains cells of widely varying Hb F content, 2,3-DPG, and hemoglobin concentration. Paradoxically, the cells with the lowest O2 affinity have the lowest 2,3-DPG, but they also have the highest concentration of Hb S. The dense, deformed cell called the ISC is but the end stage in a process of membrane loss and consequent increase in hemoglobin concentration. The P50 of Hb SS blood is, to a large extent, determined by the presence of these cells (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). Increased concentration of Hb S in the cell favors deoxygenation and crystallization even at relatively high Po2. Lowered affinity for oxygen appears to be closely associated with Hb S concentration and not with 2,3-DPG content. PMID:4683881

  19. Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.E.; Ignacio, L.; Houghton, A.

    1995-10-15

    Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed to identify which patients are at risk for cytopenia and require close monitoring. Low CBC levels during radiation therapy are likely to be the result of other medical problems that cancer patients face. Regional irradiation with small field sizes (<40% of total body marrow) typically used in clinical radiotherapy is unlikely to be the cause of marrow depression significant enough to warrant medical intervention. Blood levels taken during the first week of treatment (Week 1) can be used to determine risks of developing critical nadirs. Localized breast and prostate cancer patients are unlikely to require routine CBCs if initial levels are normal. Routine CBC levels on all radiation oncology patients without other reasons for hematopoietic depression requires reevaluation, as millions of dollars are spent on unnecessary testing. If weekly CBC blood levels are avoided in localized breast and prostate cancer patients, this alone could potentially results in a savings of as much as $40 million a year nationally. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    CSENDES J., Attila; MUOZ Ch., Andrea; BURGOS L., Ana Mara

    2014-01-01

    Background The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. Aim To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. Methods This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. Results Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. Conclusions Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD. PMID:25626929

  1. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  2. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Gromann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 ?m fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  3. [Seasonal changes in mechanical resistance of erythrocytes of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus)].

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Shchenyavsky, I I

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes of relative blood reticulocyte counts, free plasma hemoglobin and mechanical erythrocyte resistance were studied in the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus), under different functional conditions (winter hibernation, forced arousal in winter, and summer activity). A significant increase in reticulocyte counts in the ground squirrel blood was observed in April and October, indicating enhancement of erythropoeisis. This conclusion is also confirmed by a significant increase in free plasma hemoglobin at these periods. It has been also shown that erythrocytes of hibernating and forcibly awaken winter ground squirrels have a significantly lower mechanical resistance in comparison with those of active summer animals. The obtained data indicate that during the periods preceding the onset of winter hibernation and transition to summer activity there occurs a seasonal replacement of the erythrocyte pool by a pool more adapted to performance of functions in the novel functional state of the animal-hibernator. PMID:25786319

  4. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (?m/hr) and 3.8 (?m3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important indicator of intrinsic aging-related stress. PMID:18492269

  5. Comparative rheology of nucleated and non-nucleated red blood cells. I. Microrheology of avian erythrocytes during capillary flow.

    PubMed

    Gaehtgens, P; Schmidt, F; Will, G

    1981-06-01

    Deformation and dynamic flow behaviour of nucleated duck erythrocytes were compared to those of nonnucleated human cells during steady flow (at wall shear stresses up to 3 N.m-2) through glass capillaries (diameter between 5 micrometer and 12 micrometer). While the deformation process of both cell species is qualitatively similar, significant quantitative differences demonstrate a lower deformability of the nucleated erythrocytes. In comparison to human cells, the avian red cells exhibit significantly lower stability of orientation during capillary flow. Viscometric measurements show that, in contrast to human red cell suspensions, the relative viscosity of nucleated cell suspensions does not decrease with increasing suspending medium viscosity. The results indicate that the hydrodynamic disturbance caused by avian erythrocytes in the flow of the suspending fluid is more pronounced than that of the mammalian cells. This is due to their lower ability to adapt to local shear forces. PMID:7196028

  6. Erythrocyte as a biological sensor.

    PubMed

    Lopes de Almeida, J P; Oliveira, S; Saldanha, C

    2012-01-01

    The erythrocytes ability of sensing the local oxygen gradient through the hemoglobin conformation, along with changes in nitric oxide mobilization and vasomotor repercussions at the microcirculation, were reviewed in detail in this article. Different approachs trying to explain the erythrocyte death were additionally documented. Also, the influence of several types of molecules (vasoactive, oxidant/reductor) on the erythrocyte roles as sensor of (i) oxygen tissue needs, (ii) blood viscosity and myogenic environment, (iii) and inflammatory conditions were mentioned in order to highlight its physiologycal function and substitute the erroneous idea of the erythrocyte being simply a hemoglobin sac content. PMID:22240380

  7. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia. PMID:26802490

  8. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  9. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  10. How useful are complete blood count and reticulocyte reports to clinicians in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) and reticulocyte (Retics) are routine hematology tests useful for the differential diagnosis of anemia and other medical conditions. However, it has been presumed that they are not used as regular as they should be in medical practice in Addis Ababa hospitals. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted during November-December 2010, in which 408 clinicians participated and their response on the use of CBC and Retics was assessed. The always/frequently (A/F) response was considered to reflect routine use of the CBC/Retics parameters by the clinicians. The Chi square test was used to study statistical associations among different variables. Result Only four of 13 parameters in CBC were frequently or always used by more than 85% of the clinicians. Health Officers were observed to use 12 of the 13 CBC parameters less than the other professional group; interns and residents demonstrated highest use of CBC results. More than a third of clinicians preferred white blood cell (WBC) differential report in percentages than the more useful absolute number report. Reticulocyte parameters were not being used by majority of clinicians in patient management. Clinicians rated average regarding the adequacy of clinical laboratory methods course they took during medical education. As service users, clinicians indicated mm3 as unit of preference in cell count on the laboratory report form. Conclusion Overall, most clinicians do not use much of the data provided on routine CBC report. Additional research is needed to understand the issue further. Responsible bodies should promote the appropriate use of CBC/Retics reports by clinicians. PMID:24325971

  11. Use of the Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer for automated counting of blood cells in body fluids.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Dieter; Van Moer, Guy; Martens, Geert A; Nanos, Nikolaos; Smet, Lutgarde; Jochmans, Kristin; De Waele, Marc

    2010-02-01

    The enumeration and identification of blood cells in body fluids offers important information for the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. Manual microscopic methods (hemacytometer total cell count and cytocentrifuged differential count) have inherent analytic and economic disadvantages but are still considered the "gold standard" methods. We evaluated the analytic and clinical performance of the Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics Division, Santa Clara, CA) for automated blood cell counting and leukocyte differential counting in cerebrospinal fluid, serous fluid (peritoneal and pleural fluid), and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid, and we compared the performance with the respective manual methods. In the present article, we describe its applicability for the distinct body fluids, and we highlight limitations and caveats. PMID:20093239

  12. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  13. Red blood cell count as an indicator of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhan-Sheng; Song, Zhan-Chun; Bai, Jing-Hui; Li, Fei; Wu, Tao; Qi, Ji; Hu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheological disorders of red blood cells (RBC) and decreased RBC deformability have been involved in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. However, few studies have evaluated the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of RBC count with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM. Methods This study involved 369 patients with T2DM: 243 with one or more microvascular complications and 126 without microvascular complications. Anticoagulated blood was collected and analyzed in an automated blood cell counter. The presence of risk factors for microvascular complications was determined. Results The proportion of patients with microvascular complications increased as the RBC count decreased (P < 0.001). After adjustment for known risk factors for microvascular complications by logistic regression analysis, lower quartiles of RBC count were associated with a higher risk of microvascular complications compared with the reference group composed of the highest quartile (first quartile, odds ratio 4.98, 95% confidence interval 1.54–6.19, P = 0.008; second quartile, odds ratio 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.17–5.28, P = 0.024). Conclusion A decreased RBC count is associated with microvascular complications in Chinese patients with T2DM. The RBC count is a potential marker to improve further the ability to identify diabetic patients at high risk of microvascular complications. PMID:23690689

  14. Serum Uric Acid, Alanine Aminotransferase, Hemoglobin and Red Blood Cell Count Levels in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Simavl?, Hseyin; Bucak, Yasin Ycel; Tosun, Mehmet; Erdurmu?, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation (PEX), the most common cause of secondary glaucoma, has not been clearly identified, but there is increasing evidence that points out the role of oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to evaluate some of the most commonly used blood parameters, hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and uric acid (UA) levels, in subjects with PEX. Materials and Methods. This study is performed in a state hospital between November 2011 and December 2012. Retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent cataract surgery was performed. Thirty-one healthy subjects with PEX and 34 healthy subjects without PEX were evaluated. Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels were recorded. Student's t-test was used to compare the two groups. Results. The mean age was 73.6 14.1 years in PEX group and 70.1 12.7 in control group (p = 0.293). Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels did not show a statistically significant difference among PEX and control groups (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusion. Serum levels of Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA levels were similar in subjects with and without PEX. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise role of Hb, RBC, ALT, and UA in the pathogenesis of PEX. PMID:26075087

  15. A comparative study of animal erythrocyte agglutinins from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Chiles, T C; Bird, K T

    1989-01-01

    1. Fifteen marine algal species were analyzed for agglutinins to rabbit, sheep and human A, B and O blood group erythrocytes. 2. Protein extracts from all marine algae agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, whereas twelve and five extracts agglutinated sheep and human erythrocytes, respectively. 3. The highest agglutination titers were consistently observed with rabbit erythrocytes. 4. Dictyota dichotoma strongly agglutinated human B blood group erythrocytes relative to A and O group erythrocytes. 5. Agglutination titer of rabbit erythrocytes by six algal extracts was not inhibited by mono- or polysaccharides, yet was reduced by glycoproteins. PMID:2598625

  16. A case of myeloproliferative neoplasm with a normal complete blood cell count: A novel problem of the JAK2 era

    PubMed Central

    YE, XIU-PENG; BAO, SHEN; GAO, HUAN-MIN; GUO, YING; WEI, YU-PING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported a case of a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in a patient with a normal complete blood cell count. Bone marrow biopsy showed bone marrow hyperplasia, an elevated megakaryocyte count, megakaryocytic dysplasia and pleomorphic changes, multiple megakaryocyte clusters and focal reticulin fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the patient was positive for the JAK2-V617F mutation, and negative for the JAK2 exon 12 and 13 mutations and the BCR-ABL (p210) fusion gene. The patient's condition was basically stable and at the time of writing, the patient remained in a stable condition with no specific symptoms of disease. The present study also analyzed the diagnostic and clinical features of MPNs, and a literature review was performed. MPN with a normal complete blood cell count is a rare disease, and attention should be focused on this entity in the clinic. PMID:26998136

  17. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  18. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    PubMed

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  19. Relationship between seminal white blood cell counts and oxidative stress in men treated at an infertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Pasqualotto, A E; Nelson, D R; Thomas, A J; Agarwal, A

    2001-01-01

    In semen, granulocytes are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage sperm. The diagnosis of leukocytospermia is usually based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of 1 x 10(6) white blood cells per milliliter, but controversy remains over the minimum leukocyte level that impairs fertility. The goals of this study were to clarity the relationship between leukocyte count and oxidative stress and to establish the minimum leukocyte count associated with oxidative stress. To do so, we compared oxidative stress in semen samples with different leukocyte counts (by the Endtz test) after a simple wash-and-resuspend procedure and determined the correlation between leukocyte counts and oxidative stress (expressed as ROS-TAC score, a composite score calculated from ROS levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), both measured with chemiluminescence assays). ROS-TAC decreases as oxidative stress rises. We compared specimens from 271 men attending an infertility clinic and 28 healthy controls. About 9% of patients had WHO-defined leukocytospermia and an additional 16% had some leukocytes. Samples with no seminal leukocytes had significantly lower ROS levels and significantly higher ROS-TAC scores than samples with any seminal leukocytes, even very low levels. Oxidative stress was correlated with rising white blood cell (WBC) count (r = .39; P < .001). Receiver operating characteristics curves showed that ROS-TAC score would be fairly accurate at distinguishing between patients with any leukocytes and those with no leukocytes (area under the curve, 75%). In conclusion, oxidative stress occurs even in patients with very low seminal WBC counts (between 0 and 1 x 10(6)/mL) and rises with an increase in WBC count. Therefore, we are unable to determine a safe minimum WBC count; the presence of any WBCs is associated with oxidative stress and may therefore impair fertility. Complete removal of WBCs from semen samples used for assisted reproduction may help reduce oxidative stress. PMID:11451354

  20. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs, and (5) AO/PI dual staining method. The results show comparable total PBMC counting among all five methods, which validate the AO/PI staining method for PBMC measurement in the image cytometry method. PMID:23201386

  1. Binary release of ascorbic acid and lecithin from core-shell nanofibers on blood-contacting surface for reducing long-term hemolysis of erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term anti-hemolytic capability. To obtain such biomaterials, we coaxially electrospin [ascorbic acid (AA) and lecithin]/poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) core-shell nanofibers onto the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) that has been grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains. Our strategy is based on that the grafted layers of PEG render the surface hydrophilic to reduce the mechanical injure to red blood cells (RBCs) while the AA and lecithin released from nanofibers on blood-contacting surface can actively interact with RBCs to decrease the oxidative damage to RBCs. We demonstrate that (AA and lecithin)/PEO core-shell structured nanofibers have been fabricated on the PEG grafted surface. The binary release of AA and lecithin in the distilled water is in a controlled manner and lasts for almost 5 days; during RBCs preservation, AA acts as an antioxidant and lecithin as a lipid supplier to the membrane of erythrocytes, resulting in low mechanical fragility and hemolysis of RBCs, as well as high deformability of stored RBCs. Our work thus makes a new approach to fabricate blood-contacting biomaterials with the capability of long-term anti-hemolysis. PMID:25437061

  2. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-quare test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC. PMID:25567613

  3. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can yield good results for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape in a reconstructed phase image of multiple RBCs that will be favorable to the analysis of RBC-related diseases. In addition, we show that the discrimination performance for the counting of normal shapes of RBCs can be improved by using 3-D features of an RBC.

  4. Aorto-porto-caval micro-rheological differences of red blood cells in laboratory rats: further deformability and ektacytometrial osmoscan data.

    PubMed

    Klarik, Zoltan; Kiss, Ferenc; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of regional hemorheological properties are important in ischemia-reperfusion experimental surgical and microsurgical research models, however, the physiological arterio-venous as well as porto-caval differences in erythrocyte deformability and aggregation are still controversial. In this study, besides measuring blood pH, blood gases, lactate concentration and hematological parameters we determined erythrocyte deformability (rotational ektacytometer) together with osmoscan data as well as erythrocyte aggregation (light transmittance aggregometer) in blood samples taken from the portal vein, caudal caval vein and abdominal aorta of rats. Blood pH, partial blood gas pressures showed the anticipated physiological differences. Leukocyte count was lower in arterial blood; hematocrit, erythrocyte and platelet count was higher in systemic and portal venous blood. The lowest elongation index values were measured in arterial blood, the highest in venous and portal venous blood showed values in between. The osmoscan data did not show important differences. Erythrocyte aggregation M index 5 s showed the lowest values in arterial, higher in systemic venous and portal venous blood samples. M index 10 s showed significantly low values in systemic venous blood. M1 values were slightly higher in arterial blood compared to venous blood but the highest were in portal venous blood. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation may show aorto-porto-caval differences in the rat. The appropriate control examinations thus are important in experimental surgical and microsurgical research models. PMID:22398331

  5. Observational study of erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening test for detecting low lead exposure in children: Impact of lowering the blood lead action threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. )

    1991-02-01

    We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.

  6. Composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in lychee (Litchi Chinensis Sonn.) Flower extracts and their antioxidant capacities estimated with human LDL, erythrocyte, and blood models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Lin, J-T; Liu, S-C; Lu, P-S; Yang, D-J

    2011-01-01

    Lychee (Litchi chinensis?Sonn.) flower is a major nectar source in Taiwan. Antioxidant activities of acetone, ethanol, and hot-water extracts of the flower were estimated through three biochemical models: inhibition of Cu(2+) -induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, scavenging ability of oxygen radicals in human blood, and inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis induced by peroxyl radicals. Composition and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in these extracts were also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that antioxidant effects of all test models as well as contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids for the lychee flower extracts were in the order: acetone extract > ethanol extract > hot-water extract. Gentistic acid and epicatechin were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid in the extracts, respectively. PMID:22417418

  7. [In vitro cultivation of Plasmodium falciparum with umbilical cord erythrocyte].

    PubMed

    Li, C M; Su, T C

    1990-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum was cultivated with umbilical cord erythrocytes or with erythrocytes from human adults for 33 days and 50 days respectively. The erythrocyte infection rate increased eightfold to eighteenfold at intervals of three to four days, the highest erythrocyte infection rate being more than 20%. Furthermore, the infection rate of umbilical cord erythrocytes was higher than that of adult erythrocytes at 48, 72 and 96 hours of cultivation, respectively (P less than 0.01). The results suggested that human umbilical cord blood might be a good source of erythrocytes for in vitro cultivation of malaria parasite. PMID:2099258

  8. Application of an intracellular assay for determination of tenofovir-diphosphate and emtricitabine-triphosphate from erythrocytes using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Hua; Rower, Caitlin; McAllister, Kevin; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Klein, Brandon; Meditz, Amie; Guida, L Anthony; Kiser, Jennifer J; Bushman, Lane R; Anderson, Peter L

    2016-04-15

    This communication describes the application of an existing intracellular methodology to the quantitation of tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and emtricitabine-triphosphate (FTC-TP) from erythrocytes using dried blood spots (DBS). Concentrations were determined from a 3mm DBS punch extracted into a 70:30 methanol:water solution (lysed cellular matrix). This extraction solution was then subjected to a previously validated analytical procedure for lysed cellular matrix. Experiments for DBS validation used replicate samples from study participants to demonstrate acceptable reproducibility with spot volumes ranging from 10-50μL and punch location either from the edge or center of the spot. Analysis of paired DBS with purified red blood cells showed that a 3mm DBS punch contained an average of 11.9 million cells for the observed hematocrit range of the participants (35-50%). Numerous stability tests were completed showing that whole blood in an EDTA vacutainer could sit for 24h at room temperature prior to spotting, and DBS could remain at room temperature for up to five days including shipment at ambient using 2-days delivery. DBS stability in storage was acceptable up to 18 months at -20°C or -80°C and DBS could undergo 4 Freeze/Thaw cycles. The described method was applied to HIV prophylaxis studies, demonstrating powerful associations with HIV acquisition through its ability to discriminate gradients of adherence. PMID:26829517

  9. Dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal blood typing and cross-matching by gel column technique

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Rebecca J.; Reese, Jessica; Chang, Denise; Seth, Mayank; Hale, Anne S.; Giger, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Background Testing for canine blood types other than dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 (DEA 1.1) is controversial and complicated by reagent availability and methodology. Objectives The objectives of this study were to use available gel column technology to develop an extended blood-typing method using polyclonal reagents for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal and to assess the use of gel columns for cross-matching. Methods Dogs (4375) were typed for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Methods included tube agglutination (Tube) using polyclonal reagents, a commercially available DEA 1.1 gel column test kit (Standard-Gel) using monoclonal reagent, and multiple gel columns (Extended-Gel) using polyclonal reagents. Blood from 10 recipient and 15 donor dogs was typed as described above and cross-matched using the gel column technique. Results Of 43 dogs typed for DEA 1.1, 23, 25, and 20 dogs were positive using Standard-Gel, Extended-Gel, and Tube, respectively. Typing for DEA 1.2 was not achievable with Extended-Gel. For 75 dogs typed for DEA 3, 4, and 7, concordance of Extended-Gel with Tube was 94.7%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Dal, determined only by Extended-Gel, was positive for all dogs. Post-transfusion major cross-matches were incompatible in 10 of 14 pairings, but none were associated with demonstrable blood type incompatibilities. Conclusions Gel column methodology can be adapted for use with polyclonal reagents for detecting DEA 1.1, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Agglutination reactions are similar between Extended-Gel and Tube, but are more easily interpreted with Extended-Gel. When using gel columns for cross-matching, incompatible blood cross-matches can be detected following sensitization by transfusion, although in this study incompatibilities associated with any tested DEA or Dal antigens were not found. PMID:20727123

  10. Migraine and erythrocyte biology: a review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Cervellin, G; Mattiuzzi, C

    2014-12-01

    Migraine is a common disabling headache disorder that is conventionally classified according to the presence or absence of aura. The pathogenesis of this disorder entails a complex interplay of neurovascular factors, that trigger reduction of cerebral blood flow followed by reactive vasodilatation. Despite major emphasis has been placed on the investigation of putative biomarkers that could predict response to specific treatments and prophylaxis, less focus has been directed at the association between migraine and erythrocytosis. Erythrocytosis is typically accompanied by hyperviscosity, that is now considered a crucial determinant in the pathogenesis of migraine. The results of some epidemiological investigations are in substantial agreement to confirm the existence of a significant relationship between increased haemoglobin levels and migraine, whereas some case reports have also reported an effective improvement of symptoms after reduction of erythrocyte count by therapeutic venesection. Interesting evidence has recently emerged from the assessment of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a simple and inexpensive measure of anysocytosis that has been also associated with a variety of ischaemic and thrombotic disorders other than migraine. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current clinical and epidemiological evidence linking migraine and erythrocyte biology. PMID:24628738

  11. Transcriptomic landscape for lymphocyte count variation in poly I:C-induced porcine peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hou, Y; Guo, J; Chen, H; Liu, X; Wu, Z; Zhao, S; Zhu, M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphocyte count is an important phenotypic metric that has been reported to be related to the individual antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. To date, aside from information regarding several genes and pathways, little is known about the mechanism by which gene expression affects variation in lymphocyte count. In this work, we investigated the lymphocyte count variation after poly I:C stimulation and compared the transcriptomes of pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts before and after poly I:C stimulation. Pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts were designated as extreme response (ER) and moderate response (MR) pigs respectively. Lymphocyte counts in all animals were observed to decline after poly I:C stimulation. Transcriptomic analysis identified 1121 transcripts (981 differentially expressed genes) in MR pigs and 1045 transcripts (904 differentially expressed genes) in ER pigs. We found that the majority of the differentially expressed genes were involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the innate immune response of ER pigs was more rapid than that of MR pigs. Results indicated that the activation of signaling pathways associated with cell death, cytotoxicity and apoptosis may contribute to the poly I:C-induced decrease of lymphocyte counts in the periphery. Moreover, the differential expression patterns of chemokines and FAS either totally or partially provided an interpretation for the different degrees of decrease in the lymphocyte counts between MR and ER pigs. Overall, our study will provide further understanding of the molecular basis for the antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. PMID:26607402

  12. Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O

    2013-01-01

    The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

  13. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-11-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (C-reactive protein [CRP] <5 mg/L) and IDA as hemoglobin <110 g/L combined with ID. RDW (%) and the platelet count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW <14.3%. The platelet count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children. PMID:26558306

  14. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  15. Relationship between serum cholesterol and indices of erythrocytes and platelets in the US population[S

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Rose, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanmei; Jaramillo, Renee; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 20052006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest versus highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/?l versus 281,000/?l, respectively (adjusted model, P < 0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 20072008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components. PMID:23999863

  16. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  17. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  18. Seasonal Variations of Complete Blood Count and Inflammatory Biomarkers in the US Population - Analysis of NHANES Data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies reported seasonal differences in gene expression in white blood cells, adipose tissue, and inflammatory biomarkers of the immune system. There is no data on the seasonal variations of these biomarkers in the US general population of both children and adults. Then aim of this study is to explore the seasonal trends in complete blood count (CBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a large non-institutionalized US population. Methods Seven cross-sectional data collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 19992012 were aggregated; participants reporting recent use of prescribed steroids, chemotherapy, immunomodulators and antibiotics were excluded. Linear regression models were used to compare levels of CBC and CRP between winter-spring (November-April) and summer-fall (May-October), adjusting for demographics, personal behavioral factors, and chronic disease conditions. Results A total of 27,478 children and 36,644 adults (?18 years) were included in the study. Levels of neutrophils, white blood cell count (WBC), and CRP were higher in winter-spring than summer-fall (p?0.05). Red blood cell components were lower in winter-spring than in summer-fall, while the opposite was seen for platelets. Conclusions This large population-based study found notable seasonal variations in blood cell composition and inflammatory biomarkers, with a more pro-inflammatory immune system seen in winter-spring than summer-fall. The red blood cell patterns could have implications for the observed cardio-vascular seasonality. PMID:26544180

  19. Accuracy of a New Platelet Count System (PLT-F) Depends on the Staining Property of Its Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Atsushi; Takagi, Yuri; Kono, Mari; Morikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet count is essential for the diagnosis and management of hemostasis abnormalities. Although existing platelet count methods installed in common hematology analyzers can correctly count platelets in normal blood samples, they tend to miscount platelets in some abnormal samples. The newly developed PLT-F channel in the XN-Series hematology analyzer (Sysmex) has been reported to be a reliable platelet count system, even in abnormal samples. However, how the PLT-F platelet counting system achieves such accuracy has not been described in scientific articles. Methods Isolated platelets, erythrocytes, and fragmented erythrocytes were examined using an automated hematology analyzer. The samples were labeled by combining PLT-F reagents and anti-CD62p, CD63, Grp75, Calreticulin, CD41, or CD61 antibody, and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy or flow cytometry. Results The PLT-F system correctly discriminated platelets in erythrocytes. Its reagents strongly stained some intraplatelet organelles labeled with anti-Grp75, but only faintly stained the plasma membrane of both platelets and erythrocytes. Microscopic observation and flow cytometric examination revealed that all of these strongly stained cells were also labeled with platelet-specific anti-CD41 and anti-CD61 antibodies. Conclusions This study revealed that the staining property of the PLT-F reagents, by which platelets and fragmented erythrocytes are clearly distinguished, contributes to the platelet-counting accuracy of the PLT-F system. PMID:26496387

  20. Studies of bone marrow and leucocyte counts in peripheral blood in fetal and newborn foals.

    PubMed

    Chavatte, P; Brown, G; Ousey, J C; Silver, M; Cottrill, C; Fowden, A L; McGladdery, A J; Rossdale, P D

    1991-01-01

    Clinical and pathological records of 124 foals were studied. The foals were assigned to six groups; normal, premature, dysmature, bacterially infected, neonatal maladjustment syndrome and Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infected. Also, 6 pony fetuses were sampled via catheters in the umbilical vein and artery between 280 and 310 days gestation. Bone marrow aspiration was performed on a further 14 foals. Premature foals had significantly lower neutrophil counts than normal foals up to 5 h. Foals with bacterial infections had significantly lower neutrophil counts up to age 12 h. EHV-1 infected foals had significantly lower neutrophil counts up to age 24 h and significantly lower lymphocyte counts than all other groups up to age 12 h. Premature foals showed a higher neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte (N:L) ratio in survivors compared with non-survivors when all ages were considered, although the differences were not significant before 35 h. Discriminant analysis showed a 99% chance that the EHV-1 group could be identified from all other groups except dysmature foals, where discrimination between the two groups was about 90%. In catheterized fetuses, age-related increases in neutrophil counts and the N:L ratio occur from 280 to 310 days of gestation. In one preparation available for study leading up to parturition, the N:L ratio widened during the 3 days pre-partum. The bone marrow aspirates showed no significant changes in the myeloid:erythroid (M:E) ratio during the first 4 days post partum. The left shift (LS) index was significantly higher in foals suffering bacterial infection compared with normal or dysmature foals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1665520

  1. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 ?L, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible. PMID:26496235

  2. Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Balode, Z

    1996-02-01

    Previous bioindicative studies in the Skrunda Radio Location Station area have focused on the somatic influence of electromagnetic radiation on plants, but it is also important to study genetic effects. We have chosen cows as test animals for cytogenetical evaluation because they live in the same general exposure area as humans, are confined to specific locations and are chronically exposed to radiation. Blood samples were obtained from female Latvian Brown cows from a farm close to and in front of the Skrunda Radar and from cows in a control area. A simplified alternative to the Schiff method of DNA staining for identification of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes was applied. Microscopically, micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes were round in shape and exhibited a strong red colour. They are easily detectable as the only coloured bodies in the uncoloured erythrocytes. From each individual animal 2000 erythrocytes were examined at a magnification of x 1000 for the presence of micronuclei. The counting of micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes gave low average incidences, 0.6 per 1000 in the exposed group and 0.1 per 1000 in the control, but statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found in the frequency distribution between the control and exposed groups. PMID:8717319

  3. Common toad Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) and its importance in assessing environmental health: test of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pollo, Favio E; Bionda, Clarisa L; Salinas, Zulma A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic activities may generate significant changes in the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, so long-term monitoring of populations that inhabit them is crucial. Counting micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) in peripheral blood is a widely used method for detecting chromosomal damage due to chemical agents in the water. We analyzed MN and ENA frequency in blood obtained from the common toad Rhinella arenarum populations in sites with different degrees of environmental degradation. The results of this study indicate that there is an association between the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities and the degree of environmental alteration recorded for the sites studied. PMID:26293892

  4. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

  5. Diet of Racing Sled Dogs Affects Erythrocyte Depression by Stress

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, T. O.; Kronfeld, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  6. Multi-wavelength spectroscopy of oriented erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.; Smith, Jennifer M.; Huffman, Debra E.

    2010-02-01

    Accurate characterization of the optical properties of erythrocytes is essential for the applications in optical biomedicine, in particular, for diagnosis of blood related diseases. The observed optical properties strongly depend on the erythrocyte's size, hemoglobin composition and orientation relative to the incident light. We explored the effect of orientation on the absorption and scattering properties of erythrocytes suspended in saline using UV-visible spectroscopy and theoretical predictive modeling based on anomalous diffraction approximation. We demonstrate that the orientation of erythrocytes in dilute saline suspensions is not random and produces consistent spectral pattern. Numerical analysis showed that the multi-wavelength absorption and scattering properties of erythrocytes in dilute suspensions can be accurately described with two orientation populations. These orientation populations with respect to the incident light are face-on incidence and edge-on incidence. The variances of the orientation angles for each population are less than 15 degrees and the relative proportions of the two populations strongly depend on the number density of the erythrocytes in suspensions. Further, the identified orientation populations exhibit different sensitivities to the changes in the compositional and morphological properties of erythrocytes. The anomalous diffraction model based on these orientation populations predicts the absorption and scattering properties of erythrocytes with accuracy greater than 99%. Establishment of the optical properties of normal erythrocytes allows for detection of the disease induced changes in the erythrocyte spectral signatures.

  7. Erythrocyte deformability in peripheral occlusive arterial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, D; Lucas, G S; Caldwell, N M; Stone, P C; Baar, S; Stuart, J

    1985-01-01

    A rheological study of 32 patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD), compared with 32 matched healthy controls, has shown no loss of erythrocyte deformability as measured by filtration methods (using initial flow rate and positive pressure instruments, polycarbonate and silver membranes, and 3 microns and 5 microns diameter pores) or by viscometry (using laser visco-diffractometric and high shear rate viscosity methods). Erythrocyte ATP concentration in POAD was also normal. Patients with POAD showed a small (4 fl) increase in mean erythrocyte volume, associated with a raised serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase concentration, which correlated with erythrocyte filtration and viscometric measurements. Previous reports of impaired blood filterability in POAD probably reflect the effects of accompanying leucocytosis, plasma hyperfibrinogenaemia, or an increase in erythrocyte size, but not an intrinsic loss of erythrocyte deformability. PMID:2857183

  8. White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.566.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.40.3 (109/L) compared to 4.40.3 (109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

  9. Dose-effect and dose-response relationships of blood lead to erythrocytic protoporphyrin in young children

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P.B.; Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.

    1985-10-01

    Dose-effect and dose-response relationships were analyzed for blood lead concentration (PbB) vs blood protoporphyrin concentration using multiple data points from 165 children, ages 3-36 months. Protoporphyrin concentrations were measured using a front-face flurometer designed to measure zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and an extraction method designed to measure total protoporphyrin as the free base (FEP). Estimations were made of the thresholds for PbB effects on FEP and ZPP, as well as the slopes of the PbB-FEP and PbB-ZPP interactions. There was essentially no difference in thresholds estimated using ZPP vs FEP as the effect parameter. There was no apparent effect of age on threshold. However, the slope for PbB vs ZPP was less steep than the slope for PbB vs FEP. Moreover, the average ratio FEP:ZPP was markedly elevated at 3 months (1.84:1) and decreased slowly, attaining unity at 33 months. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, as well as the implications for interpretation of lead screening program data.

  10. Effects of photon attenuation on the determination of cardiac volumes from reconstructed counts in gated blood pool SPET.

    PubMed

    Seierstad, Therese; Bogsrud, Trond; Skretting, Arne

    2004-03-01

    In gated cardiac blood pool single-photon emission tomography (SPET), the volume of a ventricle may be determined by a method that exploits the proportionality between that volume and the total reconstructed counts within a larger volume of interest that includes the actual ventricle. The present work was carried out to determine how the attenuation of photons modifies the reconstructed counts obtained with this technique, and how this affects the accuracy of volume determination. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate how count-based determination of ventricle volumes is affected by the total SPET rotation angle and by different arm positions. We used micro -maps derived from computed tomography (CT) series of nine arbitrarily chosen patients to calculate a volume correction factor for each cardiac volume manually drawn on the CT images. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was used to confirm the calculation of correction factors. For the regions of the ventricles contained within a CT slice through the central part of the heart, the left to right volume ratio needed to be corrected by factors of 1.21 and 1.12 for 180 degrees and 360 degrees rotation, respectively. When all voxels within the left and right ventricles were included, the required volume ratio correction factor was close to 1. However, the variation among patients was larger for a 180 degrees (range 0.97-1.08) than for a 360 degrees rotation arc (range 1.0-1.03). PMID:14691609

  11. Mycoplasma suis Invades Porcine Erythrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Groebel, K.; Hoelzle, K.; Wittenbrink, M. M.; Ziegler, U.; Hoelzle, L. E.

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma suis belongs to the hemotrophic mycoplasma group and causes infectious anemia in pigs. According to the present state of knowledge, this organism adheres to the surface of erythrocytes but does not invade them. We found a novel M. suis isolate that caused severe anemia in pigs with a fatal disease course. Interestingly, only marginal numbers of the bacteria were visible on and between the erythrocytes in acridine orange-stained blood smears for acutely diseased pigs, whereas very high loads of M. suis were detected in the same blood samples by quantitative PCR. These findings indicated that M. suis is capable of invading erythrocytes. By use of fluorescent labeling of M. suis and examination by confocal laser scanning microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, we proved that the localization of M. suis was intracellular. This organism invades erythrocytes in an endocytosis-like process and is initially surrounded by two membranes, and it was also found floating freely in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, we were able to prove for the first time that a member of the hemotrophic mycoplasma group is able to invade the erythrocytes of its host. Such colonization should protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment. In addition, an intracellular life cycle may explain the chronic nature of hemotrophic mycoplasma infections and should serve as the foundation for novel strategies in hemotrophic mycoplasma research (e.g., treatment or prophylaxis). PMID:19015255

  12. Adenosine deaminase activity in serum, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats infected with Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Pimentel, Victor C; da Silva, Aleksandro S; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Souza, Viviane C G; Wolkmer, Patrcia; Rezer, Joo F P; Badke, Manoel R T; Leal, Daniela B R; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2012-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a systemic disease of humans and domestic animals, mainly dogs, cattle and swine. The course of human leptospirosis varies from mild to severe fatal forms and the most severe form of human leptospirosis is principally caused by Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (L. icterohaemorrhagiae). The enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) plays an important role in the production and differentiation of blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of ADA in serum, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats infected with L. icterohaemorrhagiae, as compared with non-infected rats. Twenty-four adult rats, divided into two uniform groups (A and B) were used for the enzymatic assays. The animals in Group B were inoculated intraperitoneally with 210(8) leptospires/rat, and the rodents in Group A (control) were not-inoculated. Blood collection was performed on days 5 and 15 post-infection (PI) and the blood used to assess the ADA activity. The infection by L.icterohaemorrhagiae altered erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit, causing a decrease in all these parameters on day 15 PI. Lymphocytes decreased significantly on day 15 PI, and ADA activity in serum was inhibited in infected rats on days 5 and 15 PI and its activity in erythrocytes were increased on day 5 PI. On day 5 PI, we found an increase in ADA activity in erythrocytes of infected rats. No correlation was observed between hematocrit and erythrocyte ADA activity on days 5 and 15 PI. The ADA activity was inhibited in rats infected on day 15 PI. A positive correlation (r(2)=60) was also observed between the number of lymphocytes and ADA activity in lymphocytes on day 15 PI (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the ADA activity is altered in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes in experimental infection by L.icterohaemorrhagiae in rats, concomitantly with hematological parameters. PMID:21320715

  13. New monoclonal antibodies in CD59: use for the analysis of peripheral blood cells from paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and for the quantitation of CD59 on normal and decay accelerating factor (DAF)-deficient erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, A; Bryant, J A; Gardner, B; Judson, P A; Spring, F A; Parsons, S F; Mallinson, G; Anstee, D J

    1992-01-01

    CD59 is a widely expressed cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein which acts as an inhibitor of the assembly of the membrane attack complex of autologous complement. Four new monoclonal antibodies to CD59 (2/24, 1B2, BRIC 229, BRIC 257) are described. Competitive binding experiments using these antibodies, two known CD59 antibodies (MEM-43, YTH 53.1) and a previously described antibody LICR-LON-Fib75.1 demonstrated that all seven antibodies see related epitopes on human erythrocyte CD59. In common with other GPI-linked proteins, CD59 (as defined by antibody 2/24) was sensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) on lymphocytes and monocytes but not on erythrocytes. Flow cytometric analysis using antibody 2/24 identified two populations (CD59 positive and CD59 deficient) of lymphocytes, monocytes and erythrocytes in peripheral blood from a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). The abundance of CD59 on normal erythrocytes was determined as 21,000 copies/cell when radioiodinated BRIC 229 was used. Other CD59 antibodies gave values of 10,000 (IF5) and 15,000 (2/24) against the same target cells. Radioiodinated Fab fragments of BRIC 229 gave a value of 39,000 copies/cell. Erythrocytes from two individuals with a rare inherited deficiency of decay accelerating factor (DAF), known as the Inab phenotype, expressed normal levels of CD59. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1374058

  14. Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-02-01

    The osmotic resistance of pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes at different temperatures and pH was studied. Erythrocytes from female pigeons showed greater osmotic resistance than those from males, but no sex difference appeared with erythrocytes from peafowls. Pigeon erythrocytes were more resistant and the red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were higher than those in peafowls. Although no significant differences appeared in their haematological values, erythrocytes from the lizard were more resistant than erythrocytes from the toad. At higher temperature, the osmotic resistance of pigeon, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased, while that of peafowl erythrocytes decreased. The resistance of toad erythrocytes decreased in acidic and alkaline solutions, but that of peafowl erythrocytes increased in both solutions. However, with pigeon and lizard erythrocytes, the resistance was unaltered in alkaline solution and decreased in acidic solution. PMID:8085400

  15. Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Wilson, Andrew M; Chisholm, Alison; Rigazio, Anna; Burden, Anne; Thomas, Michael; King, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting. Patients and methods Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12–80 years from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990–2013, were examined for 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent blood eosinophil count. Baseline variables predictive (P<0.05) of exacerbation in the outcome year were compared between patients who had two or more exacerbations and those who had no exacerbation or only one exacerbation, using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Exacerbation was defined as asthma-related hospital attendance/admission (emergency or inpatient) or acute oral corticosteroid (OCS) course. Results Blood eosinophil count >400/µL (versus ≤400/µL) increased the likelihood of two or more exacerbations >1.4-fold (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 1.58); P<0.001). Variables that significantly increased the odds by up to 1.4-fold included increasing age (per year), female gender (versus male), being overweight or obese (versus normal body mass index), being a smoker (versus nonsmoker), having anxiety/depression, diabetes, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or rhinitis, and prescription for acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with treatment at British Thoracic Society step 2 (daily controller ± reliever), treatment at step 0 (none) or 1 (as-needed reliever) increased the odds by 1.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, and treatment at step 3, 4, or 5 increased the odds by 1.3-, 1.9-, or 3.1-fold, respectively (all P<0.05). Acute OCS use was the single best predictor of two or more exacerbations. Even one course increased the odds by more than threefold (OR: 3.75 [95% CI: 3.50, 4.01]; P<0.001), and three or more courses increased the odds by >25-fold (OR: 25.7 [95% CI: 23.9, 27.6]; P<0.001). Conclusion Blood eosinophil count and several other variables routinely available in patient records may be used to predict frequent asthma exacerbations. PMID:26793004

  16. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  17. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on blood cells of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Imam A; Mahmoud, Usama M; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, the destructive effects of the 4-nonylphenol on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, namely African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were studied. Apoptosis, erythrocytes alterations, micronucleus test and blood parameters count were used as biological indicators to detect those effects. After exposure to sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1mg/l), apoptotic red blood cells with many malformations and micronucleated erythrocytes were recorded. Decrease in the blood parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), package cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes and increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), neutrophils, eosinophils indicated the negative effects of 4-nonylphenol. It was concluded that, the 4-nonylphenol caused genotoxicity in erythrocytes with many malformations in shape and number indicated with other blood parameters. PMID:21501852

  18. Toward a reference method for leukocyte differential counts in blood: comparison of three flow cytometric candidate methods.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Mikael; Davis, Bruce H; Fest, Thierry; Wood, Brent L

    2012-11-01

    A Complete Blood Count performed by an automated hematology analyzer frequently requires a microscopic slide review. Recently, we and others have proposed combinations of monoclonal antibodies for an extended leukocyte differential by flow cytometry. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of these proposals. Ninety-two samples were analyzed at 2 sites to compare the accuracy of three published methods. Reference methods used were i) cell counter for leukocyte count and ii) microscopic review as defined by CSLI H20-A2 for cell subsets. Comparison of flow cytometers from 2 manufacturers (FC500 and CANTO/LSRII) was performed. Published protocols were adapted to three different models of flow cytometer and each provided similar results in leukocyte subset enumeration, although some discrepancies were noted for each protocol in comparison with the reference method. The conclusion is that each protocol carries advantages and disadvantages and there is no clear "winner". This study supports the fact that flow cytometry is a candidate to become a reference method for the leukocyte differential. None of the tested protocols clearly demonstrated superiority and each had demonstrable deficiencies. Additional work to develop a consensual 8 to 10 color panel is concluded to be necessary for a satisfactory reference method. PMID:22736499

  19. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, David R; McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C; Crane, Paul K; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B; Carlson, Chris S; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-04-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e-55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy-/-). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn's disease. PMID:22037903

  20. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrz?bski, Zbigniew; Zar?bska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimi?ski, ?ukasz; Leo?ska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Ci?szczyk, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  1. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Hussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Fller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275284) PMID:25065608

  2. ICSH guidelines for the evaluation of blood cell analysers including those used for differential leucocyte and reticulocyte counting.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C; Culp, N; Davis, B; d'Onofrio, G; Zini, G; Machin, S J

    2014-12-01

    This revision is intended to update the 1994 ICSH guidelines. It is based on those guidelines but is updated to include new methods, such as digital image analysis for blood cells, a flow cytometric method intended to replace the reference manual 400 cell differential, and numerous new cell indices not identified morphologically are introduced. Haematology analysers are becoming increasingly complex and with technological advancements in instrumentation with more and more quantitative parameters are being reported in the complete blood count. It is imperative therefore that before an instrument is used for testing patient samples, it must undergo an evaluation by an organization or laboratory independent of the manufacturer. The evaluation should demonstrate the performance, advantages and limitations of instruments and methods. These evaluations may be performed by an accredited haematology laboratory where the results are published in a peer-reviewed journal and compared with the validations performed by the manufacturer. A less extensive validation/transference of the equipment or method should be performed by the local laboratory on instruments prior to reporting of results. PMID:24666725

  3. Minimal sensor count approach to fuzzy logic rotary blood pump flow control.

    PubMed

    Casas, Fernando; Ahmed, Nisar; Reeves, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551

  4. Blood Parameters of Healthy Mink

    PubMed Central

    Fletch, S. M.; Karstad, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    Packed cell volume (PCV) and hemoglobin (Hb) were not dependent on color type. Both were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the adult male mink as compared to the adult female. The total erythrocyte count was more variable but the parameter appeared unaffected by either sex or color types. Polychromasia, reticulocytes and the occasional normoblast, were present in peripheral mink blood smears. Rouleau, to some degree. was also seen. The most variable parameter was the total leukocyte count. The average lymphoidneutrophil ratio was 1:1. PMID:4261842

  5. Erythrocytes Induce Proinflammatory Endothelial Activation in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, Alice; Das, Shonit R.; Emin, Memet; Sun, Li; Rifkind, Joseph M.; Bhattacharya, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Although exposure to ambient hypoxia is known to cause proinflammatory vascular responses, the mechanisms initiating these responses are not understood. We tested the hypothesis that in systemic hypoxia, erythrocyte-derived H2O2 induces proinflammatory gene transcription in vascular endothelium. We exposed mice or isolated, perfused murine lungs to 4 hours of hypoxia (8% O2). Leukocyte counts increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors, reactive oxygen species, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in freshly recovered lung endothelial cells (FLECs). These effects were inhibited by extracellular catalase and by the removal of erythrocytes, indicating that the responses were attributable to erythrocyte-derived H2O2. Concomitant nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor–1α stabilization in FLECs occurred only in the presence of erythrocytes. Hemoglobin binding to the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3, induced the release of H2O2 from erythrocytes and the p65 translocation in FLECs. These data indicate for the first time, to our knowledge, that erythrocytes are responsible for endothelial transcriptional responses in hypoxia. PMID:23043086

  6. [Erythrocyte function of rats under emotional stress].

    PubMed

    Vitrichenko, E E

    1985-12-01

    The effect of neurogenic stress of the conflict-of-afferent-excitations-type on the oxidizing erythrocyte properties and qualitative and quantitative red blood changes has been studied. Neurogenic stress was demonstrated to significantly affect the erythrocyte functional state in rats. Activation of free-radical oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids took place, provoking changes in their permiability and disorders of oxygen fixation and release. It is suggested that these changes may be the underlying mechanism of the developing tissue hypoxia and play a leading role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:4074867

  7. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26130946

  8. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  9. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  10. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  11. Micronucleus test of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of the people living in the radiation pollution zone as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical plant on April 6, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyinskikh, N.N.; Ivanchuk, I.I.; Ilyinskikh, E.N.

    1997-10-01

    We have carried out analysis of the number of blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes with micronuclei in the inhabitants of four settlements located near the place of the accident which happened at the atomic power station of the Siberian Chemical plant (Tomsk-7) on April 6, 1993. In all cases, the people examined showed a considerable increase in the number of cells with micronuclei as compared with the control. We observed the same people for two years and found a gradual decrease in the number of cells with micronuclei. It has been shown in this work that people born in 1963-1970 have a much higher level of cells with micronuclei which we tend to regard as a result of the radiation accident at the Siberian chemical plant in 1963. The data we have obtained allow us to conclude that penetration of radionuclides into the human organism in the prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to the formation of stable clones of erythroid cells with micronuclei and a higher level of erythrocytes with micronuclei which can remain in the blood for a long time.

  12. Identification of immature granulocytes in cancer chemotherapy patients by cell counting vs. microscopic examination of blood smears

    PubMed Central

    CHE, YI-QUN; SHEN, DI; ZHANG, SHI-MIN; QI, JUN

    2014-01-01

    Tumor cell formation occurs through various mechanisms that may result in the growth of tumor blood vessels. Thus, novel methods are required to provide tumor therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability of the abnormality-indicating alarm information provided by the automatic hematology analyzer in the measurement of immature granulocytes (IG) and assess the factors involved. The quality control groups at three concentration levels were repeatedly determined within 20 days to observe the within-run precision. The quality control groups at two concentration levels were repeatedly determined within 20 days to observe the between-run precision. The results obtained by the two methods were compared and the reliability of IG measurement using the hematology analyzer was analyzed. Additionally, IG parameters of 120 venous blood specimens collected from cancer patients were measured by cell counting using a hematology analyzer and stained blood smears were observed. The within-run precision experiment showed that the coefficient of variation (CV) values of the IG percentage in the high, middle and low concentration levels were 3.62, 6.75 and 13.69%, respectively, while the CV values of the IG percentage in the two-level between-run precision experiment were 5.6 and 7.1%, respectively. All of the CV values were <15% and within the permitted range. The true-positive rates obtained using the hematology analyzer in the IG?1%, 110% groups were 11.5, 65.4 and 95.0%, respectively, and the false-negative rates were 0. The IG percentages obtained through the hematology analyzer measurement and from the microscopic observation were (6.9811.18) and (9.3620.71)%, respectively. Results of the correlation analysis revelaed that there was an excellent correlation between the two methods (r=0.1364). A significant difference between the two methods was observed using the signed-rank test (P=0.001). Manual microscopic observation is essential for the IG specimen that has been measured using an automatic hematology analyzer and has received an abnormality alarm. For cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, this application helps to provide laboratory data for clinical disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PMID:24649334

  13. The use of the chelating agent EDTA in the treatment of acute cadmium toxicity, tissue distribution and some blood parameters in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Hilmy, A M; el-Domiaty, N A; Daabees, A Y; Abou Taleb, E M

    1986-01-01

    Erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and cadmium accumulation in some organs and tissues were estimated in toads administered 6.2 mg Cd2+/kg i.m. for 4 days. EDTA therapy caused considerable decrease in all the blood parameters studied. A striking reduction in the cadmium content of all the organs and tissues studied except the kidneys was also observed after simultaneous treatment with EDTA. PMID:2877808

  14. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... marrow disorders or damage Autoimmune conditions Severe infections ( sepsis ) Lymphoma or other cancer that spread to the ... reference range ) Known as neutropenia Severe, overwhelming infection (sepsis) Autoimmune disorders Dietary deficiencies Reaction to drugs, chemotherapy ...

  15. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to top Proudly sponsored by ... Learn more about ... Understanding Your Tests Inside the Lab In the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your ... so the two dates may not always agree. Understanding Your Tests | Inside the Lab | In the News | Article Index | About This Site | Send Us Your ...

  16. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by Selmi enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content. PMID:26870978

  17. Increase in Blood Glutathione and Erythrocyte Proteins Related to Glutathione Generation, Reduction and Utilization in African-American Old Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guang; Yang, Fang; Zhou, LiChun; Tang, Tian; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Yang, Hong; Guo, ZhongMao

    2015-01-01

    Data from this report demonstrate that the plasma and erythrocyte levels of total glutathione (TGSH) are significantly lower in nondiabetic old women than in their young counterparts, and significantly higher in diabetic patients than in age-matched nondiabetic controls. The ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) declines with age and diabetes, and shows an order as follows: nondiabetic young > nondiabetic old > diabetic old women. In addition, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) accumulates in RBCs obtained from diabetic patients but not in those from young and old nondiabetic controls. The erythrocyte levels of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1), glutathione S-transferase-?1 (GST-?1) and glyoxalase I (Glo1) are comparable in nondiabetic young and old women, but significantly higher in diabetic patients than in age-matched nondiabetic controls. Oxidative stress has been suggested to upregulate the expression of these proteins. It is possible that increase in oxidative stress in diabetes, reflected by reduced GSH/GSSG ratio and accumulation of AGEs, upregulates the expression of proteins involved in glutathione synthesis, reduction and utilization in erythrocyte precursor cells, and that overexpression of GCLC is, at least partially, responsible for the increased TGSH in diabetes. PMID:26770888

  18. Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  19. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042

  20. Mechanisms of Human Erythrocytic Bioactivation of Nitrite*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C.; Lee, Amber N.; Belanger, Andrea M.; Diz, Debra I.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Caudell, David L.; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  1. Evaluation of erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters as indicative of iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Torino, Ana Beatriz Barbosa; Gilberti, Maria de Ftima Pererira; da Costa, Edvilson; de Lima, Gislia Aparecida Freire; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mature red cell and reticulocyte parameters to identify three conditions: iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency. Methods Peripheral blood cells from 117 adult patients with anemia were classified according to iron status, inflammation, and hemoglobinopathies as: iron deficiency anemia (n=42), anemia of chronic disease (n=28), anemia of chronic disease associated with iron deficiency anemia (n=22), and heterozygous ?-thalassemia (n=25). The percentage of microcytic erythrocytes, hypochromic erythrocytes, and the levels of hemoglobin in both reticulocytes and mature red cells were determined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of the parameters in differentiating anemia. Results There was no difference between the groups of iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease associated with absolute iron deficiency for any of the parameters. The percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was the best parameter to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease (area under curve=0.785; 95% confidence interval: 0.6610.909 with sensitivity of 72.7%, and specificity of 70.4%; cut-off value 1.8%). The formula microcytic erythrocyte count minus hypochromic erythrocyte count was very accurate to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from heterozygous ?-thalassemia (area under curve=0.977; 95% confidence interval: 0.9501.005 with a sensitivity of 96.2%, and specificity of 92.7%; cut-off value 13.8). Conclusion The erythrocyte and reticulocyte indices are moderately good to identify absolute iron deficiency in patients with anemia of chronic disease. PMID:25818816

  2. Magnetic Nanosensor for Detection and Profiling of Erythrocyte-Derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Junsung; Chung, Jaehoon; Im, Hyungsoon; Liong, Monty; Shao, Huilin; Castro, Cesar M.; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2014-01-01

    During the course of their lifespan, erythrocytes actively shed phospholipid-bound, microvesicles (MVs). In stored blood, the number of these erythrocyte-derived MVs have been observed to increase over time, suggesting their potential value as a quality metric for blood products. The lack of sensitive, standardized MV assays, however, poses a significant barrier to implementing MV analyses into clinical settings. Here, we report on a new nanotechnology platform capable of rapid and sensitive MV detection in packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. A filter-assisted microfluidic device was designed to enrich MVs directly from pRBC units, and label them with target-specific magnetic nanoparticles. Subsequent detection using a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance system enabled accurate MV quantification as well as the detection of key molecular markers (CD44, CD47, CD55). By applying the developed platform, MVs in stored blood units could also be monitored longitudinally. Our results showed that MV counts increase over time, and thus could serve as an effective metric of blood aging. Furthermore, our studies found that MVs have the capacity to generate oxidative stress and consume nitric oxide. By advancing our understanding of MV biology, we expect that the developed platform will lead to improved blood product quality and transfusion safety. PMID:24295203

  3. Circulating white blood cell count and measures of adipose tissue inflammation predict higher 24-h energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Le, Duc Son; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Scalise, Michael; Ferrante, Anthony W; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Energy expenditure (EE) and measures of inflammation increase with adiposity, and this obesity-induced chronic and subclinical inflammation was extensively reported to be a cause of insulin resistance. However, whether subclinical inflammation has a role in increasing EE, which may be at the cost of developing insulin resistance, is not clear. Methods We investigated the association between circulating white blood cell count (WBC) in a population of Native Americans (n=243) with measurement of EE in a respiratory chamber, and in a subset of the same population (n=34), with gene expression measures of inflammation in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT). All subjects were healthy on oral glucose tolerance test. Statistically, nonnormally distributed variables were logarithmically transformed before analyses to approximate normal distributions. Results WBC was associated with 24-h EE adjusted for age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass (r=0.13, P=0.04). In SAAT, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), shown as log10-transformed TNF-α (r=0.36, P=0.05), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), shown as log10-transformed PAI-1 (lPAI-1; r=0.41, P=0.02), expressions were also positively correlated with adjusted 24-h EE. lPAI-1 was also correlated with adjusted sleep EE (r=0.34, P=0.07). Conclusions In conclusion, circulating markers of inflammation (WBC) and markers of inflammation within adipose tissue (TNF-α and PAI-1) are positively associated with EE, indicating a role of chronic subclinical inflammation in the regulation of metabolic rate. PMID:19934269

  4. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  5. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  6. Hypothesis on the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by malaria merozoites

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Louis H.

    1977-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi merozoites invade erythrocytes by a sequence of events: attachment, widespread deformation of the erythrocyte membrane, endocytosis, and resealing of the membrane and vesicle. The possible mechanisms by which these events occur are discussed. In particular, there is a detailed discussion of the role of the Duffy blood group system in invasion. PMID:412599

  7. Brucella melitensis invades murine erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michal; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frdric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Prez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  8. Brucella melitensis Invades Murine Erythrocytes during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  9. Correlation of serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and neutrophil percentage with histopathology findings in acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC) and Neutrophil percentage (NP) in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings. Materials and methods This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP. Results The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5%) patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5%) patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%). The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%), whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%). Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2%) had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of inflammation (p-value <0.05). CRP monitoring enhances the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis. The diagnostic accuracy of CRP is not significantly greater than WBC and NP. A combination of these three tests significantly increases the accuracy. We found that elevated serum CRP levels support the surgeon's clinical diagnosis. PMID:22866907

  10. Association of White Blood Cell Count and Differential with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Misialek, Jeffrey R.; Bekwelem, Wobo; Chen, Lin Y.; Loehr, Laura R.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Norby, Faye L.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although inflammation is involved in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), the association of white blood cell (WBC) count and differential with AF has not been thoroughly examined in large cohorts with extended follow-up. Methods We studied 14,500 men and women (25% blacks, 55% women, mean age 54) free of AF at baseline (1987–89) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a community-based cohort in the United States. Incident AF cases through 2010 were identified from study electrocardiograms, hospital discharge records and death certificates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AF associated with WBC count and differential. Results Over a median follow-up time of 21.5 years for the entire cohort, 1928 participants had incident AF. Higher total WBC count was associated with higher AF risk independent of AF risk factors and potential confounders (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15 per 1-standard deviation [SD] increase). Higher neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively associated with AF risk, while an inverse association was identified between lymphocyte count and AF (multivariable adjusted HRs 1.16, 95% CI 1.09–1.23; 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.11; 0.91, 95% CI 0.86–0.97 per 1-SD, respectively). No significant association was identified between eosinophils or basophils and AF. Conclusions High total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts were each associated with higher AF risk while lymphocyte count was inversely associated with AF risk. Systemic inflammation may underlie this association and requires further investigation for strategies to prevent AF. PMID:26313365

  11. Performance Evaluation of the Plateletworks in the Measurement of Blood Cell Counts as compared to the Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800

    PubMed Central

    McNair, Erick; Qureshi, A. Mabood; Bally, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Prior to undergoing cardiac surgery many patients may have impaired platelet function due to platelet inhibition. Point of care testing (POCT) that produces quick results of platelet counts and function allow earlier clinician interpretation, diagnosis and treatment. Before being adopted for routine clinical use, a POCT devices performance must be evaluated by standard laboratory techniques to ensure high quality results. The purpose of this study is to determine the performance of the Plateletworks BC 3200 automated hematology analyzer by correlating its precision, accuracy and linearity for the measurement of blood counts to our hospital central laboratory analyzer (Beckman Coulter Unicel DXH 800). The study utilizes well described methods for Within-Run and Day-to-Day precision, comparison of methods (bias), and linearity. Control samples from the manufacturer were used for the precision studies, blood samples from 115 cardiac surgical subjects were used for comparison of methods and accuracy, and pre-diluted control samples from the manufacturer were used for the linearity studies. The precision of the Plateletworks analyzer was acceptable. The overall coefficient of variation (CV) for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Within-Run precision was acceptable ranging from 0.656.4%. Likewise, the CV for the measured parameters at all levels of control for Day-to-Day precision was acceptable ranging from 1.45% to 6.7%. The correlation and accuracy between the two analyzers for the evaluated parameters (platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin) was acceptable. The linearity for the measured parameters was also acceptable with a range between 98100%. The performance of the Plateletworks analyzer was acceptable for providing blood cell counts as compared to our central hospital laboratory analyzer. PMID:26405360

  12. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively. PMID:14631494

  13. [Kinetics of Cu crossing human erythrocyte membrane].

    PubMed

    Dun, Zhu Ci Ren

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate various factors influencing the proceduction of Cu(II) crossing human erythrocyte membrane, including concentration of Cu?, pH value of the medium, temperature and time of incubation, and to derive kinetic equation of Cu(II) crossing human erythrocyte membrane. Suspension red blood cells were incubated by Cu?, then content of Cu? crossed human erythrocyte membrane was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry under various conditions after digestion. The results showed that content of Cu? crossed human erythrocyte membrane increased with the increase of extracellular Cu? and enhancement of incubation temperature, and the content of Cu? crossed human erythrocyte membrane showed a increasing tendency when pH reached to 6.2-7.4, and to maximum at pH 7.4, then gradually decreased at range of pH 7.4-9.2. It is concluded that the Cu? crossing human erythrocyte has been confirmed to be the first order kinetics characteristics within 120 min, and the linear equation is 10 Y = 0.0497t +6.5992. PMID:25543501

  14. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or probiotic plus honey on hematologic and immunologic parameters in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:26622258

  15. Erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure in ?-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hamdy A; Fouda, Manal I; Yahya, Raida S; Abousamra, Nashwa K; Abd Elazim, Rania A

    2014-06-01

    [ABS]Phospholipid asymmetry is well maintained in erythrocyte (RBC) membranes with phosphatidylserine (PS) exclusively present in the inner leaflet. Eryptosis, the suicidal death of RBCs, is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipids scrambling with PS exposure at the cell surface. Erythrocytes exposing PS are recognized, bound, engulfed, and degraded by macrophages. Eryptosis thus fosters clearance of affected RBCs from circulating blood, which may aggravate anemia in pathological conditions. Thalassemia patients are more sensitive to the eryptotic depletion and osmotic shock which may affect RBC membrane phospholipid asymmetry. We aimed in this work to determine the RBC PS exposure in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients and correlate it with the clinical presentation and laboratory data. RBCs were stained for annexin V to detect phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in 46 ?-TM patients (27 splenectomized and 19 nonsplenectomized) compared to 17 healthy subjects as a control group. We observed a significant increase in RBC PS exposure in ?-TM patients compared to control group (P = .0001). Erythrocyte PS exposure was significantly higher in splenectomized ?-TM patients compared with nonsplenectomized ?-TM patients (P = .001). No correlation was found between RBC PS exposure and clinical or hematological data of ?-TM patients, but there was a positive correlation between RBC PS exposure and ferritin level in ?-TM patients have higher levels of RBC PS exposure, and splenectomy was shown to aggravate RBC PS exposure without aggravation of anemia. PMID:25000947

  16. Erythrocytes Inhibit Ligament Fibroblast Proliferation in a Collagen Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Sophia L.; Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we hypothesized that the concentration of erythrocytes in a provisional scaffold would have a significant effect on three of the major biological processes occurring in early wound healing. ACL fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and scaffold contraction were measured in collagen gels containing fibroblasts and erythrocytes in subphysiologic (1 108 erythrocytes/ml), physiologic (1 109 erythrocytes/ml), and supraphysiologic (1 1010 erythrocytes/ml) concentrations. Fibroblast-seeded gels containing only platelet-poor plasma were used as a control group. All gels were cultured for 1, 14, and 21 days. DNA, ELISA for procollagen and scaffold size measurements were used to quantify the three above parameters of wound healing. Samples with concentrations of erythryocytes lower than that in whole blood stimulated greater fibroblast proliferation and scaffold contraction than those with erythrocyte concentrations similar to that in whole blood (p <0.027; p <0.03). Increasing the erythrocyte concentration over that in the whole blood stimulated fibroblast collagen production (p <0.009) and limited scaffold contraction (p <0.031). Further work examining the role of the erythrocyte in the early provisional scaffold is warranted. PMID:21445984

  17. Prevalence and diagnosis of hemotrophic mycoplasma infection in research sheep and its effects on hematology variables and erythrocyte membrane fragility.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Joseph A; Spath, Samantha N; Bergin, Ingrid L; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steven R; Dyson, Melissa C

    2014-12-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) infection in research sheep can confound experimental results and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Prevalence and clinicopathologic studies historically relied on blood-smear diagnosis, but systematic studies using current molecular techniques are warranted. Here we sought to report the prevalence of subclinical infection in our study population, compare diagnostic sensitivity and specificity between blood smears and a PCR assay, and determine the effects of infection on CBC variables and erythrocyte membrane fragility. We collected whole-blood samples from 111 convenience-sampled research sheep. All samples were tested for hemoplasmas by using a PCR assay, blood smears were evaluated for visual presence of hemoplasmas, and CBC and osmotic fragility assays were performed. Subclinical prevalence, according to PCR diagnosis, was 14.1% (14 of 99) in our study population. Relative to the PCR assay, blood-smear diagnosis was 8.3% sensitive and 100% specific for hemoplasma detection. Subclinical infection was associated with changes in MCV, MCHC, RBC distribution width, and absolute monocyte count. Acute infection was associated with changes in RBC mass, Hgb concentration, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Acute infection was associated with increased mean erythrocyte fragility compared with that in uninfected control and treated sheep. We demonstrated that hemoplasma infection is common in our study population, blood-smear evaluation is insensitive at detecting infection, and infection is associated with changes in CBC variables and increased erythrocyte membrane fragility. These findings raise concerns regarding the suitability of hemoplasma-infected sheep for biomedical research. PMID:25527029

  18. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

  19. Adherence of erythrocytes during exflagellation of Plasmodium falciparum microgametes is dependent on erythrocyte surface sialic acid and glycophorins.

    PubMed

    Templeton, T J; Keister, D B; Muratova, O; Procter, J L; Kaslow, D C

    1998-05-18

    Malaria male gametocytes within a newly ingested infected blood meal in the mosquito midgut emerge from erythrocytes and extrude approximately eight flagellar microgametes in a process termed exflagellation. In culture, and in blood removed from infected patients, emerging microgametes avidly adhere to neighboring uninfected and infected erythrocytes, as well as to emerged female macrogametes, creating "exflagellation centers". The mechanism of erythrocyte adherence is not known nor has it been determined for what purpose microgametes may bind to erythrocytes. The proposition of a function underlying erythrocyte adherence is supported by the observation of species-specificity in adhesion: microgametes of the human malaria Plasmodium falciparum can bind human erythrocytes but not chicken erythrocytes, whereas avian host Plasmodium gallinaceum microgametes bind chicken but not human erythrocytes. In this study we developed a binding assay in which normal, enzyme-treated, variant or null erythrocytes are identified by a cell surface fluorescent label and assayed for adherence to exflagellating microgametes. Neuraminidase, trypsin or ficin treatment of human erythrocytes eliminated their ability to adhere to Plasmodium falciparum microgametes, suggesting a role of sialic acid and one or more glycophorins in the binding to a putative gamete receptor. Using nulls lacking glycophorin A [En(a-)], glycophorin B (S-s-U-) or a combination of glycophorin A and B (Mk/Mk) we showed that erythrocytes lacking glycophorin B retain the ability to bind but a lack of glycophorin A reduced adherence by exflagellating microgametes. We propose that either the sialic acid moiety of glycophorins, predominantly glycophorin A, or a more complex interaction involving the glycophorin peptide backbone, is the erythrocyte receptor for adhesion to microgametes. PMID:9584138

  20. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  1. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  2. Erythrocyte size in some wild Spanish birds.

    PubMed

    Palomeque, J; Planas, J

    1981-03-01

    An analysis was made of the erythrocyte dimensions of 21 species of the following Passeriformes common to the Iberian Peninsula: Fringilidae, Silvidae, Turdidae, Prunellidae, Ploceidae, Certhiidae, Emberizidae, Paridae, Troglodytidae and Apodiformes: F. Apodidae. The erythrocyte dimensions in Passeriformes were very uniform. Only the Silvidae presented a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between body size and cell area. In Apodiformes, cell area and cell length and width were significantly greater (p less than 0.01) than red blood cell dimensions in Passeriformes. PMID:7244324

  3. AB105. High-level peripheral total and differential white blood cells count are independently associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in Chinese male population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Mo, Zengnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation involved in the etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has been shown in majority of studies. However, the role of systemic inflammation in LUTS has not been firmly established. Thus, the current study was to examine the association between peripheral total and differential white blood cells count (WBCs), an important systemic inflammation marker, and LUTS in a large-scale Chinese male population. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study of male heath among people aged 18-88 years had been set up from July 2011 to November 2011 in Fangchenggang, Guangxi, China. In current study, 4,694 participants were included. Total WBCs and differential count were measured with an automated hematology analyzer and LUTS were assessed by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Meanwhile, potential confounding covariates were also included. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association between total WBCs and differential count and LUTS. Results Comparing with none/mild LUTS, the average of total WBCs and neutrophil count was much higher in moderate/severe LUTS (P<0.001). Men who had higher total WBCs and neutrophil count levels were more likely to report overall LUTS and obstructive symptoms, as for individual symptoms of LUTS, primarily showed as intermittency and urgency symptoms. Besides, statistically significant associations were presented between neutrophil count and irritative symptoms (OR =1.49, 95% CI, 1.08-2.05) and weak stream symptom (OR =1.93, 95% CI, 1.13-3.29), when comparing them from the 1st to 4th neutrophil count quartiles. All above associations were independent of potential confounding variables. Additionally, we also observed that the risk factors of LUTS included age, hypertension, education, diabetes mellitus and alcohol drinking. Conclusions The current study firstly showed that LUTS was positively associated with total WBCs and differential neutrophil count, and many factors contributed to the risk of LUTS. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammation may be involved in the mechanism of LUTS.

  4. Fate of erythrocyte Cd-metallothionein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Min, K.S.; Ohyanagi, N.; Onosaka, S.; Fukuhara, C.

    1986-04-01

    Degradation of metallothionein (MT), which appears in erythrocytes following cadmium (Cd) administration, was investigated in mice. Cd-MT underwent only slight decomposition by hemolysate in an in vitro experiment unlike an 800g supernatant fraction of the liver homogenate. In an in vivo study, (/sup 3/H)diisopropylfluorophosphate was given to mice which had received /sup 109/CdCl2 to investigate the relationship between the decay of /sup 109/Cd-MT in the erythrocyte and the life span of the erythrocyte. A similar reduction pattern of radioactivity of /sup 109/Cd and /sup 3/H was observed. Erythrocytes containing /sup 109/Cd-MT obtained from mice preadministered with /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ was transfused to normal mice. The /sup 109/Cd radioactivity of erythrocytes decreased in a manner similar to Cd in erythrocytes of /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/-administered mice. Contrary to this decrease of erythrocyte Cd in the transfused mice, Cd concentration of the spleen increased markedly. Cd increased also in the liver. These results indicate that erythrocyte MT degrades along with the erythrocyte. The Cd from this MT is deposited in the spleen and liver where blood cells are catabolized.

  5. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  6. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  7. Dietary calcium intake is associated with adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory state and blood pressure, but not with erythrocyte intracellular calcium and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Thas; Torres, Mrcia Regina Simas Gonalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2013-09-28

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 1850 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ? 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23411109

  8. Extensive chronic GVHD is associated with donor blood CD34+ cell count after G-CSF mobilization in non-myeloablative allogeneic PBSC transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, N; Prébet, T; De Latour, R Peffault; Katsahian, S; Kuentz, M; Piard, N; Réa, D; Norol, F; Jouet, J P; Ribeil, J A; Tabrizi, R; Rio, B; Lioure, B; Tiberghien, P; Bourhis, J H; Sirvent, A; Bordigoni, P; Blaise, D; Michallet, M; Vernant, J P

    2012-12-01

    The correlation between the incidence of GVHD and the number of infused CD34(+) cells remains controversial for PBSC transplantation after a reduced-intensity-conditioning (RIC) regimen. We evaluated 99 patients transplanted with an HLA-identical sibling after the same RIC (2-Gy-TBI/fludarabine). Donor and recipient characteristics, donor's blood G-CSF-mobilized CD34(+) cell count, and number of infused CD34(+) and CD3(+) cells were analyzed as risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD There was a trend for an increased incidence of extensive chronic GVHD in the quartile of patients receiving more than 10 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg (P = 0.05). Interestingly, the number of donor's blood CD34(+) cells at day 5 of G-CSF mobilization was closely associated with the incidence of extensive chronic GVHD, that is, 48% (95% CI: 28-68) at 24-months in the quartile of patients whose donors had the highest CD34(+) cell counts versus 24.3% (95% CI: 14-34) in the other patients (P = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, the only factor correlating with extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was the donor's blood CD34(+) cell count after G-CSF (HR 2.49; 95% CI: 1.16-5.35, P = 0.019). This study shows that the incidence of cGVHD is more strongly associated with the donor's ability to mobilize CD34(+) cells than with the number of infused CD34(+) cells. PMID:22609881

  9. The effect of Alpine mountaineering on acute erythrocyte hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, D T; Watts, P B; Newbury, V S

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erythrocyte hemolysis occurs during a mountain ascent over snow and ice to 3285 meters. Data were collected from six experienced recreational mountaineers, 2 females and 4 males, who participated in a six-day ice climbing seminar and peak ascent in the North Cascades mountain range of the United States. Blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein at sea level (S1), in a base camp at 1515 m prior to the summit ascent (S2), on the summit at 3285 m after 6.5 hours of climbing (S3), at base camp immediately after the descent (S4), and at sea level following a trail descent from the base camp (S5). Whole blood samples were chilled and analyzed for complete blood count including hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct), and white blood cell count (WBC). Serum was frozen and later analyzed for serum haptoglobin (Hapt). No significant changes were found for Hct and Hb among the samples. Mean (+/- SEM) Hapt values were 125 (+/- 28), 113 (+/- 25), 100 (+/- 18), 103 (+/- 32), and 109 (+/- 23) mg.dl-1 for S1 through S5, respectively. No significant differences were found among the Hapt values. Plasma volume changes (% PVC) were calculated from Hct and Hb. Mean estimated % PVC were -4.16 (+/- 1.55), -2.54 (+/- 3.93), 7.46 (+/- 4.86), and 4.80 (+/- 3.49) percent between S1 and S2, S2 and S3, S3 and S4, and S4 and S5, respectively. Total body haptoglobin (TBH) was estimated from Hapt and % PVC in an attempt to correct for the plasma volume change effect on haptoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1544729

  10. [Erythrocytes and microvascular tone during acute traumatic haemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Biais, M; Delaunay, F; Dubuisson, V; Cassone, O; Simon, F; Morel, O; Janvier, G

    2013-05-01

    Haemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The concept of haematologic damage control is gradually taking place in the management of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. It is based primarily on the early implementation of a quality blood transfusion involving erythrocytes, plasmas and platelets transfusion. Red blood cell transfusion is mainly supported by the oxygen carrier properties of erythrocytes. However, it appears that erythrocytes ability to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in capillary opening and perfusion. Erythrocytes are also actively involved in the processes of hemostasis and coagulation. In this context, it seems difficult to define a threshold of hemoglobin concentration to determine the implementation of a blood transfusion in traumatic haemorrhagic shock. PMID:23611789

  11. Bromfenvinphos induced suicidal death of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The organophosphorus pesticide bromfenvinphos ((E,Z)-O,O-diethyl-O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl] phosphate) has been shown to decrease hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in blood presumably by triggering oxidative stress of erythrocytes. Oxidative stress is known to activate erythrocytic Ca(2+) permeable unselective cation channels leading to Ca(2+) entry and increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i), which in turn triggers eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. The present study explored, whether and how bromfenvinphos induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48hour exposure of human erythrocytes to bromfenvinphos (≥100μM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly decreased forward scatter, significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence, and significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence. The effect of bromfenvinphos on annexin-V-binding and forward scatter was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+). In conclusion, bromfenvinphos triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect in part due to stimulation of ROS formation and Ca(2+) entry. PMID:26778435

  12. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 5.0 and 70.00 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity. PMID:26196576

  13. Accuracy and Feasibility of Point-Of-Care White Blood Cell Count and C-Reactive Protein Measurements at the Pediatric Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Leino, Pia; Mertsola, Jussi; Peltola, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background Several point-of-care (POC) tests are available for evaluation of febrile patients, but the data about their performance in acute care setting is sparse. We investigated the analytical accuracy and feasibility of POC tests for white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the pediatric emergency department (ED). Methods In the first part of the study, HemoCue WBC and Afinion AS100 CRP POC analyzers were compared with laboratorys routine WBC (Sysmex XE-2100) and CRP (Modular P) analyzers in the hospital central laboratory in 77 and 48 clinical blood samples, respectively. The POC tests were then adopted in use at the pediatric ED. In the second part of the study, we compared WBC and CRP levels measured by POC and routine methods during 171 ED patient visits by 168 febrile children and adolescents. Attending physicians performed POC tests in capillary fingerprick samples. Results In parallel measurements in the laboratory both WBC and CRP POC analyzers showed good agreement with the reference methods. In febrile children at the emergency department (median age 2.4 years), physician performed POC determinations in capillary blood gave comparable results with those in venous blood analyzed in the laboratory. The mean difference between POC and reference test result was 1.1 E9/L (95% limits of agreement from -6.5 to 8.8 E9/L) for WBC and -1.2 mg/L (95% limits of agreement from -29.6 to 27.2 mg/L) for CRP. Conclusions POC tests are feasible and relatively accurate methods to assess CRP level and WBC count among febrile children at the ED. PMID:26034987

  14. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  15. Structure elucidation of the blood group B like and blood group I active octaantennary ceramide tetracontasaccharide from rabbit erythrocyte membranes by two-dimensional /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy at 600 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrowski, J.; Dabrowski, U.; Bermel, W.; Kordowicz, M.; Hanfland, P.

    1988-07-12

    The primary structure of the ceramide tetracontasaccharide (1) from rabbit erythrocyte membranes has been determined with the aid of 600-MHz two-dimensional phase-sensitive correlated, totally correlated (TOCSY, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn), relayed coherence transfer, triple quantum filtered, and nuclear Overhauser enhancement /sup 1/H NMR spectra. It was shown that obtaining subspectra of the constituent sugar residues from a totally correlated spectrum and assigning the resonances occurring in these subspectra by analyzing the relevant cross-peaks in phase-sensitive correlated spectra is the most efficient way for establishing complex oligosaccharide structures. This analysis has shown 1 to be the highest homologue of the multiantennary neolactoglycosphingolipids.

  16. Effects of periodontal therapy on white blood cell count and levels of transforming growth factor beta in serum of subjects with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Leite, A C E; Carneiro, V M A; Morandini, A C; Ramos-Junior, E S; Guimares, M C M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on white blood cell (WBC) count and levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) in serum from subjects with severe periodontitis. Serum from 28 subjects with periodontitis (mean age: 34.366.24; 32% men) and 27 healthy controls (mean age: 33.186.42; 33% men) were collected prior to therapy. Blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects who completed therapy (912 months). A wellcontrolled periodontal treatment protocol was established in three stages: mechanical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planning), reinstrumentation of dental sites, and supportive periodontal therapy. Periodontal and systemic parameters such as the total number of WBCs and TGF? levels, accessed by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), were included. After therapy, all clinical periodontal parameters decreased (p<0.0001). There were no statistical differences in WBC count between experimental and control groups before or after therapy. However, after therapy, the mean value of lymphocytes in patients with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) was statistically higher than that of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) (p<0.0357). Additionally, TGF? levels in LAgP and GCP patients were higher compared to controls before therapy (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). In LAgP patients, periodontal therapy was associated with increased number of lymphocytes. PMID:25817350

  17. Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patients haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

  18. Decreased coronary blood flow velocity in patients with aortic insufficiency but normal coronary arteries: the use of TIMI frame count in aortic insufficiency cases

    PubMed Central

    Icli, Abdullah; Mutlu, Halil; Karabag, Turgut; Kahraman, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with aortic insufficiency (AI) may suffer from anginapector is in the absence of obstructive coronaryartery disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate coronary blood flow using the thrombolysis in myocardialinfarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) method in patients with AI and normal coronaryarteries. The study included 64 patients (Group 1; meanage 62.4 13.2 years) with moderate to severe AI who had under gonecoronaryangio graphy that resulted in angiographically normal coronaries, and 42 patients with a typical chest pain and angiographically normal coronaryarteriogram (Group 2; meanage 58.8 9.8 years). All patients under went coronaryangiography either to exclude coronaryartery disease or to evaluate their coronaryanatomy before aorticvalve replacement. TFC was calculated and compared for each artery, including the left anterior descending (LAD), circumflex (LCX), and right coronaryartery (RCA) in both groups. The base line characteristics of the study groups were similar. In both groups, TIMI-3 flow was present in eachartery at the time of arteriography, and the coronaryarteries were entirely normal. LCx and RCA frame counts and corrected LAD frame counts were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (26.4 2.1 vs. 24.3 3.6, P < 0.05; 22.1 2.3 vs. 20.5 2.9, P < 0.05; and 22.5 1.8 vs. 20.5 2.4, P < 0.05, respectively). The TFC method may be used as a marker forcoronary flowvelocity in patients with aortic insuffiency and angiographically normal coronaryarteries toestimate decreased coronary blood flowve locity. PMID:26629157

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of micronuclei in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Graw, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) test in bone marrow or peripheral blood erythrocytes is widely used as a short-term assay for the detection of agents able to induce chromosome aberrations in somatic cells and has also been shown to have good predictive potential for the identification of carcinogens and germ cell mutagens. The endpoint used is the scoring of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow or peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice or rats. In this chapter, a detailed description of the flow cytometric micronucleus test will be given, as well as a more general description of the manual micronucleus assay. The DNA of MN is identified using the DNA-specific fluorescent stain Hoechst 33342; discrimination between polychromatic and normochromatic erthrocytes is based on staining with thiazole orange, a fluorescent probe with high RNA affinity. The use of flow-cytometric quantification of micronucleated polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE and MNNCE), beyond replacing manual enumeration, provides substantial advantages in terms of speed of analysis, as well as sensitivity. The general description of the MN assay briefly covers choice of animal species and strains, treatment regime, sampling times, and data interpretation. The description of the flow cytometric assay covers in detail erythrocyte preparation and purification, fixation, staining, data acquisition, and data analysis. PMID:15502213

  20. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  1. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Certain fungus infections Asthma Autoimmune diseases Eczema Hay fever Leukemia and other blood disorders A lower-than-normal eosinophil count may be due to: Alcohol intoxication Overproduction of certain steroids in the body (such as cortisol)

  2. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you manage your blood glucose (sugar). Carbohydrates, or carbs, are one of the three main energy sources ... prevent diabetes complications. You can learn to count carbs to choose what and how much to eat. ...

  3. Fatigue damage to pig erythrocytes during repeated swelling and shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lili; Ding, Weiping; Sun, Sijie; Tang, Fangqiong; Gao, Dayong

    2015-10-01

    During the removal of cryoprotectants from cryopreserved-thawed blood with the dialysis-based or dilution-filtration method, due to the change in the extracellular osmolality, erythrocytes usually undergo repeated swelling and shrinkage. However, the erythrocyte fatigue damage induced by this repeated volume change has not yet been studied. In this work, by successively loading hypotonic and hypertonic solutions, we mimicked the repeated swelling and shrinkage of pig erythrocytes and then examined the effect of the number of cycle loops on the steady-state volume and the mortality of the pig erythrocytes. The results suggest that because of cell leakage in the swelling process, the steady-state volume of the pig erythrocytes after one cycle is smaller than the volume before the cycle, even though the cell performs a self-protective regulatory procedure. If the number of cycle loops is increased, the repeated swelling and shrinkage will cause a continuous decrease in the steady-state volume, and the ability of the pig erythrocytes to resist osmotic damage will decrease; as a result, the mortality of the pig erythrocytes increases as the number of cycle loops increases. The viability of the cells is also affected by the hypotonic and isotonic processing times: a short processing time may contribute to a decrease in the mortality of the pig erythrocytes. This work is of significance to optimizing the process of removing cryoprotectants. PMID:26143742

  4. Effect of storage on insulin receptor binding in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, K K; Nerurkar, S G; Carter, L; Brickler, C; Giridhar, G

    1983-05-01

    The authors established the specificity, reliability, and precision of human erythrocyte insulin radioreceptor assay. On the basis of insulin binding, cell viability, and degree of hemolysis, heparin sodium was found to be a more suitable anticoagulant than sodium fluoride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium oxalate, or sodium citrate. In two sets of experiments carried out at 4°C and 23°C, human erythrocytes were stored as whole blood or isolated erythrocytes suspended in Tris-{4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-ethanesulfonic acid} buffer. The effect of storage under these conditions was evaluated by erythrocytespecific insulin binding. Human erythrocytes can be stored for 72 hours at 4°C without any change in insulin binding, insulin receptor sites per cell, or average affinity constant at the empty sites. Isolated erythrocytes can also be stored in plasma for 72 hours or in buffer G for 24 hours at 4°C without any change in insulin binding. It is not advisable to store human erythrocytes in plasma or as whole blood for more than 24 hours at 23°. These findings are useful in preserving insulin receptor activity when storage of erythrocytes is unavoidable. PMID:6864830

  5. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid population indicating a stress response. In short cadmium exposure causes preferential clearance of older erythrocytes from circulation along with a depressed erythropoietic activity at higher doses. PMID:26161863

  6. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  7. Erythrocyte membrane ATPase and calcium pumping activities in porcine malignant hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Thatte, H.S.; Mickelson, J.R.; Addis, P.B.; Louis, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    To investigate possible abnormalities in erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities in the pharmacogenetic disorder MH, membrane ATPase activities have been examined in erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells of MHS and normal swine. While no differences were noted in Mg2+-ATPase activities, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity of MHS erythrocyte ghosts was less than that of normal ghosts. Ca2+-ATPase activity exhibited low- and high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites in both types of erythrocyte ghost. While the Km for Ca2+ was greater for normal than for MHS erythrocyte ghosts at the high-affinity Ca2+-binding site, the reverse was true at the low-affinity Ca2+-binding site. Irrespective of the type of calcium binding site occupied, the Vmax for normal erythrocyte ghost Ca2+-ATPase activity was greater than that for MHS ghosts. In the presence of calmodulin, there was now no difference between MHS and normal erythrocyte ghosts in either the Km for Ca2+ or the Vmax of the Ca2+-ATPase activity. To determine if the calcium pumping activity of intact MHS and normal pig erythrocytes differed, calcium efflux from the /sup 45/Ca-loaded erythrocytes was determined; this activity was significantly greater for MHS than for normal erythrocytes. Thus, the present study confirms that there are abnormalities in the membranes of MHS pig red blood cells. However, we conclude that these abnormalities are unlikely to result in an impaired ability of MHS erythrocytes to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration.

  8. Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2002-07-01

    The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

  9. Ethanol and erythrocyte membrane interaction: a hemorheologic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, R; Gonalves, M I; Dias, S; Sargento, L; Saldanha, C; Martins e Silva, J

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have documented structural and functional changes induced by ethanol-erythrocyte membrane interaction. In order to perform an in vitro study on the effect of different ethanol concentrations on erythrocyte hemorheologic properties, blood samples were collected from 21 male donors at the Hospital of Santa Maria. Whole blood aliquots were incubated with ethanol solutions of rising concentrations. The following parameters were measured: erythrocyte aggregation, haemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, plasma osmolality and erythrocyte membrane fluidity (fluorescence polarisation probes TMA-DPH and DPH). With ethanol blood concentrations of 45 mM a rise in plasma osmolality (0.352 Osm/kg H2O vs 0.310 Osm/kg H2O; p < 0.001) was verified. With 67 mM concentration a decrease of erythrocyte aggregation (11.03 vs 12.81; p < 0.05) and an increase in plasma osmolality (0.380 Osm/kg H2O vs 0.310 Osm/kg H2O; p < 0.001) were obtained. In conclusion, ethanol only changes erythrocyte aggregation for a concentration of 67 mM. These data could lead to future changes in therapeutic approaches to situations such as alcoholic coma. PMID:10599592

  10. Analysis of cytotoxicity and invasiveness of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) isolated from drinking water on blood media.

    PubMed

    Edberg, S C; Kops, S; Kontnick, C; Escarzaga, M

    1997-04-01

    Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria are naturally present in all aqueous environments. These bacteria undergo multiplication cycles in drinking water, especially in closed containers (bottled water) or in tap water when chlorine levels are dissipated, such as in dead ends in water mains or household plumbing. A study was undertaken to estimate health risk from these naturally occurring bacteria by the determination of cytotoxicity and invasiveness in a human enterocyte cell line. HPC bacteria were isolated from bottled and tap water samples by enumerating them under physical and chemical conditions analogous to human physiology. All HPC bacteria were examined at both log and lag phase of their growth cycles. Bacterial broth supernatant fluids were also tested to serve as critical negative controls. Naturally occurring HPC bacteria demonstrated low invasiveness and cytotoxicity with more than 95% of isolates showing equivalency to broth supernatant fluid. When showing either invasiveness or cytotoxicity, only a small number of cells from the culture were positive. Of those that were positive, log phase HPC bacteria were significantly more cytotoxic and invasive than those from stationary phase. Bacterial broth controls demonstrated varied, but often marked, cytotoxicity. PMID:9134720

  11. Dynamics of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in critically ill patients with nosocomial Gram positive vs. Gram negative bacteremia: a historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vandijck, Dominique M; Hoste, Eric A; Blot, Stijn I; Depuydt, Pieter O; Peleman, Renaat A; Decruyenaere, Johan M

    2007-01-01

    Background Nosocomial bacteremia is associated with a poor prognosis. Early adequate therapy has been shown to improve outcome. Consequently, rapid detection of a beginning sepsis is therefore of the utmost importance. This historical cohort study was designed to evaluate if different patterns can be observed in either C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WCC) between Gram positive bacteremia (GPB) vs. Gram negative bacteremia (GNB), and to assess the potential benefit of serial measurements of both biomarkers in terms of early antimicrobial therapy initiation. Methods A historical study (20032004) was conducted, including all adult intensive care unit patients with a nosocomial bacteremia. CRP and WCC count measurements were recorded daily from two days prior (d-2) until one day after onset of bacteremia (d+1). Delta (?) CRP and ? WCC levels from the level at d-2 onward were calculated. Results CRP levels and WCC counts were substantially higher in patients with GNB. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that GNB and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score were independently associated with a CRP increase of 5 mg/dL from d-2 to d+1, and both were also independently associated with an increase of WCC levels from d-2 to d+1 of 5,000 103 cells/mm3. Conclusion Increased levels of CRP and WCC are suggestive for GNB, while almost unchanged CRP and WCC levels are observed in patients with GPB. However, despite the different patterns observed, antimicrobial treatment as such cannot be guided based on both biomarkers. PMID:17868441

  12. Sevoflurane inhibits the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    YE, BO; JI, YUN; YUAN, QUAN; ZHANG, GUO-RONG; FAN, QIN; WEI, GUO; YIN, ZHE; TAO, LEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of sevoflurane on the antioxidant capacity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) content and lifespan of erythrocytes. A 2% erythrocyte suspension was prepared from whole blood collected from healthy volunteers and then treated with sevoflurane at different concentrations (group A, 0%; group S1, 1%; group S3, 3%; and group S5, 5%), in the presence or absence of 200 mol/l hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, or H in group names). In order to evaluate the effects of sevoflurane on the antioxidant capacity and NO metabolism of erythrocytes, the hemolysis rate, catalase (CAT) content and eNOS content were determined, while the labeled phosphatidylserine rate and forward scatter of erythrocytes were detected using flow cytometry. Group S3 showed the highest hemolysis rate in the absence H2O2, while treatment with H2O2 increased the hemolysis rate of groups S1 and S3 (P=0.027). The CAT content in groups treated with sevoflurane was significantly lower compared with that in the control (group A, air group). The CAT content in groups S1+H, S3+H and S5+H remained significantly lower compared with group A+H (P<0.05). The eNOS content of group A was similar to that of group S3, while the content in group S1 was similar to that in group S5. In addition, the eNOS content of groups A and S3 increased, while that of groups S1 and S5 was reduced upon H2O2 treatment (P<0.05). The results indicated that sevoflurane reduced the antioxidative activity of erythrocytes, decreasing the resistant ability to H2O2 damage and increasing the hemolysis rate. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the inhibitory effect on the CAT activity of erythrocytes. Sevoflurane also inhibited the generation of nitric oxide in erythrocytes and reduced the tolerance of erythrocytes against oxidative stress damage due to H2O2.

  13. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). PMID:24790773

  14. Peripheral Erythrocytes Decrease upon Specific Respiratory Challenge with Grass Pollen Allergen in Sensitized Mice and in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schmutz, Ren; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlbck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, Ren; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). Methods and Results BALB/c mice (n?=?20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n?=?10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n?=?10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n?=?42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Conclusion Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate for hypoxia is a possible explanation for these findings. PMID:24466205

  15. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  16. Functional NMDA receptors in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Makhro, Asya; Wang, Jue; Vogel, Johannes; Boldyrev, Alexander A; Gassmann, Max; Kaestner, Lars; Bogdanova, Anna

    2010-06-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated nonselective cation channels mediating fast neuronal transmission and long-term potentiation in the central nervous system. These channels have a 10-fold higher permeability for Ca(2+) compared with Na(+) or K(+) and binding of the agonists (glutamate, homocysteine, homocysteic acid, NMDA) triggers Ca(2+) uptake. The present study demonstrates the presence of NMDA receptors in rat erythrocytes. The receptors are most abundant in both erythroid precursor cells and immature red blood cells, reticulocytes. Treatment of erythrocytes with NMDA receptor agonists leads to a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) resulting in a transient shrinkage via Gardos channel activation. Additionally, the exposure of erythrocytes to NMDA receptor agonists causes activation of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase facilitating either NO production in l-arginine-containing medium or superoxide anion (O(2)(.-)) generation in the absence of l-arginine. Conversely, treatment with an NMDA receptor antagonist MK-80, or the removal of Ca(2+) from the incubation medium causes suppression of Ca(2+) accumulation and prevents attendant changes in cell volume and NO/O(2)(.-) production. These results suggest that the NMDA receptor activity in circulating erythrocytes is regulated by the plasma concentrations of homocysteine and homocysteic acid. Moreover, receptor hyperactivation may contribute to an increased incidence of thrombosis during hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:20457837

  17. Invasion of Erythrocytes by Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Horzempa, Joseph; O'Dee, Dawn M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Franks, Jonathan M.; Clay, Doris

    2011-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Conlan, on pages 68.) Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a category A biodefense agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its highly infectious nature. F. tularensis infects leukocytes and exhibits an extracellular phase in the blood of the host. It is unknown, however, whether F. tularensis can infect erythrocytes; thus, we examined this possibility in vivo and in vitro. In the murine model of pulmonary type A tularemia, we showed the presence of intraerythrocytic bacteria by double-immunofluorescence microscopy and ex vivo gentamicin protection of the purified erythrocyte fraction. In vitro, F. tularensis invaded human erythrocytes, as shown in the gentamicin protection assays, double-immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy with immunogold labeling of the bacteria. Additional in vitro tests indicated that serum complement-dependent and complement-independent mechanisms contribute to erythrocyte invasion. Our results reveal a novel intraerythrocytic phase during F. tularensis infection. PMID:21628658

  18. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  19. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/L increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  20. Erythrocyte programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Fller, Michael; Huber, Stephan M; Lang, Florian

    2008-10-01

    Eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes, is characterised by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes are recognised by macrophages, which engulf and degrade the affected cells. Reported triggers of eryptosis include osmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion, ceramide, prostaglandin E(2), platelet activating factor, hemolysin, listeriolysin, paclitaxel, chlorpromazine, cyclosporine, methylglyoxal, amyloid peptides, anandamide, Bay-5884, curcumin, valinomycin, aluminium, mercury, lead and copper. Diseases associated with accelerated eryptosis include sepsis, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficiency, phosphate depletion, iron deficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome and Wilsons disease. Eryptosis may be inhibited by erythropoietin, adenosine, catecholamines, nitric oxide (NO) and activation of G-kinase. Most triggers of eryptosis except oxidative stress are effective without activation of caspases. Their signalling involves formation of prostaglandin E(2) with subsequent activation of cation channels and Ca2+ entry and/or release of platelet activating factor (PAF) with subsequent activation of sphingomyelinase and formation of ceramide. Ca2+ and ceramide stimulate scrambling of the cell membrane. Ca2+ further activates Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels leading to cellular KCl loss and cell shrinkage and stimulates the protease calpain resulting in degradation of the cytoskeleton. Eryptosis allows defective erythrocytes to escape hemolysis. On the other hand, excessive eryptosis favours the development of anemia. Thus, a delicate balance between proeryptotic and antieryptotic mechanisms is required to maintain an adequate number of circulating erythrocytes and yet avoid noneryptotic death of injured erythrocytes. PMID:18720418

  1. Effect of dietary zinc deficiency on the endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, P.G.; Allen, O.B.; Bettger, W.J.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of dietary zinc deficiency on patterns of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of rat erythrocyte membrane proteins and erythrocyte filterability was examined. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed an egg white-based diet containing less than 1.1 mg zinc/kg diet ad libitum for 3 wk. Control rats were either pair-fed or ad libitum-fed the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg zinc/kg diet. Net phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins were carried out by an in vitro assay utilizing (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP. The membrane proteins were subsequently separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the /sup 32/P content of gel slices was counted by Cerenkov counting. Erythrocyte filterability was measured as the filtration time of suspensions of erythrocytes, both untreated and preincubated with diamide, under constant pressure. Erythrocyte ghosts from zinc-deficient rats demonstrated greater dephosphorylation of protein bands R1 plus R2 and R7 than pair-fed rats and greater net phosphorylation of band R2.2 than pair-fed or ad libitum-fed control rats (P less than 0.05). Erythrocytes from ad libitum-fed control rats showed significantly longer filtration times than those from zinc-deficient or pair-fed control rats. In conclusion, dietary zinc deficiency alters in vitro patterns of erythrocyte membrane protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas the depression in food intake associated with the zinc deficiency increases erythrocyte filterability. 71 references.

  2. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT).

    PubMed

    Reiner, Alexander P; Lettre, Guillaume; Nalls, Michael A; Ganesh, Santhi K; Mathias, Rasika; Austin, Melissa A; Dean, Eric; Arepalli, Sampath; Britton, Angela; Chen, Zhao; Couper, David; Curb, J David; Eaton, Charles B; Fornage, Myriam; Grant, Struan F A; Harris, Tamara B; Hernandez, Dena; Kamatini, Naoyuki; Keating, Brendan J; Kubo, Michiaki; LaCroix, Andrea; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Simin; Lohman, Kurt; Meng, Yan; Mohler, Emile R; Musani, Solomon; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Okada, Yukinori; Palmer, Cameron D; Papanicolaou, George J; Patel, Kushang V; Singleton, Andrew B; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Herman A; Taylor, Kent; Thomson, Cynthia; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Lingyao; Ziv, Elad; Zonderman, Alan B; Folsom, Aaron R; Evans, Michele K; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M; Snively, Beverly M; Wilson, James G

    2011-06-01

    Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8)). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can result in false positive associations in GWAS. PMID:21738479

  3. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  4. Effect of dexamethasone in feed on intestinal permeability, differential white blood cell counts, and immune organs in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Vicuña, E A; Kuttappan, V A; Galarza-Seeber, R; Latorre, J D; Faulkner, O B; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G; Bielke, L R

    2015-09-01

    We have previously shown that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by poorly digested diets or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Three experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on systemic fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-D; 3-5 kDa) levels, indicative of increased gut epithelial leakage. Experiment 1 compared DEX injections of 1 mg/kg, once per day on d 3, 5, and 9, with feed administration at 0.57, 1.7, or 5.1 ppm d 4 to 10, with FITC-D serum concentrations 2.5 h after gavage with 4.16 mg/kg FITC-D. All DEX treatments resulted in marked (2 to 6X; P<0.05) increased serum FITC-D levels. Feed DEX administration resulted in greater (P<0.05) gut permeability than injection at any dose, with numerically optimal effects at the lowest dose tested. In experiments 2 and 3, chicks were randomly assigned to a starter ration containing either control (CON) or DEX treated feed (0.57 ppm/kg; d 3 to 10 experiment 2, d 4 to 10 experiment 3). At d 10, all chicks were treated by oral gavage with FITC-D and serum samples were obtained as described above. Samples of the liver were aseptically collected, homogenized, diluted 1:4 wt/vol in sterile saline, and serial dilutions were plated on tryptic soy agar to evaluate total numbers of aerobic bacteria in the liver as an index of bacterial translocation (BT). In both experiments, FITC-D absorption was significantly enhanced (P<0.05) in DEX-treated chicks, again indicating increased paracellular leakage across the gut epithelium associated with dissolution of tight junctions. Experiment 2 differential cell counts showed an increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and immune organ (spleen and bursa of Fabricius) weights for experiments 2 and 3 were decreased (P<0.05) from controls. In experiments 2 and 3, dietary DEX administration resulted in numerically (experiment 2) or significantly (P<0.05) increased enteric BT to the liver, supporting the observation that dietary DEX causes a stress-like inflammatory GI response, which may contribute to subclinical or clinical disease, and may be a useful model for ongoing disease mitigation research related to stress-related diseases of GIT origin. PMID:26195804

  5. Reduced sodium concentration and increased sodium-potassium pump activity of erythrocytes in human hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Engel, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    Erythrocyte Nai, Nai/Ki and ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake (K transport) were measured in whole blood of 16 normotensive and 19 hypertensive white male subjects, within seconds or minutes after withdrawal of blood. Erythrocyte Nai and Nai/Ki were reduced (p less than 0.05), and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was increased (p less than 0.01) in hypertensive subjects. In a separate group of hypertensive white male subjects, an inverse correlation was found between erythrocyte Nai/Ki and ouabain-binding sites per erythrocyte (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01, n = 9). The abnormalities of erythrocyte cation fluxes in hypertensive subjects are similar to those induced by aldosterone in vascular smooth muscle cells and by glucocorticoid administration in the erythrocytes of human subjects, suggesting similarities in pathogenesis.

  6. Prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigens 1, 4, and 7 in galgos (Spanish Greyhounds).

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Vials Flrez, Luis Miguel; Del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Baggiani, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    Galgos (Spanish Greyhounds), in common with other sighthounds, have higher hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, and red blood cell counts than other breeds. In addition to these hematological characteristics, the physical characteristics of these dogs (medium to large dogs with an easily accessible jugular vein and a good temperament) make galgos ideal blood donors. However, to date, there are only published reports concerning dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 in this breed. Information on DEAs 4 and 7 would be useful when recruiting blood donors to donation programs, as DEA 1 and 7-negative and DEA 4-positive dogs can be considered universal donors. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid-anticoagulated jugular blood samples were collected from 205 galgos. Dogs were aged between 1 and 10 years, 102 were female (49.8%) and 103 male (50.2%), and all were living in South Madrid, Spain. All 205 blood samples were tested for DEA 1 by card agglutination, and 150 of these samples were tested for DEA 4 and DEA 7 by gel column agglutination using polyclonal anti-DEA antibodies. Of the 205 galgos blood samples typed, 112 out of 205 (54.6%) were positive for DEA 1. Of the 150 blood samples tested, all (150/150, 100%) were positive for DEA 4, and 12 out of 150 (8%) samples tested positive for DEA 7. Of these samples, 70 out of 150 (46.7%) were positive only for DEA 4. There was no relationship between blood types and sex. In addition to the hematological characteristics previously reported and the physical characteristics of these dogs, the relative prevalence of blood types DEA 1, 4, and 7 make galgos good candidates for blood donation in blood donor programs. PMID:26179093

  7. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  8. Altered expression of gangliosides in erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Nakakuma, H; Kawaguchi, T; Horikawa, K; Hidaka, M; Yonemura, Y; Kawakita, M; Kagimoto, T; Iwamori, M; Nagai, Y; Takatsuki, K

    1990-01-01

    In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), impaired glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (PI)-anchoring of membrane proteins such as decay-accelerating factor has been known to lead to increased susceptibility to complement. Moreover, abnormal expression of non-PI-anchoring glycoproteins such as C3b/C4b receptor (CR1) or glycophorin-alpha also has been shown in PNH. Therefore, we biochemically analyzed glycosphingolipids (GSL) as one of the membrane glycoconjugates of PNH erythrocytes. Erythrocytes of all seven PNH patients showed altered expression of sialosyl GSL (gangliosides) as compared with the control erythrocytes of healthy donors. Both a sialosylparagloboside (IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer) among four major gangliosides and some minor gangliosides in normal erythrocytes variably disappeared in erythrocytes from the peripheral blood of PNH patients. As one of the possible mechanisms of altered expression of gangliosides in PNH erythrocytes, structural analysis suggested impaired sialylation of GSL. These results suggest not only the altered metabolism of gangliosides in PNH erythrocytes, but also a metabolic disorder of membrane glycoconjugates as a new feature of PNH. Images PMID:2185273

  9. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: a numerical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Xing, Z W

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders. PMID:24229217

  10. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 μm. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  11. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  12. Erythrocyte membrane stability to hydrogen peroxide is decreased in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Marilena; Lixandru, Daniela; Gaman, Laura; Vrgolici, Bogdana; Atanasiu, Valeriu; Stoian, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The brain and erythrocytes have similar susceptibility toward free radicals. Therefore, erythrocyte abnormalities might indicate the progression of the oxidative damage in Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte membrane stability and plasma antioxidant status in AD. Fasting blood samples (from 17 patients with AD and 14 healthy controls) were obtained and erythrocyte membrane stability against hydrogen peroxide and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), residual antioxidant activity or gap (GAP), erythrocyte catalase activity (CAT), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, erythrocyte nonproteic thiols, and total plasma thiols were determined. A significant decrease in erythrocyte membrane stability to hydrogen peroxide was found in AD patients when compared with controls (P<0.05). On the contrary, CAT activity (P<0.0001) and total plasma thiols (P<0.05) were increased in patients with AD compared with controls. Our results indicate that the most satisfactory measurement of the oxidative stress level in the blood of patients with AD is the erythrocyte membrane stability to hydrogen peroxide. Reduced erythrocyte membrane stability may be further evaluated as a potential peripheral marker for oxidative damage in AD. PMID:24614270

  13. Exposure to ozone and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemi, Y.; Ohmori, K.; Ito, T.; Osaka, F.; Matuura, Y. )

    1992-10-01

    In order to learn the biological effect of photochemical oxidants on living bodies, we exposed newborn and adult rats, of both sexes, to ozone at a concentration of 0.25 ppm, which can be encountered in an urban environment, and then measured the osmotic resistance of their erythrocytes. The results of experiments using newborn rats indicated a positive increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in whole blood following ozone exposure for 4 weeks. An increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in the top part obtained by centrifugation was observed following ozone exposure for 12 weeks. This tendency was especially evident among male rats. On the other hand, no increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes was recognized in the adult animals which had been exposed to the same concentration of ozone for 18 months.

  14. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic-a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0-4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  15. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  16. Impact of microparticles derived from erythrocytes on fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Levin, Grigory; Sukhareva, Ekaterina; Lavrentieva, Athina

    2016-04-01

    It has long been known that negatively charged membranes of erythrocyte-derived microparticles display procoagulant activity. However, relatively little is known about the possible fibrinolytic activity of such microparticles. This issue becomes particularly important during red blood cell storage, which significantly increases the number of microparticles. Whole blood was collected from 30 healthy donors. Microparticles were isolated on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of erythrocyte storage. The effect of microparticles on the fibrinolytic activity of the donor plasma was determined by coagulation and optical (chromogenic substrate) methods. We demonstrated that erythrocyte microparticles had a prominent fibrinolytic activity which cleaves not only fibrin but also chromogenic substrates. Microparticles present fibrinolytic activity mainly due to the presence of plasminogen on them. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes significantly enhance cleavage of the chromogenic substrate by the streptokinase-plasminogen complex, but to a lesser extent accelerate euglobulin clot lysis time. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles display prominent fibrinolytic activity, which significantly decreases during storage of red blood cells. PMID:26590996

  17. CELLS, PROTEINS, AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...

  18. l-Arginine supplementation enhances antioxidant activity and erythrocyte integrity in sickle cell anaemia subjects.

    PubMed

    Kehinde, M O; Ogungbemi, S I; Anigbogu, C N; Jaja, S I

    2015-09-01

    The effect of oral, low-dose l-arginine supplementation (1g/day for 6 weeks) on antioxidant activity, haematological parameters and osmotic fragility of red blood cells was investigated in sickle cell disease sufferers. Twenty eight sickle cell anaemia subjects were recruited for the study. Five millilitres of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), total antioxidant enzymes (TAE) activity, malondialdehyde concentration ([MDA]), RBC count, [Hb], PCV, MCHC, MCV, MCH, percent irreversibly sickled cells (%ISC)) and osmotic fragility of red blood cells in the subjects. l-arginine supplementation increased [R] (p<0.001), TAE activity (p<0.05) and MCV (<0.05) but reduced plasma [MDA], MCHC, MCH and %ISC (p<0.001, respectively). ?[R] correlated positively with ?TAE (r=0.8) and negatively with ?[MDA] (r=-0.7) and ?%ISC (r=-0.5). Also ?TAE activity correlated negatively with ?[MDA] (r=-0.7) and ?%ISC (r=-0.6). Supplementation shifted the osmotic fragiligram to the right and reduced the concentrations of NaCl at which initial and complete lyses of erythrocytes occurred. Study showed that low-dose, oral l-arginine increased antioxidant activity, red blood cell resistance to osmotic lysis but reduced red cell density in SCD. PMID:26051155

  19. Erythrocyte-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate stabilizes basal hydraulic conductivity and solute permeability in rat microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. F.; Adamson, R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator in blood, attenuates acute microvascular permeability increases via receptor S1P1 to stabilize the endothelium. To evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes as an endogenous source of S1P to the regulation of basal permeability, we measured permeability coefficients in intact individually perfused venular microvessels of rat mesentery. This strategy also enabled the contributions of other endogenous S1P sources to be evaluated. Apparent permeability coefficients (PS) to albumin and ?-lactalbumin and the hydraulic conductivity of mesenteric microvessels were measured in the presence or absence of rat erythrocytes or rat erythrocyte-conditioned perfusate. Rat erythrocytes added to the perfusate were the principal source of S1P in these microvessels. Basal PS to albumin was stable and typical of blood-perfused microvessels (mean 0.5 10?6 cm/s) when erythrocytes or erythrocyte-conditioned perfusates were present. When they were absent, PS to albumin or ?-lactalbumin increased up to 40-fold (over 10 min). When exogenous S1P was added to perfusates, permeability returned to levels comparable with those seen in the presence of erythrocytes. Addition of SEW 2871, an agonist specific for S1P1, in the absence of red blood cells reduced PSBSA (40-fold reduction) toward basal. The specific S1P1 receptor antagonist (W-146) reversed the stabilizing action of erythrocytes and increased permeability (27-fold increase) in a manner similar to that seen in the absence of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are a primary source of S1P that maintains normal venular microvessel permeability. Absence of erythrocytes or conditioned perfusate in in vivo and in vitro models of endothelial barriers elevates basal permeability. PMID:22865384

  20. Delayed blood regeneration in lead exposure: An effect on reserve capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Jensen, B.M.; Sando, S.H.; Jogensen, P.J.; Antonsen, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.

  1. Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2007-01-01

    The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. PMID:17360346

  2. Effect of smoking on serum immunoglobulins and cellular blood constituents in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, W A; Maugeri, U; Adamczyk, B

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study a possible link between smoking and systemic immunological abnormalities, which could have been eventually the common ground for chronic degenerative processes Blood samples were taken from 319 apparently healthy men from 19-45 years of age. Mean values of hemoglobin were slightly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers but the difference appeared to have been insignificant. In contrast, the erythrocyte counts in nonsmokers were significantly higher. Although all types of white cells were in larger numbers among smokers only neutrophilic granulocytes and lymphocytes were substantially higher than in the group of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers mean value of IgG and IgA were about 10% higher than in smokers. The same pattern was observed for serum globulin alpha 2. The clear dose-response relationship was observed for neutrophilic granulocytes, erythrocyte counts and IgG level. PMID:3653606

  3. [Pulmonary hypertensive responses to erythrocytes components in sensitized rabbits].

    PubMed

    Enzan, K; Komatsu, H; Shouji, K; Mitsuhata, H; Suzuki, M; Yoshioka, N

    1995-02-01

    Antigen erythrocytes cause a transient pulmonary hypertension in sensitized rabbits. We investigated the main responsible component in the antigen erythrocytes. Eleven rabbits were immunized intravenously with human O-N type erythrocytes every ten days until the agglutinin titer = 1:8,000 was obtained. Another ten rabbits without immunization served as a control group. Human erythrocytes were osmolitically hemolyzed and then separated into hemoglobin and membrane components by centrifugation. In sensitized rabbits, a bolus injection of human hemoglobin 0.7 ml.kg-1 caused increases in pulmonary arterial and airway pressures within 3-4 min. Increase in pulmonary arterial pressure after injection of hemoglobin component was significantly higher than that after injection of membrane component in sensitized rabbits. However, in nonsensitized rabbits both components were ineffective. Leukocytes counts decreased by 73-62% in sensitized rabbit, while they decreased by 16-37% in nonsensitized rabbits 5 min after injection of hemoglobin or membrane component. Platelets decreased by 54-61% in sensitized rabbits, while they decreased by 24-9% in nonsensitized rabbits 5 min after injection of hemoglobin or membrane component. We conclude that hemoglobin is the responsible component in the antigen erythrocytes and chemical mediators, such as thromboxane and platelet activating factor, may not be released from platelets and leukocytes. PMID:7739096

  4. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a bleeding disorder. Common bleeding disorders include: Hemophilia (pronounced: hee-muh-FIL-ee-uh), an inherited ... clotting factors in the blood. People with severe hemophilia are at risk for excessive bleeding and bruising ...

  5. White Blood Cell Count to Mean Platelet Volume Ratio Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Fakour, Sanam; Arjmand, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Leukocyte and platelet have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to determine the usefulness of a novel marker named white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) for predicting outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with or without MetS. Subjects and Methods A total of 331 NSTE-ACS individuals (60±12.5 years, 57.4% male) were enrolled and followed for a median of 24 months. MetS was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results Patients were divided into two groups: high WMR (WMR≥720) and low WMR (WMR<720). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MetS rates were significantly greater in the higher WMR group compared to those in the low WMR group (MACE: 14.3% vs. 25%, p=0.014; MetS: 50.9% vs. 75%, p<0.001). MetS was diagnosed in 62.2% of patients. MACE incidence in patients with or without MetS was comparable (p=0.737). Among MetS individuals, patients in the high WMR group had more MACE than the low WMR group (11.2% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). However, MACE was comparable among non-MetS individuals (p=0.681). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) of MACE incidence for high-WMR in MetS individuals was 2.616 (95% confidence interval: 1.282–5.339, p=0.008). However, HR of MACE incidence for high WMR in non-MetS individuals was not significant. Conclusion Among NSTE-ACS patients without revascularization therapy, elevated admission WMR was associated with an increased risk of developing composite MACE in MetS individuals but not in non-MetS patients. PMID:27014354

  6. Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  7. Impact of Admission White Blood Cell Count on Short- and Long-term Mortality in Patients With Type A Acute Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohan; Huang, Bi; Lu, Haisong; Zhao, Zhenhua; Lu, Zhinan; Yang, Yanmin; Zhang, Shu; Hui, Rutai

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown inflammation is involved in the development of acute aortic dissection (AAD). The hypothesis that white blood cell count (WBCc) on admission may have an impact on the short- and long-term outcomes of type A AAD was tested in a large-scale, prospective observational cohort study. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 570 consecutive patients with type A AAD in Fuwai hospital were enrolled and were followed up. Baseline characteristics and WBCc on admission were collected. The primary outcomes were 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. During a median of 1.89 years of follow-up, the 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality were 10.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis identified admission WBCc as an independent predictor of 30-day mortality when considered as a continuous variable or as a categorical variable using the cutoff of 11.0  × 109 cells/L (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein, d-dimer, and surgical intervention, elevated admission WBCc (>11.0 × 109 cells/L) remained an independent predictor of 30-day mortality of AAD (hazard ratio = 3.31, 95% confidence interval 1.38–7.93, P = 0.007). No impact of admission WBCc was observed on the long-term all-cause mortality. In conclusion, elevated admission WBCc may be valuable as a predictor of 30-day mortality, and may be useful in the risk stratification of type A AAD during hospitalization. PMID:26496299

  8. Automated Detection of Working Area of Peripheral Blood Smears Using Mathematical Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Jess; Flandrin, Georges

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a technique to automatically detect the working area of peripheral blood smears stained with May?Grnwuald Giemsa. The optimal area is defined as the well spread part of the smear. This zone starts when the erythrocytes stop overlapping (on the body film side) and finishes when the erythrocytes start losing their clear central zone (on the feather edge side). The approach yields a quick detection of this area in images scanned under low magnifying power (immersion objective 25 or 16). The algorithm consists of two stages. First, an image analysis procedure using mathematical morphology is applied for extracting the erythrocytes, the centers of erythrocytes and the erythrocytes with center. Second, the number of connected components from the three kinds of particles is counted and the coefficient of spreading ?s and the coefficient of overlapping ?o are calculated. The data from fourteen smears illustrate how the technique is used and its performance. Colour figures can be viewed on http://www.esacp.org/acp/2003/25?1/angulo.htm. PMID:12590176

  9. Iron metabolism following intravenous transfusion with stored versus fresh autologous erythrocyte concentrate in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Wurlod, Virginie A; Smith, Stephanie A; McMichael, Maureen A; O'Brien, Mauria; Herring, Jennifer; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of IV transfusion with fresh (3-day-old) or stored (35-day-old) autologous erythrocyte concentrate on serum labile iron concentration, iron-binding capacity, and protein interaction with iron in dogs. ANIMALS 10 random-source healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive autologous erythrocyte concentrate stored for 3 days (n = 5) or 35 days (5). One unit of whole blood was collected from each dog, and erythrocyte concentrates were prepared and stored as assigned. After erythrocyte storage, IV transfusion was performed, with dogs receiving their own erythrocyte concentrate. Blood samples were collected from each dog before and 5, 9, 24, 48, and 72 hours after transfusion. Serum was harvested for measurement of total iron, labile iron, transferrin, ferritin, hemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations. RESULTS For dogs that received fresh erythrocytes, serum concentrations of the various analytes largely remained unchanged after transfusion. For dogs that received stored erythrocytes, serum concentrations of total iron, labile iron, hemoglobin, and ferritin increased markedly and serum concentrations of transferrin and haptoglobin decreased after transfusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Transfusion with autologous erythrocyte concentrate stored for 35 days resulted in evidence of intravascular hemolysis in healthy dogs. The associated marked increases in circulating concentrations of free iron and hemoglobin have the potential to adversely affect transfusion recipients. PMID:26512546

  10. Genetic analysis of inheritance of rates of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-cotransport, calcium concentration in erythrocytes, and blood pressure of F/sub 2/ hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kotelevtsev, Yu.V.; Orlov, S.N.; Pokudin, N.I.; Agnaev, V.M.; Postnov, Yu.V.

    1987-09-01

    Inheritance of the rates of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-cotransport, measured as the furosemide-sensitive component of the /sup 86/Rb inflow, the /sup 4//sub 5/Ca concentration in the erythrocytes in the presence of orthovanadate, and BP were analyzed in second generation hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive Kyoto-Wistar rats and normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats of the control line.

  11. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  12. Microscopy and Microanalysis of Blood in a Snake Head Fish, Channa gachua Exposed to Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pala, Eva M; Dey, Sudip

    2016-02-01

    Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities. PMID:26914995

  13. Spectral Markers of Erythrocytes on Solid Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiziev, Adkhamjon A.; Krakhmalev, V. A.

    Proposed in previous paper [1,2] the new nondestructive method of optical microscopy allows to examine the structures of living cells (human erythrocytes) in their natural colors without its staining by using a specially designed substrate for deposition of biological sample and observing a native blood smears in reflected light. Color interference contrast image is achieved due to special condition of experiment is connected with chose of angle of incidental light, wave length of light of reflected ray, chemical composition of sample, thickness of sample, refractive index of sample, refractive index of substrate, chemical composition of substrate [1,2]. We can identify chemical compounds of erythrocytes after calibration color scale by alternative methods. For comparison we used Synchrotron Radiation based Fourier Transformed Infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy. By focusing of infrared beam of FTIR microscope on cell surface we can screen and distinguish difference erythrocytes by its color. For example on Fig. 49.1 we can see two neighbored erythrocytes where one of them have red color (point 1) and other-green (point 5). To identify their spectral markers we measured IR absorption spectra of cells at different points (1,2,3,4 and 5). Intermediated area (points 3 and 4) correspond to substrate spectra (silicon substrate) and their spectra are same. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids. At 1,650 cm-1 the amide I band is observed, which results, principally, from the n(CO) stretching vibrations of the protein amide bonds; the amide II band, near 1,550 cm-1, is a combination of the d(N-H) bending and n(C-N) stretching vibrations of the amide bonds. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids [3. The intensities of the absorption bands at 2,920 and 2,850 cm-1 in green erythrocyte (point 5) were also significantly increased compared to red one (point 1). The protein conformational change of the red and green cells could be expressed as the ratio of the absorbance intensity at wavenumber 1650/1550, which represented the intensity of the amide II band of cells. Lipids have long hydrocarbon chains, so the dominant features in the IR spectrum of lipids are attributed to the asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of CH2 (2,920 and 2,850 cm-1) groups in the molecule. Other biological components, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, also have unique IR spectra.

  14. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (?=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  15. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    PubMed

    Louir, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually. PMID:26467045

  17. Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic-stage antigen discovery: exploiting naturally acquired humoral responses.

    PubMed

    Molina, Douglas M; Finney, Olivia C; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L; Gardner, Malcolm J; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing

    2012-09-01

    The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy- individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic-stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy- donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

  18. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumor, radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels Chronic kidney disease Anemia caused by low levels of Vitamin B12 or folate Reticulocyte count may be increased during pregnancy.

  19. Counting carbohydrates

    MedlinePLUS

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk, soy milk, yogurt, and ice cream Beans, ...

  20. Retention of radiolead by human erythrocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.C.

    1989-06-15

    An in vitro method was developed to assess human erythrocyte lead uptake and release directly, rapidly, and reproducibly; the technique requires small aliquots of blood and uses silicone fluid to separate erythrocytes from their suspending media. Uptake occurred rapidly and was directly related to temperature. Increasing quantities of available elemental lead were associated with increasing absolute quantities but decreasing percentages of uptake. Low values of pH diminished the uptake and enhanced the release of radiolead by erythrocytes, and could be correlated with diminished lead-hemoglobin binding para-Chloromecuribenzoate increased and dithiothreitol inhibited radiolead uptake but neither compound affected lead release, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are important for lead binding to the erythrocyte. Cyanamide and N-ethylmaleimide did not significantly affect the net uptake or release of radiolead. Calcium disodium EDTA, penicillamine, and dimercaprol significantly reduced lead uptake, although only incubation with dimercaprol resulted in a net removal of lead from erythrocytes. Iron and ceruloplasmin significantly decreased radiolead uptake, but inorganic metal cations other than iron, hyperosmolarity, human serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin had no significant effect on uptake or release.

  1. Erythrocyte lead-binding protein after occupational exposure. II. Influence on lead inhibition of membrane Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-adenosinetriphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, S.R.V.; Culver, B.D.; Gonick, H.C.

    1981-03-01

    Membrane Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-adenosinetriphosphatase in erythrocytes from three groups of industrially exposed Pb workers (without toxicity, with toxicity associated with high blood Pb levels, and with toxicity associated with low blood Pb levels) was inversely correlated with Pb in the membrane fraction but not significantly correlated with total erythrocyte Pb. This difference was attributable to the proportion of erythrocyte Pb bound to hemoglobin and a Pb-binding protein of molecular weight 10,000.

  2. Detection of Theileria equi in spleen and blood of asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabel B; Cmara, Antnio Carlos L; Bittencourt, Marta V; Marola, Tatiana G; Paludo, Giane R; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic horses naturally infected with Theileria equi retain infected erythrocytes in the spleen and whether the presence of the hemoparasite in this organ is associated with parasitemia. We collected samples from 25 adult horses without clinical signs of any disease. From each animal, we collected whole blood samples from the jugular vein and a splenic puncture blood sample. All samples were submited to blood cell counts and detection of Theileria or Babesia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed in all samples for identification of piroplasm infection (T. equi and B. caballi). From the 25 horses evaluated for piroplasm detection by PCR, seven horses (28%) were positive in jugular vein blood but negative in splenic blood samples, five horses (20%) were positive in splenic blood samples but negative in jugular vein blood samples, and 13 horses (52%) were positive in both jugular vein and splenic blood samples. The hematological evaluation revealed anemia in 13 of 25 (52%) infected horses, lymphopenia in five (20%), neutrophilia in two (8%), neutropenia in one (4%), and thrombocytopenia in one (4%) infected horse. The present study demonstrated that several (20%) of the asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses did not show parasitemia, but show infected erythrocytes in the spleen. PMID:23666659

  3. Genotoxic evaluation of pirfenidone using erythrocyte rodent micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Alcántar-Díaz, Blanca E; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M; Zamora-Perez, Ana L; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Bertha A; Sánchez-Parada, María Guadalupe; García-Bañuelos, Jesús J; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Pirfenidone is a non-steroidal antifibrotic compound that has been proposed in clinical protocols and experimental studies as a pharmacological treatment for fibroproliferative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxicity or cytotoxicity of three doses of pirfenidone using the micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rodent models. Pirfenidone was administered orally to Balb-C mice for 3 days, and also was administered topically to hairless Sprague Dawley rats during the final stage of gestation. Mice were sampled every 24 h over the course of 6 days; pregnant rats were sampled every 24 h during the last 6 days of gestation, and pups were sampled at birth. Blood smears were analyzed and the frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNEs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), were recorded in samples from mice, pregnant rats and rat neonates. Increases in MN frequencies (p<0.03) were noted only in the positive control groups. No genotoxic effects or decreased PCE values were observed neither in newborn rats transplacentally exposed to pirfenidone, or in two adult rodent models when pirfenidone was administered orally or topically. PMID:22683486

  4. Effects of Aspirin on Rheological Properties of Erythrocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elblbesy, Mohamed A.; Hereba, Abdel Rahman M.; Shawki, Mamdouh M.

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin is of proven value as an antithrombotic drug. In unstable angina it reduces the risk of death and myocardial infarction by half. Most studies on the mechanism of action of aspirin have concentrated on the effect of aspirin on platelets. In the present study we have tried to prove that there is another biophysical mechanism of aspirin, and that is through the effect of aspirin on erythrocytes. In this study ten blood samples were incubated with aspirin at different concentrations. The fractal dimension of erythrocytes subjected to shear rates from 5 s-1 to 30 s-1, in a cone and plate device designed and constructed in our lab, was calculated by processing the images of the erythrocyte. At each shear rate, the fractal dimensions of the erythrocytes were found to be strongly correlated with aspirin concentration. It is suggested that further studies using different biophysical methods must be carried out to detect the other mechanisms underlying the effect of aspirin on different blood cells. PMID:23675272

  5. [Red blood function in systematic exposure to +Gz g-forces].

    PubMed

    Dlusskaia, I G; Kiseleva, R K; Vartbaronov, R A; Khomenko, M N; Kozinets, G I; Bondarenko, R A; Bukhtiiarov, I V

    1993-01-01

    In 8 healthy men exposed within a year to systematic +Gz accelerations with cycles of 2-month work on centrifuge followed by a month rest the functional state of the red blood cells was studied repeatedly and once in 26 fighter pilots. The blood was tested for such indices as hemoglobin, reticulocyte and erythrocyte counts; the functional state of erythrocyte pool was tested using a modified method of acidic erythrograms enabling one to record kinetic parameters of hemolysis: maximum rate of hemolysis and time of its development. Intensity of loads in the cycles of centrifuging was estimated from the Barton index. It is indicated that one of the effects of systematic exposure to +Gz accelerations is an accelerated destruction of the cells with reduced resistivity a function of exposure intensity. The destructive processes induced by accelerations trigger for a short time the mechanism of compensatory activation of the red blood system. Analysis of diagrams of percentage distribution of the parameters of the erythrocyte function after centrifuge runs of various intensity, and in the pilots revealed a significant compensatory activation of the red blood system only in 25% of pilots. The criterion validity of the indices tested for the system of individual control of the adaptive processes strain in the body is discussed. PMID:8012297

  6. [Erythrocyte reference values in a Coulter S-Plus STKR, in healthy adults living at 2,240 meters above sea level].

    PubMed

    Piedras Ros, J; Reyes Devesa, S; Crdova Caballero, M S; Chves Rodrguez, L

    1991-01-01

    To determine reference values of red blood cell counts in a Coulter S-Plus STKR, we studied 122 males and 147 females selected from the hospital staff (physicians, chemists, nurses) and blood donors. Their ages ranged from 17 to 45 years. Iron and total iron binding capacity in serum, and Zn-protoporphyrin and folates in erythrocytes were measured to include only normal subjects without nutritional deficiencies. Two males (1.6%) and 21 females (14.3%) were excluded due to iron deficiency, and one man (0.7%) and one woman (0.8%) to folate deficiency. All red cell parameters, except the mean cell volume, showed a gaussian distribution (Lilliefors test). Their mean +/- standard deviation were: [formula: see text]. PMID:1947474

  7. Single oral administration of the novel CXCR4 antagonist, KRH-3955, induces an efficient and long-lasting increase of white blood cell count in normal macaques, and prevents CD4 depletion in SHIV-infected macaques: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Tadashi; Kumakura, Sei; Yamamoto, Michiko; Murakami, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the long-term effects of the single oral administration of a new CXCR4 antagonist, KRH-3955, on elevation of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in normal cynomolgus monkeys. In the monkeys treated with 0, 2, 20, 200 mg/kg of the compound, WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts increased dramatically at 2 days after treatment. This effect was dose-dependent, and these cell counts remained elevated 15 days after drug treatment. Since neutrophils are the most abundant WBCs in circulation and bone marrow neutrophil exhaustion impairs the response to bacterial infections, it is intriguing to exploit this pharmacological increase of neutrophils as a tool to address its influence on viral infections in vivo. The SHIV infection studies using the SHIV-KS661c/cynomolgus monkey model showed that a single oral administration of KRH-3955 (100 mg/kg) approximately 24 h before virus exposure did not prevent infection, although it did prevent CD4 cell depletion in 3/3 monkeys. Furthermore, single oral administration of the drug 2 weeks before viral exposure rescued CD4 cells in 1/3 monkeys. This prevention of CD4 cell depletion was observed in both blood and lymphoid tissues. These results show that natural course of the SHIV infection is modulated by artificial increase of neutrophils and lymphocytes caused by KRH-3955 in the cynomolgus monkey model. PMID:22772800

  8. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36 C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Protective effects of oestradiol against cadmium-induced changes in blood parameters and oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Mladenovi?, Jelena; Ognjanovi?, Branka; Dor?evi?, Nataa; Mati?, Milo; Kneevi?, Veroljub; Stajn, Andra; Sai?i?, Zorica

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of oestradiol (E2, 4 mg kg-1 b.w. i.p.) against cadmium-induced (Cd, 2 mg kg-1 b.w. i.p.) blood changes in rats. Cadmium induced a significant decline in haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and thrombocyte count, whereas total leukocytes and granulocytes increased. A significant increase was also observed in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, AST, and ALT activities, whereas total protein and albumin levels dropped significantly. Administration of E2 in combination with Cd alleviated most of these adverse effects. In terms of oxidative stress, Cd significantly increased oxygen-free radicals (O? - and H?O?) in neutrophils and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes, whereas E2 treatment reversed these changes to control values. Acute Cd poisoning significantly lowered antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity and the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH and vitamin E), while increasing in GSSG. Treatments with E2 reversed Cd-induced effects on the antioxidant defences and significantly lowered Cd-induced oxidative damage in erythrocytes. This study suggests that exogenous E2 effectively restores redox balance in rat erythrocytes and counters adverse haematological and biochemical effects of Cd poisoning. It also improves the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes, acting in synergy with endogenous antioxidants. PMID:24670333

  10. The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo

    2014-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01857e

  11. Effects of hyperglycaemia and sorbitol accumulation on erythrocyte deformability in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Bareford, D; Jennings, P E; Stone, P C; Baar, S; Barnett, A H; Stuart, J

    1986-01-01

    Erythrocyte deformability was studied in a total of 83 poorly controlled diabetics (mean blood glucose 12.2 mmol/l) who were divided into three groups, each with matched healthy controls. There was no appreciable difference between diabetics and matched controls regarding the filtration of erythrocytes through 3 micron diameter straight channel pores (25 diabetics) or tortuous channel pores (28 diabetics), or for the measurement of erythrocyte elongation over a range of osmolalities in the Ektacytometer (30 diabetics). When erythrocytes from 17 additional diabetics and 17 healthy controls were incubated for two hours at 37 degrees C in hyperglycaemic (50 mmol glucose/l) buffer, however, there was a considerable reduction in erythrocyte filterability for both diabetics and controls in parallel with an increase in erythrocyte sorbitol concentration. This loss of filterability was prevented by the addition of an aldose reductase inhibitor (Sorbinil). High glucose concentrations (congruent to 50 mmol/l) impair the filterability of erythrocytes through 3 micron pores, and the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol in poorly controlled outpatients is therefore unlikely to have a major adverse effect on erythrocyte rheology in diabetes mellitus. PMID:3090107

  12. Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

  13. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  14. Women Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Dana M.

    2014-11-01

    I am a counter by nature. I count things as an effective way to occupy my mind. How many people are in this room? How many are women? How many are wearing glasses? How many people are using a Mac versus a PC?

  15. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the

  16. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  17. Mycoplasma gallisepticum invades chicken erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Lszl; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum R(low) were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum R(low) was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies. PMID:17954728

  18. BASIGIN is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y.; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Bei, Amy K.; Theron, Michel; Uchikawa, Makoto; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndir, Omar; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Rayner, Julian C.; Wright, Gavin J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved1-4 are required in all parasite strains suggesting that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways5. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, BASIGIN, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth6. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble BASIGIN or by BASIGIN knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-BASIGIN antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a−) erythrocytes, which express a BASIGIN variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, exhibited reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for novel anti-malarial therapies. PMID:22080952

  19. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of ?eff=7.6 ?B per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for ?eff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  20. Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Mrquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, Jos Luis; Gonzlez-Avila, Marisela

    2013-08-01

    Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

  1. Temperature-dependent binding of cyclosporine to an erythrocyte protein

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, R.P.; Threatte, G.A.; McPherson, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of (/sup 3/H)CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA.

  2. Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

  3. [Electronic platelet counting with particular reference to thrombocytopenias (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuse, R; Burmeister, H; Hausmann, K

    1977-09-29

    Platelet counts in platelet-rich plasma without hematocrit dependent correction were performed by following rapid and simple steps: 1. pre-dilution of 20 microliter of whole blood by an isotonic solution 1:25; 2. stabilized low-speed centrifugation with 55 g for 5 minutes; 3. final dilution 1 : 5000; 4. enumeration by use of a TOA platelet counter PL-100 which has been technically improved in comparison to similar machines. Erroneously high results were obtained after a too short or too low centrifugation. As reason for this artifical small pulses due to disturbances of the flow patterns around the aperture (so-called vortex-effect) can be assumed having been caused by large-volumed erythrocytes and leukocytes in the suspension. The routinely used procedure was reliable for all platelet ranges, especially in thrombocytopenias between 100 X 10(9)/l and 25 X 10(9)l. In lower ranges comparisons with visual counts are essential. PMID:912110

  4. Mannose-Binding Lectin Is a Disease Modifier in Clinical Malaria and May Function as Opsonin for Plasmodium falciparum- Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Garred, Peter; Nielsen, Morten A.; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A.L.; Malhotra, Rajneesh; Madsen, Hans O.; Goka, Bamenla Q.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.; Sim, Robert B.; Hviid, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Variant alleles in the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene (mbl2) causing low levels of functional MBL are associated with susceptibility to different infections and are common in areas where malaria is endemic. Therefore, we investigated whether MBL variant alleles in 551 children from Ghana were associated with the occurrence and outcome parameters of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and asked whether MBL may function as an opsonin for P. falciparum. No difference in MBL genotype frequency was observed between infected and noninfected children or between children with cerebral malaria and/or severe malarial anemia and children with uncomplicated malaria. However, patients with complicated malaria who were homozygous for MBL variant alleles had significantly higher parasite counts and lower blood glucose levels than their MBL-competent counterparts. Distinct calcium-dependent binding of MBL to the membrane of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which could be inhibited by mannose, was observed. Further characterization revealed that MBL reacted with a P. falciparum glycoprotein identical to the 78-kDa glucose-regulated stress protein of P. falciparum. MBL seems to be a disease modifier in clinical malaria and to function as an opsonin for erythrocytes invaded by P. falciparum and may thus be involved in sequestration of the parasite, which in turn may explain the association between homozygosity for MBL variant alleles and high parasite counts. PMID:12933871

  5. The association of forced expiratory volume in one second and forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity, peak expiratory flow parameters, and blood eosinophil counts in exercise-induced bronchospasm in children with mild asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, Fulya; Gungor, Hatice Eke

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), which describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise, is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the most commonly used spirometric test in the diagnosis of EIB in exercise challenge in asthma. Other parameters such as forced expiratory flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50%) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) are used less often in the diagnosis of EIB. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of FEV1 and FEF50%, PEF parameters, blood eosinophil counts in EIB in children with mild asthma. Methods Sixty-seven children (male: 39, female: 28) with mild asthma were included in this study. Pulmonary functions were assessed before and at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after exercise. The values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, PEF, and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated in EIB in children with mild asthma. Results There was a positive correlation between FEV1 with FEF50% and PEF values (p<0.05; FEF50%, r=0.68; PEF, r=0.65). Also, a positive correlation was found between blood eosinophil counts and the values of spirometric FEV1, FEF50%, and PEF (p<0.05; FEV1, r=0.54; FEF50%, r=0.42; PEF, r=0.26). In addition to these correlations, in the exercise negative group for FEV1, the FEF50% and PEF values decreased more than the cutoff values in 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Conclusion According to the presented study, eosinophil may play a major role in the severity of EIB in mild asthma. FEF50% and PEF values can decrease in response to exercise without changes in FEV1 in mild asthmatic patients. PMID:25938074

  6. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  7. Avian erythrocytes have functional mitochondria, opening novel perspectives for birds as animal models in the study of ageing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In contrast to mammalian erythrocytes, which have lost their nucleus and mitochondria during maturation, the erythrocytes of almost all other vertebrate species are nucleated throughout their lifespan. Little research has been done however to test for the presence and functionality of mitochondria in these cells, especially for birds. Here, we investigated those two points in erythrocytes of one common avian model: the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of mitochondria in erythrocytes of this small passerine bird, especially after removal of haemoglobin interferences. High-resolution respirometry revealed increased or decreased rates of oxygen consumption by erythrocytes in response to the addition of respiratory chain substrates or inhibitors, respectively. Fluorometric assays confirmed the production of mitochondrial superoxide by avian erythrocytes. Interestingly, measurements of plasmatic oxidative markers indicated lower oxidative stress in blood of the zebra finch compared to a size-matched mammalian model, the mouse. Conclusions Altogether, those findings demonstrate that avian erythrocytes possess functional mitochondria in terms of respiratory activities and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, since blood oxidative stress was lower for our avian model compared to a size-matched mammalian, our results also challenge the idea that mitochondrial ROS production could have been one actor leading to this loss during the course of evolution. Opportunities to assess mitochondrial functioning in avian erythrocytes open new perspectives in the use of birds as models for longitudinal studies of ageing via lifelong blood sampling of the same subjects. PMID:23758841

  8. RBC count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen level (hypoxia) Scarring ... failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) Deficiency of a hormone called erythropoietin (caused by kidney ...

  9. [Erythrocyte membrane proteins].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, J

    1977-01-01

    Proteins are important constituents of the red blood cell plasma membrane. Several important breakthroughs have occurred in their analysis over the past few years. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis lead to the separation of the major proteins and glycoproteins. Location of most of these proteins -- either on the external, the internal or both surfaces of the membrane -- was determined. The strenght of the binding of the protein to the membrane was established. Hydrophobicity of membrane proteins has so far hindered their purification. However, the major glycoprotein (glycophorin A) was isolated and recently sequenced. The description of several membrane-associated enzyme activities has been followed by some understanding of their specific role in the red blood cell physiology. Abnormalities of glycoproteins, Ca2+-ATPase and of membrane protein phosphorylation have been reported under various conditions: sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytoses, progressive muscular dystrophy. PMID:146451

  10. Deantigenation of human type B erythrocytes with Glycine max alpha-D-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, L; Mitra, M; Phillips, R; Haibach, H; Smith, D

    1995-01-01

    Conversion of erythrocyte membrane B antigen to H antigen produces blood type O which is universally transfusable. If efficient large-scale production of enzymatically converted red blood cells is to be achieved, then optimal conditions for deantigenation must be determined. Cell suspension assays were used to study the blood group B activity of Glycine max (soybean) alpha-D-galactosidase on native human erythrocytes. The enzyme readily hydrolyzed the terminal alpha-D-galactosyl residue of the B antigen, converting it to H antigen. Optimal conditions for the enzymatic conversion of red cells with the Glycine enzyme are described. Normal cell morphology and function were maintained under optimal conditions. PMID:7579003

  11. A simplified algorithm for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by laser ektacytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, S. Yu; Yurchuk, Yu S.

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of measuring the dispersion of red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry) is analysed theoretically. A diffraction pattern parameter is found, which is sensitive to the dispersion of erythrocyte deformability and to a lesser extent - to such parameters as the level of the scattered light intensity, the shape of red blood cells, the concentration of red blood cells in the suspension, the geometric dimensions of the experimental setup, etc. A new algorithm is proposed for measuring erythrocyte deformability dispersion by using data of laser ektacytometry.

  12. A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Philip; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel

  13. The erythrocyte sedimentation rates: some model experiments.

    PubMed

    Cerny, L C; Cerny, E L; Granley, C R; Compolo, F; Vogels, M

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), several models are presented. The first directs attention to the importance of geometrical models to represent the structure of mixtures. Here it is our intention to understand the effect of the structure on the packing of red blood cells. In this part of the study, "Cheerios" (trademark General Mills) are used as a macroscopic model. It is interesting that a random sampling of "Cheerios" has the same volume distribution curve that is found for erythrocytes with a Coulter Sizing Apparatus. In order to examine the effect of rouleaux formation, the "Cheerios" are stacked one on top of another and then glued. Rouleaux of 2,3,4,5, 7 and 10 discs were used. In order to examine a more realistic biological model, the experiments of Dintenfass were used. These investigations were performed in a split-capillary photo viscometer using whole blood from patients with a variety of diseases. The novel part of this research is the fact that the work was performed at 1g and at near zero gravity in the space shuttle "Discovery." The size of the aggregates and/or rouleaux clearly showed a dependence upon the gravity of the experiment. The purpose of this model was to examine the condition of self-similarity and fractal behavior. Calculations are reported which clearly indicate that there is general agreement in the magnitude of the fractal dimension from the "Cheerios" model, the "Discovery" experiment with those determined with the automatic sedimentimeter. The final aspect of this work examines the surface texture of the sedimention tube. A series of tubes were designed with "roughened" interiors. A comparison of the sedimentation rates clearly indicates a more rapid settling in "roughened" tubes than in ones with a smooth interior surface. PMID:3196839

  14. Microfluidic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counters for point-of-care HIV diagnostics using whole blood.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Nicholas N; Hassan, Umer; Damhorst, Gregory; Ni, Hengkan; Vaid, Awais; Rodriguez, William; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-12-01

    Roughly 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV; disease burden is highest in resource-limited settings. One important diagnostic in HIV disease management is the absolute count of lymphocytes expressing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) receptors. The current diagnostic instruments and procedures require expensive equipment and trained technicians. In response, we have developed microfluidic biochips that count CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes in whole blood samples, without the need for off-chip sample preparation. The device is based on differential electrical counting and relies on five on-chip modules that, in sequence, chemically lyses erythrocytes, quenches lysis to preserve leukocytes, enumerates cells electrically, depletes the target cells (CD4 or CD8) with antibodies, and enumerates the remaining cells electrically. We demonstrate application of this chip using blood from healthy and HIV-infected subjects. Erythrocyte lysis and quenching durations were optimized to create pure leukocyte populations in less than 1 min. Target cell depletion was accomplished through shear stress-based immunocapture, using antibody-coated microposts to increase the contact surface area and enhance depletion efficiency. With the differential electrical counting method, device-based CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts closely matched control counts obtained from flow cytometry, over a dynamic range of 40 to 1000 cells/?l. By providing accurate cell counts in less than 20 min, from samples obtained from one drop of whole blood, this approach has the potential to be realized as a handheld, battery-powered instrument that would deliver simple HIV diagnostics to patients anywhere in the world, regardless of geography or socioeconomic status. PMID:24307694

  15. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-24

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/L. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided. PMID:24464815

  16. Erythrocyte shape classification using integral-geometry-based methods.

    PubMed

    Gual-Arnau, X; Herold-Garca, S; Sim, A

    2015-07-01

    Erythrocyte shape deformations are related to different important illnesses. In this paper, we focus on one of the most important: the Sickle cell disease. This disease causes the hardening or polymerization of the hemoglobin that contains the erythrocytes. The study of this process using digital images of peripheral blood smears can offer useful results in the clinical diagnosis of these illnesses. In particular, it would be very valuable to find a rapid and reproducible automatic classification method to quantify the number of deformed cells and so gauge the severity of the illness. In this paper, we show the good results obtained in the automatic classification of erythrocytes in normal cells, sickle cells, and cells with other deformations, when we use a set of functions based on integral-geometry methods, an active contour-based segmentation method, and a k-NN classification algorithm. Blood specimens were obtained from patients with Sickle cell disease. Seventeen peripheral blood smears were obtained for the study, and 45 images of different fields were obtained. A specialist selected the cells to use, determining those cells which were normal, elongated, and with other deformations present in the images. A process of automatic classification, with cross-validation of errors with the proposed descriptors and with other two functions used in previous studies, was realized. PMID:25773368

  17. Erythrocyte deformability and nitric oxide mobilization under pannexin-1 and PKC dependence.

    PubMed

    Silva-Herdade, A S; Freitas, T; Almeida, J Pedro; Saldanha, C

    2015-01-01

    The erythrocyte adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is utilised for protein phosphorylation and exported through the pannexin 1 hemichannel (Px1) in the microcirculation. The physiological stimuli for ATP release are dependent of blood shear rate level and of the tissue oxygen content. The deoxygenated and oxygenated states of haemoglobin are respectively bound and unbound to N terminal domain of the protein band 3 of the erythrocyte membrane in dependence of its degree of phosphorylation. The protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) contribute to the phosphorylation degree of band 3 and are modulated by protein kinase C (PKC). Chelerythrine (Che) is a competitive inhibitor of ATP for PKC and a negative modulator of erythrocyte deformability. The aim of this study was to assess the mobilization of nitric oxide (NO) in erythrocyte in absence and presence of Che and Px1 inhibitor (carbenoxolone). Erythrocyte deformability was evaluated in presence of carbenoxolone (Carb). Regarding the effects observed in the erythrocyte by presence of Che or Carb, the values of efflux of NO and the concentration of nitrosogluthatione are similar and with no changes in relation to their absence. Px1inhibition by Carb 10 μM ameliorates the erythrocyte deformability at a shear force of 0.6 and 1.2 Pa. The PKC inhibitor shows similar effects to the Carb on the mobilization of nitric oxide in erythrocyte. The blockage of ATP release by Carb from erythrocytes suggests a possible benefit to develop in ischemia reperfusion or in inflammatory response where will be needed to rescue the excess of NO present and ameliorate the red blood cell deformability at low shear rates. PMID:24595130

  18. [Ionic composition and potassium ion permeability of the erythrocyte membranes of patients with the inflammatory-dystrophic form of parodontosis].

    PubMed

    Peshkova, L V; Orlova, O L; Kas'ianova, T A; Trifonova, V P; Evtodienko, Iu V

    1981-03-01

    The content of K+ was evaluated in erythrocytes of the blood collected from the finger and gingiva of normal people and patients with parodontosis. The content of K+ in erythrocytes of the capillary blood was discovered to increase with the enhancement of the disease severity. The permeability ratio for K+ did not essentially change. The data obtained confirm the suggestion that parodontosis is a systemic disease rather than a local affection. PMID:7248502

  19. Fluoxetine Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, Kashif; Enkel, Sigrid; Bissinger, Rosi; Almilaji, Ahmad; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The antidepressant fluoxetine inhibits ceramide producing acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramide is in turn known to trigger eryptosis the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ceramide is effective through sensitizing the erythrocytes to the pro-eryptotic effect of increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). In nucleated cells, fluoxetine could either inhibit or stimulate suicidal death or apoptosis. The present study tested whether fluoxetine influences eryptosis. To this end cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. As a result, a 48 h exposure of erythrocytes to fluoxetine (?25 M) significantly decreased forward scatter, increased annexin V binding and enhanced [Ca2+]i. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, fluoxetine stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. PMID:23860350

  20. Effects of racing and gender on viscoelastic properties of horse blood.

    PubMed

    Wood, S C; Fedde, M R

    1997-02-01

    Splenic contraction in racing horses increases the hematocrit (hct), thereby increasing blood viscosity. We tested as to whether racing also affects the elastic properties of blood. Mares and geldings were studied for thus purpose. After racing, there was: (i) an increased erythrocyte count independent of gender and race distance (0.32 to 1.7 km): (ii) an increased mean erythrocyte volume in both sexes; (iii) an increased heterogeneity of RBC size in both sexes; (iv) an increased plasma fibrinogen concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in both sexes; and (v) an increased elastic yield stress (EYS). When corrected to a constant hct of 65%, the blood of mares, but not geldings, had increased EYS after racing. Gender differences in fibrinogen response (p = 0.72) did not account for this and the mechanism is not known. Since EYS is analogous to the point at which ketchup starts to flow from a bottle, its increase could be deleterious in vascular beds characterized by pulsatile flow, e.g. the coronary circulation. PMID:9108630

  1. White blood cell count at diagnosis and immunoglobulin variable region gene mutations are independent predictors of treatment-free survival in young patients with stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Ilaria; Mauro, Francesca Romana; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Santangelo, Simona; Marinelli, Marilisa; Peragine, Nadia; Di Maio, Valeria; Nanni, Mauro; Barzotti, Rita; Mancini, Francesca; Armiento, Daniele; Paoloni, Francesca; Guarini, Anna; Fo, Robin

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive panel of clinical-biological parameters was prospectively evaluated at presentation in 112 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (<65 years), to predict the risk of progression in early stage disease. Eighty-one percent were in Binet stage A, 19% in stages B/C. Treatment-free survival was evaluated as the time from diagnosis to first treatment, death or last follow up. In univariate analysis, advanced stage, hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cell, leukemic lymphocyte count, raised beta 2-microglobulin and LDH, unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes, CD38, del(17p), del(11q) and +12, were significantly associated with a short treatment-free survival; the T/leukemic lymphocyte ratio was associated with a better outcome. Multivariate analysis of treatment-free survival in stage A patients selected a high white blood cell count and unmutated immunoglobulin variable region genes as unfavorable prognostic factors and a high T/leukemic lymphocyte ratio as a favorable one. At diagnosis, these parameters independently predict the risk of progression in stage A chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. PMID:21193417

  2. Investigation of deformability, viscosity, and aggregation of mPEG-modified erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leach, J Kent; Hinman, Alissa; O'Rear, Edgar A

    2002-01-01

    Several techniques for the development of a universal blood type are under investigation in order to address the vast shortage of blood required during times of crisis and for those receiving chronic transfusions. Recently, the covalent attachment of methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) has received attention as a means to conceal the major and minor blood antigens that can invoke an immune response. We have utilized a simple method to covalently bind mPEG to the surface of red blood cells and monitored the rheological properties including cellular deformability and suspension viscosity as a function of shear rate and aggregation. In order to simulate the deformability of mPEG-modified erythrocytes through small blood vessels, we have studied the flow of cells through a nickel-mesh membrane with a pore size of 5.8 microns. Using a gravity-based nickel-mesh filtration device, dilute solutions of red blood cells were filtered through a membrane. The pressure drop was monitored with time. We have examined the filterability of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, mPEG-altered erythrocytes, and mixtures of altered erythrocytes with whole blood. Results from this apparatus have suggested that there is a significant decrease in deformability using mPEG-modified erythrocytes compared to unaltered red blood cells at identical concentrations. Increasing the ratio of modified cells to unmodified cells resulted in decreased deformability of the suspension. Viscosity measurements of mPEG-modified red cells have shown a shear-thinning property, while results of aggregation measurements indicate reduced aggregation compared to whole blood. PMID:12085627

  3. FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.

    2004-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and δN-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

  4. Excessive fluoride consumption leads to accelerated death of erythrocytes and anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Agalakova, Natalia Ivanovna; Gusev, Gennadii Petrovich

    2013-06-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate an overall effect of long-term consumption of excessive fluoride (F) amounts by rats on their erythrocytes. The animals were administered regular drinking water (0.4ppm F) or the same water supplemented with 2, 10, and 20ppm F (as NaF) for 12months. Chronic exposure of the rats to increasing F doses induced a progressive rise of the plasma F concentration accompanied by a dose-dependent fall of hematocrit and decrease in the mean erythrocyte volume. Consumption of 10 and 20ppm F resulted in appearance of morphologically abnormal cells (stomatocytes and echinocytes) in the peripheral blood. Rise of the water F concentration to 20ppm F led to significant increase in the number of phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes, although suppression of cell viability was revealed in all three groups of F-poisoned rats. A compensatory enhanced release of reticulocytes was not sufficient to compensate for erythrocyte loss. Dose-dependent accumulation of free cytosolic Ca(2+) appears to be a major pathophysiological process underlying the development of F-induced death processes in rat erythrocytes. In addition, 10 and 20ppm F induced ATP depletion and generation of peroxides in erythrocytes, whereas superoxide and glutathione levels were not altered. Thus, long-term intoxication of the rats with F triggers premature death of their erythrocytes due to intrinsic death-associated biochemical defects and development of anemia. PMID:23673526

  5. High Fibrinogen in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Sho; Sakagami, Masafumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murakami, Shingo; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. Study Design A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. Methods Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients’ initial visit to our clinic. Results In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. Conclusions High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset. PMID:25166620

  6. Erythrocyte enrichment in hematopoietic progenitor cell cultures based on magnetic susceptibility of the hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoxia; Abbot, Stewart; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhao, Rui; Kameneva, Marina V; Moore, Lee R; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM) when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free) magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A), hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry) to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes) that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes. PMID:22952572

  7. Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.

    1998-06-01

    Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

  8. Erythrocyte deformability dependence on band 3 protein in an in-vitro model of hyperfibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Lopes de Almeida, J P; Freitas-Santos, T; Saldanha, C

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that plasma fibrinogen, a major cardiovascular risk factor, interacts with the erythrocyte membrane and acts to influence blood flow via erythrocyte nitric oxide (NO) modulation. In the present in-vitro study, whole blood samples were harvested from healthy subjects and aliquots were incubated in the absence (control aliquots) and presence of fibrinogen at different degrees of band 3 phosphorylation, and the erythrocyte deformability was determined. The present study shows that in the presence of higher fibrinogen concentrations, similar to those found in inflammatory conditions, erythrocyte deformability is increased only when band 3 is dephosphorylated by the presence of syk inhibitor and at low shear stress. On the contrary, no changes were verified in the presence of fibrinogen when band 3 is allowed to be phosphorylated by inhibiting the phosphotyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity with calpeptin. We also observed that the presence of fibrinogen at higher concentration does not induce changes in erythrocyte deformability in the absence of modulators of the band 3 phosphorylation degree. However, the mechanisms by which fibrinogen signalling modulates erythrocyte function remain to be clarified and are currently under study. PMID:22240357

  9. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  10. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-07-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a 'sterile' environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. 'Non-culturability', reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis'). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  11. A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature. PMID:12508162

  12. A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature.

  13. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin wrapping, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  14. Effects of fish oil supplementation on the fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipids of pregnant women and their offspring: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Escolano-Margarit, M Victoria; Campoy, Cristina; Ramrez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Demmelmair, Hans; Miranda, M Teresa; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tams; Koletzko, Berthold V

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation to pregnant women on the maternal and fetal fatty acid profile in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) and to identify the best compartment for the assessment of fatty acid status. A multi-centre, double-blind, controlled trial was conducted. Healthy pregnant women from three European centres were randomly assigned to receive from week 20 of gestation until delivery a daily dietary supplement with either FO (500 mg DHA+150 mg EPA), 400 ?g 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both or placebo. Fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte PL were determined in maternal blood (week 20, week 30 of pregnancy and delivery) and in cord blood (delivery). FO supplementation increased DHA levels in maternal and cord plasma and erythrocyte PL. Higher percentage changes were observed in erythrocyte PL than in plasma PL. There were significant correlations between plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid levels in maternal and cord blood. Significant correlations between maternal and cord fatty acid levels at delivery in plasma and erythrocytes were also observed; however, correlation coefficients were higher for erythrocyte phophatidylethanolamine. FO supplementation increases maternal and fetal DHA status. Both plasma and erythrocytes appear to be suitable to evaluate the fatty acid status of mothers but erythrocytes seem to be a more reliable marker in neonates. PMID:22947225

  15. Stimulation of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Naphthazarin.

    PubMed

    Aljanadi, Omar; Alzoubi, Kousi; Bissinger, Rosi; Lang, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative naphthazarin may trigger apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. On the other hand, naphthazarin decreases neurotoxicity. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signalling leading to triggering of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ), ceramide and oxidative stress. The present study explored whether naphthazarin impacts on eryptosis and, if so, to unravel underlying mechanisms. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca(2+) ]i from Fluo3 fluorescence, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence and ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. As a result, a 24-hr exposure of human erythrocytes to naphthazarin (10 μm) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter, significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, significantly increased ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface and significantly increased ROS. The effect of naphthazarin on annexin-V-binding was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) . In conclusion, naphthazarin stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to oxidative stress and enhanced ceramide abundance at the erythrocyte surface. PMID:26013059

  16. Signal transduction pathways in erythrocyte nitric oxide metabolism under high fibrinogen levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Carlota; Freitas, T.; Lopez de Almeida, J. P.; Silva-Herdade, A.

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies show that the fibrinogen molecule modulates the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) in erythrocyte. The in vitro induced hiperfibrinogenemia interferes in the metabolism of the NO in the erythrocyte in dependence of the phosphorylation degree of the band 3. The soluble form of fibrinogen binds into CD47 protein present in the erythrocyte membrane. The soluble thrombomodulin is an inflammatory marker that binds to the erythrocyte CD47 in a site with a sequence peptide known as 4N1K. A study done in vitro shows that when hiperfibrinogenemia was induced in the presence of the peptide 4N1K agonist of CD47 it were observed variations in the efflux of NO from erythrocyte and an increase in the concentrations of GSNO, peroxinitrite, nitrite and nitrate of the erythrocytes. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the peptide 4N1K, on the metabolism of NO in the erythrocyte under high fibrinogen concentration and in the presence of inhibitors of the status of phosphorylation of protein band 3. In this in vitro study, whole blood samples were harvested from healthy subjects and NO, peroxynitrite, nitrite, nitrate and S-nitro-glutathione (GSNO) were determined in presence of 4N1K, calpeptine, Syk inhibitor and under high fibrinogen concentrations. The results obtained in erythrocytes under high fibrinogen levels when 4N1K is present with the Syk inhibitor or with calpeptine, showed in relation to the control samples increased significant concentrations of efflux of NO and of peroxynitrite, nitrite, nitrate and GSNO. In conclusion it was verified that in the in vitro model of hiperfibrinogenemia the peptide 4N1K, agonist of CD47, induces mobilization of NO in the erythrocyte in dependence of the status of phosphorylation of protein band 3.

  17. Metabolic compensation for profound erythrocyte adenylate kinase deficiency. A hereditary enzyme defect without hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, E; Carson, D; Dannawi, H; Forman, L; Kuhl, W; West, C; Westwood, B

    1983-01-01

    A child with hemolytic anemia was found to have severe erythrocyte adenylate kinase (AK) deficiency, but an equally enzyme-deficient sibling had no evidence of hemolysis. No residual enzyme activity was found in erythrocytes by spectrophotometric methods that could easily have detected 0.1% of normal activity. However, concentrated hemolysates were shown to have the capacity to generate small amounts of ATP and AMP from ADP after prolonged incubation. Hemolysates could also catalyze the transfer of labeled gamma-phosphate from ATP to ADP. Intact erythrocytes were able to transfer phosphate from the gamma-position of ATP to the beta-position, albeit at a rate substantially slower than normal. They could also incorporate 14C-labeled adenine into ADP and ATP. Thus, a small amount of residual AK-like activity representing about 1/2,000 of the activity normally present could be documented in the deficient erythrocytes. The residual activity was not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, which completely abolishes the activity of the normal AK1 isozyme of erythrocytes. The minute amount of residual activity in erythrocytes could represent a small amount of the AK2 isozyme, which has not been thought to be present in erythrocytes, or the activity of erythrocyte guanylate kinase with AMP substituting as substrate for GMP. Peripheral blood leukocytes, cultured skin fibroblasts, and transformed lymphoblasts from the deficient subject manifested about 17, 24, and 74%, respectively, of the activity of the concurrent controls. This residual activity is consistent with the existence of genetically independent AK isozyme, AK2, which is known to exist in these tissues. The cause of hemolysis in the proband was not identified. Possibilities include an unrelated enzyme deficiency or other erythrocyte enzyme defect and intraction of another unidentified defect with AK deficiency. PMID:6308059

  18. L-propionyl carnitine protects erythrocytes and low density lipoproteins against peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, A; Conte, A; Ronca, G

    1994-01-01

    The effects of peroxidation on the erythrocytes of rats orally treated with L-propionyl carnitine for 15 days (50 mg/kg/day) were investigated. Peroxidation was produced by incubating the cells in the presence of the cytotoxic system: lactoperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide and iodide ions. Lysis of erythrocytes was evaluated by measuring the turbidity following the decrease in absorbance at 600 nm. The 50% of erythrocyte lysis of untreated animals was observed after 16 min and in about 30 min all the cells were lysed. With L-propionyl carnitine-treated rat erythrocytes the time at which 50% of lysis was observed increased to 23 min. L-propionyl carnitine also exerted its protective effect in vitro when incubated with untreated rat erythrocytes or human erythrocytes in the presence of the cytolytic system. The presence of L-propionyl carnitine in the incubation mixture markedly decreased the malonaldehyde formation. The protection was concentration-dependent. To establish if L-propionyl carnitine protects from oxygen reactive species or is able to stabilize the damaged membranes, a latent damage was produced by incubating the erythrocytes with the cytolytic system for a few minutes. The cells were then removed and suspended in buffered saline in the absence or in the presence of different L-propionyl carnitine concentrations. L-propionyl carnitine decreased the velocity of lysis of damaged erythrocytes. These data suggest that L-propionyl carnitine protects erythrocytes from oxygen reactive species and also stabilizes the damaged membrane probably by specific binding with protein and/or phospholipid domains. Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) from human blood were peroxidized by exposure to Cu2+ ions in the presence of various L-propionyl carnitine concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7875055

  19. Erythrocytic magnesium in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Houston, A H

    1985-01-01

    Erythrocytic magnesium in rainbow and speckled trout (Salmo gairdneri, Salvelinus fontinalis) carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined by correlation analyses involving weight, hemoglobin content, plasma magnesium, erythrocytic sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and unidentified anion concentration and chloride equilibrium potential, and in relation to possible diurnal and seasonal variation as well as with respect to constant, diurnally cycling and progressively increasing temperature conditions. Given that magnesium is not actively transported, cellular concentrations appear to reflect processes influencing membrane potential and may also be related to maintenance of cellular electroneutrality. No evidence of significant diurnal variation was encountered under either constant or diurnally cycling temperature conditions. Variations in relation to temperature, season and weight were, however, consistent with the suggestion that these animals have the ability to alter erythrocytic magnesium concentrations. It is hypothesized that by adjusting magnesium in relation to organophosphate, the availability of the latter to hemoglobin may be influenced and in this way contribute to adaptive regulation of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. PMID:4046640

  20. Maturation of Plasmodium falciparum in multiply infected erythrocytes and the potential role in malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Orjih, Augustine U

    2014-11-01

    Erythrocytes containing two or more parasites, referred to here as multiply infected erythrocytes (MIEs), are common in the blood of humans infected by Plasmodium falciparum. It is necessary to study these cells closely because the excess numbers of parasites they contain suggest that they could be overloaded with virulence factors. Here, microscopic examinations of blood smears from patients showed that up to seven merozoites can successfully invade an erythrocyte and mature to ring stage. However, in vitro culture showed that only up to three parasites can mature to late schizont stage. These observations were made by culturing the parasites in erythrocytes containing hemoglobin AA (HbAA), HbAS, and HbSS. Biochemical analysis of saponin-concentrated culture suggests that more hemozoin is produced in a MIE than in a singly infected erythrocyte (SIE). Studies have shown that ingestion of excessive hemozoin destroys monocytes and neutrophils, which could impair the immune system. Cultured parasites were also examined by transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that the quantity of knobs was dramatically increased on the membranes of erythrocytes containing multiple schizonts, compared to those containing only one schizont. Knobs contain, among other things, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) complex which mediates sequestration and promotes severe malaria. These findings suggest that P. falciparum increases its virulence by producing MIEs. On sexual life cycle of the parasite, microphotographs are presented in this report showing, for the first time, that two gametocytes can develop in one erythrocyte; they are referred to here as twin gametocytes. It is not known whether they can infect mosquitoes. PMID:25120031

  1. Malaria Parasite Pre-erythrocytic Infection: Preparation Meets Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Scott E.; Miller, Jessica L.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY For those stricken with malaria, the classic clinical symptoms are caused by the parasites cyclic infection of red blood cells. However, this erythrocytic phase of the parasites life cycle initiates from an asymptomatic pre-erythrocytic phase: the injection of sporozoites via the bite of a parasite-carrying Anopheline mosquito, and the ensuing infection of the liver. With the increased capabilities of studying liver stages in mice, much progress has been made elucidating the cellular and molecular basis of the parasites progression through this bottleneck of its lifecycle. Here we review relevant findings on how sporozoites prepare for infection of the liver and factors crucial to liver stage development as well as key host/parasite interactions. PMID:22151703

  2. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response. A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400 mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6–115). Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P < 0.0001). Among the cutoff values with a similar Youden index, 150 × 10E9/L (abbreviated WBC > 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABLIS value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABLIS > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P = 0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% (55.0%, all P < 0.0001). Patients with concurrent WBC ≤ 150 and BCR-ABLIS ≤ 10% had better 4-year event-free survival rates, progression-free survival rates, and overall survival rates compared with patients with WBC > 150 or BCR-ABLIS > 10%. The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABLIS at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to differentiate patients at the beginning of imatinib treatment. PMID:26765457

  3. Combination of White Blood Cell Count at Presentation With Molecular Response at 3 Months Better Predicts Deep Molecular Responses to Imatinib in Newly Diagnosed Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yue-Yun; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of white blood cell (WBC) counts at presentation on the achievement of deep molecular response.A total of 362 newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML-CP) receiving 400?mg/day imatinib were serially monitored for a median of 36 months (range 6-115).Patients showing an optimal response at 3, 6, and 12 months as defined by the 2013 European LeukemiaNet recommendations had significantly lower WBC counts at presentation than those showing nonoptimal responses (all P? 150) was selected to identify the greatest amount of patients with the potential to achieve a sustained molecular response of 4.5 (MR4.5). Regardless of whether the Sokal risk score was included, the BCR-ABL value at 3 months, WBC counts at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and sex were the common independent predictors for an MR4.5, with the former 2 presenting the highest hazard risk. Low Sokal risk scores did not independently predict the achievement of an MR4.5. Patients with concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABL ? 10% had a similar incidence of 4-year MR4.5 compared with patients with concurrent WBC ? 150 and BCR-ABL > 10% and concurrent WBC > 150 and BCR-ABL > 10% (13.5% vs 13.2% vs 8.8%, P?=?0.47), and all of these values were significantly lower than the values for patients with concurrent WBC ? 150 and BCR-ABL ? 10% (55.0%, all P? 150 or BCR-ABL > 10%.The combination of WBC count at presentation and BCR-ABL at 3 months provides improved predictions of deep molecular response in imatinib-treated CML-CP patients. Therefore, the WBC count at presentation might be used to differentiate patients at the beginning of imatinib treatment. PMID:26765457

  4. Linoleic acid induces red blood cells and hemoglobin damage via oxidative mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Tao; Fan, Wen-Bin; Cong, Yu; Xu, Hai-Dong; Li, Cheng-Jun; Meng, Jia; Bao, Ni-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Hidden blood loss typically occurs following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and is thought to be related to free fatty acid (FFA). To study the effect of linoleic acid on red blood cells and to examine the pathogenesis of hidden blood loss in vivo, we generated an animal model by injecting linoleic acid into the tail veins of rats. We collected blood samples and determined red blood cell count (RBC) and levels of hemoglobin (Hb), as well as the oxidation and reducing agents in the blood, including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferryl hemoglobin (Fe4+ = O2-), which is generated by the oxidation of Hb. Hidden blood loss occurred when linoleic acid was administered at a concentration of 60 mmol/L; RBC and Hb levels were significantly reduced by 24 h post-injection. This was followed by erythrocyte deformation, reduced activity of GSH-PX and T-SOD, and decreased levels of H2O2. This was accompanied by an increase in ferryl species, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in vivo. Our findings suggest that linoleic acid enhances acute red blood cell injury. Hb and RBC began to increase by 72 h, potentially resulting from linoleic acid metabolism. Thus, elevated levels of linoleic acid in the blood cause acute oxidative damage to red blood cells, eventually leading to partial acute anemia. These findings highlight the pathophysiology underlying hidden blood loss. PMID:26191198

  5. Structural Changes of Erythrocyte Surface Glycoconjugates after Treatment with Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vitak, Taras Y; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia there is dysregulation of ion homeostasis, violation of redox metabolism and functioning of membrane enzymes, as well as changes in the structural and functional states of erythrocyte membranes. As a result, the aggregation ability of erythrocytes increased and their deformability decreased. These changes lead to complications to microcirculation blood flow and provoke the development of vascular complications caused by diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the effect of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on the structure of carbohydrate determinants of surface membrane glycoconjugates of rat peripheral blood erythrocytes under both normal conditions and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The research was carried out using Wistar outbred white rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg for 14 days. The treatment of diabetic rats by submerged culture mycelium powder restored the physiological balance between sialylation and desialylation processes, renewed the membrane surface charge of red blood cells, normalized aggregation properties, and caused the structural recovery of oligosaccharide chains of erythrocyte membrane surface glycoconjugates. The discovered changes show an improvement in the erythrocyte functional state and rejuvenation of their population caused by biologically active compounds of the studied medicinal mushrooms. PMID:26756299

  6. Use of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count to distinguish between lower limb erysipelas and deep vein thrombosis in the emergency department: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Rast, Anna C; Knobel, Demian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Laukemann, Svenja; Steiner, Deborah; Haubitz, Sebastian; Fux, Christoph A; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Early differentiation of erysipelas from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) based solely on clinical signs and symptoms is challenging. There is a lack of data regarding the usefulness of the inflammatory biomarkers procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count in the diagnosis of localized cutaneous infections. Herein, we investigated the diagnostic value of inflammatory markers in a prospective at-risk patient population. This is an observational quality control study including consecutive patients presenting with a final diagnosis of either erysipelas or DVT. The association of PCT (μg/L) and CRP (mg/L) levels and WBC counts (g/L) with the primary outcome was assessed using logistic regression models with area under the receiver-operator curve. Forty-eight patients (erysipelas, n = 31; DVT, n = 17) were included. Compared with patients with DVT, those with erysipelas had significantly higher PCT concentrations. No significant differences in CRP concentrations and WBC counts were found between the two groups. At a PCT threshold of 0.1 μg/L or more, specificity and positive predictive values (PPV) for erysipelas were 82.4% and 85.7%, respectively, and increased to 100% and 100% at a threshold of more than 0.25 μg/L. Levels of PCT also correlated with the severity of erysipelas, with a stepwise increase according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. We found a high discriminatory value of PCT for differentiation between erysipelas and DVT, in contrast to other commonly used inflammatory biomarkers. Whether the use of PCT levels for early differentiation of erysipelas from DVT reduces unnecessary antibiotic exposure needs to be assessed in an interventional trial. PMID:25982244

  7. [Corrected count].

    PubMed

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected. PMID:12286542

  8. Effects of cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Kondo, Takahito; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Tagami, Sei-Ichi; Kuroshima, Akihiro; Kawakami, Yoshikazu

    1991-06-01

    Effects of acute and chronic cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes were investigated. Blood from both cold-acclimated (CA) and cold-adapted (CG) rats had significantly lower concentrations of glutathione than blood from control animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased significantly in CA rats and tended to rise in CG rats. Activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes was inconsistent in that it tended to increase in CA rats but decreased significantly in CG rats. The results may imply that CG rats suffered deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, there were marked decreases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in acutely cold-exposed rats in conjunction with unchanged levels of glutathione. In all treatments the state of riboflavin metabolism was estimated to be adequate, since no increases were observed in the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient.

  9. Erythrocytes oxidative damage and hematological effects of 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone in rats.

    PubMed

    Badraoui, Riadh; Abdelmoula, Nouha B; Rebai, Tarek

    2011-07-01

    The effects of subchronic exposure to tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone (TCDS) on hematological parameters [white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrite (Ht) levels] were examined. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes was also assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and enzyme antioxidant activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. TCDS was administered orally, dissolved in water, ad libitum to 12 female rats at 28.9 mg/kg/day for 6 or 12 weeks. Results showed that TCDS induced significant decreases in RBC, Hb, and Ht. Whereas MCV, MCH, and MCHC remain unchanged and WBC increased only in the second period of the study. Moreover erythrocyte TBARS level increased, and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx, and CAT) activities decreased. We concluded that TCDS intoxication promotes erythrocyte oxidative damage and disrupt hematological constituents in rats. PMID:20382005

  10. Failure of in vivo and in vitro resialosylation of VCN-desialylated erythrocytes in mammalian and non-mammalian species: evidence from agglutination studies with peanut-agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Perret, G; Bladier, D; Vassy, R; Cornillot, P

    1982-01-01

    1. In distinction to mammalian erythrocytes, splitting of sialic acids of non-mammalian erythrocytes (chicken and newt) by Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCN) does not lead to a dramatic decrease in their viability. 2. One of the possibilities to explain this discrepancy is the ability of chicken and newt desialosylated erythrocytes to repair the enzymatic injury. 3. To test this hypothesis we used the property of peanut agglutinin (PNA) to agglutinate desialosylated erythrocytes. 4. Desialosylated erythrocytes of all the species tested remain PNA-agglutinable throughout their whole life time in the blood stream. The absence of effect of VCN on chicken and newt erythrocytes is therefore not due to their resialosylation. PMID:7067412

  11. A simple method for accurate quantification of complement receptor 1 on erythrocytes preserved by fixing or freezing.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, I A; Donvito, B; Cohen, J H M; Rowe, J A

    2002-12-20

    The mean number of complement receptor 1 (CR1) molecules on erythrocytes differs between normal individuals within the range of 100-1000 molecules per cell. In some disease states such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and malaria, erythrocyte CR1 levels are reduced and CR1 function may be impaired. Current methods for determining erythrocyte CR1 levels by flow cytometry require the use of freshly drawn blood samples because CR1 is lost from erythrocytes during storage. In order to facilitate field studies of associations between erythrocyte CR1 levels and disease, we have developed and validated an assay to quantify CR1 on both healthy and diseased erythrocytes that have been fixed in 5% formaldehyde or frozen in glycerol. These methods enable blood samples to be collected in areas lacking the facilities for flow cytometry and stored for later accurate quantification of CR1. Such procedures will be of particular benefit for future investigations of erythrocyte CR1 expression level and malaria susceptibility. PMID:12445729

  12. Stiffness of normal and pathological erythrocytes studied by means of atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dulińska, Ida; Targosz, Marta; Strojny, Wojciech; Lekka, Małgorzata; Czuba, Paweł; Balwierz, Walentyna; Szymoński, Marek

    2006-03-31

    During recent years, atomic force microscopy has become a powerful technique for studying the mechanical properties (such as stiffness, viscoelasticity, hardness and adhesion) of various biological materials. The unique combination of high-resolution imaging and operation in physiological environment made it useful in investigations of cell properties. In this work, the microscope was applied to measure the stiffness of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Erythrocytes were attached to the poly-L-lysine-coated glass surface by fixation using 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 1 min. Different erythrocyte samples were studied: erythrocytes from patients with hemolytic anemias such as hereditary spherocytosis and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency patients with thalassemia, and patients with anisocytosis of various causes. The determined Young's modulus was compared with that obtained from measurements of erythrocytes from healthy subjects. The results showed that the Young's modulus of pathological erythrocytes was higher than in normal cells. Observed differences indicate possible changes in the organization of cell cytoskeleton associated with various diseases. PMID:16443279

  13. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  14. Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Alex J.; Theron, Michel; Tiffert, Teresa; Lew, Virgilio L.; Cicuta, Pietro; Rayner, Julian C.

    2014-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion has been studied intensively, but our cellular understanding has been limited by the fact that it occurs very rapidly: invasion is generally complete within 1 min, and shortly thereafter the merozoites, at least in in vitro culture, lose their invasive capacity. The rapid nature of the process, and hence the narrow time window in which measurements can be taken, have limited the tools available to quantitate invasion. Here we employ optical tweezers to study individual invasion events for what we believe is the first time, showing that newly released P. falciparum merozoites, delivered via optical tweezers to a target erythrocyte, retain their ability to invade. Even spent merozoites, which had lost the ability to invade, retain the ability to adhere to erythrocytes, and furthermore can still induce transient local membrane deformations in the erythrocyte membrane. We use this technology to measure the strength of the adhesive force between merozoites and erythrocytes, and to probe the cellular mode of action of known invasion inhibitory treatments. These data add to our understanding of the erythrocyte-merozoite interactions that occur during invasion, and demonstrate the power of optical tweezers technologies in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. PMID:25140419

  15. Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

  16. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  17. Micronucleated erythrocytes in newborn rats exposed to raltegravir placental transfer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Gómez-Meda, Belinda Claudia; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  18. Higher levels of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Kai, M; Kamada, T; Setoyama, S; Otsuji, S

    1979-12-01

    Significantly higher levels of erythrocyte membrane microviscosity (MV) [n-: 5.22 +/- 0.17 (4.70--5.92), mean +/- SD (range), poise, N = 67, P less than 0.005] measured by fluorescence depolarization using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as a fluorescent probe were found in diabetic patients when compared with normal controls [5.05 +/- 0.15 (4.70--5.29), N = 22]. No significant differences in MV existed between males and females, nor was MV significantly correlated with diabetic age, duration of diabetes, plasma cholesterol, cholesterol/phsopholipid ratios, and plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activities. No significant difference in MV was observed between groups with or without diabetic retinopathy. There was, however, significantly higher MV [5.29 +/- 0.19 (5.00--5.92), N = 20, P less than 0.05] in the group with fasting blood glucose (FBG) greater than or equal to 140 mg/dl than that [5.19 +/- 0.15 (4.70--5.46), N = 47] in the group with FBG less than 140 mg/dl. The changes in erythrocyte membrane MV presented in this study appear to be related to the current metabolic control of diabetic patients and are considered to be one of the factors responsible for the reduced erythrocyte deformability in diabetes. PMID:510812

  19. Pyrithione and 8-hydroxyquinolines transport lead across erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Lind, Stuart E; Park, Jong Sung; Drexler, John W

    2009-09-01

    Acute and chronic lead poisoning remains a significant health problem. Although chelating agents can bind to plasma lead, they cannot cross cell membranes where the total body lead burden resides, and are thus inefficient at reducing the total body lead burden. Recently, calcium and sodium ionophores have been shown to transport lead across cell membranes providing a novel method for reducing total body lead stores. We recently found that clioquinol, an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, can act as a zinc ionophore. We postulated that zinc ionophores might also be able to transport lead across biological membranes. To study this, we loaded lead in vitro into human erythrocytes and then studied the ability of zinc ionophores to transport lead into the extracellular space, where it was trapped with a lead chelator. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that several 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, as well as the zinc and sodium salts of pyrithione (N-hydroxypyridine-2-thione), reduced erythrocyte lead content. The water-soluble compound, sodium pyrithione, was able to reduce lead in citrated whole blood, without partitioning into the erythrocytes. These results indicate that two classes of zinc ionophores can transport lead across a biological membrane, and they confirm that these ionophores are not cation-specific. Lead ionophores may prove useful in mobilizing lead into the extracellular space, thereby improving the efficacy of chelation therapy, in vivo or ex vivo. PMID:19665691

  20. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe(3+) protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 212?M, ca. 100 higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  1. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  2. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?-Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothktter, Hermann-Josef; Dnicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 g/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  3. Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D; Gross, Heidrun B; Holt, Roberta R; Kim, Sun H; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L; Keen, Carl L

    2005-03-01

    Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3'-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4beta > 8)-epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3'-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 microM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05). PMID:15712596

  4. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Dobešová, Z; Loukotová, J; Nováková, O; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J

    2016-03-14

    Significant relationships between ion transport and membrane lipid composition (cholesterol, total phospholipids and sphingomyelins) were found in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats. In these animals mean cellular hemoglobin content correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Na(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Immature erythrocytes exhibit lower mean cellular hemoglobin content (MCHC) than mature ones. The aim of the present study was to find a relationship between erythrocyte maturity, membrane lipid composition and ion transport activity in Wistar rats aged three months which were subjected to repeated hemorrhage (blood loss 2 ml/day for 6 days) to enrich circulating erythrocytes with immature forms. Immature and mature erythrocyte fractions in control and hemorrhaged rats were separated by repeated centrifugation. Hemorrhaged rats had increased number of reticulocytes but reduced hematocrit and MCHC compared to control rats. Immature erythrocytes of hemorrhaged rats differed from mature ones of control animals by elevated Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, reduced Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity and increased Rb(+) leak. These ion transport changes in immature erythrocytes were accompanied by higher concentration of total phospholipids in their cell membranes. Membrane phospholipid content correlated positively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and cation leaks but negatively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Moreover, they were also negatively related with MCHC which correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Rb(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Thus certain abnormalities of erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition detected in hypertensive animals might be caused by higher incidence of immature cells. PMID:26988297

  5. Ca(2+) and caspases are involved in hydroxyl radical-induced apoptosis in erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Li, HuaTao; Feng, Lin; Jiang, WeiDan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, YongAn; Wu, Pei; Zhou, XiaoQiu

    2015-10-01

    There are young erythrocytes and mature erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of fish. The present study explored the apoptosis in hydroxyl radical ((·)OH)-induced young and mature erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Carp erythrocytes from the peripheral blood were separated into the young fraction, the intermediate fraction and the mature fraction using fixed-angle centrifugation. The erythrocytes in three age fractions were treated with the caspase inhibitors (zVAD-fmk) in physiological carp saline (PCS) or Ca(2+)-free PCS in the presence of 40 μM FeSO4/20 μM H2O2. The results showed that the (·)OH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and DNA fragmentation are caspase dependent in carp erythrocytes. Furthermore, the ROS generation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in the more young fraction are more dependent on the caspase activity. This suggested that the caspases are involved in the (·)OH-induced apoptosis in the young erythrocytes of fish. Results also indicated that Ca(2+) is involved in (·)OH-induced calpain activation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in carp erythrocytes. Moreover, the calpain activation, DNA fragmentation and PS exposure in the more mature fraction are more dependent on the levels of Ca(2+). This revealed that (·)OH-induced apoptosis is Ca(2+) dependent in the mature erythrocytes of fish. Taken together, there might be two apoptosis pathways in fish erythrocytes: one is the caspase-dependent apoptosis in the young erythrocytes and the other is the Ca(2+)-involved apoptosis in the mature erythrocytes. PMID:26080678

  6. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Egler, Jasmin; Briglia, Marilena; Fazio, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The natural phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin, primarily used for topical treatment of warts, has later been shown to trigger tumor cell apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of tumor cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of cell membrane phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), ceramide, oxidative stress and dysregulation of several kinases. Phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface was quantified utilizing annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide from antibody binding, and reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with cantharidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥10 μg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥25 μg/mL), significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥25 μg/mL), but did not significantly modify ceramide abundance or ROS. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following cantharidin treatment was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was abolished by kinase inhibitor staurosporine (1 μM) and slightly decreased by p38 inhibitor skepinone (2 μM). Exposure of erythrocytes to cantharidin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death with erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect sensitive to kinase inhibitors staurosporine and skepinone. PMID:26226001

  7. Effect of Thioridazine on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Arnold, Markus; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Thioridazine, a neuroleptic phenothiazine with antimicrobial efficacy is known to trigger anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activation of p38 kinase. The present study explored, whether thioridazine elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i has been estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, and hemolysis from hemoglobin release. Results: A 48 hours exposure to thioridazine was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i (30 M), decrease of forward scatter (30 M), and increase of annexin-V-binding (?12 M). Nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ and p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 (2 M) significantly blunted but did not abolish annexin-V-binding following thioridazine exposure. Conclusions: Thioridazine stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and activation of p38 kinase. PMID:24152992

  8. Spectroscopic analysis of irradiated erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Nabila S.; Desouky, Omar S.; Ismail, Nagla M.; Dakrory, Amira Z.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma radiation on the lipid part of the erythrocyte membrane, and to test the efficiency of lipoic acid as a radioprotector. This effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in the number of spin density by 14%, 22% and 65% after exposure to 25, 50 and 100 Gy respectively; whereas there was a decline in the obtained density after incubation with lipoic acid by a factor of approximately 32%. The FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocytes samples showed a marked decrease in the intensity of all characteristic peaks, which increased as the irradiation dose increased. The second-derivative of these spectra, allow the conformationally sensitive membrane acyl chain methylene stretching modes to be separated from the protein (mostly hemoglobin) vibrations that dominate the spectra of intact cells. The 2850 cm -1 band showed changes in the band shape and position after exposure to 50 and 100 Gy. Therefore it can be concluded that the band at 2850 cm -1 only is useful in monitoring the radiation effect of the lipids cell membrane intact cells.

  9. Guidelines for transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates and premature infants. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates and premature infants is common and should be minimized through a reduction in the number of blood samples taken for laboratory tests. The risks to patients have been minimized with current blood-banking techniques, although neonates and premature infants may require special consideration. The indications for transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates include the presence of shock, a loss of 10% or more of the blood volume within 72 hours when further blood sampling is expected, a hemoglobin level of less than 130 g/L in neonates with cardio-respiratory disease who require increased oxygen-carrying capacity, and a hemoglobin level of less than 80 to 100 g/L in neonates with tachypnea, tachycardia, recurrent apnea, poor feeding or failure to gain weight. The attending physician should consider these indications along with clinical judgement to ensure safe and effective erythrocyte transfusion. PMID:1458420

  10. Serum pantetheinase/vanin levels regulate erythrocyte homeostasis and severity of malaria.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Rihet, Pascal; Atwell, Scott; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Chasson, Lionel; Beaumont, Carole; Chimini, Giovanna; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Viallat, Annie; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Therefore, scoring pantetheinase in serum may serve as a severity marker in malaria infection. This disease triggers an acute stress in erythrocytes, which enhances cytoadherence and hemolysis. We speculated that serum pantetheinase might contribute to erythrocyte resistance to stress under homeostatic conditions. We show that mutant mice with a reduced serum PA are anemic and prone to phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. A cytofluorometric and spectroscopic analysis documented an increased frequency of erythrocytes with an autofluorescent aging phenotype. This is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and shear stress-induced hemolysis. Red blood cell transfer and bone marrow chimera experiments show that the aging phenotype is not cell intrinsic but conferred by the environment, leading to a shortening of red blood cell half-life. Therefore, serum pantetheinase level regulates erythrocyte life span and modulates the risk of developing complicated malaria. PMID:26343328

  11. Platelets, but not erythrocytes, significantly affect cytokine release and scaffold contraction in a provisional scaffold model

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, May; Fufa, Duretti; Abreu, Eduardo L.; Kevy, Sherwin; Murray, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and erythrocytes are major components of wound provisional scaffolding. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentration of platelets and erythrocytes would significantly affect fibroblast-mediated contraction of three-dimensional scaffolds or the release of cytokines from the scaffold. To test this hypothesis, human anterior cruciate ligament fibroblasts were cultured in one of four scaffolds: a collagen matrix, a collagen-fibrin matrix containing the same concentration of platelets as whole blood, a collagen-fibrin matrix containing a high platelet concentration, and a collagenfibrin matrix containing a high platelet concentration and red blood cells. Cytokine release from the four groups of gels and gel contraction were measured over a 10-day period. The results of these assays supported greater cytokine release, fibroblast proliferation, and gel contraction in scaffolds with higher platelet concentration. In contrast, the addition of erythrocytes did not significantly stimulate or suppress scaffold contraction or growth factor release from the provisional scaffolds. We concluded that while platelet concentration can significantly impact cytokine release and scaffold retraction in a provisional scaffold, the inclusion of erythrocytes does not have a significant effect on these same behaviors. Therefore, while platelets may be an important regulator of repair processes after injury, it is less likely that erythrocytes have a similar function. PMID:18471255

  12. EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPY ON THE IN VIVO FREQUENCY OF GLYCOPHORIN A "NULL" VARIANT ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...

  13. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  14. On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

  15. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to measure the number of the unborn baby's red blood cells in a pregnant woman's blood. See also: Rh incompatibility ... draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  16. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  17. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  18. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Mndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio Garca, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation. PMID:25817802

  19. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE?/? Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE?/? mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE?/? mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE?/? mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  20. Longxuetongluo Capsule Improves Erythrocyte Function against Lipid Peroxidation and Abnormal Hemorheological Parameters in High Fat Diet-Induced ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Yao, Weijuan; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Yonghua; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, one of the renowned traditional medicines, has been used to facilitate blood circulation and disperse blood stasis for thousands of years. Phenolic compounds are considered to be responsible for its main biological activities. In this study, total phenolic compounds of Chinese dragon's blood were made into capsule (Longxuetongluo Capsule, LTC) and their effects on the abnormal hemorheological properties were examined by high fat diet (HFD) induced ApoE-/- mice. Compared to the model group, LTC recovered the abnormal hemorheological parameters in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice by reducing whole blood viscosity (WBV) at high rate and improving erythrocyte function. In conclusion, LTC could ameliorate erythrocyte deformability and osmotic fragility through the reduction of lipid peroxidation on plasma and erythrocyte membranes in HFD-induced ApoE-/- mice, which supported the traditional uses of Chinese dragon's blood as an effective agent for improving blood microcirculation in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26649134

  1. The significance of erythrocyte antigen site density

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Leon W.; Trabold, Norma C.

    1971-01-01

    The importance of antigen site density has been studied by means of a model passive hemolysis system using red cells coupled with sulfanilic acid groups. Relative site numbers were estimated from the covalent linkage of sulfanilic acid-35S to red cell membrane protein, and the effective antigen site number was determined with 125I-labeled rabbit IgG anti-sulfanilic acid (anti-S). Immune hemolysis was demonstrated for red cells which had greater than a threshold number of antigen sites, the value of which was different for normal human cells (80,000 sites/cell), cells from a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) (40,000 sites/cell), and sheep red blood cells (RBC) (15,000 sites/cell). Cells with antigen site densities below these values did not hemolyze when tested with 1 mg/ml purified rabbit IgM anti-S. 2-8 times greater antigen site densities were required to obtain hemolysis with IgG anti-S. Above the threshold value, hemolysis titers were proportional to the antigen site number until maximal values were obtained. The greater hemolytic efficiency of IgM antibody was demonstrated in this system, and it was established that the magnitude of the difference was related to the test cell antigen site density. These data, taken with previously reported hemagglutination studies, have been used to develop a general classification of immune hemolysis and hemagglutination based on antigen site density and antibody class. It is suggested that the heterogeneity of blood group systems is caused by differences in the site separation of erythrocyte membrane antigens. PMID:5105661

  2. Dependences of erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation parameters on suspension hematocrit: study by backscattering nephelometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firsov, Nikolai N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Sirko, Igor V.; Vyshlova, Marina G.

    1995-01-01

    The backscattering nephelometry technique is used to simultaneously obtain the aggregation and disaggregation parameters of erythrocytes in whole blood: characteristic times T1 of linear aggregates formation and T2 of network formation; hydrodynamic durability of aggregates (beta) , and the coefficient of deformability of erythrocytes D. We have previously shown that these parameters are sensitive to different diseases, external conditions and stimuli. Samples of blood have different values of hematocrit H. So we have studied dependences of parameters T1, T2, and (beta) on suspension hematocrit. The obtained results show that the values of T1 are inversely proportional to H2 for both blood of healthy donors and blood of patients suffering hereditary glomerulonephritis. With hematocrit growing towards 100% (H equals 1) these aggregation parameters asymptotically aspire to certain values which determine the natural limit of the aggregation rate. The decrease of hematocrit causes the intensification of shear-induced aggregation at shear rates up to 150 s-1.

  3. Irradiation Can Selectively Kill Tumor Cells while Preserving Erythrocyte Viability in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Qing; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-Ju; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of how to safely apply intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery has not yet been obtained. Here, we investigated the optimal dose of 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation for killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901), and colonic carcinoma (SW620) tumor cells while preserving co-cultured erythrocytes obtained from 14 healthy adult volunteers. HepG2, SGC7901, or SW620 cells were mixed into the aliquots of erythrocytes. After the mixed cells were treated with 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation (30, 50, and 100 Gy), tumor cells and erythrocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll with a density of 1.063 g/ml. The viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, tumorigenicity, and apoptosis of the tumor cells were determined by MTT assay, plate colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, subcutaneous xenograft implantation into immunocompromised mice, and annexin V/7-AAD staining, respectively. The ATP concentration, 2,3-DPG level, free Hb concentration, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, blood gas variables, reactive oxygen species levels, and superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes were analyzed. We found that 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation at 50 Gy effectively inhibited the viability, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells without markedly damaging the oxygen-carrying ability or membrane integrity or increasing the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrated that 50 Gy irradiation in a standard 137Cs blood irradiator might be a safe and effective method of inactivating HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells mixed with erythrocytes, which might help to safely allow IBS in cancer surgery. PMID:26018651

  4. Structurally conserved erythrocyte-binding domain in Plasmodium provides a versatile scaffold for alternate receptor engagement.

    PubMed

    Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T Y; Arnott, Alicia; He, Wen-Qiang; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Mok, Yee-Foong; Murphy, James M; Smith, Katherine R; Lee, Stuart; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2016-01-12

    Understanding how malaria parasites gain entry into human red blood cells is essential for developing strategies to stop blood stage infection. Plasmodium vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells. The organism has two erythrocyte-binding protein families: namely, the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) and the reticulocyte-binding protein (PvRBP) families. Several members of the PvRBP family bind reticulocytes, specifically suggesting a role in mediating host cell selectivity of P. vivax. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution crystal structure of an erythrocyte-binding domain from PvRBP2a, solved at 2.12 resolution. The monomeric molecule consists of 10 ?-helices and one short ?-hairpin, and, although the structural fold is similar to that of PfRh5-the essential invasion ligand in Plasmodium falciparum-its surface properties are distinct and provide a possible mechanism for recognition of alternate receptors. Sequence alignments of the crystallized fragment of PvRBP2a with other PvRBPs highlight the conserved placement of disulfide bonds. PvRBP2a binds mature red blood cells through recognition of an erythrocyte receptor that is neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-resistant but trypsin-sensitive. By examining the patterns of sequence diversity within field isolates, we have identified and mapped polymorphic residues to the PvRBP2a structure. Using mutagenesis, we have also defined the critical residues required for erythrocyte binding. Characterization of the structural features that govern functional erythrocyte binding for the PvRBP family provides a framework for generating new tools that block P. vivax blood stage infection. PMID:26715754

  5. Structurally conserved erythrocyte-binding domain in Plasmodium provides a versatile scaffold for alternate receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Arnott, Alicia; He, Wen-Qiang; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Mok, Yee-Foong; Murphy, James M.; Smith, Katherine R.; Lee, Stuart; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites gain entry into human red blood cells is essential for developing strategies to stop blood stage infection. Plasmodium vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells. The organism has two erythrocyte-binding protein families: namely, the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) and the reticulocyte-binding protein (PvRBP) families. Several members of the PvRBP family bind reticulocytes, specifically suggesting a role in mediating host cell selectivity of P. vivax. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution crystal structure of an erythrocyte-binding domain from PvRBP2a, solved at 2.12 Å resolution. The monomeric molecule consists of 10 α-helices and one short β-hairpin, and, although the structural fold is similar to that of PfRh5—the essential invasion ligand in Plasmodium falciparum—its surface properties are distinct and provide a possible mechanism for recognition of alternate receptors. Sequence alignments of the crystallized fragment of PvRBP2a with other PvRBPs highlight the conserved placement of disulfide bonds. PvRBP2a binds mature red blood cells through recognition of an erythrocyte receptor that is neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-resistant but trypsin-sensitive. By examining the patterns of sequence diversity within field isolates, we have identified and mapped polymorphic residues to the PvRBP2a structure. Using mutagenesis, we have also defined the critical residues required for erythrocyte binding. Characterization of the structural features that govern functional erythrocyte binding for the PvRBP family provides a framework for generating new tools that block P. vivax blood stage infection. PMID:26715754

  6. Acute effect of TSH on oxygenation state and volume of erythrocytes from subjects thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Silvana; Carpi, Angelo; Evangelista, Monica; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Pollastri, Alberto; Bottoni, Antonio; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    We previously reported the presence in the membrane erythrocyte of a TSH receptor (TSHR), a G-protein coupled receptor, which responds to TSH with increased cAMP level. Since there is evidence for a role of Gprotein receptors as oxygen sensor(s) implicated in cell volume regulation, we hypothesized that erythrocyte TSHR, by TSH stimulation, could modify the erythrocyte volume and the oxygenation state of erythrocytes. We determined the effect of TSH on the gas analysis in 35thyroidectomized patients for stageI differentiated thyroid cancer enrolled for recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) test during chronic treatment with synthetic l-thyroxine. Moreover, we explored the influence of TSH on the shape of erythrocytes. Venous blood-gas analysis before and after TSH were determined with a pH/blood gas electrolyte and 682CO-Oxymeter. In a subgroup of subjects (n=10), the isolated red blood cells (RBC) were analyzed by flow cytometry for morphological changes. After TSH stimulation, we found a significant decrease in PCO(2) (P<0.001), an increase in pH (P<0.01) and an increase of % O(2)-Hb (P<0.05) and pO(2) (P<0.05). By flow cytometry, the erythrocytes after TSH showed a significant enrichment on the mean number in the selected region R1 corresponding to bigger volumes (P<0.05, n=10). Finally, by contrast phase microscopy, when the cell area was measured, a mean increased volume was observed in erythrocytes after TSH compared to the basal before TSH (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that acute stimulation of TSH by rhTSH modifies the oxygenation state and volume of erythrocyte. PMID:21742463

  7. Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (≥20 μM) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 μM), ceramide abundance (60 μM) and DCFDA fluorescence (≥40 μM). The effect of alantolactone (60 μM) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  8. EFFECT OF RESIDUAL SPLENIC FUNCTION AND FOLATE LEVELS ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS IN SPLENECTOMIZED HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rates of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of splenectomized individuals can be used as an index of genetic damage to erythrocyte recursor cells in the bone marrow. his is in contrast to non-splenectomized humans, whose micronucleated erythrocytes are removed by...

  9. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  10. Freeze-dried erythrocytes for an indirect hemagglutination test for detection of cytomegalovirus antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Cabau, N; Crainic, R; Duros, C; Denoyel, G; Gaspar, A; Bronnert, C; Bou, A; Horodniceanu, F

    1981-01-01

    An indirect hemagglutination test with lyophilized, fixed, tanned, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-sensitized sheep erythrocytes for the detection of CMV antibodies is reported. To avoid nonspecific hemagglutination, cells were fixed with glutaraldehyde or Formalin directly in whole blood. The lyophilized, CMV-sensitized erythrocytes obtained by this technique were stable up to 9 months at 37 degrees C and retained the same reactivity at fresh, CMV-sensitized cells. Indirect hemagglutination performed with lyophilized, sensitized cells was highly efficient in detecting CMV-antibodies as compared with complement fixation and enzyme immunoassay. PMID:6265494

  11. Erythrocyte remodeling by Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the human host interplay.

    PubMed

    Tibrcio, Marta; Sauerwein, Robert; Lavazec, Catherine; Alano, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    The spread of malaria critically relies on the presence of Plasmodium transmission stages - the gametocytes - circulating in the blood of an infected individual, which are taken up by Anopheles mosquitoes. A striking feature of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes is their long development inside the erythrocytes while sequestered in the internal organs of the human host. Recent studies of the molecular and cellular remodeling of the host erythrocyte induced by P. falciparum during gametocyte maturation are shedding light on how these may affect the establishment and maintenance of sequestration of the immature transmission stages and the subsequent release and circulation of mature gametocytes in the peripheral bloodstream. PMID:25824624

  12. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan but Not Hyaluronic Acid Is the Receptor for the Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes in Human Placenta, and Infected Red Blood Cell Adherence Up-Regulates the Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Botti, John J.; Taylor, Diane W.; Leke, Rose F.; Gowda, D. Channe

    2007-01-01

    A low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be the receptor for the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (IRBCs) in human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA) has been suggested as an additional receptor even though IRBC binding to HA and the presence of HA at locations where IRBCs adhere in the placenta have not been established. In this study, we investigated whether HA is also a receptor for IRBC binding. IRBCs from infected placentas as well as those from different laboratory strains could bind to CSPG but not to HA. In a cell depletion assay, IRBCs from infected placentas could bind quantitatively to CSPG. Although CSPG is present both in the intervillous space and on the syncytiotrophoblast surface, HA is absent in these locations. These data conclusively demonstrate that CSPG, but not HA, is a receptor for IRBC adherence in the placenta. Our data also show, for the first time, that the IRBC-binding CSPG in the placenta is of fetal origin and that, in P. falciparum-infected placentas, the CSPG level is significantly increased, which could exacerbate IRBC adherence and placental pathogenesis. These results have important implications for the development of anti-IRBC adhesion-based vaccine for pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:17525266

  13. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  14. Importance of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to marine toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Camacho-Magaa, Claudia; Gmez-Meda, Belinda; Ramos-Ibarra, Mara; Batista-Gonzlez, Cecilia; Ziga-Gonzlez, G

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the presence of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNES) from peripheral blood of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the possibility to use this species as potential bioindicator of genotoxic compounds. Forty-eight blood samples from 12 bottlenose dolphins were obtain from three Mexican dolphinariums, and from 10 dolphins was possible to obtain more than one sample at different sampling times. Smears were processed and observed with an epifluorescence microscope. The average of MNES and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) from the 48 samples was 24.3 +/- 6.1 MNES/10,000 total erythrocytes (TE), and 9.1 +/- 5.5 PCE/1,000 TE. MNES and PCE number did not show differences between gender and age. No variations in the MNES values of the bottlenose dolphins that were sampled more than one occasion were found. Comparisons among dolphinariums revealed differences in MNES frequency, with the highest significant frequency observed in dolphins from dolphinarium "A" (26.0 +/- 5.9 MNES/10,000 TE) than dolphinarium "B" (19.5 +/- 3.1 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.05) and dolphinarium "C" (18.6 +/- 3.5 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.007). The presence of MNES and PCE in the bottlenose dolphin may provide a useful marine mammal model to detect DNA damage by means of micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity expositions. PMID:17278706

  15. Some aspects of the pathophysiology of homozygous Hb CC erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, M E; Kaul, D K; Raventos, C; Baez, S; Rieder, R; Nagel, R L

    1981-01-01

    We have studied erythrocytes from homozygous CC patients in vitro and in perfused rat mesoappendix vasculature to answer some long-standing questions. By examination of wet whole blood preparations, and by comparing the cell distribution on isopycnic continuous density gradients of whole blood samples from a splenectomized CC patient with those from three intact CC patients, we have demonstrated the presence of a distinct crystal-containing band of cells that is present in the former, but totally absent from the latter. We conclude that Hb CC cells containing crystals circulate in Hb CC individuals, but in intact patients they are effectively removed by the spleen. By use of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance and viscosity measurements on cells, we have demonstrated that intracellular aggregation of hemoglobin C occurs on deoxygenation even when no crystal formation is detectable by morphological methods. These two observations are in apparent contradiction with the absence of clinical microcirculatory impairment found in both intact and splenectomized CC patients. The contradiction was resolved by rheological studies on isolated rat mesoappendix preparations and erythrocyte diameter measurements that lead to the conclusion that the hemorheological properties of CC cells in the microcirculation are nearly normal because their increased viscosity is offset by their smaller diameter and size. Images PMID:7229029

  16. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  17. Quality of cord blood cryopreserved for up to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Song, Eun Young; Roh, Eun Youn; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cord blood (CB) is a well-known source of hematopoietic stem cells, uncertainties exist regarding the quality of cryopreserved CB. We investigated the changes in quality of CB units according to the duration of cryopreservation. Methods We analyzed CB units that were rejected from the Seoul Metropolitan Government Public Cord Blood Bank inventory after conventional processing, because of unsuitability for allogeneic transplantation. Two hundred CB units that were cryopreserved from 1 year to 5 years were selected. After thawing the cryopreserved CB units, the total nucleated cell (TNC) count, CD34+ cell count, number of colony-forming units (CFU), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) level, cell viability, and apoptosis were analyzed. We conducted a comparative analysis to identify the presence of statistically significant differences in the recovery rates of the TNC and CD34+ cell counts and to compare the results of ALDH level, the cell viability test, the apoptosis test, and CFU analysis among groups according to the duration of cryopreservation. Results The recovery rates of the TNC count, the CD34+ cell count, and cell viability did not differ significantly according to the duration of cryopreservation. ALDH analysis, the cell viability test, and the apoptosis test did not reveal any increasing or decreasing trend according to the duration of cryopreservation. Further, the numbers of CFU-granulocyte/macrophage and CFU-granulocyte/erythrocyte/macrophage/megakaryocyte did not differ significantly according to the duration of cryopreservation. Conclusion These results suggest that the quality of CB is not affected by cryopreservation for up to a period of 5 years. PMID:24724068

  18. Blood group reactivities of SLCL-workshop antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, M.; Sonneborn, H. H.

    1991-01-01

    We have tested all 98 workshop antibodies for blood group antigen reactivity. In initial experiments we used a routine agglutination technique with A1LEb and BLea erythrocytes to screen for reactivity with most of the possible antigens. Except for WS78 which reacted with both types of erythrocyte and WS92 which reacted with A1Leb, there was only very weak or no reactivity. We therefore used indirect immunofluorescence and a cell analyser to increase sensitivity and tested a variety of erythrocytes expressing different blood group antigens. WS78 was strongly reactive against all types of erythrocyte tested (96-99% of the cells). WS92 appeared to react with blood group A1. WS27 detected an antigen present on all erythrocytes but expressed weakly (19-21% of the cells). PMID:2039711

  19. Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

    2013-09-01

    Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants. PMID:23732483

  20. Malaria. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    PubMed

    Egan, Elizabeth S; Jiang, Rays H Y; Moechtar, Mischka A; Barteneva, Natasha S; Weekes, Michael P; Nobre, Luis V; Gygi, Steven P; Paulo, Joao A; Frantzreb, Charles; Tani, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Junko; Watanabe, Seishi; Goldberg, Jonathan; Paul, Aditya S; Brugnara, Carlo; Root, David E; Wiegand, Roger C; Doench, John G; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2015-05-01

    Efforts to identify host determinants for malaria have been hindered by the absence of a nucleus in erythrocytes, which precludes genetic manipulation in the cell in which the parasite replicates. We used cultured red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells to carry out a forward genetic screen for Plasmodium falciparum host determinants. We found that CD55 is an essential host factor for P. falciparum invasion. CD55-null erythrocytes were refractory to invasion by all isolates of P. falciparum because parasites failed to attach properly to the erythrocyte surface. Thus, CD55 is an attractive target for the development of malaria therapeutics. Hematopoietic stem cell-based forward genetic screens may be valuable for the identification of additional host determinants of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25954012

  1. A simulation study of flow dynamics of erythrocytes through diverging and converging bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2015-03-01

    A numerical model has been developed to predict the cells deformation and motion in a symmetric diverging and converging bifurcation of a microchannel. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics are incorporated. The model was utilized to evaluate the effect of different biophysical parameters, such as: initial cell position, membrane stiffness and shape of the cells on deformation and motion of the erythrocytes in the bifurcating curved microchannel. The numerical results demonstrate that erythrocytes in microvessels blunt velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and the transit velocity of erythrocytes is strongly influenced by cell deformability, shape of the cells, and the vessel geometry. These results may provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of hemodynamic behavior of microscale blood flow. The authors acknowledge the support of the State Key Program for Basic Researches of China (2014CB921103 and 2010CB923404), the National ``Climbing'' Program of China (91021003), and the National Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2010012).

  2. Loss of phospholipid membrane asymmetry and sialylated glycoconjugates from erythrocyte surface in haemoglobin E beta-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sumanta; Banerjee, Debasis; Chandra, Sarmila; Chakrabarti, Abhijit

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate any correlation between the extent of phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry and sialylated glycoconjugate levels with the faster clearance of circulating erythrocytes in haemoglobin E (HbE) beta-thalassaemia. Erythrocytes from peripheral blood samples of different HbEbeta-thalassaemia patients showed loss of PS asymmetry measured by annexin V binding using flow cytometry. Maximum PS exposure was found when HbE was 50-60% and HbF was <20% indicating a possible correlation with severity of the disease. Separation of erythrocytes into aged and younger cells showed higher loss of PS asymmetry in the younger erythrocytes of HbEbeta-thalassaemia patients when compared with normal blood, where PS asymmetry was lost only in the older cells. Sialylated glycoconjugate measurement using the lectins wheatgerm agglutinin and pokeweed mitogen showed loss of sialic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-bearing glycoproteins in the order normalerythrocytes could lead to faster shedding of glycophorin-containing microvesicles, leaving highly PS-exposed erythrocytes accessible to phagocytes. PMID:18324971

  3. Application of a spectrally filtered probing light beam and RGB decomposition of microphotographs for flow registration of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Ganilova, Yu. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We propose a development of the flow microscopy method to increase the resolving power upon registration of erythrocyte agglutination. We experimentally show that the action of a ultrasonic standing wave on an agglutinating mixture blood-serum leads to the formation of so large erythrocytic immune complexes that it seems possible to propose a new two-wave optical method of registration of the process of erythrocyte agglutination using the RGB decomposition of microphotographs of the flow of the mixture under study. This approach increases the reliability of registration of erythrocyte agglutination and, consequently, increases the reliability of blood typing. Our results can be used in the development of instruments for automatic human blood typing.

  4. Uncertainty of nuclear counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomm, S.; Fitzgerald, R.; Keightley, J.

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear counting is affected by pulse pileup and system dead time, which induce rate-related count loss and alter the statistical properties of the counting process. Fundamental equations are presented to predict deviations from Poisson statistics due to non-random count loss in nuclear counters and spectrometers. Throughput and dispersion of counts are studied for systems with pileup, extending and non-extending dead time, before and also after compensation for count loss. Equations are provided for random fractions of the output events, applicable to spectrometry applications. Methods for loss compensation are discussed, including inversion of the throughput equation, live-time counting and loss-free counting. Secondary effects in live-time counting are addressed: residual interference from pileup in systems with imposed dead times and errors due to varying count rate when measuring short-lived radionuclides.

  5. ERYTHROCYTE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...

  6. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to top Proudly sponsored by ... Learn more about ... Understanding Your Tests Inside the Lab In the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your ... so the two dates may not always agree. Understanding Your Tests | Inside the Lab | In the News | Article Index | About This Site | Send Us Your ...

  7. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Waibel, Sabrina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections, has later been shown to be effective in various infectious diseases including malaria. Nelfinavir may trigger mitochondria-independent cell death. Erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a mitochondria-independent suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). During malaria, accelerated death of infected erythrocytes may decrease parasitemia and thus favorably influence the clinical course of the disease. In the present study, phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with nelfinavir significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥5µg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥2.5µg/mL), significantly increased ROS abundance (10 µg/mL), and significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥5 µg/mL). The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following nelfinavir treatment was significantly blunted, but not abolished by either addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) or removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, exposure of erythrocytes to nelfinavir induces oxidative stress and Ca2+ entry, thus leading to suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling. PMID:26008229

  8. Hemoglobin degradation in malaria-infected erythrocytes determined from live cell magnetophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lee R.; Fujioka, Hisashi; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Grimberg, Brian; Zimmerman, Peter; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    During intra-erythrocytic development, malaria trophozoites digest hemoglobin, which leads to parasite growth and asexual replication while accumulating toxic heme. To avoid death, the parasite synthesizes insoluble hemozoin crystals in the digestive vacuole through polymerization of ?-hematin dimers. In the process, the heme is converted to a high-spin ferriheme whose magnetic properties were studied as early as 1936 by Pauling et al. Here, by magnetophoretic cell motion analysis, we provide evidence for a graduated increase of live cell magnetic susceptibility with developing blood-stage parasites, compatible with the increase in hemozoin content and the mechanism used by P. falciparum to avoid heme toxicity. The measured magnetophoretic mobility of the erythrocyte infected with a late-stage schizont form was m = 2.94 10?6 mm3 s/kg, corresponding to the net volume magnetic susceptibility (relative to water) of ?? = 1.80 10?6, significantly higher than that of the oxygenated erythrocyte (?0.1810?6) but lower than that of the fully deoxygenated erythrocyte (3.3310?6). The corresponding fraction of hemoglobin converted to hemozoin, calculated based on the known magnetic susceptibilities of hemoglobin heme and hemozoin ferriheme, was 0.50, in agreement with the published biochemical and crystallography data. Magnetophoretic analysis of live erythrocytes could become significant for antimalarial drug susceptibility and resistance determination. PMID:16461330

  9. Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 626 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., positive controls), and healthy controls (i.e., negative controls). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

  10. The Functional Significance of the Rho/Rho-Kinase Pathway in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tiftik, R. Nalan; Ba?kurt, O?uz K.; Kul, Seval; Bykaf?ar, Kansu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Erythrocyte deformability, which can be influenced by various intracellular signaling mechanisms, such as nitric oxide, cAMP, cGMP, and protein kinases, is the most important physiological factor providing the blood flow in microcirculation. However, the functional significance of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway, which contributes cell shape changes and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, has yet to be explored in erythrocytes. Therefore, we examined the influence of several activators and inhibitors of Rho/Rho-kinase signaling on human erythrocyte deformability. Materials and Methods: RhoA and ROCK-2 proteins were studied by western blotting. Influences of 2 Rho-kinase inhibitors, fasudil and Y-27632 (both 10-7 to 10-4 M), on erythrocyte deformability was determined by ektacytometer at various shear stresses (0-30 Pa) in the presence or absence of a known Rho activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 10-5 to 5x10-5 M, 1-15 min). Results: LPA incubation reduced deformability with concomitant RhoA-GTP inhibition. Y-27632 and fasudil also decreased deformability, but had no effect on LPA-induced reduction of deformability. Rho inhibitor C3 had no effect on RhoA activation. Reduction in RhoA activation was induced by sub-hemolytic mechanical stress. Conclusion: Our findings may indicate that the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway could contribute to the regulation of deformability of human erythrocytes. PMID:25035675

  11. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra