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1

A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

2004-01-01

2

Complete Blood Count  

MedlinePLUS

... Materialistic Choosing Safe Toys Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Checkups: What to Expect Blood Test: Complete Blood Count KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Print ...

3

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS  

E-print Network

DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD CELL COUNTS OF ATLANTIC HERRING, CLUPEA HARENGUS HARENGUS STUART W. SHERBURNE1 of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously- ences in the occurrence of blood cell types of Atlantic herring, Glupea harellgus harellgus, from

4

Erythrocyte Ascorbate Recycling: Antioxidant Effects in Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant in human plasma, but requires efficient recycling from its oxidized forms to avoid irreversible loss. Human erythrocytes prevented oxidation of ascorbate in autologous plasma, an effect that required recycling of ascorbate within the cells. Erythrocytes had a high capacity to take up dehydroascorbate, the two-electron oxidized product of ascorbate, and to reduce it to

Shalu Mendiratta; Zhi-chao Qu; James M May

1998-01-01

5

Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1\\/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified

D. W. Bianchi; J. H. M. Knoll; A. F. Flint; M. F. Pizzimenti; S. A. Latt

1990-01-01

6

Morphofunctional characteristics of the glutathione cycle in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with a history of cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation during gestation.  

PubMed

We studied factors influencing peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection during gestation. Cytomegalovirus infection was associated with a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and glutathione peroxidase, which leads to H2O2 accumulation in the blood. Exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection was associated with reduction of glutathione reductase and SOD activities. Erythrocyte antioxidant function and the peripheral blood discocyte count decreased. Accumulation of degenerative erythrocytes is fraught with the risk of anemia in pregnant women. PMID:24952498

Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A; Kutepova, O L

2014-06-01

7

Sequence Variants in Three Loci Influence Monocyte Counts and Erythrocyte Volume  

PubMed Central

Blood cells participate in vital physiological processes, and their numbers are tightly regulated so that homeostasis is maintained. Disruption of key regulatory mechanisms underlies many blood-related Mendelian diseases but also contributes to more common disorders, including atherosclerosis. We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for hematology traits through a whole-genome association study, because these could provide new insights into both hemopoeitic and disease mechanisms. We tested 1.8 million variants for association with 13 hematology traits measured in 6015 individuals from the Australian and Dutch populations. These traits included hemoglobin composition, platelet counts, and red blood cell and white blood cell indices. We identified three regions of strong association that, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in the literature. The first was located in an intergenic region of chromosome 9q31 near LPAR1, explaining 1.5% of the variation in monocyte counts (best SNP rs7023923, p = 8.9 × 10?14). The second locus was located on chromosome 6p21 and associated with mean cell erythrocyte volume (rs12661667, p = 1.2 × 10?9, 0.7% variance explained) in a region that spanned five genes, including CCND3, a member of the D-cyclin gene family that is involved in hematopoietic stem cell expansion. The third region was also associated with erythrocyte volume and was located in an intergenic region on chromosome 6q24 (rs592423, p = 5.3 × 10?9, 0.6% variance explained). All three loci replicated in an independent panel of 1543 individuals (p values = 0.001, 9.9 × 10?5, and 7 × 10?5, respectively). The identification of these QTL provides new opportunities for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms regulating hemopoietic cell fate. PMID:19853236

Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Warrington, Nicole M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Lawrence, Robert W.; Gordon, Scott; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Megan J.; Wallace, Leanne; Evans, David M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; James, Alan L.; Beilby, John P.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Frazer, Ian H.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

2009-01-01

8

Optical assay of erythrocyte function in banked blood.  

PubMed

Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

2014-01-01

9

Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation. PMID:25036459

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

2014-01-01

10

AUTOMATIC RED BLOOD CELL AND WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNTING FOR  

E-print Network

A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate the overall health and diagnose a wide range of disorders, including anaemia, infection and leukaemia etc. CBC test infer about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood such as Red Blood Cells(RBC), White Blood Cells(WBC) , Platelet. This blood cell count infers about the disorders against normal healthy blood cell count. Haematology analysis to be specific, accurate & reliable in the blood cell counts to mitigate diagnosis. Conventional haematology analysis triggers visit to clinic and is laboratory specialist dependent carried either manually (inaccurate) or by haematology analyser (costlier). Both are not affordable to the remote / rural areas. This paper introduces an cost effective automatic RBC and WBC counting accurately using image analysis technique for remote or rural areas using telemedicine approach independent of specialist to generate patient RBC and WBC report.

Vinutha H Reddy

11

In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy  

PubMed Central

In vivo measurement of retinal blood flow is obtained by measuring the blood velocity of erythrocytes and lumen diameters of the blood vessels using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Erythrocyte velocity is measured by tracking erythrocytes moving across a horizontal scanning line. This approach provides high temporal bandwidth measurements, allowing the fluctuation of blood flow during cardiac cycles to be measured. The technique is most applicable to medium-sized blood vessels. PMID:18711513

Zhong, Zhangyi; Petrig, Benno L.; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A.

2009-01-01

12

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

... 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2014-04-01

13

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2010-04-01

14

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2013-04-01

15

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2011-04-01

16

21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...

2012-04-01

17

Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)

2006-05-20

18

Alterations in erythrocyte morphology induced by blood pumps.  

PubMed

A scanning electron microscopy was used after in vitro and in vivo tests to investigate any alterations caused by the peristaltic roller pump in erythrocyte morphology. The electron micrographs of samples were examined as follows: 1) by image analyser; 2) by applying Bessis's classification for the qualitative study of crenated red blood cells (RBCs). The in vitro test was repeated four times using blood from healthy donors. Each basal blood sample was divided into 250 ml portions, each of which was recirculated for 12 minutes at different flow rates. In order to verify any persistent erythrocyte damage caused by the peristaltic pump, 15 minutes after recirculation at 450 ml/min, another sample was prepared using the blood remaining from the last test. A statistically significant direct correlation was found between blood flow (Qb) increase and the percentage of morphologically altered RBCs, when either using an image analyser (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) or Bessis's classification (r = 0.95; p < 0.05). However, neither method showed any statistically significant difference between the percentage of deformed RBCs, determined in the basal sample, or in the percentage found at the end of the 450 ml/min test after standing 15 minutes at room temperature. The in vivo test was carried out on 6 patients over 2 dialysis sessions, which differed only for the Qb: 250 versus 400 ml/min. The two dialysis sessions gave comparable results when using both study methods regarding the presence of deformed RBCs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8294157

Calzavara, P; De Angeli, S; Nieri, A; Furlan, C; Bolzonella, R; da Porto, A

1993-09-01

19

Elimination of young erythrocytes from blood circulation and altered erythropoietic patterns during paraquat induced anemic phase in mice.  

PubMed

Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice. PMID:24945144

Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K

2014-01-01

20

Elimination of Young Erythrocytes from Blood Circulation and Altered Erythropoietic Patterns during Paraquat Induced Anemic Phase in Mice  

PubMed Central

Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice. PMID:24945144

Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K.

2014-01-01

21

The nature of human blood group A3 erythrocytes.  

PubMed

A population of human erythrocytes (free A3 cells) which was entirely unagglutinable with anti-A hemagglutinins was successfully separated from human blood group A3 erythrocytes by affinity chromatography on a column of lima bean anti-A hemagglutinin (LBH)-Sepharose. The hemagglutinating and the binding properties of free A3 cells with purified LBH and purified eel serum anti-H hemagglutinin (ESH) were investigated. It has been revealed that there exists a bulk of H antigens on free A3 cells, whereas the number of A antigens on a free A3 cell is only 9% of that on an A1 cell. However, no appreciable difference was observed in the binding constants of A1 and free A3 cells to LBH and ESH. From these results it is assumed that the structure of the A antigens on free A3 cells is identical with, or at least similar to, that on A1 cells, but the density of the antigens on the surface of free A3 cells is too low to induce the agglutination of the cells with LBH or anti-A serum. PMID:341520

Oguchi, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Suzuta, T; Osawa, T

1978-01-01

22

Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality. PMID:18832668

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus

2009-01-01

23

Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to application medical ozone influence on morphology of blood erythrocytes of patients with neurosensor hardness of hearing using holographic interference microscope. From the experimental results, it was found that erythrocytes of all patients before treatment had \\

T. V. Tishko; V. P. Titar; T. M. Barchotkina; D. N. Tishko

2003-01-01

24

Biophotonics of the interaction of low-intensity laser radiation with blood erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blood erythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.

Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.

2013-06-01

25

Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 ?l of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 ?l EDTA blood were mixed with 10 ?l of a DRAQ5 solution (500?M, Biostatus) and 10 ?l of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 ?l of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 ?l of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 ?l instead of 500?l). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for resource poor settings.

Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

2005-04-01

26

Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.  

PubMed

Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

2015-02-01

27

In vitro and in vivo validation of stored swine erythrocyte viability to establish an experimental model of homologous red blood cell transfusion: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop experimental models of erythrocyte transfusion, the first step is to ensure the viability of the red blood cells transfused. In this pilot study, we assessed the viability of transfused red blood cells with validation in vitro and in vivo of homologous swine erythrocytes stored for 14 days. Methods Blood collected from one Agroceres® swine was stored in two red blood cell units. In vivo validation was performed by labeling the red blood cells with Na251CrO4 and recovering the viable erythrocytes after 24 hours of infusion in one autologous and four homologous animals. In vitro validation was performed at baseline and after 14 days in sixteen red blood cell units by measuring hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis index and free hemoglobin. A post-mortem splenectomy was performed to evaluate the splenic sequestration of erythrocytes, and the radioactivity of the supernatant samples was counted to evaluate intravascular hemolysis. Results After 14 days of storage, the red blood cell units had lower volumes and equivalent total concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to human standards. The free hemoglobin concentration increased from 31.0±9.3 to 112.4±31.4mg/dL (p<0.001), and the hemolysis index increased from 0.1±0.1 to 0.5±0.1% (p<0.001). However, these tests were within the acceptable range for human standards. The percentage of radioactivity in supernatant samples was similar at baseline and after 24 hours, thus excluding significant hemolysis. No evidence of splenic sequestration of radioactive erythrocytes was found. Conclusion Swine red blood cells stored for 14 days are viable and can be used in experimental studies of transfusion. These validation experiments are important to aid investigators in establishing experimental models of transfusion. PMID:25295823

Biagini, Silvana; Costa, Paulo Aguirre; Wendel, Silvano; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

2014-01-01

28

Clinical usefulness of white blood cell count after cesarean delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine changes in white blood cell (WBC) count after cesarean and estimate risk of postoperative infection.Methods: We measured complete blood cell counts at admission and on postoperative day 1 for 458 women who had cesareans. Information from charts was abstracted, and definitions of infectious outcomes and fever were applied by three physicians masked to laboratory results. We examined

Katherine E. Hartmann; Katherine E. Barrett; Virgil C. Reid; Michael J. MCMahon; William C. Miller

2000-01-01

29

Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic methods of phase micro-objects visualization (the holographic phase contrast method and the method of holographic interferometry) are considered. Comparative analysis of classical and holographic methods in microscopy of phase micro-objects is carried out. An arrangement of the holographic interference microscope realizing the holographic methods and experimental results of 3-D imaging of native blood erythrocytes are presented. It is shown that 3-D morphology of blood erythrocytes reflects and determines the state of a human organism and those different physical and chemical factors and internal pathologies influence erythrocytes morphology. The holographic interference microscope was used for investigation of ozone therapy influence on human blood erythrocytes. Blood samples of 60 patients of different age with neurosensoric hardness of hearing before and after ozone therapy were investigated. It was shown that all patients have changed erythrocytes mrophology. Ozone therapy treatment results in normalization of erythrocytes morphology of patients.

Tishko, Tatyana V.; Titar, V. P.; Barchotkina, T. M.; Tishko, D. N.

2004-09-01

30

Influence of erythrocyte iodothyronine-binding proteins on radioimmunoassay of thyroxin in dried blood spots  

SciTech Connect

Three erythrocyte proteins, one identified as hemoglobin, bind thyroid hormones. Using a dextran/charcoal radioimmunoassay for thyroxin in dried blood spots, we demonstrate that such binding differs with the buffer used. Barbital, phosphate, and borate buffers significantly enhance the binding more than glycine and tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine buffers. Binding is not affected by agents commonly used to inhibit thyroxin binding to serum proteins. A highly significant nonlinear direct relationship between sample storage (temperature and duration) and increased thyroxin-erythrocyte binding is documented, together with an associated decrease in assayed concentrations of thyroxin. However, concomitant serial measurement of thyroxin with polyethylene glycol and combined double-antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassays produced no evidence of interference by erythrocyte proteins in the radioimmune reaction. We conclude that erythrocyte proteins act only as low-affinity secondary binders in radioimmunoassay for thyroxin.

Sadler, W.A.; Lynskey, C.P.

1982-01-01

31

Erythrocyte-Derived Microparticles Supporting Activated Protein C-Mediated Regulation of Blood Coagulation  

PubMed Central

Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived microparticle surface is suitable for the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system, which may be important to balance the initiation and propagation of coagulation in vivo. PMID:25136857

Livaja Koshiar, Ruzica; Somajo, Sofia; Norström, Eva; Dahlbäck, Björn

2014-01-01

32

Erythrocytes participate significantly in blood transport of amino acids during the post absorptive state in normal humans.  

PubMed

To investigate the participation of erythrocytes in the blood transport of amino acids during the course of intestinal absorption in humans, erythrocyte and plasma amino-acid concentrations were determined following ingestion of an oral load of amino acids. In addition to baseline plasma and erythrocyte amino acid concentrations in 18 subjects, plasma and erythrocyte amino acids kinetics during the 125 min following an oral amino acid load were further determined in 9 of the 18 subjects. The results showed that human erythrocytes contained most amino acids at similar or higher concentrations than plasma. Furthermore, the correlations observed between plasma and erythrocyte contents clearly indicated that erythrocytes were involved in the transport of amino acids by the blood. For some amino acids erythrocyte transport sometimes exceeded that of plasma. Significant correlation coefficients showed that strong plasma-erythrocyte relationships existed for alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, and ornithine. In conclusion, our data supported the hypothesis that both blood compartments, plasma and erythrocytes, are involved significantly in the blood transport of amino acids in humans during the postabsorptive state. PMID:9840404

Agli, A N; Schaefer, A; Geny, B; Piquard, F; Haberey, P

1998-11-01

33

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites  

E-print Network

How to Scan Blood Smears, Identify, and Count Parasites 1. Scanning for Leucocytozoon in bird blood in the blood, but are large parasites and can be spotted even under low power. 2. For Plasmodium. For bird smears, each field must be inspected because the parasite density (parasitemia) tends to be low. 4

Schall, Joseph J.

34

Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait.  

PubMed

Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 ?-thalassemia, 20 ?-thalassemia, 20 ??-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor ?-thalassemia (r = -0.530, p < 0.05), and directly in both metabolic syndrome and morbidly obese patients (? = 0.270, p < 0.05 and ? = 0.258, p < 0.05, respectively). Minor ?-thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:25062717

Vayá, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Suescún, Marta; Rivera, Leonor; Murado, Julian; Romagnoli, Marco; Solá, Eva; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

2014-07-25

35

An analysis of bison erythrocyte antigens and blood proteins  

E-print Network

-chairmen of Advisory Committee: Or. J. Caldwell Or. J. Templeton Six hundred and sixty four blood samples were collected from eight herds of American b1son. Hemolyt1c tests were made using 140 cattle blood typing reagents specific for 55 antigenic Factors and 20... experimental bison blood typ1ng reagents specific for 5 antigenic factors. Red cell hemolysates and plasma proteins were subjected to electrophoresis to test for transferri n, hemoglobin and carbonic anhydrase polymorphi sms. Frequencies of each blood...

Zamora, Linda Elia

1983-01-01

36

Effect of excess sodium bicarbonate on the blood volume and erythrocyte deformability of broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broiler chickens were treated with 7.5% of sodium bicarbonate in their drinking water from 7 to 29 days of age to test the hypothesis that excess dietary sodium bicarbonate increases blood volume and decreases erythrocyte deformability thus contributing to the development of pulmonary hypertension?induced right ventricular failure and ascites. Sodium bicarbonate treatment resulted in 16% mortality from ascites compared to

S. M. Mirsalimi; R. J. Julian

1993-01-01

37

[Lipid composition of blood plasma and erythrocyte membrane of volleyball players under intensive physical load].  

PubMed

As the result of prolonged training activity highly skilled volleyball players have marked deficiency of fatty acids of w3 family both in the blood plasma as erythrocyte membranes. These acids may be used in the lipid peroxidation processes, that is proved by the facts of POL products content and their drawing into oxidation reaction, which is certified by high level of ATP in erythrocytes. Reduction of quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids of w3 family may be regarded as results of their insufficient arrival with food. PMID:9583128

Popichev, M I; Tolkacheva, N V; Kulakova, S N; Konoshenko, S V

1997-01-01

38

Multiple loci influence erythrocyte phenotypes in the CHARGE Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of erythrocytes within the blood are important clinical traits and can indicate various hematological disorders. We report here genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for six erythrocyte traits, including hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red blood cell count (RBC). We performed an initial GWAS in cohorts of

Neil A Zakai; Frank J A van Rooij; Nicole Soranzo; Albert V Smith; Michael A Nalls; Ming-Huei Chen; Anna Kottgen; Nicole L Glazer; Abbas Dehghan; Brigitte Kuhnel; Thor Aspelund; Qiong Yang; Toshiko Tanaka; Andrew Jaffe; Joshua C M Bis; Germaine C Verwoert; Alexander Teumer; Caroline S Fox; Jack M Guralnik; Georg B Ehret; Kenneth Rice; Janine F Felix; Augusto Rendon; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Daniel Levy; Kushang V Patel; Eric Boerwinkle; Jerome I Rotter; Albert Hofman; Jennifer G Sambrook; Dena G Hernandez; Gang Zheng; Stefania Bandinelli; Andrew B Singleton; Josef Coresh; Thomas Lumley; André G Uitterlinden; Janine M vanGils; Lenore J Launer; L Adrienne Cupples; Ben A Oostra; Jaap-Jan Zwaginga; Willem H Ouwehand; Swee-Lay Thein; Christa Meisinger; Panos Deloukas; Matthias Nauck; Tim D Spector; Christian Gieger; Vilmundur Gudnason; Cornelia M van Duijn; Bruce M Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Aravinda Chakravarti; Andreas Greinacher; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Susan Furth; Mary Cushman; Tamara B Harris; Jing-Ping Lin; Santhi K Ganesh; Christopher J O'Donnell

2009-01-01

39

Lipid composition of blood platelets and erythrocytes of southern elephant seal ( Mirounga leonina) and antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte and blood platelet phospholipid compositions were studied in three elephant seals and two fur seals, two species of marine mammals living in the Subantarctic region feeding on preys rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results were compared with those reported for related species and humans.In erythrocytes, the phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CHOL) contents were lower in pinnipeds than in

Christine Fayolle; Claude Leray; Philippe Ohlmann; Geneviève Gutbier; Jean-Pierre Cazenave; Christian Gachet; René Groscolas

2000-01-01

40

Blood group MNSs-active sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane.  

PubMed

The human erythrocyte membrane contains at least four different PAS-staining sialic acid-rich glycoproteins. The major sialoglycoprotein, which carries blood group M or N antigen activity, has been extensively characterized. The Ss antigens are located on a minor sialoglycoprotein, which also has "N' activity. The amino acid sequence at positions 1 and 5 of these glycoproteins correlates with the presence of M or N antigen activity. Little is known about the other minor sialoglycoproteins (beta and gamma). Membranes from erythrocytes of type (En(a-)Fin lack the major MN-active sialoglycoprotein; those from S-s-erythrocytes lack normal Ss-active sialoglycoproteins, although they contain an abnormal component that may be an altered Ss glycoprotein. Mk Mk cells lack both the MN- and Ss-active glycoproteins. These sialoglycoprotein-deficient cells are found in apparently healthy individuals. The sera of individuals with sialoglycoprotein-deficient cells may contain antisialoglycoprotein antibody, which has properties similar to those of auto-anti-Pr. Miltenberger Class III, IV, and VI erythrocytes have abnormal Ss-active sialoglycoproteins. Component beta appears altered in Miltenberger Classes I and II. These abnormalities may account for the unique serological properties of Class I, II, III, IV, and VI erythrocytes. Membranes from erythrocytes of type EnU K/Mk, Miltenberger Class V, and Ph contain abnormal sialogylcoproteins that may result from fusion of the genes that give rise to the Mn-and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins. If this is so, then the genes giving rise to the MN and Ss glycoproteins must be adjacent on the same chromosome. PMID:6999510

Anstee, D J

1980-01-01

41

Prenatal diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency by using a single nucleated erythrocyte from maternal blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a method that allows the prenatal DNA diagnosis of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency by using\\u000a a single fetal nucleated erythrocyte (NRBC) isolated from maternal blood. OTC gene analysis of a male patient (TF) with early\\u000a onset OTC deficiency was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing. To investigate\\u000a the possible prenatal diagnosis of OTC deficiency,

A. Watanabe; Akihiko Sekizawa; Atsushi Taguchi; Hiroshi Saito; Takumi Yanaihara; Mitsunobu Shimazu; Ichiro Matsuda

1998-01-01

42

Effect of erythrocytes oscillations on dielectric properties of human diabetic-blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that the erythrocytes (RBCs) oscillate during their tank-treading motion with high-frequency oscillations. This oscillatory motion drastically affects the dielectric and electrical properties of RBCs. Moreover, the glucose level in blood affects the electrical and dielectric properties of blood. It has been, also, shown that the frequency of these oscillations exponentially decrease from 1.2 MHz down to 0.85 MHz with variation of glucose level from 85 mg/dL up to 346.1 mg/dL. It is expected that these oscillations strongly affect the general physiological properties of blood and would stimulate the curiosity of scientists and bioengineers to present new, more efficient, rapid, safe and viable diagnostic and/or therapeutic methods for blood disorders; in particular diabetes.

Abdalla, S.

2011-03-01

43

Frequencies of erythrocyte blood groups alleles and haplotyphes in women with benign tumors of the uterus.  

PubMed

The erythrocyte blood groups antigens are associated with risk of certain malignancies though the correlation between blood groups and diseases is still unclear. The investigation is aimed at determining the correlation between benign tumors of the uterus and erythrocyte blood groups alleles and haplotyphes in patients of Adjara Oncology Centre. Blood of 60 women with benign tumors of the uterus and of 60 healthy women of reproductive age were investigated for ABO and Rh system alleles and haplotypes. Immunoserological methods have been used to identify the antigens. The obtained results were statistically processed. The ABO system gene alleles' frequency was computed by the formula proposed by F. Bernstein and used in investigation of three-allele genetic systems. The frequency of Rh-system genes, Rh-haplotypes is computed by the formula proposed by A. E. Mourant. According to ABO systems in women with benign tumors of the uterus high frequencies of p (0,12) and q (0,21) alleles are found. When studying individual alleles of the Rh system in women with benign tumors, high frequency of D was noticed (0.8). In women with benign tumor of the uterus RhD allele frequency is statistically different to healthy women. ABO systems gene alleles' significantly differ in healthy and diseased women. In women with benign tumor of the uterus only three Rh-system haplotypes have been found: CDe, cDe, cde haplotypes. PMID:22870829

Nakashidze, I; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M

2012-05-01

44

A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.  

PubMed

The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ?2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ?15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

2014-12-01

45

Red blood cell membrane and serum sialic acid in relation to erythrocyte sedimentation rate.  

PubMed

Sialic acid was determined in red blood cell (RBC) membrane and in serum, and correlated to erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). For this purpose blood samples were obtained from 57 patients, regardless of their pathological condition, and divided into groups according to the ESR. 15 blood samples obtained from health individuals whose ESR was lower than 20 mm/h served as controls. Sialic acid was released from RBC membranes obtained by hemolysis, and from serum glycoproteins precipitated with ethanol by treatment with 0.1 N HCl at 80 degrees C for 1 h. The results showed the sialic acid contents of both membranes and serum to be higher in most of the groups with elevated ESR, as compared to the control group, although no quantitative correlation was noticed. Statistical evaluation showed highly significant differences between the group of pathological samples as a whole and the control group in the sialic acid content of both RBC membranes and sera. PMID:6779485

Levinsky, H; Rothman, G; Lapidot, M; Allalouf, D

1980-01-01

46

Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii).  

PubMed

Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks. PMID:25263493

Emmenegger, Eveline J; Glenn, Jolene A; Winton, James R; Batts, William N; Gregg, Jacob L; Hershberger, Paul K

2014-11-01

47

Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

2014-01-01

48

The influence of autologous erythrocytes on active T-cells rosetting with sheep red blood cells and on DNA synthesis.  

PubMed

The addition of autologous erythrocytes to a mixture of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) alters the spontaneous rosetting reaction in the test detecting the active fraction of T lymphocytes (ARFC). Increase in rosetting is more often observed in mixtures containing smaller human red blood cell: lymphocyte ratios, while inhibition occurred in those containing a higher ratio. Autologous erythrocytes also affected DNA synthesis when added to three-day lymphocyte cultures, unstimulated or stimulated with BCG. These effects were more strongly pronounced when phagocytic cells were removed from lymphocytes tested. PMID:6975089

Nowaczyk, M; Skopi?ska-Rózewska, E

1981-01-01

49

Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 54 animal species (mammals, reptiles and birds): part two.  

PubMed

The normal numbers of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) observed in peripheral blood samples differ among species. This depends on the effectiveness of the spleen (or the rest of the reticuloendothelial system) to withdraw them from circulation. In our previous report, we assessed the number of MNE in the peripheral blood of 35 mammalian species. Here we show the results observed in 54 species including mammals, reptiles and birds. We obtained 212 peripheral blood samples from different species. In 14 species, only one individual was studied. Slides were stained with acridine orange. The total number of MNE (normo and polychromatic) in 10,000 erythrocytes per animal are shown. The species that display the higher MNE were: ocelote, lynx, owl, gray squirrel, hedgehog, lion, orange fronted parakeet and common barn owl. For this reason, these species could be tested as monitors for genotoxic events. Another interesting observation was that in the gray squirrel, we found the highest values of MNE in the smaller (younger) animals when compared with the larger (older) of the same species. PMID:10771274

Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Luna-Aguirre, J; González-Rodríguez, A; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ventura-Aguilar, A J; Ramos-Ibarra, M L; Ramos-Mora, A; Ortíz, G G; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

2000-04-13

50

The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humans.  

PubMed

Lead-induced oxidative stress has been identified as the essential factor in lead poisoning pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the association between occupational lead exposure and blood rheological parameters with respect to malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product), lipofuscin, and glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. In brief, 129 workers were classified as the low-exposure group, while the high-exposure group was composed of 154 workers. The mean blood levels of lead and zinc-protoporphyrin and the mean urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid were used as exposure markers. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male administrative workers. Whole blood viscosity was elevated in both exposure subgroups compared with the control group. Erythrocyte aggregability increased significantly; although the increase was greater in the low exposure group. Erythrocyte deformability decreased in both subgroups. The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin were significantly elevated, whereas the glutathione content decreased. In conclusion, occupational exposure to lead may induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes. This stress elevates whole blood viscosity and disturbs erythrocyte aggregability and deformability. There is a dose-effect relationship between lead levels and blood rheological parameters. PMID:23370159

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, S?awomir

2014-01-01

51

Abnormal blood-group-Ss-active sialoglycoproteins in the membrane of Miltenberger class III, IV and V human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

1. We have studied the inherited changes occurring in the sialoglycoproteins of membranes from erythrocytes of type Miltenberger Class III (Mi.III), Miltenberger Class IV (Mi.IV) and Miltenberger Class V (Mi.V) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and lactoperoxidase radioiodination. 2. Mi.III erythrocytes lack the normal blood-group-Ss-active sialoglycoprotein but contain an unusual s-active sialoglycoprotein of higher apparent molecular weight. A similar abnormal S-active sialoglycoprotein appears to occur in Mi.IV erythrocytes. 3. The Mi.V condition is associated with the hemizygous absence of both the normal blood-group-MN-active sialoglycoprotein and the normal Ss-active sialoglycorprotein. However, a new sialoglycoprotein component is present in these cells that has properties characteristic of both the MN-active and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins. 4. Our results suggest that the new sialoglycorportein present in Mi.V erythrocytes is a hybrid of the normal MN sialoglycoprotein and an s-active sialoglycoprotein that has properties similar to the s-active sialoglycoprotein found in Mi.III erythrocytes. We suggest that the unusual Mi.V sialoglycoprotein is derived from chromosomal misalignment with unequal crossing-over between the genes for the MN- and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins in a manner similar to that which gives rise to haemoglobin Lepore. 5. Further studies of S-s-erythrocytes confirm that these cells lack normal Ss-active sialoglycoprotein, but contain an unusual component that shows some of the properties of the normal Ss-active sialoglycoprotein. 6. Analysis of erythrocytes of type Mk/Mi.III confirms that, in addition to the known hemizygous lack of the MN-active sialoglycoprotein, the Mk condition is also associated with a loss of the Ss-active sialoglycoprotein. 7. In order to facilitate discussion of the complex changes that occur in these variant erythrocytes, a new unified nomenclature is used for the erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins. PMID:230820

Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J

1979-11-01

52

Impaired skeletal muscle blood flow control with advancing age in humans: attenuated ATP release and local vasodilation during erythrocyte deoxygenation  

PubMed Central

Rationale Skeletal muscle blood flow is coupled with the oxygenation state of hemoglobin in young adults, whereby the erythrocyte functions as an oxygen sensor and releases ATP during deoxygenation to evoke vasodilation. Whether this function is impaired in humans of advanced age is unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that older adults demonstrate impaired muscle blood flow and lower intravascular ATP during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation. Methods and Results We show impaired forearm blood flow (FBF) responses during two conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation (systemic hypoxia and graded handgrip exercise) with age, and this is due to reduced local vasodilation. In young adults, both hypoxia and exercise significantly increased venous [ATP] and ATP effluent (FBF × [ATP]) draining skeletal muscle. In contrast, hypoxia and exercise did not increase [ATP]v in older adults, and both [ATP]v and ATP effluent were substantially reduced compared with young despite similar levels of deoxygenation. Next, we demonstrate that this cannot be explained by augmented extracellular ATP hydrolysis in whole blood with age. Finally, we found that deoxygenation-mediated ATP release from isolated erythrocytes is essentially non-existent in older adults. Conclusions Skeletal muscle blood flow during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation is markedly reduced in aging humans, and reductions in plasma ATP and erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may be a novel mechanism underlying impaired vasodilation and oxygen delivery during hypoxemia with advancing age. Because aging is associated with elevated risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and exercise intolerance, interventions targeting erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may offer therapeutic potential. PMID:22647875

Kirby, Brett S.; Crecelius, Anne R.; Voyles, Wyatt F.; Dinenno, Frank A.

2012-01-01

53

Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/?L3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ? C) ? (B ? D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

2013-01-01

54

[Purification of superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte by nano magnetic chitosan microspheres].  

PubMed

Nano magnetic microspheres prepared by chitosan and poly acylic acid were applied to purifying superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte. Chitosan-polyacyilc acid graft copolymer was synthesized by free radical graft copolymerization with potassium persulfate as inititator. To prepare Fe3O4 magnetic fluids with chemical coprecipitation, chitosan-polyacylic nano magnetic microspheres were prepared with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Structure of nano magnetic microspheres was detected by FT-IR spectrometer. Particle size and morphology were characterized by JEM-4000EX technology. Chitosan-polyacylic nanometer microspheres have good paticle cize distribution, magnetic responsiveness and protein adsoption. Activity, product yield and activity recovery of SOD after purification reached 6 727 U/mg, 21.1%, and 85.7% respectively. Purification of blood superoxide dismutase by chistosan-polyacylic acid microspheres has its renewable and feasible nature. PMID:25212016

Wang, Baoquan; Ping, Juan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yongzhou; Liu, Cui; Pang, Xiaobin

2014-06-01

55

Effects of acute exercise on bleeding time, bleeding amount and blood cell counts: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Twenty-five men and 26 women were studied to investigate the effects of acute strenuous exercise on hemostasis after obtaining their informed consent. After familiarization, they performed exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 75% of their predetermined maximal workload until exhaustion. Bleeding time, measured by the Simplate method, and venous blood cell counts of platelets (Plt), erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC) were determined at rest and immediately after exercise. We found that bleeding time of Chinese in our study was longer than those of the westerners in other studies and that bleeding time was significantly shortened after exercise from 8.3 +/- .7 to 6.5 +/- .5 min in men and from 11.4 +/- .9 to 8.6 +/- .8 min in women (p less than 0.001). In men, but not in women, acute exercise also augmented the initial bleeding rate and bleeding amount from standard incisions. We also observed that RBC, WBC and Plt counts were greatly increased. The increased percentages for RBC, WBC and Plt in men were 7 +/- 1%, 59 +/- 7%, 16 +/- 3%, and those in women were 5 +/- 1%, 42 +/- 6% and 17 +/- 2% respectively. PMID:2814940

Chen, H I; Tang, Y R; Wu, H J; Jen, C J

1989-08-15

56

Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. PMID:24995861

Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

2014-12-01

57

Survival of 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes in cross-transfused equine blood.  

PubMed

Whole blood containing 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes (RBC) and unlabeled serum was transfused from a donor horse on 2 occasions into each of 6 recipient horses. Survival of transfused cells was monitored in the recipients as a function of time after transfusion by measuring RBC radioactivity in the recipients. After the 1st transfusion, RBC concentration of 59Fe remained at 60% to 100% of the transfused dose for 4 days, after which radioactivity values dropped to less than 10% of the dose by 6 days in 3 horses. In the 3 other horses, RBC radioactivity dropped immediately after transfusion, reaching minimal values in approximately 48 hours. After the 2nd transfusion, 1 horse retained 80% of the dose in circulating RBC for 4 days; 2 horses demonstrated a rapid loss of circulating radiolabeled RBC, reaching minimal values in 48 hours; and 2 horses demonstrated minimal radioactivity in the RBC mass even immediately after the transfusion. One horse died of anaphylactic shock during the 2nd transfusion. Erythrocyte compatibility tests, using the direct agglutination test, the antiglobulin test, and the hemolytic test, were not effective in predicting survival of transfused RBC. PMID:646196

Kallfelz, F A; Whitlock, R H; Schultz, R D

1978-04-01

58

Erythrocyte-Bound Apolipoprotein B in Relation to Atherosclerosis, Serum Lipids and ABO Blood Group  

PubMed Central

Introduction Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB) are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. Methods Subjects with and without CVD were included (N?=?398). Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ?0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was determined as a measure of (subclinical) atherosclerosis. Results Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80±0.09 mm, N?=?140) compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57±0.08 mm, N?=?258) (P?=?0.007, adjusted P<0.001). CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman’s r: –0.116, P?=?0.021). A total of 55 subjects (13.6%) were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04–3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85–2.82). Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56±0.94 a.u.) when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89±1.15 a.u), blood group B (0.73±0.1.12 a.u.) or blood group AB (0.69±0.69 a.u.) (P-ANOVA?=?0.002). Conclusion Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant. PMID:24069429

Klop, Boudewijn; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Bovenberg, Sarah A.; van der Meulen, Noëlle; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Birnie, Erwin; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; van Miltenburg, Addy; Jukema, J. Wouter; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

2013-01-01

59

[The fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes in test of glucose tolerance].  

PubMed

The sample of 26 patients with ischemic heart disease and syndrome of insulin resistance was subjected to standard test of glucose tolerance. The content of individual fatty acids was detected using technique of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In blood plasma, after 2 hours of post-prandial hyperglycemia, reliably decreased content of C 16:1 of palmitoleic mono fatty acid, C 18:1 oleic mono fatty acid and in a lesser degree C 18:2 linoleic unsaturated fatty acid (p < 0.05). The level C 14:0 of myristic unsaturated fatty acid, C 16:0 of palmitic unsaturated fatty acid and with 18:0 of stearic unsaturated fatty acid, ratio C 16:0/C 16:1 and C 18:0/C 18:1 had no changes: content of both (omega-6 C 20:3 digomo-gamma-linoleic unsaturated fatty acid and essential polyenoic fatty acids remained the same. The significant differences between initial content in blood plasma of palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic monoenic fatty acid was noted. The alteration in content of fatty acids in membranes of erythrocytes is the most expressed. In erythrocytes reliable (p < or = 0.05) decrease of content of C 16:0 palmitic fatty acid, C 18:0 stearic fatty acid and C 18:1 oleic fatty acid is established. The reliable decrease is noted in content of linoleic unsaturated fatty acid. In erythrocytes, moderate decrease is detected in levels of C 20:4 arachidonic polyenoic fatty acid, C 20:5 eicosapentaenoic polyenoic fatty acid. It is assumed that under post-prandial hyperglycemia insulin regulates metabolism of fatty acids, blocks lipolysis, decreases in cytosol of cells content of oleic and palmitic fatty acids inform of acetyl-KoA and forces mitochondrions intensively oxidate acetyl-KoA formed from pyruvate, from GLU. On surface of membrane, insulin increases number of glucose carriers GLUT4. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin is mediated by regulation first of all of metabolism of fatty acids. Hyperglycemia and insulin are two phylogenetically different humoral regulators. Insulin initiates blockade of lipolysis in adipocytes and positioning on membrane GLUT4. Hyperglycemia passively (activated) increases absorption by cells GLU on gradient of concentration inter-cellular medium--cytosol and synthesis of glycogen. PMID:25080793

Ameliushkina, V A; Aripovski?, A V; Titov, V N; Kaba, S I; Kotkina, T I; Parkhimovich, R M

2014-04-01

60

Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones. PMID:24575274

Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z

2013-01-01

61

Effects of nickel chloride on the erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broilers.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the immune adherence function of erythrocytes and erythrocyte induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) in broilers fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Blood samples were collected from five broilers in each group at 14, 28, and 42 days of age. Changes of erythrocyte parameters showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) contents, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly lower (p?erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was higher (p?erythrocyte immune adherence function indicated that erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) was significantly decreased (p?erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) was markedly increased (p?erythrocytic integrity, erythrocytic ability to transport oxygen, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broilers. Impairment of the erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function was one of main effect mechanisms of NiCl2 on the blood function. PMID:25108640

Li, Jian; Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Tang, Kun; Yin, Shuang

2014-11-01

62

Abnormal blood-group-Ss-active sialoglycoproteins in the membrane of Miltenberger class III, IV and V human erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

1. We have studied the inherited changes occurring in the sialoglycoproteins of membranes from erythrocytes of type Miltenberger Class III (Mi.III), Miltenberger Class IV (Mi.IV) and Miltenberger Class V (Mi.V) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and lactoperoxidase radioiodination. 2. Mi.III erythrocytes lack the normal blood-group-Ss-active sialoglycoprotein but contain an unusual s-active sialoglycoprotein of higher apparent molecular weight. A similar abnormal S-active sialoglycoprotein appears to occur in Mi.IV erythrocytes. 3. The Mi.V condition is associated with the hemizygous absence of both the normal blood-group-MN-active sialoglycoprotein and the normal Ss-active sialoglycorprotein. However, a new sialoglycoprotein component is present in these cells that has properties characteristic of both the MN-active and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins. 4. Our results suggest that the new sialoglycorportein present in Mi.V erythrocytes is a hybrid of the normal MN sialoglycoprotein and an s-active sialoglycoprotein that has properties similar to the s-active sialoglycoprotein found in Mi.III erythrocytes. We suggest that the unusual Mi.V sialoglycoprotein is derived from chromosomal misalignment with unequal crossing-over between the genes for the MN- and Ss-active sialoglycoproteins in a manner similar to that which gives rise to haemoglobin Lepore. 5. Further studies of S-s-erythrocytes confirm that these cells lack normal Ss-active sialoglycoprotein, but contain an unusual component that shows some of the properties of the normal Ss-active sialoglycoprotein. 6. Analysis of erythrocytes of type Mk/Mi.III confirms that, in addition to the known hemizygous lack of the MN-active sialoglycoprotein, the Mk condition is also associated with a loss of the Ss-active sialoglycoprotein. 7. In order to facilitate discussion of the complex changes that occur in these variant erythrocytes, a new unified nomenclature is used for the erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:230820

Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J

1979-01-01

63

Lipid composition of blood platelets and erythrocytes of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) and antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella).  

PubMed

Erythrocyte and blood platelet phospholipid compositions were studied in three elephant seals and two fur seals, two species of marine mammals living in the Subantarctic region feeding on preys rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results were compared with those reported for related species and humans. In erythrocytes, the phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CHOL) contents were lower in pinnipeds than in humans. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels were higher in elephant seals than in fur seals, with a reverse trend for phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS). Both species had lower SM/PC ratios and PE plasmalogen concentrations than human. Erythrocytes were richer in (n-3) fatty acids (FA) in pinnipeds than in humans. In platelets, the PL content was lower and the CHOL content higher in elephant seals than in humans or in other phocid seal species studied to date. The SM/PC ratio was much higher than in other seal species or in man. In both species, the proportion of PE plasmalogens was higher in platelets than in erythrocytes. PL were more saturated in elephant seals than in fur seals. These results suggest that the erythrocytes and platelets of wild marine mammals may prove useful models to study the influence of dietary lipids on the structure and hemostatic function of these cells. PMID:10825663

Fayolle, C; Leray, C; Ohlmann, P; Gutbier, G; Cazenave, J P; Gachet, C; Groscolas, R

2000-05-01

64

Development and Evaluation of a Novel In-Clinic Automated Hematology Analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for Canine Erythrocyte Indices, Leukogram, Platelet Counts and Reticulocyte Counts  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

FUJINO, Yasuhito; NAKAMURA, Yoichi; MATSUMOTO, Hideaki; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

2013-01-01

65

Development and evaluation of a novel in-clinic automated hematology analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for canine erythrocyte indices, leukogram, platelet counts and reticulocyte counts.  

PubMed

A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

2013-11-01

66

A METHOD FOR THE RAPID SEPARATION OF LEUKOCYTES AND NUCLEATED ERYTHROCYTES FROM BLOOD OR MARROW WITH A PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININ FROM RED BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A TECHNICALLY simple and rapid method for separating living leukocytes and nucleated erythrocytes from whole blood or marrow with a high degree of efficiency, large net yield and negligible admixture with mature erythrocytes or other contaminants is needed for chemical, metabolic or cultural studies of these cells. The method presented in this paper describes a technic for accelerating the sedimentation

JONAH G. Li; EDWIN E. OSGOOD

67

Variability in CD34+ Cell Counts in Umbilical Cord Blood:Implications for Cord Blood Transplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if total nucleated cell counts alone are sufficient for predicting the efficacy of cord blood units for transplant from neonatal umbilical cord blood samples. Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 200 mothers at delivery and the cord blood units processed. The total nucleated cells and CD34+ cells were enumerated and compared for each sample. Results:

C. Yap; M. T. Loh; K. K. Heng; P. Tan; S. L. Yu; S. H. Chan; E. C. Ren

2000-01-01

68

Erythrocytic pyruvate kinase deficiency and AB blood types in Australian Abyssinian and Somali cats  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the frequency of the mutant pyruvate kinase (PK) allele, haematological parameters and AB blood types of Abyssinian and Somali cats in Australia. Design Complete blood cell and reticulocyte counts, DNA PK mutation testing and blood typing were performed in all cats. Results A total of 60 cats (36 Abyssinians, 24 Somalis) were included (37 females, 23 males). For the mutant PK allele, three female Somalis were homozygous (affected, 5%), 17 cats were heterozygous (carrier, 28%) and 40 cats tested negative (normal, 67%). Pedigree analysis revealed common ancestry of affected and many carrier cats. Of affected cats, two had regenerative anaemias and all had reticulocytosis (range 64-390 × 109/L; P < 0.001 compared with normal or carrier cats). The only consistent historical sign was lethargy. One affected cat was euthanased 18 months after testing, because of anaemia, neutropenia, anorexia and weight loss. The mutant allele frequency was 0.19 overall (0.29 in Somalis, 0.13 in Abyssinians). All cats had blood type A. The commercial blood typing card method incorrectly identified 12 cats as having type AB blood. Conclusions The frequency of the mutant PK allele is high in Australia. Screening for PK deficiency is indicated before mating and in individual cats of these breeds, even in the absence of anaemia and especially when there is reticulocytosis. Although all cats in the present study had blood type A, blood type B is common in these breeds worldwide. Retyping of any AB typed cats by a laboratory technique is recommended. PMID:19178476

Barrs, VR; Giger, U; Wilson, B; Chan, CTT; Lingard, AE; Tran, L; Seng, A; Canfield, PJ; Beattya, JA

2009-01-01

69

Individual whole-body concentration of (137)Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.  

PubMed

The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ?80?km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 25 September 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.60. PMID:24064533

Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

2013-09-25

70

Preliminary Discussion On The Three Dimensional Space Quantitative Analysis Of Erythrocytes By SEMP And Some Applications On The Clinic And Research Of Blood Disease.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abnormity of the quality and quantity for erythrocytes is one of the important changes of blood disease. It shows the abnormal blood-making function of human body. Therefore, the study of the change of shape of erythrocytes is the indispensible and important basis of reference in the clinic, diagnose and research of blood disease. In this paper, a preliminary discussion is made on the acquisition of scanning stereographs for erythrocytes, the application of the theory of photographic measurement on the three dimensional space quantitative analysis of erythrocytes, drawings of isoline map and section map of various erythrocytes for normal persons, paroxysmal nocturanal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and aplastic anemia patients, study of the shape characteristics of normal erythrocytes and various abnormal erytnrocytes and the applications in clinic, diagnose and research. This research is a combination of microphotogrammetry and erythrocyte morphology. It is polssible to push fotward the study of erythrocyte morphology from LM, SEM to a higher stage of scanning electron micrographic photogrammetry(SEMP) for stereograpic observationand three diamensional quantitative analysis to explore a new path for the further study of the shape of erthrocytes.

Lian-Huang, Lu; Wen-Meng, Tong; Zhi-Jun, Zhang; Gui-Huan, He; Su-Hui, Huan

1989-04-01

71

Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device  

E-print Network

As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

Zimmerman, Julia C

2011-01-01

72

Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holographic methods of phase micro-objects visualization (the holographic phase contrast method and the method of holographic interferometry) are considered. Comparative analysis of classical and holographic methods in microscopy of phase micro-objects is carried out. An arrangement of the holographic interference microscope realizing the holographic methods and experimental results of 3-D imaging of native blood erythrocytes are presented. It is

Tatyana V. Tishko; V. P. Titar; T. M. Barchotkina; D. N. Tishko

2004-01-01

73

[Studies of the blood antioxidant system and oxygen-transporting properties of human erythrocytes during 105-day isolation].  

PubMed

Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes. PMID:21675192

Brazhe, N A; Ba?zhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V

2011-01-01

74

Flow Cytometry Analysis Using Sysmex UF-1000i Classifies Uropathogens Based on Bacterial, Leukocyte, and Erythrocyte Counts in Urine Specimens among Patients with Urinary Tract Infections.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/?l), leukocyte (median, 348/?l), and erythrocyte (median, 23/?l) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

Monsen, Tor; Rydén, Patrik

2015-02-01

75

Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about "Quatrefoil" Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears.  

PubMed

The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called "quatrefoil RBCs," qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

2014-01-01

76

Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears  

PubMed Central

The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

2014-01-01

77

Evidence for sialylated type 1 blood group chains on human erythrocyte membranes revealed by agglutination of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes with Waldenström's macroglobulin IgMWOO and hybridoma antibody FC 10.2.  

PubMed

Haemagglutination studies have been performed with untreated and neuraminidase-treated human erythrocytes of the three Lewis antigen types Le(a-b-), Le(a+b-) and Le(a-b+) using two monoclonal antibodies, IgMWOO and FC 10.2, which were previously shown to recognize the type 1 based blood group chains: Gal beta 1----3GlcNAc beta 1----3Gal beta 1----4Glc/GlcNAc (for explanation of abbreviations see table IV legend). Both antibodies behaved as cold agglutinins with neuraminidase-treated but not with untreated erythrocytes of the three Lewis antigen types. Neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes of i antigen type were similarly agglutinated. This haemagglutination was specifically inhibited by the type 1 based milk oligosaccharide lacto-N-tetraose. Thus, there is strong evidence for the occurrence of sialylated type 1 chains on human erythrocyte membranes of I and i antigen types. In addition, evidence for the presence of type 1 chains which are both sialylated and fucosylated was obtained by (1) haemagglutination of Le(a+b-) erythrocytes with the monoclonal antibody 19.9; (2) increased haemagglutination of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes with anti-H antibodies of Bombay serum; (3) increased haemagglutination of neuraminidase-treated Le(a+b-) cells with anti-Lea antibodies, and (4) the appearance of Lea antigen activity on neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes of Le(a-b+) type. PMID:3918393

Picard, J K; Loveday, D; Feizi, T

1985-01-01

78

Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite  

E-print Network

Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic blood cells (RBCs). In this paper, we present optical tweezers studies of progressive changes of the red blood cell due to P. falciparum invasion than that considered from previous studies. INTRODUCTION

Dao, Ming

79

Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes

2010-01-01

80

70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

Ercan, ?erif; Çal??kan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

2014-01-01

81

Erythrocyte eNOS does not modulate red blood cell storage hemolysis  

PubMed Central

Background The red blood cell (RBC) endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been shown to regulate intrinsic erythrocyte rheological properties, such as membrane deformability, suggesting that a functional eNOS could be important in RBC viability and function during storage. This study examines the correlation between RBC eNOS deficiency and the propensity of RBCs to hemolyze under selected stress conditions including prolonged hypothermic storage. Experimental design Fresh or stored RBCs from normal and eNOS knock out (KO) mice or from healthy human volunteers were subjected to selected hemolytic stress conditions including mechanical stress hemolysis, osmotic stress hemolysis, oxidation stress hemolysis, and evaluated during standard storage in CPDA-1 solutions. Results Fresh RBCs from normal and eNOS KO mice demonstrated comparable susceptibility to hemolysis triggered by mechanical stress (mechanical fragility index = 6.5±0.5 in eNOS KO versus 6.4±0.4 for controls; n=8–9), osmotic stress, and oxidative stress. Additionally, RBCs from both mouse groups exhibited similar hemolytic profile at the end of 14-day hypothermic storage, analogous to 42 days of human RBC storage. Storage of human RBCs (28 days in CPDA-1) in the presence of NOS cofactors (L-arginine and tetrahydro-L-biopterin) or inhibitor (L-NMMA) did not affect cell recovery or hemolytic response to the selected stressors. Conclusion These studies suggest that RBC eNOS does not modulate susceptibility to hemolysis in response to selected stress conditions or prolonged hypothermic storage. Other strategies to increase NO bioactivity following prolonged storage utilizing NOS-independent pathways such as the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway may prove a more promising approach. PMID:22897637

Kanias, Tamir; Wang, Ling; Lippert, Ashley; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Gladwin, Mark T.

2015-01-01

82

The effect of osmotic swelling and hemolysis of erythrocytes on the transmission spectra of radiation by a layer of diluted blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the degree of violation of osmotic equilibrium affects the spectral characteristics of radiation scattered by erythrocyte suspensions in media of various osmolarity. The transmission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 450-860 nm for blood samples diluted with NaCl water solutions of various concentration. From an analysis of numerical simulation results and experimental data, we show that measuring the light scattering characteristics constitutes the basis of a new optical method for determining erythrocyte osmotic resistance. The method excludes the necessity of strong action on erythrocytes, differs in its simplicity and expressivity, and can be implemented using standard spectrometers.

Naumenko, E. K.; Davydovskii, A. G.

2010-08-01

83

Association between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and erythrocyte n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Korean subjects with hypertension.  

PubMed

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have antihypertensive properties, but the association between 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and the tissue content of n-3 PUFA remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the level of erythrocyte n-3 PUFA is inversely related with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure after adjustment for relevant confounders. Fifty-one male and 49 female Korean patients were included in this study. Twenty-seven of the patients were defined as having hypertension. There were significant differences in age, body mass index, sex, marital status, and family history of hyperlipidemia between hypertensive and nonhypertensive subjects, and these factors were therefore considered to be confounding factors. Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis showed that erythrocyte fatty acids were not significantly associated with the risk of hypertension after adjusting for confounders. However, Pearson correlation analysis showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly and negatively correlated with n-3 PUFA (r = -0.228, P = .027) and eicosapentaenoic acid (r = -0.270, P = .008), but not with docosahexaenoic acid (r = -0.156, P = .131). Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis also showed that intake of protein, vitamin B(2), vitamin E, and cholesterol increased the risk of hypertension after adjusting for confounders. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that fat and cholesterol consumption was positively correlated with SBP, but carbohydrate intake was negatively correlated with SBP. In conclusion, erythrocyte n-3 PUFA did not reduce the risk of hypertension but were negatively correlated with 24-hour ambulatory SBP in the Korean population. PMID:21147363

Park, Yongsoon; Oh, Se-Hee; Rhee, Moo-Yong

2010-12-01

84

Variation of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of Sciurus aureogaster in relation to age: an increment of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes after the administration of colchicine.  

PubMed

In some species, in which the human is included, the influence of age in the variation in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) is known. In the present work we show how the process of aging influences the number of spontaneous MNE in the gray squirrel (Sciurus aureogaster). Because of the difficulty of knowing the age of each animal, 69 animals were weighed at their arrival to the laboratory and at the start of sample taking, with the supposition that the heaviest animals were the oldest and those with the lightest weight were the youngest. The major number of MNE was found in the younger animals, whereas the adults displayed less MNE (P < 0.0001). A group of 11 animals were sampled every 15 days over a period of 6 months, and the number of MNE were found to decrease with an increment in the weight in conformity with the time elapsed. These results showed that in the gray squirrel, the number of spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood depend on age. An additional interesting datum about the increment of MNE after the administration of colchicine is shown. PMID:11246224

Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Ramos-Ibarra, M L; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ventura-Aguilar, A J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ortíz, G G; Alvarez-Moya, C; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

2001-01-01

85

Whole blood, plasma viscosity, and erythrocyte aggregation as a determining factor of competitiveness in standard bred trotters.  

PubMed

In situations where capillary perfusion in skeletal muscles is limited, changes in blood flow play an important role. Especially alterations in intrinsic erythrocyte factors like red cell aggregation and deformability would increase blood flow resistance. In our study we investigated whether whole blood and plasma viscosity influence exercise tolerance during submaximal training and whether a difference can be realized between trained and untrained standardbred trotters. Venous blood from 42 healthy adult trotters (20 horses at the beginning of their training and 22 well trained horses) was investigated before, immediately afterwards and 30 minutes after submaximal exercise. In both groups whole blood viscosity (WBV; LS30, Contraves, Switzerland) increased significantly (p<0.001) at all shear rates (94 s-1, 2.4 s-1, 0.7 s-1) and decreased after 30 minutes to baseline, as did plasma viscosity (PV; OCR-D, Paar, Austria; p<0.001). No changes in WBV could be seen in hematocrit (40%) standardized samples. Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) indices increased (Myrenne, Germany; p<0.001). Creatin-kinase (p<0.001), lactate (p<0.001), hemoglobine (p<0.001), heart rate and oxygen saturation (p<0.05) increased, while PH (p<0.05), and BE (p<0.001) decreased during the race. In our study, submaximal exercise was related to remarkable changes in hemorheologic variables in the single animal. It was also shown that exercise resulted in a more extensive change of fluidity in well trained horses in comparison to untrained animals, at least for low shear WBV and EA (p<0.05). PMID:15665424

Stoiber, B; Zach, C; Izay, B; Windberger, U

2005-01-01

86

Higher erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs are associated with decreased blood pressure in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggested that blood fatty acids (FAs) might affect blood pressure (BP), but the findings have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of erythrocyte FAs with BP in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Between 2008 and 2010, 1834 participants (1364 women and 470 men) aged 57 ± 5 y had baseline measurements taken of their erythrocyte FAs and BP. A total of 1477 participants (1103 women and 374 men) had their BP measured again after 3.09 ± 0.32 y (range: 2.91-3.26 y). In the cross-sectional analyses (n = 1834), the erythrocyte saturated FA (SFA) content was positively associated with BP, whereas total cis polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), their subtypes cis n-3 (?-3) PUFAs and cis n-6 (?-6) PUFAs, and the PUFA-to-SFA ratio were inversely associated with BP (all P-trends < 0.05). The longitudinal results (n = 1477) showed marginally inverse associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and BP. For individual cis n-3 PUFAs, higher contents of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were significantly associated with reduced increases in SBP over time (the mean change range between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.917 to -0.749 mm Hg for SBP; all P-trends < 0.01), and 20:5n-3 was inversely associated with DBP change (the mean change between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.631; P-trend < 0.001). Path analyses suggested that the associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and BP might be mediated by decreasing serum triglycerides (TGs) and body mass index (BMI). Our findings revealed that a higher content of cis n-3 PUFAs (mainly very long-chain cis n-3 PUFAs) may benefit BP progress, probably mediated by decreasing serum TGs and BMI. PMID:24966412

Zeng, Fang-fang; Sun, Li-li; Liu, Yan-hua; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

2014-08-01

87

Repeatability of estimates of left-venticular volume from blood-pool counts: concise communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide ventriculography permits nongeometric calculation of ventricular volume. Accurate and reproducible determination of left-ventricular (LV) blood-pool counts is necessary to perform this calculation. Furthermore, to make serial volume determinations one must know the half-time of in vivo blood-pool activity. We compared five methods of LV count determination in nine patients. Interpatient and intrapatient variability of the in vivo half-time of

R. J. Burns; M. N. Druck; D. S. Woodward; S. Houle; P. R. McLaughlin

1983-01-01

88

Depressive symptoms in the elderly: Association with total white blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The white blood cell (WBC) count in those with high depressive symptoms and non-depressed participants in the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were compared.2.2. Of 3769 participants 10.8% had high depressive symptoms as assessed by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. The mean white blood cell count was higher in the high depressive

S. Lori Brown; Marcel E. Salive; Jack M. Guralnik; Robert B. Wallace; Adrian M. Ostfeld; Dan Blazer

1995-01-01

89

A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens.  

PubMed

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant to cell lysis, a prerequisite for automated leukocyte quantification and differentiation by commercial instruments. By using an anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody in combination with selected subset specific markers we have established a simple (no-lyse no-wash single-step one-tube) flow cytometry based technique for high precision chicken blood cell quantification. EDTA-blood samples are diluted, spiked with fluorescence beads and incubated with a mixture of fluorochrome conjugated chicken leukocyte specific antibodies. We demonstrate that total leukocyte numbers as well as thrombocyte, monocyte, T-cell, B-cell and heterophilic granulocyte numbers can be determined by flow cytometry in a single step without prior cell lysis, cell separation or cell washing steps. Importantly, we also show that blood samples can be fixed prior to cell staining which enables shipping of samples making the technology widely available. Comparison of this technique with conventional microscopy revealed superior precision. By comparing leukocyte differentials of two chicken populations and during immune system development after hatch we demonstrate that large sample numbers can be analysed within hours. This technique will help to overcome previous restrictions in immune status analysis in chickens in experimental systems, during vaccine testing and health status monitoring in chicken flocks. Advances in avian genomics should facilitate the development of appropriate tools for other avian species in the future which will make this technique broadly applicable. PMID:22088676

Seliger, Christian; Schaerer, Beatrice; Kohn, Marina; Pendl, Helene; Weigend, Steffen; Kaspers, Bernd; Härtle, Sonja

2012-01-15

90

Association of Psychological Stress Response of Fatigue with White Blood Cell Count in Male Daytime Workers  

PubMed Central

Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts. PMID:24975105

NISHITANI, Naoko; SAKAKIBARA, Hisataka

2014-01-01

91

Erythrocyte adducin: A structural regulator of the red blood cell membrane  

PubMed Central

Adducin is an ?, ? heterotetramer that performs multiple important functions in the human erythrocyte membrane. First, adducin forms a bridge that connects the spectrin–actin junctional complex to band 3, the major membrane-spanning protein in the bilayer. Rupture of this bridge leads to membrane instability and spontaneous fragmentation. Second, adducin caps the fast growing (barbed) end of actin filaments, preventing the tetradecameric protofilaments from elongating into macroscopic F-actin microfilaments. Third, adducin stabilizes the association between actin and spectrin, assuring that the junctional complex remains intact during the mechanical distortions experienced by the circulating cell. And finally, adducin responds to stimuli that may be important in regulating the global properties of the cell, possibly including cation transport, cell morphology and membrane deformability. The text below summarizes the structural properties of adducin, its multiple functions in erythrocytes, and the consequences of engineered deletions of each of adducin subunits in transgenic mice. PMID:20655268

Franco, T.; Low, P.S.

2012-01-01

92

Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a nonflowing laser light scattering method for automatically counting and classifying blood cells. A linear charge- coupled device (CCD) and a silicon photoelectric cell (which is placed behind a pinhole plate on the CCD) form a double-detector structure: the CCD is used to detect the scattered light intensity distri- bution of the blood cells and the silicon photoelectric

Ye Yang; Zhenxi Zhang; Xinhui Yang; Joon Hock Yeo; Lijun Jiang; Dazong Jiang

2004-01-01

93

Association of the blood eosinophil count with hematological malignancies and mortality.  

PubMed

Blood eosinophilia (?0.5 × 10(9) /l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007 and matched these laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 10(9) /l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 10(9) /l, risks of hematological malignancies were increased more than twofold with OR (95% C.I.) of 2.39 (1.91-2.99). Interestingly, risks reached a plateau around an eosinophil count of 1.0 × 10(9) /l. Risks also increased when the eosinophil count approached zero. Here, counts associated relatively more with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes whereas counts above 0.16 × 10(9) /l associated more with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Eosinophil counts associate with hematological malignancies and mortality even below the definition of eosinophilia. The observed plateau of risks around 1.0 × 10(9) /l is important for physicians encountering patients with eosinophilia since even mild-to-moderate eosinophilia according to traditional definitions confers maximally increased risks of subsequent/subclinical hematological malignancy. Am. J. Hematol. 90:225-229, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25488524

Andersen, Christen L; Siersma, Volkert D; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Vestergaard, Hanne; Mesa, Ruben; Felding, Peter; Olivarius, Niels D F; Bjerrum, Ole W

2015-03-01

94

Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting.  

PubMed Central

Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching for fetal nucleated erythrocytes which do not express either of these antigens. However, significant maternal contamination was present even after MACS enrichment preventing the accurate analysis of fetal cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). To overcome this problem, we used simultaneous immunophenotyping of cells with the mouse antifetal haemoglobin antibody, UCH gamma, combined with FISH analysis using chromosome X and Y specific DNA probes. This approach enables selective FISH analysis of fetal cells within an excess of maternal cells. Furthermore, we have confirmed the potential of the method for clinical practice by a pilot prospective study of fetal sex in women referred for amniocentesis between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation. Images PMID:8133505

Zheng, Y L; Carter, N P; Price, C M; Colman, S M; Milton, P J; Hackett, G A; Greaves, M F; Ferguson-Smith, M A

1993-01-01

95

Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity. PMID:24758172

2014-01-01

96

New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m  

DOEpatents

Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

1984-01-27

97

Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Sample Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Procedures Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Results Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use. PMID:22280380

Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Winzelberg, Sarah; Giger, Urs

2012-01-01

98

The Effects of Decreasing Maternal Anxiety on Fetal Oxygenation and Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in the Cord Blood  

PubMed Central

Objective: Vasoconstriction during anxiety reduces fetal oxygenation and leads to hypoxia. Hypoxia in turn results in increase of the number of nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in the cord blood. The present study aimed to assess the effect of decreasing maternal anxiety on fetal oxygenation and NRBCs count in the cord blood. Methods:. In this study, 150 women were randomly divided into two intervention groups [supportive care and acupressure in BL32 (bladder) acupoint] and a control group (hospital routine care). The infants' cord blood was investigated regarding the number of NRBCs and the intensity of hypoxia after birth. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 16) and analyzed using ANOVA, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Findings : The significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the number of NRBCs counted in the peripheral blood smear (P<0.001). Besides, a significant relationship was observed between the length of the first and second stages of labor and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood (P=0.01). Also, a significant association was observed between the type of delivery and the number of NRBCs in the cord blood in both intervention (P<0.001) and control groups (P=0.03). Conclusion: Doula supportive care and acupressure at BL32 point reduced the length of labor stages as well as the anxiety level. Also, nucleated red blood cells were less in the 2 groups of intervention than in control group. Regarding the fact that nucleated red blood cells cannot be the only factor for hypoxia predicting, for affirmation of this theory study with higher sample size and survey of mothers at high risk are needed.

Masoudi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marziyeh; Vaziri, Farideh; Zare, Najaf; Ramzi, Mani

2014-01-01

99

Association of white blood cell count with metabolic syndrome in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although some data suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), the factors related to this increased risk are not well elucidated. We therefore examined whether peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count is correlated with the risk of metabolic syndrome

Jung Tak Park; Tae Ik Chang; Dong Ki Kim; Hoon Young Choi; Jung Eun Lee; Hyun Wook Kim; Jae Hyun Chang; Sun Young Park; Eunyoung Kim; Tae-Hyun Yoo; Dae-Suk Han; Shin-Wook Kang

2009-01-01

100

Concise Review: Stem Cell-Derived Erythrocytes as Upcoming Players in Blood Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements. PMID:22644674

Zeuner, Ann; Martelli, Fabrizio; Vaglio, Stefania; Federici, Giulia; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

2013-01-01

101

[49 day storage of erythrocyte concentrates in blood bags with the PAGGS-mannitol solution].  

PubMed

The red cell preservation solution PAGGS-Mannitol differs from the well documented PAGGS-Sorbitol only by the exchange from Sorbitol in Mannitol. In a clinical investigation with volunteers, up to 21 of the pure PAGGS-Mannitol solution were infused within 4 h. Blood and urine parameters were determined. The solution was well tolerated, no unexpected change of blood and urine parameters was found. The 24 h red cell in vivo survival rate of PAGGS-Mannitol was found to be 74.5 +/- 4.4%, after 49 days storage, a value which was described for PAGGS-Sorbitol before. In vitro data on storage of red cell concentrates with and without buffy coat were determined for hemolysis, 2,3-DPG and ATP using a blood bag system with DEHP and TOTM plastisized PVC. If 1% hemolysis is regarded as acceptable, red cell concentrates can be stored in PAGGS-Mannitol with a TOTM plastisized blood bag system up to 42 days. Under these conditions the amount of plastisizer in the red cell concentrate was found to be only 1% of the amount determined in a standard DEHP plastisized PVC blood bag system. PMID:1703901

Walker, W H; Netz, M; Gänshirt, K H

1990-01-01

102

Effects of high dietary fluorine on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocyte count (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and EOF was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens. PMID:23955484

Deng, Yubing; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Luo, Qin

2013-11-01

103

A model of oscillatory blood cell counts in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  

PubMed

In certain blood diseases, oscillations are found in blood cell counts. Particularly, such oscillations are sometimes found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and then occur in all the derived blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It has been suggested that such oscillations arise because of an instability in the pluri-potential stem cell population, associated with its regulatory control system. In this paper, we consider how such oscillations can arise in a model of competition between normal (S) and genetically altered abnormal (A) stem cells, as the latter population grows at the expense of the former. We use an analytic model of long period oscillations to describe regions of oscillatory behaviour in the S-A phase plane, and give parametric criteria to describe when such oscillations will occur. We also describe a mechanism which can explain dynamically how the transformation from chronic phase to acute phase and blast crisis can occur. PMID:21512833

Drobnjak, Ivana; Fowler, A C

2011-12-01

104

MULTICOMPARTMENT KINETIC MODEL FOR LEAD. PART 3. LEAD IN BLOOD PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...

105

Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, Holger; Mueller, Gerhard J.

1999-05-01

106

Impulsivity-related traits are associated with higher white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity-impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation-are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N = 5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again 3 years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: for every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

Sutin, Angelina R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio

2012-12-01

107

The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ay?egül ?dil; Demircan, Sabri; Y?lmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

2014-01-01

108

Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels in association with smoking and personal hygienic behaviour among lead exposed workers  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers. Methods: Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 2000–03. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment of smoking and four measures of personal hygienic behaviour (glove and mask use, hand and face washing before meals during working hours). Results: Statistically significant decreases in mean BPb and FEP occurred during the three years. The proportion of BPb reduction in the non-smoking workers was significantly higher (mean 24.3%) than in the smoking workers (15.3%). When the workers were classified into three groups (excellent, good, and poor) based on the four personal hygienic behavioural indicators, the greatest decreases of BPb and FEP were observed in the non-smoking workers of the excellent group. Conclusions: The consistent use of protection devices and cleanliness at work appeared to contribute to the lowering of BPb and FEP. Cessation of smoking in the workplace was also of importance. PMID:15837850

Karita, K; Nakao, M; Ohwaki, K; Yamanouchi, Y; Nishikitani, M; Nomura, K; Sato, M; Yano, E

2005-01-01

109

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from grand multigravidae display a distinct cytokine profile in response to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5-7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2-4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5-7 compared to G2-4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

Ludlow, Louise E; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J; Forbes, Emily K; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J

2014-01-01

110

Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Derived from Grand Multigravidae Display a Distinct Cytokine Profile in Response to P. falciparum Infected Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5–7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2–4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5–7 compared to G2–4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

Ludlow, Louise E.; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J.; Forbes, Emily K.; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W.; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J.

2014-01-01

111

Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in small-for-gestational age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile) who

Peter S. Bernstein; Victoria K. Minior; Michael Y. Divon

1997-01-01

112

Estimation of platelet count in unstained peripheral blood smears in comparison with stained smears and evaluation of its efficacy.  

PubMed

Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load. PMID:25500519

Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P

2014-12-01

113

Measurement of nicotine intake in pregnant women--associations to changes in blood cell count.  

PubMed

Self-reported information about smoking is imprecise and subject to bias, with accuracy varying according to circumstances. Biochemical assessment gives much clearer indications of the effects of tobacco intake on physiological parameters. As part of a randomized controlled trial, a new point-of-care test for smoking was used as a tool to reduce smoking in pregnancy. Measurements of nicotine metabolites in urine were related to a physiological effect of smoking, notably changes to blood parameters, assessed as a routine part of antenatal care. One hundred and eighty-seven pregnant women attending outpatient antenatal care were initially questioned by a midwife about smoking habits and later questioned by the investigators, during which the test was performed and the results relayed back to the patient. Self-reported smoking habit and cigarette consumption, either reported to midwives or the investigators, were shown to be poor indicators of the effects of smoking on blood parameters. The biochemical assessment of nicotine intake was significantly related to white blood count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell haemoglobin. Red cell count, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, and platelet count were unrelated to nicotine metabolite measurements. We concluded that the new test was a reliable measure of nicotine intake in pregnancy and the results correlated with smoking-related changes to haematological parameters. PMID:11403725

Cope, G F; Nayyar, P; Holder, R

2001-05-01

114

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

2011-01-01

115

Individuals lacking the Gerbich blood-group antigen have alterations in the human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma.  

PubMed Central

Membranes from erythrocytes with a new Gerbich (Ge)-negative phenotype (Leach phenotype), as well as those from two other Ge-negative phenotypes, were examined. Whereas cells of the Leach phenotype apparently lack three minor sialoglycoproteins (beta, beta 1 and gamma), the membranes of Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes apparently lack beta- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins but contain additional diffusely migrating components of apparent Mr 30 500-34 500 and 32 500-36 500 respectively. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the abnormal components of both Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes reacted with two monoclonal antibodies, BRIC 4 and BRIC 10. These antibodies have been shown to react with sialoglycoproteins beta and beta 1 in normal erythrocytes. Cytoskeletal preparations from Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocyte membranes contained the abnormal components. In contrast with cells of the Leach phenotype, which are elliptocytic, Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ were of normal shape, despite their apparent lack of beta- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins. It seems likely that the abnormal components in these cells contribute to their normal shape. Ovalocytic erythrocytes were shown to incorporate more radioactivity in the sialoglycoprotein-beta 1 region than normal erythrocytes after labelling by the periodate/NaB3H4 technique. It is suggested that abnormal components in Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes result from chromosomal misalignment with unequal crossing-over at meiosis between the genes giving rise to beta-, beta 1- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6466322

Anstee, D J; Ridgwell, K; Tanner, M J; Daniels, G L; Parsons, S F

1984-01-01

116

An Automated High-Throughput Counting Method for Screening Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has proved valuable for early detection and prognosis in cancer treatment. This paper describes an automated high-throughput counting method for CTCs based on microfluidics and line-confocal microscopy. Peripheral blood was directly labeled with multiple antibodies, each conjugated with a different fluorophore, pneumatically pumped through a microfluidic channel and interrogated by a line-confocal microscope. Based on the fluorescence signals and labeling schemes, the count of CTCs was automatically reported. Due to the high flow rate, 1 mL of whole blood can be analyzed in less than 30 minutes. We applied this method in analyzing CTCs from 90 stage IV breast-cancer patient samples, and performed a side-by-side comparison with the results of the CellSearch assay, which is the only method approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at present for enumeration of CTCs. This method has a recovery rate for cultured breast cancer cells of 94% (n=9), with an average of 1.2 counts/mL of background level of detected CTCs from healthy donors. It detected CTCs from breast-cancer patients, ranging from 15 to 3375 counts/7.5 mL. Using this method, we also demonstrate the ability to enumerate CTCs from breast-cancer patients that were positive for Her2 or CD44+/CD24?, which is a putative cancer stem cell marker. This automated method can enumerate CTCs from peripheral blood with high throughput and sensitivity. It could potentially benefit the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. PMID:23387387

Zhao, Mengxia; Schiro, Perry G.; Kuo, Jason S.; Koehler, Karen M.; Sabath, Daniel E.; Popov, Viorica; Feng, Qinghua; Chiu, Daniel T.

2013-01-01

117

White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD. PMID:23077568

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir

2012-01-01

118

Simultaneous counting of 85Kr in lung and myocardium during measurement of coronary blood flow.  

PubMed

Coronary blood flow rate (ml-min-1-100 g-1) was estimated by a) measuring pump flow into the cannulated circumflex branch of the left coronary artery and dividing by the weight of perfused myocardium and b) measuring the clearance of 85Kr following intra-arterial injection (detection with a 2-in. crystal with cylindrical collimation). Although the correlation between the two measurements was relatively high (r equals 0.90), the line best fitting the data was 85Kr flow equals 0.55 pump flow + 25.6. We tested the possibility that the discrepancy between the two methods was primarily due to the counting of 85Kr removed from myocardium and delivered to lung. Relative efficiency of lung counting versus myocardial counting was determined as well as clearance pattern of 85Kr from lung in each dog. A simple mathematical model which assumes no recirculation of 85Kr to heart allowed correction of coronary clearance curves using this information. When corrected 85Kr flow equals 1.00 pump flow + 4.1 (r equals 0.90). Thus, the major systematic cause for the discrepancy between the two measurements under the conditions of this experiment appears to be simultaneous counting of 85Kr in lung and in myocardium. PMID:810474

Belloni, F L; Mohrman, D E; Sparks, H V

1975-11-01

119

An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

2014-09-01

120

A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

Hu, Shaowen

2014-01-01

121

Correlation of blood counts with vascular complications in essential thrombocythemia: analysis of the prospective PT1 cohort  

PubMed Central

Essential thrombocythemia, a myeloproliferative neoplasm, is associated with increased platelet count and risk of thrombosis or hemorrhage. Cytoreductive therapy aims to normalize platelet counts despite there being only a minimal association between platelet count and complication rates. Evidence is increasing for a correlation between WBC count and thrombosis, but prospective data are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between vascular complications and 21 887 longitudinal blood counts in a prospective, multicenter cohort of 776 essential thrombocythemia patients. After correction for confounding variables, no association was seen between blood counts at diagnosis and future complications. However, platelet count outside of the normal range during follow-up was associated with an immediate risk of major hemorrhage (P = .0005) but not thrombosis (P = .7). Elevated WBC count during follow-up was correlated with thrombosis (P = .05) and major hemorrhage (P = .01). These data imply that the aim of cytoreduction in essential thrombocythemia should be to keep the platelet count, and arguably the WBC count, within the normal range. This study is registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number Registry (www.isrctn.org) as number 72251782. PMID:22709688

Campbell, Peter J.; MacLean, Cathy; Beer, Philip A.; Buck, Georgina; Wheatley, Keith; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Forsyth, Cecily; Harrison, Claire N.

2012-01-01

122

Morphological studies of peripheral blood cells of the Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral blood cells of one-year-old Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) have been studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The erythrocyte count was 84.86 × 104 cell mm?3 in the peripheral blood of the fish and that of leukocytes was 2.24 × 104 cell mm?3. The erythrocytes and four main types of leucocyte—thrombocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes (including neutrophils and eosinophils),\\u000a and monocytes, were identified in the peripheral blood.

Gao Zexia; Wang Weimin; Yang Yi; Khalid Abbas; Li Dapeng; Zou Guiwei; James S. Diana

2007-01-01

123

Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

1989-01-01

124

Effect of transmission intensity and age on subclass antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens.  

PubMed

Cytophilic immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG3) to Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from malaria, yet the relative importance of transmission intensity and age in generation of subclass responses to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens have not been clearly defined. We analyzed IgG subclass responses to the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, LSA-1, and TRAP and the blood-stage antigens AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-1 in asymptomatic residents age 2 years or older in stable (n=116) and unstable (n=96) transmission areas in Western Kenya. In the area of stable malaria transmission, a high prevalence of cytophilic (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies to each antigen was seen in all age groups. Prevalence and levels of cytophilic antibodies to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens increased with age in the unstable transmission area, yet IgG1 and IgG3 responses to most antigens for all ages in the unstable transmission area were less prevalent and lower in magnitude than even the youngest age group from the stable transmission area. The dominance of cytophilic responses over non-cytophilic (IgG2 and IgG4) was more pronounced in the stable transmission area, and the ratio of IgG3 over IgG1 generally increased with age. In the unstable transmission area, the ratio of cytophilic to non-cytophilic antibodies did not increase with age, and tended to be IgG3-biased for pre-erythrocytic antigens yet IgG1-biased for blood-stage antigens. The differences between areas could not be attributed to active parasitemia status, as there were minimal differences in antibody responses between those positive and negative for Plasmodium infection by microscopy in the stable transmission area. Individuals in areas of unstable transmission have low cytophilic to non-cytophilic IgG subclass ratios and low IgG3:IgG1 ratios to P. falciparum antigens. These imbalances could contribute to the persistent risk of clinical malaria in these areas and serve as population-level, age-specific biomarkers of transmission. PMID:25446174

Noland, Gregory S; Jansen, Paul; Vulule, John M; Park, Gregory S; Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; John, Chandy C

2015-02-01

125

Acute Drop in Blood Monocyte Count Differentiates NEC from Other Causes of Feeding Intolerance  

PubMed Central

Objective Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by macrophage infiltration into affected tissues. Because intestinal macrophages are derived from recruitment and in situ differentiation of blood monocytes in the gut mucosa, we hypothesized that increased recruitment of monocytes to the intestine during NEC reduces the blood monocyte concentration, and that this fall in blood monocytes can be a useful biomarker for NEC. Patients and methods We reviewed medical records of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated for NEC, and compared them with a matched control group comprised of infants with feeding intolerance but no signs of NEC. Clinical characteristics and absolute monocyte counts (AMC) were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of AMC values was tested using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC). Results We compared 69 cases and 257 controls (median 27 weeks, range 26–29 in both groups). In stage II NEC, AMC decreased from median 1.7 × 109/L (interquartile range (IQR) 0.98–2.4) to 0.8 (IQR 0.62–2.1); p <0.05. In stage III NEC, monocyte counts decreased from median 2.1 × 109/L (IQR 0.1.5–3.2) to 0.8 (IQR 0.6–1.9); p <0.05. There was no change in AMC in control infants. ROC of AMC values showed a diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76. In a given infant with feeding intolerance, a drop in AMC of >20% indicated NEC with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI 0.57–0.81) and specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64–0.77). Conclusions We have identified a fall in blood monocyte concentration as a novel biomarker for NEC in VLBW infants. PMID:24674979

Remon, Juan I.; Kampanatkosol, Richard; Kaul, Rajat; Muraskas, Jonathan K.; Christensen, Robert D.; Maheshwari, Akhil

2014-01-01

126

White blood cell count and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436

Venetz, Carmen; Labarère, José; Jiménez, David; Aujesky, Drahomir

2013-08-01

127

Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  

PubMed

In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

2014-01-01

128

Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

2011-01-01

129

The impact of low erythrocyte density in human blood on the fitness and energetic reserves of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae  

PubMed Central

Background Anaemia is a common health problem in the developing world. This condition is characterized by a reduction in erythrocyte density, primarily from malnutrition and/or infectious diseases such as malaria. As red blood cells are the primary source of protein for haematophagous mosquitoes, any reduction could impede the ability of mosquito vectors to transmit malaria by influencing their fitness or that of the parasites they transmit. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of differences in the density of red blood cells in human blood on malaria vector (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) fitness. The hypotheses tested are that mosquito vector energetic reserves and fitness are negatively influenced by reductions in the red cell density of host human blood meals commensurate with those expected from severe anaemia. Methods Mosquitoes (An. gambiae s.s.) were offered blood meals of different packed cell volume (PCV) of human blood consistent with those arising from severe anaemia (15%) and normal PCV (50%). Associations between mosquito energetic reserves (lipid, glucose and glycogen) and fitness measures (reproduction and survival) and blood meal PCV were investigated. Results The amount of protein that malaria vectors acquired from blood feeding (indexed by haematin excretion) was significantly reduced at low blood PCV. However, mosquitoes feeding on blood of low PCV had the same oviposition rates as those feeding on blood of normal PCV, and showed an increase in egg production of around 15%. The long-term survival of An. gambiae s.s was reduced after feeding on low PCV blood, but PCV had no significant impact on the proportion of mosquitoes surviving through the minimal period required to develop and transmit malaria parasites (estimated as 14 days post-blood feeding). The impact of blood PCV on the energetic reserves of mosquitoes was relatively minor. Conclusions These results suggest that feeding on human hosts whose PCV has been depleted due to severe anaemia does not significantly reduce the fitness or transmission potential of malaria vectors, and indicates that mosquitoes may be able exploit resources for reproduction more efficiently from blood of low rather than normal PCV. PMID:23374331

2013-01-01

130

Whole-blood platelet counts with an impedance-type particle counter.  

PubMed

The Clay-Adams Ultra-Flo 100 whole-blood platelet counter provides results that are accurate and precise for platelet counts greater than 20 x 10(9) per liter with virtually zero carryover from one specimen to the next. Comparison of results with those obtained by manual reference and Technicon Autocounter methods shows excellent correlation. The advantage of the Ultra-Flo 100 over the Technicon Autocounter lies in a smaller space requirement in the laboratory, a short start-up time, and minimal maintenance. This makes the Ultra-Flo 100 especially ideal for the stat laboratory. Operating costs of the Ultra-Flo 100 are comparable to those of other methods investigated, but rapid speed of operation has a significant effect on turnaround time. PMID:7352411

Shulman, G; Yapit, M K

1980-01-01

131

Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

Thompson, Joselyn H.

132

Automated analysis of feline platelets in whole blood, including platelet count, mean platelet volume, and activation state.  

PubMed

A new whole-blood flow cytometric method has been developed for counting and sizing platelets in samples from cats, a species in which platelet and red blood cell sizes overlap significantly. The method is a modified version of the two-angle laser light scattering technology used by Bayer H*System hematology analyzers. The new method provided accurate platelet counts and mean platelet volumes (MPV, fl) for cats. The method also measured mean platelet component concentration (MPC, g/dl), a parameter which was shown to be sensitive to platelet activation state, and which decreased in value as activation progressed. PMID:12075552

Zelmanovic, David; Hetherington, Edward J.

1998-01-01

133

Binary release of ascorbic acid and lecithin from core-shell nanofibers on blood-contacting surface for reducing long-term hemolysis of erythrocyte.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to develop blood-contacting biomaterials with long-term anti-hemolytic capability. To obtain such biomaterials, we coaxially electrospin [ascorbic acid (AA) and lecithin]/poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) core-shell nanofibers onto the surface of styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene elastomer (SEBS) that has been grafted with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains. Our strategy is based on that the grafted layers of PEG render the surface hydrophilic to reduce the mechanical injure to red blood cells (RBCs) while the AA and lecithin released from nanofibers on blood-contacting surface can actively interact with RBCs to decrease the oxidative damage to RBCs. We demonstrate that (AA and lecithin)/PEO core-shell structured nanofibers have been fabricated on the PEG grafted surface. The binary release of AA and lecithin in the distilled water is in a controlled manner and lasts for almost 5 days; during RBCs preservation, AA acts as an antioxidant and lecithin as a lipid supplier to the membrane of erythrocytes, resulting in low mechanical fragility and hemolysis of RBCs, as well as high deformability of stored RBCs. Our work thus makes a new approach to fabricate blood-contacting biomaterials with the capability of long-term anti-hemolysis. PMID:25437061

Shi, Qiang; Fan, Qunfu; Ye, Wei; Hou, Jianwen; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

2015-01-01

134

Blood (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes) are ...

135

Interpretation of Amniotic Fluid White Blood Cell Count in “Bloody Tap” Amniocenteses in Women With Symptoms of Preterm Labor  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether blood-contaminated amniotic fluid affects the performance of white blood cell (WBC) count in diagnosing intraamniotic inflammation and infection. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive women pregnant with singletons undergoing amniocentesis to rule out infection were enrolled prospectively. A “bloody tap” was defined as a red blood cell (RBC) count of 1,000 cells/mm3 or more. Proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid was used in this study as the standard for diagnosing inflammation. Infection was confirmed by positive amniotic fluid culture. An amniotic fluid WBC count correction formula was computed using maternal WBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume. Results The prevalence of a bloody tap amniocentesis was 22% (77 of 357). In the absence of inflammation, the amniotic fluid WBC count was significantly higher in bloody tap (median [interquartile range] 18 [9–58] cells/mm3) compared with non–bloody tap specimens (4 [1–10] cells/mm3; P<.001). The correction formula reversed this difference to a nonsignificant level (bloody tap 0 [0–17] compared with non–bloody tap 3 [1–10] cells/mm3; P=.273). In the setting of inflammation, the observed WBC count of bloody tap samples (778 [197–2,062 cells/mm3]) was significantly elevated compared with that of the non–bloody tap specimens (616 [105–1,730] cells/mm3; P=.023). Correction of the WBC count in bloody tap amniocenteses improved the test accuracy and positive likelihood ratios for inflammation and infection. A correction algorithm was not useful in amniotic fluid specimens with less than 1,000/RBCs/mm3 or WBC counts more than 1,100 cells/mm3. Given the nonlinear relationship between amniotic fluid WBC and RBC, for a rapid correction of WBC count, the number of neutrophils that need to be subtracted from the observed WBC count is variable. Conclusion In the setting of an amniotic fluid sample contaminated with 1,000 RBCs/mm3 or more, WBC count is a less accurate indicator of inflammation and infection. In such samples, correction of WBC count enhances diagnostic performance for inflammation and infection. Level of Evidence II PMID:20664395

Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Rosenberg, Victor A.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Han, Christina S.; Werner, Erika F.; Thung, Stephen; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

2014-01-01

136

Effects of low power laser-irradiation on differential blood count and body temperature in endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low power laser irradiation has been shown to have various immune-modulatory effects under in vitro conditions but little is known about such effects in animal models. Escherichia coli endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits were used to determine the influence of transcutaneously applied low power laser light on differential blood count and rectal temperature. After three initial immunizations animals were either boostered with 5

Liesbeth Schindl; Martin Schindl; Laura Polo; Giulio Jori; Sylvia Perl; Andreas Schindl

1997-01-01

137

A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

2014-01-01

138

Decreased white blood cell counts in semiconductor manufacturing workers in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the systematic health effects on the liver, kidney, and haematological function tests of workers in semiconductors in Taiwan. Methods: 926 workers of a semiconductor plant in Taiwan in July 1995 were investigated. Complete blood tests including liver, kidney, and haematological functions were available from 227 workers. Results: There was a significantly lower mean (SD) white blood cell (WBC) count in male workers of photolithography (5870 (1190)/mm3, p=0.003) and implantation (6190 (1150)/mm3, p=0.018) than that of male control workers (7350 (1660)/mm3). There was a significantly higher prevalence of leukopenia in male photolithography workers (6 of 20; 30%) than in male control workers (1 of 18; 5.6%), the crude odds ratio (OR) was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1 to 55.6), and the multivariate adjusted OR was 8.1 (95% CI 0.83 to 78.3). The tests for serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), ? glutamyl transferase (RGT), and creatinine were not significant among male workers. Female workers in photolithography had abnormal SGPT and RGT of borderline significance, the multivariate adjusted ORs were 9.6 (95% CI 0.86 to 107) and 6.35 (95% CI 0.53 to 75.8), respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that leukopenia is a potential health effect in male fabrication workers of the semiconductor industry. The tasks of the process, maintenance, and equipment engineers which consisted mostly of men put them at risk for intermittent short term peak exposure to glycol ethers, ionising radiation, arsenic, or other toxins. The findings of this medical surveillance are significant; however, a further investigation of the aetiological factors and the subsequent health effects is necessary. PMID:11836468

Luo, J; Hsieh, L; Chang, M; Hsu, K

2002-01-01

139

EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY X-IRRADIATION WITH SUBLETHAL DOSES ON THE CELLULAR AND HUMORAL BLOOD-COUNT OF SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes of the blood count of Sprague-Dawley rats after x irradiation ; with various sublethal doses (100 to 400 r) were studied. The results from ; cellular blood counts are in agreement with the results given in the literature. ; No significant decrease of gamma globulins was observed after irradiation. ; (Gmelin Inst.);

Nowrousi

1961-01-01

140

Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

2010-02-01

141

Platelet count  

MedlinePLUS

A platelet count is a test to measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of ... LOW PLATELET COUNT A low platelet count is below 150,000. If you do not have enough platelets, you may ...

142

[Microvzor-2: a system for automated dry blood smear analysis].  

PubMed

Upgraded system Microvzor-2 for investigation of blood morphology in space flight is composed of soft- and hardware for dry smear image analysis. Ground-based testing showed that it could be utilized to investigate a broad spectrum of blood parameters in space flight, including erythrocytes, hemoglobin content in erythrocytes, volumetric erythrocyte distribution, diagnostics of anisocytosis, and poikilocytosis, leukocytes and leukocyte count. Analyzed are smears prepared from a fixed volume of finger blood. The process consists of smear scanning, input of the vision field images in the spacecraft computer and ensuing automated identification and counting. Information is stored in a dedicated database. Results of analysis are displayed as forms and cell galleries. PMID:12572126

Verdenskaia, N V; Vinogradov, A G; Gusev, A A; Ivanova, I A; Ivanova, S M; Kozharinov, V I; Kozinets, G I; Pogorelov, V M; Sazonov, V V

2002-01-01

143

White Blood Cell Count Measured Prior to Cancer Development Is Associated with Future Risk of Venous Thromboembolism – The Tromsø Study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer. PMID:24023876

Blix, Kristine; Jensvoll, Hilde; Brækkan, Sigrid K.; Hansen, John-Bjarne

2013-01-01

144

White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639. PMID:23526980

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2013-01-01

145

Low NK cell counts in peripheral blood are associated with inferior overall survival in patients with follicular lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Host immune responses influence follicular lymphoma (FL) outcomes. To test our hypothesis that immune cells in blood reflect that response, we assessed by peripheral blood flow cytometry in 75 untreated FL patients the absolute counts of: lymphocytes (ALC), CD4+T (ACD4C), CD8+T (ACD8C) and natural killer (ANKC) cells. Low ANKC was the only parameter associated with inferior overall survival by univariate analysis (p= 0.02), and trended to significance in multivariable analysis with ACD4C (p= 0.08). Five (24%) patients with low initial ANKC died, while none with normal/high ANKC have died Conclusions: Evaluation of blood ANKC may be a useful indicator of outcome in previously untreated FL patients. PMID:23968916

Shafer, Danielle; Smith, Mitchell R.; Borghaei, Hossein; Millenson, Michael M.; Li, Tianyu; Litwin, Samuel; Anad, Rachna; Al-Saleem, Tahseen

2013-01-01

146

Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11104555

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C

2000-01-01

147

Blood Erythrocyte Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead and the Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma. Methods 194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible. Results There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65). Conclusions This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted. PMID:24312375

Porta, Miquel; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Palli, Domenico; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Botsivali, Maria; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

2013-01-01

148

Effect of the Pre-erythrocytic Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S/AS01E on Blood Stage Immunity in Young Children  

PubMed Central

(See the article by Greenhouse et al, on pages 19-26.) Background.?RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine and confers pre-erythrocytic immunity. Vaccination may therefore impact acquired immunity to blood-stage malaria parasites after natural infection. Methods.?We measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies to 4 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (AMA-1, MSP-142, EBA-175, and MSP-3) and by growth inhibitory activity (GIA) using 2 parasite clones (FV0 and 3D7) at 4 times on 860 children who were randomized to receive with RTS,S/AS01E or a control vaccine. Results.?Antibody concentrations to AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-142 decreased with age during the first year of life, then increased to 32 months of age. Anti–MSP-3 antibody concentrations gradually increased, and GIA gradually decreased up to 32 months. Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E resulted in modest reductions in AMA-1, EBA-175, MSP-142, and MSP-3 antibody concentrations and no significant change in GIA. Increasing anti-merozoite antibody concentrations and GIA were prospectively associated with increased risk of clinical malaria. Conclusions.?Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E reduces exposure to blood-stage parasites and, thus, reduces anti-merozoite antigen antibody concentrations. However, in this study, these antibodies were not correlates of clinical immunity to malaria. Instead, heterogeneous exposure led to confounded, positive associations between increasing antibody concentration and increasing risk of clinical malaria. PMID:21628653

Cook, Jackie; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke; Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Vekemans, Johan; Njuguna, Patricia; Leach, Amanda; Lievens, Marc; Dutta, Sheetij; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Savarese, Barbara; Villafana, Tonya; Lemnge, Martha M.; Cohen, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Corran, Patrick H.; Angov, Evelina; Riley, Eleanor M.; Drakeley, Chris J.

2011-01-01

149

Evidence that verotoxins (Shiga-like toxins) from Escherichia coli bind to P blood group antigens of human erythrocytes in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of verotoxins (VTs) with human erythrocytes (RBCs) in vitro was investigated, with particular reference to the role of P blood group glycolipids that are structurally related to the known VT receptors. RBC binding of purified VT1, VT2, VT2c, and VT2e was detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Glycolipids were extracted from defined RBCs, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and assessed for VT binding in an overlay assay by adding toxin and specific antibodies. All VTs bound to P1 phenotype (Pk, P, and P1 antigens) and P2 phenotype (Pk and P antigens) RBCs but not to p phenotype (lacking the Pk, P, and P1 antigens) RBCs. Binding of VT1 and VT2 was approximately 10-fold greater to P1 and the rare Pk2 (Pk antigen but no P1 or P antigen) phenotype cells than to P2 phenotype RBCs, whereas VT2e bound equally well to P1 and P2 phenotype cells. The VT1 and VT2 immunofluorescence results correlated with the detection of P1 and/or increased amounts of Pk (globotriaosylceramide) antigen; VT2e immunofluorescence correlated with the detection of P (globotetraosylceramide) antigen. The Pk band pattern and VT binding observed in the thin-layer chromatogram of human P1 and P phenotype RBC extracts varied from that of human kidney and Pk1 phenotype (Pk and P1 antigens) RBCs. We conclude that each VT binds to human RBCs in vitro by utilizing specific P blood group glycolipids as receptors. On P1 and P phenotype RBCs, the accessibility of the Pk antigen for VTs appeared to be restricted. The occurrence of VT-RBC binding in natural VT-producing Escherichia coli disease and its relevance for the pathophysiology of hemolytic uremic syndrome remain to be established. Images PMID:8039905

Bitzan, M; Richardson, S; Huang, C; Boyd, B; Petric, M; Karmali, M A

1994-01-01

150

Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ?60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ?3 or grade ?2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ?20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/?L. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ?3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/?L for grade ?3 and ?2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ?3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4?4.9, P=.003) and grade ?2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ?2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2?3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ?3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2014-02-01

151

Original article Contribution of erythrocytes and plasma  

E-print Network

Metabolism and Nutrition [Threonine transfer across the splanchnic area in pigs], September 1­4, 1999 and erythrocytes to AA transport vary with both the AA and the blood ves- sel. For example, in the dog, Elwyn et al

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Effects of 4-nonylphenol on blood cells of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

In the present work, the destructive effects of the 4-nonylphenol on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, namely African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were studied. Apoptosis, erythrocytes alterations, micronucleus test and blood parameters count were used as biological indicators to detect those effects. After exposure to sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1mg/l), apoptotic red blood cells with many malformations and micronucleated erythrocytes were recorded. Decrease in the blood parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), package cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes and increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), neutrophils, eosinophils indicated the negative effects of 4-nonylphenol. It was concluded that, the 4-nonylphenol caused genotoxicity in erythrocytes with many malformations in shape and number indicated with other blood parameters. PMID:21501852

Mekkawy, Imam A; Mahmoud, Usama M; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

2011-08-01

153

Preoperative Platelet Count and Postoperative Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Hip Surgery: An Inverse Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study we tried to assess the clinical usefulness of platelet count (PIC) to confirm whether postoperative pulmonary embolism could be suspected early. Unexpectedly, the 19 patients who subsequently developed pulmonary embolism had significantly lower mean PIC levels even before surgery. In an attempt to discover whether the preoperative PIC levels were associated with a different incidence of

Manuel Monreal; Elena Lafoz; Jaume Llamazares; Javier Roncales; Jaume Roca; Xavier Granero

1996-01-01

154

Glutathione depletion in human erythrocytes and rat liver: a study on the interplay between bioactivation and inactivation functions of liver and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplay between bioactivation and inactivation functions of human erythrocytes and rat liver was studied. Glutathione depletion was used as a measure of the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH)-reactive compound. Iodoacetamide (IAcA), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and diethyl maleate (DEM), which are electrophiles that need no metabolic activation, were able to deplete GSH in incubations with either aqueous GSH solution or erythrocytes.

N. G. M. Palmen; C. T. A. Evelo

1996-01-01

155

White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

2015-03-01

156

Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts.  

PubMed

Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56(+) APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 10(9)/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56(+) APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. PMID:24206578

Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

2014-01-01

157

THE RELATION OF HYPERGLYCEMIA TO THE RELATIVE BLOOD VOLUME, CHLORINE CONCENTRATION, AND CHLORINE DISTRIBUTION IN THE BLOOD OF DOGS  

PubMed Central

1. In normal dogs experimental hyperglycemia causes a prompt dilution of the circulating blood. This is evidenced by the increase in the relative volume of serum and the reduction of the erythrocyte counts. If the hyperglycemia is large, the viscosity of the blood is visibly diminished. 2. As the hyperglycemia increases there occurs a reduction of the serum chlorine concentration and an increase in the concentration of corpuscular chlorine. 3. Reduction of an artificial hyperglycemia restores the relative blood volumes to their normal status. The erythrocyte count rises to the normal and the corpuscular chlorine concentration is diminished. If the reduction is a large one, the viscosity of the blood is visibly increased. 4. The same types of conductivity-chloride discrepancy that occur in human blood are found in the blood of dogs. In addition, a third type is described. 5. Hyperglycemia does not cause the same changes in the volume of the average erythrocyte of the dog as it does in the case of human erythrocytes. PMID:19869037

Foshay, Lee

1925-01-01

158

Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death  

PubMed Central

Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

2015-01-01

159

Hypoxia delays hematopoiesis: retention of embryonic hemoglobin and erythrocytes in larval rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during chronic hypoxia exposure.  

PubMed

In rainbow trout development, a switch occurs from high-affinity embryonic hemoglobin (Hb) and round, embryonic erythrocytes to lower-affinity adult Hb and oval, adult erythrocytes. Our study investigated the early ontogeny of rainbow trout blood properties and the hypoxia response. We hypothesized that hypoxia exposure would delay the ontogenetic turnover of Hb and erythrocytes because retention of high-affinity embryonic Hb would facilitate oxygen loading. To test this hypothesis we developed a method of efficiently extracting blood from individual embryos and larvae and optimized several techniques for measuring hematological parameters on microliter (0.5-2.0 ?l) blood samples. In chronic hypoxia (30% of oxygen saturation), stage-matched embryos and larvae possessed half the Hb concentration, erythrocyte counts and hematocrit observed in normoxia. Hypoxia-reared larvae also had threefold to sixfold higher mRNA expression of the embryonic Hb ?-1, ?-1 and ?-2 subunits relative to stage-matched normoxia-reared larvae. Furthermore, in hypoxia, the round embryonic erythrocytic shape persisted into later developmental stages. Despite these differences, Hb-oxygen affinity (P50), cooperativity and the Root effect were unaltered in hypoxia-reared O. mykiss. The data support our hypothesis that chronic hypoxia delays the ontogenetic turnover of Hb and erythrocytes, but without the predicted functional consequences (i.e. higher than expected P50). These results also suggest that the Hb-oxygen affinity is protected during development in chronic hypoxia to favor oxygen unloading at the tissues. We conclude that in early trout development, the blood-oxygen transport system responds very differently to chronic hypoxia relative to adults, possibly because respiration depends relatively more on oxygen diffusion than convection. PMID:24031065

Bianchini, Kristin; Wright, Patricia A

2013-12-01

160

Sex Differences in Step Count-Blood Pressure Association: A Preliminary Study in Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWalking and cardiovascular mortality are inversely associated in type 2 diabetes, but few studies have objectively measured associations of walking with individual cardiovascular risk factors. Such information would be useful for “dosing” daily steps in clinical practice. This study aimed to quantify decrements in blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) per 1,000 daily step increments.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTwo hundred and one subjects

Priya Manjoo; Lawrence Joseph; Louise Pilote; Kaberi Dasgupta; Conrad P. Earnest

2010-01-01

161

Changes over time in blood basophil counts of X-irradiated rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Frequent determinations over several months explored the size and timing of changes in total white cell, basophil, and percentage basophil values in the blood of 11 male rabbits, six untreated controls and five given single-dose whole-body X-irradiation of 300 R. The main results of analysis were:1.Before exposure, the treated group did not differ significantly from the untreated group on

Ernst Thonnard-Neumann; Wilson L. Taylor; Martin Nosan

1969-01-01

162

Segmentation technique of complex image scene for an automatic blood-cell-counting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a method for automatic localization and segmentation of white blood cells (WBCs) with color images to develop an efficient automated leukocyte counter by using pattern recognition-based slide readers. The segmentation techniques consist of the following steps. On the first a smear image acquired at the low magnification. The next is extraction of WBC nuclei by chromatic properties and image mapping. After this the cells clustered according to the distances between them and regions of interest (ROI) determined. Image of ROI captured at the high magnification and its validity checked. Then nucleus segments extracted and grouped into prospective cells. The detection of blood cells is based on the intensity of G image plane and the balance between G and B intensity of the nuclei. A cytoplasm region approximated by a circle area around the nucleus center. Finally, the cytoplasm area cleaned considering a priori knowledge of background color and possible cell occlusions. The result of the segmentation is presented in the form of a cell location list and image template in which every pixel is assigned to a label such as Background, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Hole, etc. The proposed technique has yielded correct segmentation of complex image scenes for blood smears prepared by ordinary manual staining methods in 99% of tested images.

Kovalev, Vassili A.; Grigoriev, Andrei Y.; Ahn, Hyo-Sok; Myshkin, Nickolai K.

1996-04-01

163

[The individual fatty acids in blood plasma, erythrocytes and lipoproteins. The comparison of tests results of patients with ischemic heart disease and volunteers].  

PubMed

According to the generally accepted theory, the atherosclerosis is a kind of disorder of metabolism of lipids which chemically are the ethers of fatty lipids with spirits. Hence, the atherosclerosis is fatty acids pathology. In conformity with the biologic classification, among fatty acids it is functionally valid to distinguish saturated fatty acids without double bonds; monoenic fatty acids with one double bond; unsaturated fatty acids with two or three double bonds and polyenic fatty acids with four of six double bonds in chain. The saturated and monenic fatty acids are the substrates for cells to groundwork energy, ATP The unsaturated fatty acids in vivo are needed to form membranes. The polyenic fatty acids are essential since they are precursors of cell synthesis of humoral regulators--eicosanoids (prostanoids and leukotrienes). To clarify the pathogenesis of the "metabolic pandemics" most prevalent in human population, the quantitative determination of individual fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes using gas chromatography technique is needed. It is necessary to evaluate the content of medium chain fatty acids; palmitic and stearic saturated fatty acids; oleic monoenic fatty acid and its transforms--linoleic, linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic unsaturated fatty acids; essential polyenic omega-6 arachidonic, omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The higher is in food the content of palmitic saturated fatty acid, palmitoleic and trans-vaccenic monoenic fatty acids, the more is in patient diet of beef meat and products of fat cow's milk. The higher is ratio of palmitic/oleic fatty acids the lower is the risk of formation of atheromatosis of arteries intima and development of ischemic heart disease and vice versa. The decrease of ratio of omega-3/omega-6 essential polyenic fatty acids is undesirable in prognostic sense. The metabolism of these acids differs and functional activity of omega-3 eicosanoid type 3 is higher In case of deficiency of omega-3 and omega-6 polyenic fatty acids in cells eicosanoids are synthesized from unsaturated dihomogamma-linolenic fatty acid and their influence turns out to be aphysiologic. This condition is a pathogenic foundation of atherosclerosis. There is a diagnostic reason to detect fatty acids in case of diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and partially arterial hypertension. PMID:22988791

Titov, V N; Aripovski?, A V; Kaba, S I; Kolesnik, P O; Vezhdel, M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

2012-07-01

164

Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  

PubMed

Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W

2013-05-01

165

Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth, as they contain abundant nutrients. However, the relationship between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes remains unclear. We analyzed interactions between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes, and found that iron ion present in human erythrocytes supported the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, another major Gram-positive sepsis pathogen, while it partially inhibited pneumococcal growth by generating free radicals. S. pneumoniae cells incubated with human erythrocytes or blood were subjected to scanning electron and confocal fluorescence microscopic analyses, which showed that the bacterial cells adhered to and invaded human erythrocytes. In addition, S. pneumoniae cells were found associated with human erythrocytes in cultures of blood from patients with an invasive pneumococcal infection. Erythrocyte invasion assays indicated that LPXTG motif-containing pneumococcal proteins, erythrocyte lipid rafts, and erythrocyte actin remodeling are all involved in the invasion mechanism. In a neutrophil killing assay, the viability of S. pneumoniae co-incubated with erythrocytes was higher than that without erythrocytes. Also, H2O2 killing of S. pneumoniae was nearly completely ineffective in the presence of erythrocytes. These results indicate that even when S. pneumoniae organisms are partially killed by iron ion-induced free radicals, they can still invade erythrocytes. Furthermore, in the presence of erythrocytes, S. pneumoniae can more effectively evade antibiotics, neutrophil phagocytosis, and H2O2 killing. PMID:24194877

Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Mori-Yamaguchi, Yuka; Domon, Hisanori; Sakaue, Yuuki; Yagi, Tetsuya; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nizet, Victor; Kawabata, Shigetada

2013-01-01

166

A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.  

PubMed

Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638

Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A

2010-06-01

167

Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

2014-01-01

168

Measurement of erythrocyte deformability by the flow-channel diffraction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte deformability, known as ability of red blood cell (RBC) to change shape during flow in the microcirculation, is the basic rheological property of erythrocyte. Many techniques have been proposed to measure RBC\\

A. Górnicki; A. Kempczynski

2005-01-01

169

Magnetic Nanosensor for Detection and Profiling of Erythrocyte-Derived Microvesicles  

PubMed Central

During the course of their lifespan, erythrocytes actively shed phospholipid-bound, microvesicles (MVs). In stored blood, the number of these erythrocyte-derived MVs have been observed to increase over time, suggesting their potential value as a quality metric for blood products. The lack of sensitive, standardized MV assays, however, poses a significant barrier to implementing MV analyses into clinical settings. Here, we report on a new nanotechnology platform capable of rapid and sensitive MV detection in packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. A filter-assisted microfluidic device was designed to enrich MVs directly from pRBC units, and label them with target-specific magnetic nanoparticles. Subsequent detection using a miniaturized nuclear magnetic resonance system enabled accurate MV quantification as well as the detection of key molecular markers (CD44, CD47, CD55). By applying the developed platform, MVs in stored blood units could also be monitored longitudinally. Our results showed that MV counts increase over time, and thus could serve as an effective metric of blood aging. Furthermore, our studies found that MVs have the capacity to generate oxidative stress and consume nitric oxide. By advancing our understanding of MV biology, we expect that the developed platform will lead to improved blood product quality and transfusion safety. PMID:24295203

Rho, Junsung; Chung, Jaehoon; Im, Hyungsoon; Liong, Monty; Shao, Huilin; Castro, Cesar M.; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

2014-01-01

170

Comparative analysis between dextran sulfate adsorption and direct adsorption of lipoproteins in their capability to reduce erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation in the peripheral blood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation (EAA) reduction of two low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheretic procedures, namely direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI) and dextran sulfate adsorption (DSA). A significant (P < 0.001) reduction of EAA was noted in six hypercholesterolemic patients who underwent a total of 40 apheretic sessions and no difference was noted in the degree of EAA reduction by the two techniques. Thus. being a real-time and point-of-care test, the erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation test can be applied in relevant situations of acute ischemia, where therapeutic LDL apheresis could improve the hemorheology of individuals with increased concentrations of cholesterol and inflammatory sensitive proteins. PMID:15128018

Schechner, V; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Justo, D; Hershcovici, T; Zeltser, D; Beigel, Y

2004-02-01

171

Some selected peripheral blood and haemopoietic system indices in Wistar rats with chronic vanadium intoxication.  

PubMed

1. Wistar rats of both sexes received vanadium in drinking water in the amount of 23-29 mg/kg body weight in the form of ammonium metavanadate (AMV) for a period of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. 2. Animals treated in this way ate less food and drank less AMV solution as compared with the amount of water consumed by the controls; they suffered from diarrhoea, and owing to this the increment in body weight was reduced. 3. Vanadium decreased erythropoiesis and maturation of red blood cells, which was expressed by a reduced erythrocyte count and haemoglobin level and increased reticulocyte and polychromatophilic erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood. 4. The composition percentage of the bone marrow cells and the peripheral blood leukocyte count did not undergo noticeable changes under the influence of vanadium. PMID:2567224

Zaporowska, H; Wasilewski, W

1989-01-01

172

Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson

2011-01-01

173

Nucleated red blood cell count in the differentiation of fetuses with pathologic growth restriction from healthy small-for-gestational-age fetuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count in differentiating the fetus with growth restriction from the small but otherwise healthy fetus. Study Design: Perinatal outcomes were evaluated prospectively for all neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in 1997. Nonanomalous neonates with normal phenotype and a complete

Victoria K. Minior; Ellen Shatzkin; Michael Y. Divon

2000-01-01

174

Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

175

Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.  

PubMed

Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

2015-01-01

176

Blood Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... 8, 2015, Orlando, FL CME/Certificate of Attendance Satellite Symposia programs View all meetings 2015 Highlights of ... body's fluid balance. back to top Red Blood Cells (also called erythrocytes or RBCs) Known for their ...

177

Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.  

PubMed

Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ? 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management. PMID:23928130

Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

2013-12-01

178

A Novel Marker for Screening Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Using Routine Complete Blood Count and Cell Population Data  

PubMed Central

Background Final diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) may take years demanding a quick diagnosis measure. We used the facts that PNH cells are damaged in acid, and reagents for measuring reticulocytes in Coulter DxH800 (Beckman Coulter, USA) are weakly acidic and hypotonic, to create a new PNH screening marker. Methods We analyzed 979 complete blood counts (CBC) data from 963 patients including 57 data from 44 PNH patients. Standard criteria for PNH assay for population selection were followed: flow cytometry for CD55 and CD59 on red blood cells (RBCs) to a detection level of 1%; and fluorescent aerolysin, CD24 and CD15 in granulocytes to 0.1%. Twenty-four PNH minor clone-positive samples (minor-PNH+) were taken, in which the clone population was <5% of RBCs and/or granulocytes. Excluding PNH and minor-PNH+ patients, the population was divided into anemia, malignancy, infection, and normal groups. Parameters exhibiting a distinct demarcation between PNH and non-PNH groups were identified, and each parameter cutoff value was sought that includes the maximum [minimum] number of PNH [non-PNH] patients. Results Cutoff values for 5 selected CBC parameters (MRV, RDWR, MSCV, MN-AL2-NRET, and IRF) were determined. Positive rates were: PNH (86.0%), minor-PNH+ (33.3%), others (5.0%), anemia (13.4%), malignancy (5.3%), infection (3.7%), normal (0.0%); within anemia group, aplastic anemia (40.0%), immune hemolytic anemia (11.1%), iron deficiency anemia (1.6%). Sensitivity (86.0%), specificity (95.0%), PPV (52.1%), and NPV (99.1%) were achieved in PNH screening. Conclusion A new PNH screening marker is proposed with 95% specificity and 86% sensitivity. The flag identifies PNH patients, reducing time to final diagnosis by flow cytometry. PMID:25553278

Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jung Ok; Koh, Kwangsang; Lee, Jong Wook

2015-01-01

179

HEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD CHEMICAL VALUES OF MALLARD, Anas p. platyrhynchos, DRAKES BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER REMIGE MOULT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige

E. A. DRIVER

180

Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts correlated with the number of Mets components in the women. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest substantial implications for the prevention and management of the MetS and atherosclerotic diseases, as these involve the suppression of inflammatory conditions rather than the incitement of anti-inflammatory conditions. PMID:24250693

Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2013-01-01

181

Oxidative brain injury from extravasated erythrocytes after intracerebral hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracerebral infusion of lysed erythrocytes causes brain edema without inducing ischemic cerebral blood flow. Reports have indicated that oxidative damage contributes to secondary brain injury in stroke. In the present study, we investigated whether erythrocyte lysis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) might result in oxidative brain damage. This study had four parts. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received an infusion of autologous lysed

Jimin Wu; Ya Hua; Richard F Keep; Timothy Schallert; Julian T Hoff; Guohua Xi

2002-01-01

182

T-cell count  

MedlinePLUS

Thymus derived lymphocyte count; T-lymphocyte count ... T cells are a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are white blood cells. They make up part of the immune system. T cells help the body fight diseases or harmful ...

183

Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk in Non-Affective Psychoses  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Schizophrenia is also associated with immune and inflammatory abnormalities, including aberrant blood levels of lymphocytes, cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. 108 inpatients and outpatients age 18–70 with non-affective psychoses and 44 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and medical history were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis had significantly higher hsCRP levels than controls (p=0.04). In linear regression analyses, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were a significant predictor of the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.02 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, total WBC count was a significant predictor of an elevated 10-year estimated risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease in subjects with non-affective psychosis (p?0.03 for each). Associations between total and differential WBC counts and cardiovascular disease risk indices were stronger in males than females with non-affective psychosis. Our findings provide further evidence that measurement of total and differential WBC counts may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and cardiovascular disease risk in these patients. PMID:22982547

Miller, Brian J.; Kandhal, Prianka; Rapaport, Mark Hyman; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

2014-01-01

184

Brucella melitensis invades murine erythrocytes during infection.  

PubMed

Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

2014-09-01

185

Variations on Fibrinogen-Erythrocyte Interactions during Cell Aging  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte hyperaggregation, a cardiovascular risk factor, is considered to be caused by an increase in plasma adhesion proteins, particularly fibrinogen. We have recently reported a specific binding between fibrinogen and an erythrocyte integrin receptor with a ?3 or ?3-like subunit. In this study we evaluate the influence of erythrocyte aging on the fibrinogen binding. By atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy measurements we found that increasing erythrocyte age, there is a decrease of the binding to fibrinogen by decreasing the frequency of its occurrence but not its force. This observation is reinforced by zeta-potential and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. We conclude that upon erythrocyte aging the number of fibrinogen molecules bound to each cell decreases significantly, due to the progressive impairment of the specific fibrinogen-erythrocyte receptor interaction. Knowing that younger erythrocytes bind more to fibrinogen, we could presume that this population is the main contributor to the cardiovascular diseases associated with increased fibrinogen content in blood, which could disturb the blood flow. Our data also show that the sialic acids exposed on the erythrocyte membrane contribute for the interaction with fibrinogen, possibly by facilitating its binding to the erythrocyte membrane receptor. PMID:21464904

Carvalho, Filomena A.; de Oliveira, Sofia; Freitas, Teresa; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C.

2011-01-01

186

Metabolomic analysis of normal and sickle cell erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Metabolic signatures of specialized circulating hematopoietic cells in physiological or human hematological diseases start to be described. We use a simple and highly reproductive extraction method of erythrocytes metabolites coupled with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolites profiling method to determine metabolomes of normal and sickle cell erythrocytes. Sickle cell erythrocytes and normal erythrocytes metabolomes display major differences in glycolysis, in glutathione, in ascorbate metabolisms and in metabolites associated to membranes turnover. In addition, the amounts of metabolites derived from urea cycle and NO metabolism that partly take place within erythrocyte were different between normal and sickle cell erythrocytes. These results show that metabolic profiling of red blood cell diseases can now be determined and might indicate new biomarkers that can be used for the follow-up of sickle cell patients. PMID:20674434

Darghouth, D; Koehl, B; Junot, C; Roméo, P-H

2010-09-01

187

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...

188

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

189

Interactions between Fusobacterium necrophorum hemolysin, erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between the hemolysin of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes were studied as an attempt to determine the initial characteristics leading to hemolysis. The spectrum of erythrocyte sensitivity indicated that horse, dog and mouse erythrocytes were highly sensitive whereas those of cattle, sheep, goat and chicken were insensitive to the hemolysin. Binding of hemolysin to horse

Kingsley Kwaku Amoako; Yoshitaka Goto; Naoki Misawa; De Long Xu; Toshiharu Shinjo

1997-01-01

190

Cloning and expression of chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase.  

PubMed Central

We report the sequences of cDNAs encoding chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13). The complete mRNA consists of 3345/3349 nucleotides and predicts a single open reading frame. Nine peptide sequences derived from partial digests of the isolated protein agreed with the corresponding translation of the open reading frame. Approximately 60% identities between the avian protein and three related mammalian enzymes were found. Chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase mRNA is most abundant in red blood cells and kidney, and it accumulates during erythroid cell differentiation. Images PMID:1357669

Weraarchakul-Boonmark, N; Jeong, J M; Murthy, S N; Engel, J D; Lorand, L

1992-01-01

191

Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

2009-11-01

192

Customization of Advia 120 thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration, and effects on morphology flagging results.  

PubMed

This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds. PMID:25477546

Grimes, Carolyn N; Fry, Michael M

2014-12-01

193

Coincidence detection of heterogeneous cell populations from whole blood with coplanar electrodes in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.  

PubMed

Particle counting finds many industrial applications especially in medical healthcare. In particular, cell counting from whole blood is used pervasively for disease diagnostics. Microfluidic impedance cytometry is fast, requires a small volume of blood, can be used at point of care and can perform absolute enumeration of different cell types in the sample. Coincidence detection is very essential for accurate counting results and becomes more significant while counting specific target cells, e.g. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell count in HIV/AIDS patient blood samples. In heterogeneous samples, e.g. blood, cell differentiation for all coincidence occurrences is essential in addition to the coincidence detection for accurate cell enumeration. In this paper, we have characterized the coincidence detection with cell differentiation using a microfluidic impedance biochip. The pure population of leukocytes is obtained after all erythrocytes are lysed on-chip from whole blood. Leukocytes were counted electrically as they pass over coplanar microfabricated electrodes bonded to the 15 ?m × 15 ?m cross section counting channel while generating a bipolar pulse for each cell passage. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the electrical cell pulse and its coincidences. We show that coincidence detection can be characterized into three main types based on the range of time delay at which the coincidence occurs. We have also characterized cell differentiation for all the three coincidence types and show that multiple coincidences of different types can also occur. We used healthy and HIV-infected patient blood samples and used our coincidence detection technique to count CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and show the improvement in accuracy of cell counts compared to that without coincidence detection. We have also shown the improvement in the erythrocyte counting with coincidence detection in diluted whole blood samples. PMID:25231594

Hassan, U; Bashir, R

2014-11-21

194

Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1  

PubMed Central

In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population. PMID:19279206

Mayer, D. C. Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H.; Miller, Louis H.

2009-01-01

195

Rheological approach to the analysis of blood coagulation in endothelial cell-coated tubes: Activation of the intrinsic reaction on the erythrocyte surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulation of blood in cultured endothelial cell-coated tubes was examined using a theological technique. Coagulation of recalcified, platelet-free plasma in contact with an endothelial cell monolayer did not occur within the experimental time period (more than 150 min). The endothelial cell surface did not activate the intrinsic coagulation reaction or the extrinsic coagulation reaction initiated by tissue factor. The time

S. Kawakami; M. Kaibara; Y. Kawamoto; K. Yamanaka

1995-01-01

196

The relationship between nucleated red blood cell counts at birth and neuropsychological outcome in preterm-birth preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between a putative marker of antenatal hypoxia, nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in circulating neonatal blood obtained shortly after birth, and motor, memory and intellectual development at preschool age in children with history of preterm birth (gestational ages 24–34 weeks). ^ Children with congenital disorders and children who

Angela K DeBastos

2007-01-01

197

Effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic signals.  

PubMed

A theoretical model examining the effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic (OA) signals is presented. Each erythrocyte is considered as a fluid sphere and its optical absorption is defined by its oxygen saturation state. The OA field generated by a cell is computed by solving the wave equation in the frequency domain with appropriate boundary conditions. The resultant field from many cells is simulated by summing the pressure waves emitted by individual cells. A Monte Carlo algorithm generates 2-D spatially random distributions of oxygenated and deoxygenated erythrocytes. Oxygen saturation levels of oxygenated cells a assumed to be 100% and 0% for deoxygenated cells. The OA signal amplitude decreases monotonically for the 700-nm laser source and increases monotonically for 1000 nm optical radiation when blood oxygen saturation varies from 0 to 100%. An approximately sixfold decrease and fivefold increase of the OA signal amplitude were computed at those wavelengths, respectively. The OA spectral power in the low-frequency range (<10 MHz) and in the very high-frequency range (>100 MHz) decreases for 700 nm and increases for 1000 nm with increasing blood oxygen saturation. This model provides a theoretical framework to study the erythrocyte oxygenation-dependent OA signals. PMID:22112105

Saha, Ratan K; Kolios, Michael C

2011-11-01

198

P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous “membrane detoxification proteins” implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality. PMID:24305632

Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

2013-01-01

199

Ameliorating effects of curcumin and vitamin E on diazinon-induced oxidative damage in rat liver and erythrocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E and/or curcumin against diazinon (DZN) (an organophosphorus insecticide)-induced toxicity of blood, liver and erythrocyte markers of male Wistar rats. The exposure of rats to DZN for 21 days provoked significant changes in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin. Results showed that lipid peroxidation increased significantly in DZN-treated rats, as evidenced by high liver and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. Alteration of the antioxidant system in DZN-treated rats was confirmed by the significant decrease in the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by a decline in reduced glutathione content in both tissues. On the other hand, a significant increase in the activities of plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the rats treated with DZN. However, the administration of vitamin E and curcumin has ameliorated the previous markers. In conclusion, our results indicate that the natural antioxidants like vitamin E and curcumin can effectively lower the erythrocytes and hepatic injuries induced by DZN as monitored by lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme activities and sensitive serum enzyme levels. PMID:22609857

Messarah, Mahfoud; Amamra, Wahiba; Boumendjel, Amel; Barkat, Leila; Bouasla, Ihcène; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; Feki, Abdelfattah El

2013-02-01

200

Basic haematological parameters, serum gamma-glutamyl-transferase activity, and erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 levels during carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine therapy.  

PubMed

Basic haematologic parameters and serum gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) activity were evaluated in a five-year prospective follow-up study of 25 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy starting treatment with carbamazepine. In addition, we evaluated the effects of replacing carbamazepine by oxcarbazepine on these parameters, erythrocyte folate concentrations and serum vitamin B12 levels in 12 male patients with epilepsy. The mean white blood cell count (WBC) and red blood cell count decreased after 2 months carbamazepine therapy, and remained at this lower level during the first 5 years of medication. The mean erythrocyte volume (MCV) and the serum GGT activity increased progressively during carbamazepine treatment. The serum GGT activity decreased after replacing carbamazepine by oxcarbazepine indicating a normalization of the liver P450 enzyme system induction. Concomitantly, the erythrocyte folate concentrations and serum levels of vitamin B12 increased, and the WBC increased and MCV decreased. It is probable that the changes in folate metabolism and serum vitamin B12 concentrations are due to normalization of the liver P450 enzyme system induction after the change of medication. The haematologic changes during carbamazepine medication, and their normalization after replacing carbamazepine by oxcarbazepine are possibly related to changes in folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. PMID:9203249

Isojärvi, J I; Pakarinen, A J; Myllylä, V V

1997-06-01

201

Ribavirin induced anaemia: the effect of vitamin D supplementation on erythropoietin and erythrocyte indices in normal Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To measure the effect of vitamin D3 (VitD) supplementation on erythrocyte indices, serum and kidney erythropoietin (EPO) in normal rats treated with Pegylated interferon-? (Peg-INF-?) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided equally into 8 groups. ‘Control’; ‘P’: only received Peg-INF-?; ‘PD’: Peg-INF-?/VitD; ‘PR’: Peg-INF-?/RBV; ‘PRD’: Peg-INF-?/RBV/VitD; ‘R’: only received RBV; ‘RD’: RBV/VitD and ‘VitD’: only received vitamin D3. Peg-INF-?-2a was injected subcutaneously (6 µg/rat/week) for 4 weeks. RBV (4 mg/rat/day) and VitD (500 IU/rat/day) were given orally for 5 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure erythrocyte indices and serum 25(OH) vitamin D. EPO was measured in serum samples and kidney specimens by ELISA. Results: Peg-INF-? alone did not affect the RBCs count, haemoglobin, serum and kidney EPO compared to control (P > 0.05). RBV significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and EPO levels in kidney and serum, either individually (R group) or combined with Peg-INF-? (PR group), compared to ‘Control’ and ‘P’ groups. VitD prevented the development of anaemia and significantly increased the concentrations of EPO at serum and kidney levels in the ‘RD’ and ‘PRD’ groups compared to ‘R’ and ‘PR’ groups. There was a significant positive correlation between blood levels of VitD with serum and kidney EPO, Red cell count and haemoglobin concentrations. Conclusion: VitD could have a potential beneficial role in the prevention of ribavirin-induced anaemia by promoting endogenous EPO. Further studies are needed to explore the role of vitamin D in the prevention of ribavirin associated anaemia. PMID:25356124

Refaat, Bassem; Ashour, Tariq Helal; El-Shemi, Adel Galal

2014-01-01

202

Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

1982-11-01

203

Diffusion of peroxynitrite across erythrocyte membranes  

PubMed Central

Peroxynitrite anion (ONOO?) is a reactive species of increasingly recognized biological relevance that contributes to oxidative tissue damage. At present, however, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms of peroxynitrite diffusion through biological compartments. In this work we have studied the diffusion of peroxynitrite across erythrocyte membranes. In solution, peroxynitrite rapidly reacts with oxyhemoglobin to yield methemoglobin, with k2 = (10.4 ± 0.3) × 103 M?1?s?1 at pH 7.4 and 25°C. Addition of peroxynitrite to intact erythrocytes caused oxidation of intracellular oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin. Oxidation yields in red blood cells at pH 7.0 were approximately 40% of those obtained in solution, which results mostly from competition of other cytosolic components for peroxynitrite. Indeed, rather small differences were observed between oxidation yields in lysates compared with intact erythrocytes, in particular at acidic and neutral pH values, indicating that membrane was not precluding peroxynitrite diffusion. Incubation of erythrocytes at pH 7.0 with 4,4?-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a specific inhibitor of anion exchange, resulted in up to 50% inhibition of oxyhemoglobin oxidation by peroxynitrite. More protection by DIDS was achieved at alkaline pH, while no effect was observed at pH 5.5, where 95% of peroxynitrite is in the acidic form, ONOOH (pKa = 6.8). In addition, peroxynitrite caused nitration of intracellular hemoglobin, in a process that was enhanced in thiol-depleted erythrocytes. Our results indicate that peroxynitrite is able to cross the erythrocyte membrane by two different mechanisms: in the anionic form through the DIDS-inhibitable anion channel, and in the protonated form by passive diffusion. PMID:9520406

Denicola, Ana; Souza, José M.; Radi, Rafael

1998-01-01

204

Monitoring Complete Blood Counts and Haemoglobin Levels in Osteoarthritis Patients: Results from a European Survey Investigating Primary Care Physician Behaviours and Understanding  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, including occult blood loss and the development of clinically significant anaemia. Methods: 700 primary care physicians who routinely used NSAIDs to manage their patients were questioned to probe their understanding of the potential importance of blood loss in the OA populations they commonly treated with NSAIDs in a chronic fashion. Results: Approximately 50% of doctors surveyed measured their osteoarthritis patients’ haemoglobin routinely as part of a complete blood count (CBC). The remaining cohort of physicians only considered conducting CBCs if they believed there was cause for concern, with the most common reasons cited being anaemia/blood loss (90/80% of physicians respectively) or the patient showing signs of weakness and fatigue (78% of physicians). When all doctors were queried on their understanding of normal range of haemoglobin (Hb) values, as defined by the WHO, significant variation in the absolute figures were reported with approximately 40% of physicians citing a low end range for normal that would actually place the patient below the threshold for anaemia. Conclusion: Physician practice in relation to carrying out blood tests in OA patients and their understanding of the potential significance of specific results obtained, namely haemoglobin values, varies substantially across the countries surveyed. As NSAIDs form a pivotal part in the chronic treatment of osteoarthritis and are well recognised agents that can precipitate blood loss, guidelines may be needed to advise physicians as to when monitoring a patient’s haemoglobin levels may be appropriate. PMID:25598854

Walker, Chris; Faustino, Augusto; Lanas, Angel

2014-01-01

205

Some New Model Geometries for Sickled Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed model geometries are described for six types of flattened\\u000asickled erythrocytes. These new types occur with some frequency in blood smears\\u000aof patients with sickle cell disease. The six types of cells are designated as\\u000afive-pointed star, witch, hypocycloid, deltoid, astroid, and semi-circular. Formulae are\\u000aprovided for the volume and surface area of each type and a figure showing

Florencia Pauli; H. Westcott Vayo

2008-01-01

206

Platelet Inhibition by Nitrite Is Dependent on Erythrocytes and Deoxygenation  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated. Methodology/Finding Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM) inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger), suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes. Conclusion Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia. PMID:22276188

Srihirun, Sirada; Sriwantana, Thanaporn; Unchern, Supeenun; Kittikool, Dusadee; Noulsri, Egarit; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Fucharoen, Suthat; Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N.; Sibmooh, Nathawut

2012-01-01

207

Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). PMID:24790773

Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

2014-01-01

208

Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

2014-05-01

209

Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

210

HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature  

E-print Network

9/16/2013 1 HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature destruction SCHISTOCYTES & SPHEROCYTES · Gallstones · Dark or Red Urine · Symptoms of Anemia · Thinning of Cortical Bone · Extramedullary RBC Defects · Immunohemolytic Anemias #12;9/16/2013 3 INTRINSIC DEFECTS · Membrane Defects

211

Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

2006-01-01

212

Flicker spectroscopy of erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency analysis of thermally excited surface undulations of erythrocytes leading to the flicker phenomenon is applied to determine biochemically and physically induced modulations of the membrane curvature elasticity. Flicker spectra of individual cells fixed to the window of a flow chamber by polylysine are taken by phase contrast microscopy, enabling investigations of the reversibility of the structural modifications. The spectra

K. Fricke; K. Wirthensohn; R. Laxhuber; E. Sackmann

1986-01-01

213

Simultaneous counting of ⁸⁵Kr in lung and myocardium during measurement of coronary blood flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary blood flow rate (ml.min⁻¹.100 g⁻¹) was estimated by (a) measuring pump flow into the cannulated circumflex branch of the left coronary artery and dividing by the weight of perfused mycardium and (b) measuring the clearance of ⁸⁵Kr following intra-arterial injection (detection with a 2-in. crystal with cylindrical collimation). Although the correlation between the two measurements was relatively high (r

F. L. Belloni; D. E. Mohrman; H. V. Sparks

1975-01-01

214

In vitro effect of insulin on rats erythrocytes rheological behaviour.  

PubMed

Blood viscosity is an important cardiovascular risk factor that might be related to diabetes complications. Hyperinsulinemia has been suggested as "the most important candidate" to characterise diabetes as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There is no evidence of the beneficial effect of insulin on type 2 diabetes erythrocytes in patients without cardiovascular disease, whereas the opposite is observed in those with cardiovascular disease. In the present study we analysed the in vitro effect of different doses of insulin on red blood cell rheological aspects in an obesity model. Previous studies carried out in beta strain rats had shown that this strain possess insulin blood levels higher than the ones observed in alpha strain (eumetabolic), as well as blood hyperviscosity and erythrocyte deformability decrease. Our results points out that in vitro insulin produced an increase in erythrocyte aggregability, although it did not modified either their osmotic fragility or erythrocyte deformability estimated by viscometry, even against decreased viscosity of treated erythrocytes submitted to increased shear rate. PMID:16899958

Cinara, Luis; Bollini, Adriana; Gayol, María Del C; Hernández, Gladis N

2006-01-01

215

Unavailability of CD147 leads to selective erythrocyte trapping in the spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

erythrocyte lineage cells throughout erythroid development, includ- ing in mature erythrocytes,8 and has been shown to be the carrier molecule for the blood group antigen Oka.15 To investigate whether this expression has a functional significance, we determined the effect of the in vivo treatment with a CD147-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the development and trafficking of erythrocytes in mice. We

Isabelle Coste; Jean-Francois Gauchat; Anne Wilson; Shozo Izui; Pascale Jeannin; Yves Delneste; H. Robson MacDonald; Jean-Yves Bonnefoy; Toufic Renno

2001-01-01

216

Insulin radioreceptor assay for human erythrocytes. [¹²⁵I tracer technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human erythrocytes have specific insulin receptors. Radioreceptor assay for the determination of insulin binding to these receptors is presented. After two passages over a Boyum-type gradient, erythrocytes from freshly collected heparinized blood were isolated and 3.5 x 10⁹ erythrocytes per milliliter were incubated for 2.5 h in a modified pH 8.0 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine ethane sulfonate buffer, iodinated insulin (80 pg\\/ml), and

K. K. Gambhir; J. A. Archer; L. Carter

1977-01-01

217

Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.

2013-10-01

218

Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

Dorval, B.L.

1987-01-01

219

Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

1983-03-30

220

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.  

PubMed

Background: Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster.Methods: The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012.Results: Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically.Conclusions: No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2014-10-11

221

White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone.

Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

2015-01-01

222

A Receptor for the Malarial Parasite Plasmodium vivax: The Erythrocyte Chemokine Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the major causes of human malaria, except in sub-Saharan Africa where people lack the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for P. vivax. Duffy negative human erythrocytes are resistant to invasion by P. vivax and the related monkey malaria, P. knowlesi. Several lines of evidence in the present study indicate that the Duffy

Richard Horuk; Chetan E. Chitnis; Walter C. Darbonne; Timothy J. Colby; Anne Rybicki; Terence J. Hadley; Louis H. Miller

1993-01-01

223

[The normal ultrastructure of the erythrocytes and in experimental portal hypertension].  

PubMed

Erythrocyte types were studied in portal and femoral veins blood in intact dog and in the experimental portal hypertension under scanning electron microscope. Three basic types (discoid, polygonal and spherocyte) were distinguished. Analysis of the material obtained confirmed the suggestion on the existence of stable erythrocyte types both in normal conditions and pathology. Content of these types in blood of vessels named is different. Inferior caval vein system is inaccessible for erythrocytes with significantly altered shape because they are unable to penetrate liver sinusoids. In portal hypertension essential increase of these erythrocytes number occurs and they are encountered in femoral vein blood. These forms obviously pass into the general blood flow through multiple collaterals. One of the criteria for portal hypertension diagnostics is suggested so as the method of evaluating portal vein shunts in conditions of the formed collateral blood stream. PMID:9244552

Ga?voronski?, I V; Chepur, S V; Nichiporuk, G I; Tikhonova, L P

1997-01-01

224

National trends in emergency department use of urinalysis, complete blood count, and blood culture for fever without a source among children ages 2–24 months in the PCV-7 era  

PubMed Central

Objective The epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000. Whether Emergency Department (ED) physicians have changed diagnostic approaches to fever without source (FWS) in response is unknown. We examine trends in rates of complete blood counts (CBC), urinalyses (UA), and blood cultures among 2–24 month old children with FWS since the introduction of PCV-7. Methods The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED, 2001–2009 was used to identify visits to the ED by 2–24 month old children with FWS. Rates of CBC, UA, neither CBC nor UA, and blood culture were tracked across time. Trends were identified using Joinpoint regression, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions with year as the independent variable and ordering of each test as dependent variables. Results In bivariate and multivariate analysis, CBC orders declined between 2004 and 2009 for visits by all children 2–24 months, children 2–11 months, and boys 2–24 months (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.88 per year, p<0.01; aOR: 0.88, p<0.05; and aOR: 0.83, p<0.01, respectively). Between 2004 and 2009 ordering neither CBC nor UA increased among all children 2–24 months (aOR: 1.10, p<0.05) and among boys (aOR=1.16, p<0.05). Orders for blood cultures declined across the time period in bivariate, but not multivariate analysis. Conclusion The rate of ordering a CBC for children in the 2–24 month age group presenting to the ED with FWS declined, a change coincident with the changing epidemiology of SBI since the PCV-7 vaccine was introduced. PMID:23603643

Simon, Alan E.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Mendola, Pauline

2013-01-01

225

[Effect of hypoxia on biochemical parameters of Scorpaena erythrocytes].  

PubMed

Hypoxia effect on the nuclear of the Scorpaena porcus (L.) in vivo was studied. It was shown, that existence of the fishes in environmental with low oxygen concentration-1.3-1.4 mg.1-1 (15% initial saturation) resulted in reducing in activities of Na+, K(+)-ATPase, hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the erythrocyte for 50.0 (p < 0.001), 26.5% (p < 0.01) and 53.7% (p < 0.05) accordingly. ATP concentration in cells and membrane gradient of Na+, K+ concentrations between blood serum and intracellular environment did not change. A conclusion was made about a decrease of cells membrane penetration and oppression of intracellular metabolism. These changes proceeded on a background of the blood serum dehydration and decrease of the mean volume of erythrocytes. The part of aldosteron and vasopressin in membrane penetration of nuclear erythrocytes is discussed. PMID:7747338

Soldatov, A A; Rusinova, O S; Trusevich, V V; Zvesdina, T F

1994-01-01

226

Updated Role of Nitric Oxide in Disorders of Erythrocyte Function  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that plays a critical role in disorders of erythrocyte function. Sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and banked blood preservation are three conditions where nitric oxide is intimately related to dysfunctional erythrocytes. These conditions are accompanied by hemolysis, thrombosis and vasoocclusion. Our understanding of the interaction between nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and the vasculature is constantly evolving, and by defining this role we can better direct trials aimed at improving the treatments of disorders of erythrocyte function. Here we briefly discuss nitric oxide’s interaction with hemoglobin through the hypothesis regarding S-nitrosohemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and myoglobin as nitrite reductases. We then review the current understanding of the role of nitric oxide in sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and banked blood, and discuss therapeutics in development to target nitric oxide in the treatment of some of these disorders. PMID:23534951

Kahn, Marc J.; Maley, Jason H.; Lasker, George F.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

2013-01-01

227

Expression of cryptantigen Th on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes in association with a hemolytic exacerbation.  

PubMed Central

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) erythrocytes lack complement regulatory membrane proteins and are susceptible to complement. Although the critical role of complement in intravascular hemolysis in PNH is accepted, the precise mechanism of complement activation in vivo is unknown. Accordingly, in a PNH patient who was suffering from a hemolytic precipitation soon after a common cold-like upper respiratory infection, we analyzed the erythrocytes with lectins and by flow cytometry to detect membrane alteration that lead to complement activation. The lectin reactivity of erythrocytes showed the expression of cryptantigen Th. The patient serum at the time of the hemolysis induced the expression of Th on erythrocytes from PNH patients and from healthy volunteers in vitro, whereas neither the patient serum after recovery from the hemolysis nor blood type-matched control serum from healthy donor showed this activity. Moreover, autologous serum selectively hemolyzed Th+ PNH erythrocytes, but not Th- PNH erythrocytes, or Th+ control erythrocytes. Hemolysis was not observed either in complement-inactivated serum or in blood type-matched cord blood serum, which lacks natural antibodies to cryptantigens. These findings indicate that the immunoreaction of infection-induced Th with natural antibody on PNH erythrocytes is a trigger of the complement activation, leading to intravascular hemolysis. Images PMID:7542278

Nakakuma, H; Hidaka, M; Nagakura, S; Nishimura, Y; Iwamoto, N; Horikawa, K; Kawaguchi, T; Kagimoto, T; Takatsuki, K

1995-01-01

228

Interaction of diesel exhaust particles with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Inhaled ultrafine (nano) particles can translocate into the bloodstream and interact with circulatory cells causing systemic and cardiovascular events. To gain more insight into this potential mechanism, we studied the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro. Incubation of erythrocytes with DEP (1, 10 or 100 ?g/ml) for 30 min caused the highest hemolytic effect (up to 38%) in rats, compared to small but significant hemolysis in mice (up to 2.5%) and humans (up to 0.7%). Transmission electron microscopy of erythrocytes revealed the presence of variable degrees of ultrafine (nano)-sized aggregates of DEP either internalized and/or adsorbed onto the erythrocytes in the three species. A significant amount of DEP was found in rat and mouse (but not human) erythrocytes. Lipid erythrocyte susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in erythrocytes of rats, but not humans or mice. Unlike in human erythrocytes, total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rats were significantly and dose- dependently decreased. In mouse erythrocytes, DEP caused a decreased in SOD (at 10 ?g/ml) and TAS (at 100 ?g/ml) activities. In conclusion, DEP caused species-dependent erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative stress, and were either taken up and/or adsorbed onto the red blood cells. Rat (and to a lesser degree mouse) erythrocytes were susceptible to DEP. Human erythrocytes showed the highest resistance to the observed effects. These species difference should be noted when using rats and mice blood as models for humans. PMID:22415085

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Zia, Shaheen; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Al-Amri, Issa; Al Kindi, Mohammed A; Ali, Badreldin H

2012-01-01

229

Amino ketone synthesis in avian erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

1. The relative rates of synthesis of aminolaevulate and aminoacetone by particles prepared from avian erythrocytes were measured under various conditions. 2. The production of both amino ketones by fresh particles was about three times greater in anaemia caused by phenylhydrazine and acetylphenylhydrazine than in anaemia caused by removal of 20–30ml. of blood. 3. The synthesis of aminolaevulate by freeze-dried particles decreased more than that of aminoacetone in the absence of added pyridoxal phosphate, in the presence of cyanide and of tris buffer, and after preincubation of the erythrocyte particles. Other differences in the rates of synthesis of the two amino ketones were observed after (a) incubation of particles at different temperatures and (b) storage of homogenized freeze-dried particles at different pH values. 4. It is suggested that these differences in the production of the two amino ketones are due to the presence of two amino ketone synthetases or to two or more isoenzymes of aminolaevulate synthetase. 5. The metabolic significance of aminoacetone in erythrocytes is discussed. PMID:5820636

Dale, R. A.

1969-01-01

230

Erythrocyte-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate stabilizes basal hydraulic conductivity and solute permeability in rat microvessels  

PubMed Central

Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator in blood, attenuates acute microvascular permeability increases via receptor S1P1 to stabilize the endothelium. To evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes as an endogenous source of S1P to the regulation of basal permeability, we measured permeability coefficients in intact individually perfused venular microvessels of rat mesentery. This strategy also enabled the contributions of other endogenous S1P sources to be evaluated. Apparent permeability coefficients (PS) to albumin and ?-lactalbumin and the hydraulic conductivity of mesenteric microvessels were measured in the presence or absence of rat erythrocytes or rat erythrocyte-conditioned perfusate. Rat erythrocytes added to the perfusate were the principal source of S1P in these microvessels. Basal PS to albumin was stable and typical of blood-perfused microvessels (mean 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s) when erythrocytes or erythrocyte-conditioned perfusates were present. When they were absent, PS to albumin or ?-lactalbumin increased up to 40-fold (over 10 min). When exogenous S1P was added to perfusates, permeability returned to levels comparable with those seen in the presence of erythrocytes. Addition of SEW 2871, an agonist specific for S1P1, in the absence of red blood cells reduced PSBSA (40-fold reduction) toward basal. The specific S1P1 receptor antagonist (W-146) reversed the stabilizing action of erythrocytes and increased permeability (27-fold increase) in a manner similar to that seen in the absence of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are a primary source of S1P that maintains normal venular microvessel permeability. Absence of erythrocytes or conditioned perfusate in in vivo and in vitro models of endothelial barriers elevates basal permeability. PMID:22865384

Clark, J. F.; Adamson, R. H.

2012-01-01

231

Decreased Ability to Carry O2 to Tissues Erythrocyte Loss  

E-print Network

9/16/2013 1 ERYTHOCYTE DISORDERS ANEMIA Decreased Ability to Carry O2 to Tissues ­ ErythrocyteL ­ Vitamin B12 or Folate Deficiency, Hemolytic Anemia, Liver Disease, Asplenia, Aplastic Anemia Deficiency Anemia, Thalssemia, Sideroblastic Anemia #12;9/16/2013 6 BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION Poikilocytosis

232

Diagnostic Usefulness of White Blood Cell and Absolute Neutrophil Count for Postoperative Infection after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM. PMID:24066211

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Ahn, Chi Young

2013-01-01

233

HPLC analysis of erythrocyte pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase inhibition by lead.  

PubMed

The activity of pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase (P5N) (EC 3.1.3.5) was assayed in microsamples of rat blood using high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC). The assay is based on the measurement of enzymatically formed uridine in erythrocyte hemolysates (10-50 microliter) and produces a linear activity curve from 5 to 1000 microM/g Hb/h. Acute (22 h) administration of lead acetate ip to rats induced a dose-dependent inhibition of P5N activity in erythrocyte samples. PMID:6273981

Rocco, R M; Smart, J L; Brown, D R; Blumberg, J B

1981-10-01

234

Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients increase erythrocyte susceptibility to hemolysis and impair cell survival. We explored whether electrolyte-reduced water (ERW) could palliate HD-evoked erythrocyte impairment and anemia. Forty-three patients undergoing chronic HD were enrolled and received ERW administration for 6 month. We evaluated oxidative stress in blood and plasma, erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHb)\\/ferricyanide reductase activity, plasma metHb, and proinflammatory cytokines in the

K-C Huang; C-C Yang; S-P Hsu; K-T Lee; H-W Liu; S Morisawa; K Otsubo; C-T Chien

2006-01-01

235

Plasmodium vivax Pre-Erythrocytic–Stage Antigen Discovery: Exploiting Naturally Acquired Humoral Responses  

PubMed Central

The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy? individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic–stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy? donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

Molina, Douglas M.; Finney, Olivia C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing

2012-01-01

236

Detection of Theileria equi in spleen and blood of asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic horses naturally infected with Theileria equi retain infected erythrocytes in the spleen and whether the presence of the hemoparasite in this organ is associated with parasitemia. We collected samples from 25 adult horses without clinical signs of any disease. From each animal, we collected whole blood samples from the jugular vein and a splenic puncture blood sample. All samples were submited to blood cell counts and detection of Theileria or Babesia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed in all samples for identification of piroplasm infection (T. equi and B. caballi). From the 25 horses evaluated for piroplasm detection by PCR, seven horses (28%) were positive in jugular vein blood but negative in splenic blood samples, five horses (20%) were positive in splenic blood samples but negative in jugular vein blood samples, and 13 horses (52%) were positive in both jugular vein and splenic blood samples. The hematological evaluation revealed anemia in 13 of 25 (52%) infected horses, lymphopenia in five (20%), neutrophilia in two (8%), neutropenia in one (4%), and thrombocytopenia in one (4%) infected horse. The present study demonstrated that several (20%) of the asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses did not show parasitemia, but show infected erythrocytes in the spleen. PMID:23666659

Ribeiro, Isabel B; Câmara, Antônio Carlos L; Bittencourt, Marta V; Marçola, Tatiana G; Paludo, Giane R; Soto-Blanco, Benito

2013-06-01

237

Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (?=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

2012-12-01

238

Erythrocyte G Protein as a Novel Target for Malarial Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains a serious health problem because resistance develops to all currently used drugs when their parasite targets mutate. Novel antimalarial drug targets are urgently needed to reduce global morbidity and mortality. Our prior results suggested that inhibiting erythrocyte Gs signaling blocked invasion by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Methods and Findings We investigated the erythrocyte guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs as a novel antimalarial target. Erythrocyte “ghosts” loaded with a Gs peptide designed to block Gs interaction with its receptors, were blocked in ?-adrenergic agonist-induced signaling. This finding directly demonstrates that erythrocyte Gs is functional and that propranolol, an antagonist of G protein–coupled ?-adrenergic receptors, dampens Gs activity in erythrocytes. We subsequently used the ghost system to directly link inhibition of host Gs to parasite entry. In addition, we discovered that ghosts loaded with the peptide were inhibited in intracellular parasite maturation. Propranolol also inhibited blood-stage parasite growth, as did other ?2-antagonists. ?-blocker growth inhibition appeared to be due to delay in the terminal schizont stage. When used in combination with existing antimalarials in cell culture, propranolol reduced the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations for existing drugs against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold and was also effective in reducing drug dose in animal models of infection. Conclusions Together these data establish that, in addition to invasion, erythrocyte G protein signaling is needed for intracellular parasite proliferation and thus may present a novel antimalarial target. The results provide proof of the concept that erythrocyte Gs antagonism offers a novel strategy to fight infection and that it has potential to be used to develop combination therapies with existing antimalarials. PMID:17194200

Murphy, Sean C; Harrison, Travis; Hamm, Heidi E; Lomasney, Jon W; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi

2006-01-01

239

A Unique Feature of Iron Loss via Close Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Host Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia is an extra-stomach disease experienced in H. pylori carriers. Individuals with type A blood are more prone to suffering from H. pylori infection than other individuals. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying H. pylori-associated anemia, we collected erythrocytes from A, B, O, and AB blood donors and analyzed morphology, the number of erythrocytes with H. pylori colonies attached to them, and iron contents in erythrocytes and H. pylori (NCTC11637 and SS1 strains) by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation soft X-ray imaging. The number of type A erythrocytes with H. pylori attached to them was significantly higher than that of other erythrocytes (P<0.05). Far more iron distribution was observed in H. pylori bacteria using dual energy analysis near the iron L2, 3 edges by soft X-ray imaging. Iron content was significantly reduced in host erythrocytes after 4 hours of exposure to H. pylori. H. pylori are able to adhere more strongly to type A erythrocytes, and this is related to iron shift from the host to the bacteria. This may explain the reasons for refractory iron deficiency anemia and elevated susceptibility to H. pylori infection in individuals with type A blood. PMID:23185604

Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Zhi; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Bingya; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Qiulan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

2012-01-01

240

Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room  

PubMed Central

Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

2011-01-01

241

Are the review criteria for automated complete blood counts of the International Society of Laboratory Hematology suitable for all hematology laboratories?  

PubMed Central

Objective to verify whether the review criteria for automated blood counts suggested by the International Consensus Group for Hematology Review of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology are suitable for the Hematology Laboratory of Hospital de Clinicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná. Methods initially, the review criteria of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology were adapted due to limitations in the Institution's electronic hospital records and interfacing systems. The adapted review criteria were tested using 1977 samples. After this first assessment, an additional 180 inpatient samples were analyzed to evaluate the screening criteria of the review criteria in conjunction with positive smear findings established by the institution. The performance of the review criteria was verified by determining false positive, false negative, true positive and true negative rates, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, microscopic review rate and efficiency. Results initial analysis showed false negatives = 6.73%, false positives = 23.27%, microscopic review rate = 46.03% and efficiency = 70.0%. An evaluation of the screening criteria adapted from the review criteria together with the positive smear findings of the institution showed false negatives = 15.5%, false positives = 10.5%, microscopic review rate = 37.3% and efficiency = 73.8%. In both situations the safety limit (false negative <5%) recommended by the review criteria was exceeded. Conclusions the review criteria adapted from the International Society for Laboratory Hematology are neither suitable nor safe for use in the hematology laboratory of the Hospital de Clinicas. This implies a need to develop and validate institution-specific review criteria in order to decrease false negative results to an acceptable and safe rate for patients. PMID:25031063

Comar, Samuel Ricardo; Malvezzi, Mariester; Pasquini, Ricardo

2014-01-01

242

Counting Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,…

Schwerdtfeger, Julie Kern; Chan, Angela

2007-01-01

243

Nigella sativa oil reduces aluminium chloride-induced oxidative injury in liver and erythrocytes of rats.  

PubMed

The present study was planned to investigate the protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) supplementation against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats. Simultaneously, a preliminary phytochemical study was affected in order to characterize the bioactive components containing in the NSO using chemical assays. The antioxidant capacities of NSO were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that NSO was found to contain large amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into two groups, in which group A received standard diet, whereas group B treated daily with an oral gavage dose of 2 ml NSO/kg body weight. After 5 weeks pretreatment, both groups were divided again into two subgroups (A and B) of six animals each and treated for other 3 weeks. Therefore, subgroup A1 was served as a control which received standard diet, but subgroup A2 received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw mixed with food). Subgroup B1 received both AlCl3 and NSO; however, subgroup B2 received NSO only. Results showed that AlCl3 exhibited an increase in white blood cell counts and a marked decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content. Plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin concentration were higher in AlCl3 group than those of the control, while albumin and total protein concentration were significantly lower. Compared to the control, a significant raise of hepatic and erythrocyte malondialdehyde level associated with a decrease in reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, activities of AlCl3 treated rats. However, the administration of NSO alone or combined with AlCl3 has improved the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that AlCl3 has induced the oxidative stress, altered the biochemical parameters and the hepatic histological profile, but the supplementation of NSO has alleviated such toxicity. PMID:25164035

Bouasla, Ihcene; Bouasla, Asma; Boumendjel, Amel; Messarah, Mahfoud; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; El Feki, Abdelfattah

2014-12-01

244

Effects of Aspirin on Rheological Properties of Erythrocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Aspirin is of proven value as an antithrombotic drug. In unstable angina it reduces the risk of death and myocardial infarction by half. Most studies on the mechanism of action of aspirin have concentrated on the effect of aspirin on platelets. In the present study we have tried to prove that there is another biophysical mechanism of aspirin, and that is through the effect of aspirin on erythrocytes. In this study ten blood samples were incubated with aspirin at different concentrations. The fractal dimension of erythrocytes subjected to shear rates from 5 s-1 to 30 s-1, in a cone and plate device designed and constructed in our lab, was calculated by processing the images of the erythrocyte. At each shear rate, the fractal dimensions of the erythrocytes were found to be strongly correlated with aspirin concentration. It is suggested that further studies using different biophysical methods must be carried out to detect the other mechanisms underlying the effect of aspirin on different blood cells. PMID:23675272

Elblbesy, Mohamed A.; Hereba, Abdel Rahman M.; Shawki, Mamdouh M.

2012-01-01

245

Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

2006-08-01

246

The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01857e

He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo

2014-07-01

247

Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of ?eff=7.6 ?B per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for ?eff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

Sakhnini, Lama

2003-05-01

248

Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

Quintanar-Escorza, M.A. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Navarro, L. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, M. [CIATEC, A.C. (Mexico); Arevalo, B. [Medical Center Medic Unit 1 Bajio, IMSS, Leon Gto. (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

2007-04-01

249

BASIGIN is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved1-4 are required in all parasite strains suggesting that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways5. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, BASIGIN, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth6. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble BASIGIN or by BASIGIN knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-BASIGIN antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a?) erythrocytes, which express a BASIGIN variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, exhibited reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for novel anti-malarial therapies. PMID:22080952

Crosnier, Cécile; Bustamante, Leyla Y.; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Bei, Amy K.; Theron, Michel; Uchikawa, Makoto; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndir, Omar; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Rayner, Julian C.; Wright, Gavin J.

2011-01-01

250

Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation  

PubMed Central

The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

2014-01-01

251

Acetaldehyde Influences Glucose 1,6-Bisphosphate Level of Human Erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intact erythrocytes from normal adults, acetaldehyde, besides inducing metabolite modifications otherwise observed, markedly decreases the glucose 1,6-bis-phosphate (G1,6P2) level. Pyruvate rapidly reverses the acetaldehyde effects. Also in vivo, the acetaldehyde that occurs in the blood stream after heavy alcohol intake produces a significant decrease of the erythrocyte G1,6P2 concentration. These changes support the role of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate as the first

Paolino Ninfali; Augusto Accorsi; Fulvio Palma; Antonio Fazi; Elena Piatti; Giorgio Fornaini

1984-01-01

252

Alteration in membrane protein band 3 associated with accelerated erythrocyte aging.  

PubMed Central

We report a human band 3 alteration that is associated with anemia as determined by a reticulocyte count of 20%. Erythrocyte defects included increased IgG binding, increased breakdown products of band 3, and altered anion- and glucose-transport activity in middle-aged cells. These changes were observed during normal erythrocyte aging in situ. Binding of ankyrin to band 3 was normal. Serum/cell crossover studies indicated that a neoantigen appears on the propositus' erythrocytes to which IgG from both propositus and control serum binds as measured with a protein A binding assay. IgG eluted from the propositus' erythrocytes appeared to have a specificity for senescent cell antigen as determined by a phagocytosis inhibition assay. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that antibodies to band 3, which do not normally bind to intact erythrocytes, bound to the propositus' erythrocytes. Antibody 980 binds to normal old cells but not young or middle-aged cells. It also binds to a distinct region of band 3 in immunoblots of membranes from the propositus' middle-aged cells. Cells from both of the propositus' parents exhibited increased IgG binding and altered anion and glucose transport. The results of these studies suggest that (i) band 3 is aging prematurely in erythrocytes from the propositus, (ii) senescent cell antigen appears on the propositus' middle-aged red cells, and (iii) band 3 alterations observed in the propositus may have a genetic component. Images PMID:2527366

Kay, M M; Flowers, N; Goodman, J; Bosman, G

1989-01-01

253

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...

Bunn, Ms.

2010-10-30

254

A new human erythrocyte variant (Ph) containing an abnormal membrane sialoglycoprotein  

PubMed Central

1. A new human erythrocyte variant (Ph) is described. The variant contains an unusual sialic acid-rich glycoprotein in addition to the blood-group-MN([unk])- and blood-group-Ss(?)-active sialoglycoproteins found in normal erythrocytes. 2. The unusual component Ph has an apparent mol.wt. of 32000 on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The Ph component is not degraded during trypsin treatment of intact erythrocytes. 3. The Ph component was labelled by lacto-peroxidase-mediated radioiodination of intact erythrocytes and was found to be present in amounts approximately equimolar to ?-sialoglycoprotein in the variant erythrocytes. 4. The Ph component had receptors for the lectins from Maclura aurantiaca (osage orange) and Triticum vulgaris (wheat-germ), but lacked a receptor for the Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney bean) lectin, suggesting that it carries only O-linked oligosaccharides. 5. The presence of the Ph component in these erythrocytes does not correspond to any of the known blood-group-MNSs-related antigens examined. 6. We suggest that this component may be a hybrid polypeptide containing the N-terminal portion derived from normal ?-sialoglycoprotein, and the C-terminal portion from normal ?-sialoglycoprotein, in a manner similar to the anti-Lepore haemoglobin. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:7396858

Tanner, Michael J. A.; Anstee, David J.; Mawby, William J.

1980-01-01

255

Physiologically aged red blood cells undergo erythrophagocytosis in vivo but not in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The lifespan of red blood cells is terminated when macrophages remove senescent red blood cells by erythrophagocytosis. This puts macrophages at the center of systemic iron recycling in addition to their functions in tissue remodeling and innate immunity. Thus far, erythrophagocytosis has been studied by evaluating phagocytosis of erythrocytes that were damaged to mimic senescence. These studies have demonstrated that acquisition of some specific individual senescence markers can trigger erythrophagocytosis by macrophages, but we hypothesized that the mechanism of erythrophagocytosis of such damaged erythrocytes might differ from erythrophagocytosis of physiologically aged erythrocytes. Design and Methods To test this hypothesis we generated an erythrocyte population highly enriched in senescent erythrocytes by a hypertransfusion procedure in mice. Various erythrocyte-aging signals were analyzed and erythrophagocytosis was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Results The large cohort of senescent erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice carried numerous aging signals identical to those of senescent erythrocytes from control mice. Phagocytosis of fluorescently-labeled erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice injected into untreated mice was much higher than phagocytosis of labeled erythrocytes from control mice. However, neither erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice, nor those from control mice were phagocytosed in vitro by primary macrophage cultures, even though these cultures were able to phagocytose oxidatively damaged erythrocytes. Conclusions The large senescent erythrocyte population found in hypertransfused mice mimics physiologically aged erythrocytes. For effective erythrophagocytosis of these senescent erythrocytes, macrophages depend on some features of the intact phagocytosing tissue for support. PMID:22331264

Gottlieb, Yehonatan; Topaz, Orit; Cohen, Lyora A.; Yakov, Liat David; Haber, Tom; Morgenstern, Abigail; Weiss, Avital; Chait Berman, Karen; Fibach, Eitan; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.

2012-01-01

256

In Vitro Characterization of the Erythrocyte Distribution of Methazolamide: A Model of Erythrocyte Transport and Binding Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate and extent of binding of methazolamide to human erythrocytes was studied in vitro. All experiments were carried out at physiological temperature (37C) and pH (7.4). Methazolamide (MTZ) buffer concentrations were analyzed by HPLC. Distributional equilibrium between buffer and washed red blood cells was achieved after 1 hr. Results of equilibrium studies were consistent with two classes of binding

Ganesh R. Iyer; Robert A. Bellantone; David R. Taft

1999-01-01

257

RBC count  

MedlinePLUS

... cor pulmonale ) Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen level (hypoxia) ... marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) ... disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood ...

258

A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel…

Pederson, Philip; And Others

1985-01-01

259

Structural analysis of glycophorin A from Miltenberger class VIII erythrocytes.  

PubMed

The major human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoprotein (glycophorin A or MN glycoprotein) was purified from the erythrocytes of two individuals heterozygous for the Mi-VIII gene in the Miltenberger subsystem of the MNSs blood-group system. The complete structure of a tryptic glycopetide from glycophorin A comprising the residues 40-61 was deduced from automated and manual sequence analyses. The Mi-VIII-specific glycophorin A was found to exhibit an arginine----threonine exchange at position 49. The threonine residue was found to be glycosylated. Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition assays demonstrated that one of the Mi-VIII-characteristic antigenic determinants (Anek) is located within the residues 40-61 of glycophorin A. Furthermore, erythrocytes from the two Mi-VIII heterozygotes reacted only weakly with anti-EnaKTsera, suggesting that the Mi-VIII-specific glycophorin A does not express the EnaKT antigen that is located within the positions 46-56 of normal glycophorin A. Our data suggest that the Mi-VIII-specific glycophorin A represents the evolutionary link between normal glycophorin A and the Mi-VIII-specific molecule which exhibits arginine----threonine and tyrosine----serine exchanges at the positions 49 and 52, respectively. Our data also provide an explanation for the close serological similarity between Mi-VII and Mi-VIII erythrocytes. PMID:2590469

Dahr, W; Vengelen-Tyler, V; Dybkjaer, E; Beyreuther, K

1989-08-01

260

Effect of N-chloroamino acids on the erythrocyte.  

PubMed

Amino acids present in blood plasma may be targets for oxidation and chlorination by HOCl/OCl(-). N-Chloroamino acids have been reported to be less reactive, but more selective than HOCl/OCl(-) in their reactions; therefore, they may act as secondary mediators of HOCl/OCl(-)-induced injury. This study compared the effects of five N-chloroamino acids (AlaCl, LysCl, SerCl, AspCl and PheCl) on erythrocytes with the action of HOCl/OCl(-). The N-chloroamino acids differed in stability and reactivity. They had a weaker haemolytic action than HOCl/OCl(-); HOCl/OCl(-), AlaCl and PheCl increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes at a concentration of 1 mm. Oxidation of glutathione, formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulphides and efflux of GSSG from erythrocytes were observed for erythrocytes treated with all the employed chloroderivatives, while increased oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin was detected only after treatment of the cells with 1 mm HOCl/OCl(-), AlaCl and PheCl. Generally, the reactivity of at least some N-chloroamino acids may be not much lower with respect to HOCl/OCl(-). PMID:18324521

Robaszkiewicz, A; Bartosz, G; Soszy?ski, M

2008-01-01

261

Peripheral blood natural killer cell count is associated with clinical outcome in patients with aaIPI 2 3 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Lymphocytopenia is a prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), data are much less established, in spite of numerous reports on immune system-lymphoma interactions. This study addresses the prognostic value of blood lymphocyte subsets at diagnosis in DLBCL. Patients and methods: Absolute values of blood lymphocyte subsets and monocytes were prospectively determined by flow cytometry

A. Plonquet; C. Haioun; J.-P. Jais; A.-L. Debard; G. Salles; M.-C. Bene; P. Feugier; C. Rabian; O. Casasnovas; M. Labalette; E. Kuhlein; J.-P. Farcet; J.-F. Emile; C Gisselbrecht; M-H Delfau-Larue

2007-01-01

262

[The human placenta's lead level as a parameter of the ecological lead exposure. Its validity in comparison to the lead level in blood, the activity of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the concentration of the free erythrocyte porphyrins of newborns and their mothers (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In order to estimate the ecological exposure of lead, placenta- and blood-investigations were made at four collectives from variously industrialized regions (Ruhrregion, Middle Frankonia Centre, Bavarian Forest). 148 normal births and 19 premature births (in each case mothers and newborns) were listed as well as twelve abortions. We investigated the lead-level in blood, the activity of delta-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) the concentration of free erythrocyte porphyrine (FEP) and the placentas' lead concentration. Though in the Ruhrregion (Dortmund) significantly higher lead levels in blood were found compared to the Bavarian Forest, the results together, were in the normal range, less than 35 mug%. In an average the mothers' lead level in blood was around 1.4 times (ca. 5 mug%) above that of their newborns; analysing this statistically, highly significant correlations were found. However for the ALA-D activity and the FEP-results no direct dependence of the lead levels in blood could be found. In the placentas mean lead concentrations between 1.94 mug and 2.23 mug per gram dry-weight (30.6 mug-38.9 mug/100 g wet-weight) were gained. In the contrary to the measured results of lead in blood the average placentas' lead level of the most and least industrialized regions were almost identical. A correlation between the mothers' respectively their children's lead levels in blood and the placental lead concentrations could not be proved. No relation could be found between the results and the gestation ages. As final results: 1. The placenta is no ideal investigation object concerning the environment's lead exposure. 2. It has no special barriere - or depot - function in lead metabolism. 3. In order to estimate the environment's lead exposure the determination of the lead level in blood will also be in future the optimal method. This investigation is of special value because of its validity of the results and the practicability of winning the samples compared to other parameters and biological materials. PMID:983547

Engelhardt, E; Schaller, K H; Schiele, R; Valentin, H

1976-08-01

263

Counting carbohydrates  

MedlinePLUS

Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...

264

Fluoxetine Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death  

PubMed Central

The antidepressant fluoxetine inhibits ceramide producing acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramide is in turn known to trigger eryptosis the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ceramide is effective through sensitizing the erythrocytes to the pro-eryptotic effect of increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). In nucleated cells, fluoxetine could either inhibit or stimulate suicidal death or apoptosis. The present study tested whether fluoxetine influences eryptosis. To this end cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. As a result, a 48 h exposure of erythrocytes to fluoxetine (?25 µM) significantly decreased forward scatter, increased annexin V binding and enhanced [Ca2+]i. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, fluoxetine stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. PMID:23860350

Jilani, Kashif; Enkel, Sigrid; Bissinger, Rosi; Almilaji, Ahmad; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

2013-01-01

265

Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Illustrative Mathematics

2012-07-31

266

Studies on blood eosinophils. II. Patients with Löffler's cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

Studies were done on blood eosinophils from four patients with raised blood eosinophil counts and heart failure. In three of the patients cardiological studies demonstrated the distinctive endocardial lesions and restrictive cardiomyopathy of Löffler's endocarditis and endomyocardial fibrosis. The fourth patient died with similar symptoms and signs. In blood films it was found that all four had more than 1 X 10(9) eosinophils per litre which were vacuolated and contained reduced numbers of crystalloid granules which were also shown to have ultrastructural changes. Unlike eosinophils from normal individuals the patients' eosinophils possessed receptors for rabbit IgG-coated erythrocytes and actively phagocytosed erythrocytes coated with rabbit IgG or human C3b. It is concluded that in these patients, a large proportion of the circulating eosinophils had developed characteristics of mature or stimulated eosinophils. This enabled them to respond to soluble substances in the bloodstream by forming endocytic vacuoles which led to degranulation of the crystalloid granules. These studies, taken in conjunction with other recent work in this field, support the concept that the restrictive cardiomyopathy of hypereosinophilic states, including Löffler's endocarditis and endomyocardial fibrosis, is a result of prolonged release of products from degranulated eosinophils while they are in the circulation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 2c FIG. 3 PMID:939049

Spry, C J; Tai, P C

1976-01-01

267

Effects of Agave tequilana fructans with different degree of polymerization profiles on the body weight, blood lipids and count of fecal Lactobacilli/Bifidobacteria in obese mice.  

PubMed

Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1™) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883

Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela

2013-08-01

268

Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah

1984-01-01

269

Dynamic study of intramembranous particles in human fresh erythrocytes using an "in vitro cryotechnique".  

PubMed

For analyses of dynamic ultrastructures of erythrocyte intramembranous particles (IMPs) in situ, a quick-freezing method was used to stabilize the flow behavior of erythrocytes embedded in vitreous ice. Fresh human blood was jetted at various pressures through artificial tubes, in which the flowing erythrocytes were elongated from biconcave discoid shapes to elliptical ones, and quickly frozen in liquid isopentane-propane cryogen (-193 degrees C). They were freeze-fractured using a scalpel in liquid nitrogen, and routinely prepared for replica membranes. Many IMPs were observed on the protoplasmic freeze-fracture face (P-face) of the erythrocyte membranes. Some control erythrocytes under nonflowing or stationary conditions showed IMPs with their random distribution. However, other jetted erythrocytes under flowing conditions showed variously sized IMPs with much closer distribution. They were also arranged into parallel rows in some parts, and aggregated together. This quick-freezing method enabled for the first time the visualization of time-dependent topology and the molecular alteration of IMPs in dynamically flowing erythrocytes. PMID:16586489

Terada, Nobuo; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Baba, Takeshi; Ohno, Shinichi

2006-04-01

270

FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and ?N-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.

2004-07-01

271

Long-term physiological effects of enhanced O2 release by inositol hexaphosphate-loaded erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

A continuous lysing and resealing procedure with erythrocytes permitted incorporation in these cells of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6), a strong allosteric effector of Hb. This leads to significant rightward shifts of the HbO2 dissociation curves with in vitro P50 (partial pressure of O2 at 50% Hb saturation), values increasing from 32.2 +/- 1.8 torr for control erythrocytes to 86 +/- 60 torr (pH 7.40; PCO2 40 torr at 37 degrees C; 1 torr = 1.333 X 10(2) Pa). The shape of the dissociation curve was still sigmoidal, although the Hill coefficient was decreased. The life span of InsP6-loaded erythrocytes equaled that of control erythrocytes. The long-term physiological effects of the InsP6-loaded erythrocytes on piglets were increased O2 release and reduced cardiac output. The reduced O2 affinity of the InsP6-loaded erythrocytes was still effective 20 days after transfusion in awake piglets. The electrolyte concentration appeared stable over the 5-day observation period except for a transient, but significant, hyperkalemia immediately after transfusion. The reductions in the O2 affinity of Hb reported here are large compared with previously reported values. Introduction of InsP6 into viable erythrocytes improves tissue oxygenation when, for any reason, normal blood flow is impaired. PMID:3116545

Teisseire, B; Ropars, C; Villeréal, M C; Nicolau, C

1987-01-01

272

Effects of Work Place Carbon Monoxide Exposure on Blood Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both blood viscosity and carbon monoxide (CO) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to investigate the effects of chronic low-level CO exposure on the determinants of blood viscosity (hematocrit, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and erythrocyte aggregation), 10 men exposed to CO at work for at least 6 months and 10 healthy controls were included in the study.

Dikmeno?lu Neslihan; Seringeç Nurten

2010-01-01

273

Erythrocyte Enrichment in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Cultures Based on Magnetic Susceptibility of the Hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM) when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free) magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A), hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry) to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes) that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes. PMID:22952572

Jin, Xiaoxia; Abbot, Stewart; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhao, Rui; Kameneva, Marina V.; Moore, Lee R.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

2012-01-01

274

Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

Wese?ucha-Birczy?ska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; ?abanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczy?ska, Malwina; Biesiada, Gra?yna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

2014-07-01

275

Interaction of selected anthocyanins with erythrocytes and liposome membranes.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are one of the main flavonoid groups. They are responsible for, e.g., the color of plants and have antioxidant features and a wide spectrum of medical activity. The subject of the study was the following compounds that belong to the anthocyanins and which can be found, e.g., in strawberries and chokeberries: callistephin chloride (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside chloride) and ideain chloride (cyanidin-3-O-galactoside chloride). The aim of the study was to determine the compounds' antioxidant activity towards the erythrocyte membrane and changes incurred by the tested anthocyanins in the lipid phase of the erythrocyte membrane, in liposomes composed of erythrocyte lipids and in DPPC, DPPC/cholesterol and egg lecithin liposomes. In particular, we studied the effect of the two selected anthocyanins on red blood cell morphology, on packing order in the lipid hydrophilic phase, on fluidity of the hydrophobic phase, as well as on the temperature of phase transition in DPPC and DPPC/cholesterol liposomes. Fluorimetry with the Laurdan and Prodan probes indicated increased packing density in the hydrophilic phase of the membrane in the presence of anthocyanins. Using the fluorescence probes DPH and TMA-DPH, no effect was noted inside the hydrophobic phase of the membrane, as the lipid bilayer fluidity was not modified. The compounds slightly lowered the phase transition temperature of phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The study has shown that both anthocyanins are incorporated into the outer region of the erythrocyte membrane, affecting its shape and lipid packing order, which is reflected in the increasing number of echinocytes. The investigation proved that the compounds penetrate only the outer part of the external lipid layer of liposomes composed of erythrocyte lipids, DPPC, DPPC/cholesterol and egg lecithin lipids, changing its packing order. Fluorimetry studies with DPH-PA proved that the tested anthocyanins are very effective antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of the compounds was comparable with the activity of Trolox®. PMID:22396139

Bonarska-Kujawa, Dorota; Pruchnik, Hanna; Kleszczy?ska, Halina

2012-06-01

276

Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.  

PubMed

Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality. PMID:19322506

Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

2009-07-01

277

Erythrocyte disaggregation shear stress, sialic acid, and cell aging in humans.  

PubMed

Erythrocyte aggregation, which plays an important role in the physiological behavior of blood fluidity, was found to be enhanced in hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. While the role of macromolecule bridging force has been widely described, cellular factors related to membrane sialic acid content, which might contribute to the negative charge of cell surface causing the repulsion of erythrocytes, have been less studied. Cell age-dependent changes in membrane sialic acid content (in micromoles per gram of integral membrane protein) were investigated in 24 normotensive and 24 hypertensive matched subjects, each divided into 2 identical subgroups according to a cutoff of 6.2 mmol/L serum cholesterol. A progressive and significant (P<0.001) decrease in membrane sialic acid content associated with an increase (P<0.001) of disaggregation shear rate threshold (laser reflectometry in the presence of dextran) were observed with increased erythrocyte density (erythrocytes fractionated by density using ultracentrifugation) in both normotensive and hypertensive groups regardless of the cholesterol level. However, disaggregation shear rate threshold was significantly higher and sialic acid content was lower (P<0.001) in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects with hypercholesterolemia compared with either normotensive or hypertensive subjects with low cholesterol, respectively. A high membrane sialic acid content variance, beginning in the younger erythrocytes, was due mainly to triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels (R2=0.49 for low, R2=0.43 for middle, and R2=0.54 for high densities, ie, young, mean, and senescent erythrocytes, respectively). We conclude that an early decrease in erythrocyte sialic acid content may influence the rheological properties of blood by increasing the adhesive energy of erythrocyte aggregates. PMID:9719062

Hadengue, A L; Del-Pino, M; Simon, A; Levenson, J

1998-08-01

278

Homeostasis of extracellular ATP in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

We explored the intra- and extracellular processes governing the kinetics of extracellular ATP (ATPe) in human erythrocytes stimulated with agents that increase cAMP. Using the luciferin-luciferase reaction in off-line luminometry we found both direct adenylyl cyclase activation by forskolin and indirect activation through ?-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol-enhanced [ATP]e in a concentration-dependent manner. A mixture (3V) containing a combination of these agents and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor papaverine activated ATP release, leading to a 3-fold increase in [ATP]e, and caused increases in cAMP concentration (3-fold for forskolin + papaverine, and 10-fold for 3V). The pannexin 1 inhibitor carbenoxolone and a pannexin 1 blocking peptide ((10)Panx1) decreased [ATP]e by 75-84%. The residual efflux of ATP resulted from unavoidable mechanical perturbations stimulating a novel, carbenoxolone-insensitive pathway. In real-time luminometry experiments using soluble luciferase, addition of 3V led to an acute increase in [ATP]e to a constant value of ?1 pmol × (10(6) cells)(-1). A similar treatment using a surface attached luciferase (proA-luc) triggered a rapid accumulation of surface ATP levels to a peak concentration of 2.4 pmol × (10(6) cells)(-1), followed by a slower exponential decay (t(½) = 3.7 min) to a constant value of 1.3 pmol × (10(6) cells)(-1). Both for soluble luciferase and proA-luc, ATP efflux was fully blocked by carbenoxolone, pointing to a 3V-induced mechanism of ATP release mediated by pannexin 1. Ecto-ATPase activity was extremely low (?28 fmol × (10(6) cells min)(-1)), but nevertheless physiologically relevant considering the high density of erythrocytes in human blood. PMID:21921036

Montalbetti, Nicolas; Leal Denis, Maria F; Pignataro, Omar P; Kobatake, Eiry; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J

2011-11-01

279

Homeostasis of Extracellular ATP in Human Erythrocytes*  

PubMed Central

We explored the intra- and extracellular processes governing the kinetics of extracellular ATP (ATPe) in human erythrocytes stimulated with agents that increase cAMP. Using the luciferin-luciferase reaction in off-line luminometry we found both direct adenylyl cyclase activation by forskolin and indirect activation through ?-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol-enhanced [ATP]e in a concentration-dependent manner. A mixture (3V) containing a combination of these agents and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor papaverine activated ATP release, leading to a 3-fold increase in [ATP]e, and caused increases in cAMP concentration (3-fold for forskolin + papaverine, and 10-fold for 3V). The pannexin 1 inhibitor carbenoxolone and a pannexin 1 blocking peptide (10Panx1) decreased [ATP]e by 75–84%. The residual efflux of ATP resulted from unavoidable mechanical perturbations stimulating a novel, carbenoxolone-insensitive pathway. In real-time luminometry experiments using soluble luciferase, addition of 3V led to an acute increase in [ATP]e to a constant value of ?1 pmol × (106 cells)?1. A similar treatment using a surface attached luciferase (proA-luc) triggered a rapid accumulation of surface ATP levels to a peak concentration of 2.4 pmol × (106 cells)?1, followed by a slower exponential decay (t½ = 3.7 min) to a constant value of 1.3 pmol × (106 cells)?1. Both for soluble luciferase and proA-luc, ATP efflux was fully blocked by carbenoxolone, pointing to a 3V-induced mechanism of ATP release mediated by pannexin 1. Ecto-ATPase activity was extremely low (?28 fmol × (106 cells min)?1), but nevertheless physiologically relevant considering the high density of erythrocytes in human blood. PMID:21921036

Montalbetti, Nicolas; Leal Denis, Maria F.; Pignataro, Omar P.; Kobatake, Eiry; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

2011-01-01

280

Piezo1 plays a role in erythrocyte volume homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Mechanosensitivity is an inherent property of virtually all cell types, allowing them to sense and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Stretch-activated ion channels represent a class of mechanosensitive proteins which allow cells to respond rapidly to changes in membrane tension; however their identity has remained elusive. The piezo genes have recently been identified as a family of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels. We set out to determine the role of piezo1 during zebrafish development. Here we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of piezo1 impairs erythrocyte survival without affecting hematopoiesis or differentiation. Our results demonstrate that piezo1 is involved in erythrocyte volume homeostasis, disruption of which results in swelling/lysis of red blood cells and consequent anemia. PMID:23872304

Faucherre, Adèle; Kissa, Karima; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Jopling, Chris

2014-01-01

281

Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines: identifying the targets.  

PubMed

Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines target Plasmodium during its sporozoite and liver stages, and can prevent progression to blood-stage disease, which causes a million deaths each year. Whole organism sporozoite vaccines induce sterile immunity in animals and humans and guide subunit vaccine development. A recombinant protein-in-adjuvant pre-erythrocytic vaccine called RTS,S reduces clinical malaria without preventing infection in field studies and additional antigens may be required to achieve sterile immunity. Although few vaccine antigens have progressed to human testing, new insights into parasite biology, expression profiles and immunobiology have offered new targets for intervention. Future advances require human trials of additional antigens, as well as platforms to induce the durable antibody and cellular responses including CD8(+) T cells that contribute to sterile protection. PMID:23176657

Duffy, Patrick E; Sahu, Tejram; Akue, Adovi; Milman, Neta; Anderson, Charles

2012-10-01

282

Counting Quail  

E-print Network

away from the noises of the engine cooling down. Note the time (a stopwatch is recommended), and then count (a) the number of different cocks heard, and (b) the total number of calls heard. Marking the location of various cocks calling on the data... sheet (Fig. 6) will help you determine if a bird you hear calling has been identifi ed previously. Experi- ence shows that spring call counts are fairly accurate until the number of calling cocks is greater than eight birds per listening post. Each...

Rollins, Dale; Brooks, Jason; Wilkins, Neal; Ransom, Dean

2005-10-05

283

Magnesium content of mononuclear blood cells.  

PubMed

The magnesium content of mononuclear blood cells may provide a better assessment of intracellular magnesium or total body magnesium status than does measurement of magnesium in plasma or erythrocytes. We describe a method for determining this, and report results for 20 normal volunteers. The mononuclear cells are separated with a discontinuous Ficoll-Hypaque gradient, washed, centrifuged at 400 X g, and lysed by sonication in 10 mmol/L NaCl. The magnesium in the cell lysate, with 2.93 g of added lanthanum oxide per liter, is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean mononuclear cell magnesium content in our volunteers was 70.7 (SD 14.1) fg per cell and 9.29 (SD 1.85) mg/g of DNA. The CVs for the determinations of magnesium, DNA, and cell count were 3.0%, 5.0%, and 8.7%, respectively. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.67, p less than 0.001) between results by the two methods of expressing magnesium content of mononuclear cells. However, by either method there were no significant correlations among results for magnesium concentration of mononuclear cells, plasma, or erythrocytes. PMID:3971556

Elin, R J; Hosseini, J M

1985-03-01

284

Erythrocyte-platelet interaction in uncomplicated pregnancy.  

PubMed

Maternal and fetal requirements during uncomplicated pregnancy are associated with changes in the hematopoietic system. Platelets and erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)], and especially their membranes, are involved in coagulation, and their interactions may provide reasons for the changed hematopoietic system during uncomplicated pregnancy. We review literature regarding RBC and platelet membrane structure and interactions during hypercoagulability and hormonal changes. We then study interactions between RBCs and platelets in uncomplicated pregnancy, as their interactions may be one of the reasons for increased hypercoagulability during uncomplicated pregnancy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study whole blood smears from 90 pregnant females in different phases of pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific interaction was seen between RBCs and platelets. Typically, one or more platelets interacted through platelet spreading and pseudopodia formation with a single RBC. However, multiple interactions with RBCs were also shown for a single platelet. Specific RBC-platelet interaction seen during uncomplicated pregnancy may be caused by increased estrogen and/or increased fibrinogen concentrations. This interaction may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with healthy and uncomplicated pregnancy and may also play a fundamental role in gestational thrombocytopenia. PMID:25470019

Swanepoel, Albe C; Pretorius, Etheresia

2014-12-01

285

Effect on Normal Human Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemisodium is a novel Na ionophore that belongs to the class of compounds called cryptands. These compounds possess an electron-rich cavity for binding of cations and are conformationally organized during synthesis to favor the selective binding of one cation over another. In media containing 145 mM NaC1 and 5 mM KCI, hemisodium (10 -5 M) increased erythrocyte Na content from

DEEPAK M. KAJI; J. Diaz

1992-01-01

286

Whole blood pumping with a microthrottle pump  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that microthrottle pumps (MTPs) display the capacity to pump solid phase suspensions such as polystyrene beads which prove challenging to most microfluidic pumps. In this paper we report employing a linear microthrottle pump (LMTP) to pump whole, undiluted, anticoagulated, human venous blood at 200 ?l min?1 with minimal erythrocyte lysis and no observed pump blockage. LMTPs are particularly well suited to particle suspension transport by virtue of their relatively unimpeded internal flow-path. Micropumping of whole blood represents a rigorous real-world test of cell suspension transport given blood’s high cell content by volume and erythrocytes’ relative fragility. A modification of the standard Drabkin method and its validation to spectrophotometrically quantify low levels of erythrocyte lysis by hemoglobin release is also reported. Erythrocyte lysis rates resulting from transport via LMTP are determined to be below one cell in 500 at a pumping rate of 102 ?l min?1. PMID:21264059

Davies, M. J.; Johnston, I. D.; Tan, C. K. L.; Tracey, M. C.

2010-01-01

287

Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj

2014-03-27

288

Counting Penguins.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

1998-01-01

289

Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.

2011-03-23

290

Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, ssavanic@carleton.edu

291

Counting Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

292

doi:10.1182/blood-2012-04-424184 Prepublished online August 23, 2012;  

E-print Network

;2 Abstract Dense, dehydrated red blood cells (DRBCs) are a characteristic feature of sickle- cell disease clinical manifestations and hemolysis Erythrocyte density in sickle cell syndromes is associated in "Blood 2012;120(15):3136-41" DOI : 10.1182/blood-2012-04-424184 #12;1 Erythrocyte density in sickle cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light scattering  

E-print Network

Red blood cell malformations Cell shapes Modeling and simulation of red blood cell light to various diseases and acute conditions, the shape and composition of erythrocytes (red blood cells. To the right is a figure depicting the initial stages of a beam traversal through a sample of blood cells

California at Berkeley, University of

294

Nutritional and pharmacological causes of erythrocyte fragility in the elderly  

E-print Network

Status Dietary Data Medication Data 13 14 14 14 Statistical Analysis RESULTS. . Intrinsic Factors Page 16 17 17 Vitamin E Intake. Vitamin C Intake 17 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake . . . . Aging Effects on the Red Blood Cells... . . Lymphocyte Count. Extrinsic Factors Medications Smoking Blood Collection and Handling Procedure DISCUSSION Intrinsic Factors Vitamin E Intake. Vitamin C Intake. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake . . . . Aging Effects on the Red Blood Cells...

Wong, Carolyn Ann

2012-06-07

295

[Aregenerative anemia and erythrocytes hemighosts: a case report].  

PubMed

An 11 year old African boy without previous history was hospitalised for fever and a severe anaemia (haemoglobin?=?55?g/L) with low reticulocyte count. Blood smear showed more than 35% of ghost red blood cells which allows the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency (blood cells on blood smear remains important for the diagnosis of congenital or acquired red blood cell diseases, even abnormalities are often of low specificity. PMID:21896417

Bibi-Triki, Tewfik; Bélien, Valérie; Chapelon, Emeline; Sauvion, Sylvie; Gaudelus, Joel; Laurian, Yves; de Pontual, Loïc

2011-01-01

296

Aminolevulinate synthase 2 mediates erythrocyte differentiation by regulating larval globin expression during Xenopus primary hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin synthesis by erythrocytes continues throughout a vertebrate's lifetime. The mechanism of mammalian heme synthesis has been studied for many years; aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), a heme synthetase, is associated with X-linked dominant protoporphyria in humans. Amphibian and mammalian blood cells differ, but little is known about amphibian embryonic hemoglobin synthesis. We investigated the function of the Xenopus alas2 gene (Xalas2) in primitive amphibian erythrocytes and found that it is first expressed in primitive erythroid cells before hemoglobin alpha 3 subunit (hba3) during primary hematopoiesis and in the posterior ventral blood islands at the tailbud stage. Xalas2 is not expressed during secondary hematopoiesis in the dorsal lateral plate. Hemoglobin was barely detectable by o-dianisidine staining and hba3 transcript levels decreased in Xalas2-knockdown embryos. These results suggest that Xalas2 might be able to synthesize hemoglobin during hematopoiesis and mediate erythrocyte differentiation by regulating hba3 expression in Xenopus laevis. PMID:25482442

Ogawa-Otomo, Asako; Kurisaki, Akira; Ito, Yuzuru

2015-01-01

297

Effects of ageing, surface sialic acid and glycopeptides of erythrocytes on auto-rosettes in man.  

PubMed Central

Human red blood cells can bind in vitro to autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes forming auto-rosettes. The percentage of rosett-forming cells (A-RFC) depends on erythrocyte ageing in vivo. Old untreated cells given an A-RFC percentage lower as compared with the young ones. The same age groups of cells treated with neuraminidase show a parallel increase of A-RFC as compared with untreated cells. No significant difference is found between young and old cells with high concentrations of neuraminidase. The rosetting formation is inhibited by the pre-treatment of lymphocytes with erythrocyte glycopeptides released by trypsin. This suggests that auto-rosetting is mediated by erythrocyte surface glycopeptides in which sialic acid plays a role directly or not. PMID:737912

Fabia, F; Gattegno, L; Gluckman, J C; Cornillot, P

1978-01-01

298

Erythrocyte-binding activity of Plasmodium yoelii apical membrane antigen-1 expressed on the surface of transfected COS-7 cells.  

PubMed

Malaria merozoite surface and apical organellar molecules facilitate invasion into the host erythrocyte. The underlying molecular mechanisms of invasion are poorly understood, and there are few data to delineate roles for individual merozoite proteins. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) is a conserved apicomplexan protein present in the apical organelle complex and at times on the surface of Plasmodium and Toxoplasma zoites. AMA-1 domains 1/2 are conserved between Plasmodium and Toxoplasma and have similarity to the defined ligand domains of MAEBL, an erythrocyte-binding protein identified from Plasmodium yoelii. We expressed selected portions of the AMA-1 extracellular domain on the surface of COS-7 cells to assay for erythrocyte-binding activity. The P. yoelii AMA-1 domains 1/2 mediated adhesion to mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not to human erythrocytes. Adhesion to rodent erythrocytes was sensitive to trypsin and chymotrypsin, but not to neuraminidase. Other parts of the AMA-1 ectodomain, including the full-length extracellular domain, mediated significantly less erythrocyte adhesion activity than the contiguous domains 1/2. The results support the role of AMA-1 as an adhesion molecule during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes and identify highly conserved domains 1/2 as the principal ligand of the Plasmodium AMA-1 and possibly the Toxoplasma AMA-1. Identification of the AMA-1 ligand domains involved in interaction between the parasite and host cell should help target the development of new therapies to block growth of the blood-stage malaria parasites. PMID:11551631

Fraser, T S; Kappe, S H; Narum, D L; VanBuskirk, K M; Adams, J H

2001-09-28

299

Long-term physiological effects of enhanced O/sub 2/ release by inositol hexaphosphate-loaded erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

A continuous lysing and resealing procedure with erythrocytes permitted incorporation in these cells of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP/sub 6/), a strong allosteric effector of Hb. This leads to significant rightward shifts of the HbO/sub 2/ dissociation curves with in vitro P/sub 50/, values increasing from 32.2 +/- 1.8 torr for control erythrocytes to 86 +/- 60 torr. The shape of the dissociation curve was still sigmoidal, although the Hill coefficient was decreased. The life span of InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes equaled that of control erythrocytes. Erythrocyte-survival studies were done using /sub 51/Cr labeling of cells. The long-term physiological effects of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes on piglets were increased O/sub 2/ release and reduced cardiac output. The reduced O/sub 2/ affinity of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes was still effective 20 days after transfusion in awake piglets. The electrolyte concentration appeared stable over the 5-day observation period except for a transient, but significant, hyperkalemia immediately after transfusion. The reductions in the O/sub 2/ affinity of Hb reported here are large compared with previously reported values. Introduction of InsP/sub 6/ into viable erythrocytes improves tissue oxygenation when, for any reason, normal blood flow is impaired.

Teisseire, B.; Ropars, C.; Villereal, M.C.; Nicolau, C.

1987-10-01

300

Invasion, and short- and long-term survival of Babesia divergens (Phylum Apicomplexa) cultures in non-bovine sera and erythrocytes.  

PubMed

In order to explore the feasibility of producing a Babesia divergens live vaccine free of bovine material contaminants the parasite's ability to grow in human, sheep and horse erythrocytes and serum and serum-free medium was investigated. B. divergens was successfully maintained in bovine erythrocytes overlaid with serum-free HL-1 medium. Supplementation of the culture medium with bovine or sheep serum improved parasite growth (monitored by measuring parasitaemia and uptake of tritiated hypoxanthine) whereas horse and human sera reduced parasite growth. As assessed by Giemsa's stained and FITC-labelled blood smears, the parasite invaded all erythrocyte types. Polyparasitism was less common in sheep and horse erythrocytes than in bovine and human erythrocytes. Accole stages were observed in bovine, human and sheep but not in horse erythrocytes. Proliferation following invasion was higher in human but lower in horse and sheep erythrocytes compared with bovine erythrocytes. Long-term cultures of B. divergens reached similar peak parasitaemias in human, sheep and bovine erythrocytes. Attempts to establish long-term cultures in horse erythrocytes failed. These results suggest that B. divergens is not host specific at the level of host cell attachment and invasion. Instead, parasite survival appears to be decided once the organism has gained access into the cell. PMID:12118713

Zintl, A; Westbrook, C; Mulcahy, G; Skerrett, H E; Gray, J S

2002-06-01

301

Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...

areese

2008-09-25

302

The influence of serum from patients infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae on the osmotic property of normal human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Venous blood sera from children infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) responded with a high titer to MP antibodies, affected healthy normal erythrocytes in vitro, and gave rise to changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. When serum was inactivated at 56 degrees C for 30 min or preincubated with anti-human C1 esterase inhibitor, the changes in the osmotic properties were suppressed at the lower level. The total sialic acid content and the intracellular ATP concentration of the treated erythrocytes were analyzed. PMID:2954567

Tsuchiya, Y; Sugai, H

1987-04-01

303

Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies.  

PubMed

Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN). Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite. PMID:25132548

Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K

2014-11-20

304

Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K. [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India); Das, Mukul [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India)], E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com

2008-08-01

305

Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

2014-02-01

306

21 CFR 864.6700 - Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. 864.6700 Section...Devices § 864.6700 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate test. (a) Identification. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate test is a device that...

2010-04-01

307

Fatty acids of erythrocyte membrane in acute pancreatitis patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids during severe and mild acute pancreatitis (AP) of alcoholic and nonalcoholic etiology. METHODS: All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of AP and onset of the disease within the last 72 h admitted to the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences between June and December 2007 were included. According to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scale, the patients were subdivided into the mild (APACHE II score < 7, n = 22) and severe (APACHE II score ? 7, n = 17) AP groups. Healthy individuals (n = 26) were enrolled as controls. Blood samples were collected from patients on admission to the hospital. Fatty acids (FAs) were extracted from erythrocyte phospholipids and expressed as percentages of the total FAs present in the chromatogram. The concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in erythrocytes. RESULTS: We found an increase in the percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FAs, a decrease in the percentages of total polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids of AP patients compared with healthy controls. Palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n7cis), arachidonic (C20:4n6), docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6n3), and docosapentaenoic (DPA, C22:5n3) acids were the major contributing factors. A decrease in the peroxidation and unsaturation indexes in AP patients as well as the severe and mild AP groups as compared with controls was observed. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the mild AP group were lower than in the control group. In severe AP of nonalcoholic etiology, the percentages of arachidic (C20:0) and arachidonic (C20:4n6) acids were decreased as compared with the control group. The patients with mild AP of nonalcoholic etiology had the increased percentages of total saturated FAs and gama linoleic acid (C18:3n6) and the decreased percentages of elaidic (C18:1n9t), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3), DPA (C22:5n3), DHA (C22:6n3) as well as total and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. CONCLUSION: The composition of FAs in erythrocyte membranes is altered during AP. These changes are likely to be associated with alcohol consumption, inflammatory processes, and oxidative stress. PMID:24039361

Kuliaviene, Irma; Gulbinas, Antanas; Cremers, Johannes; Pundzius, Juozas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Jansen, Eugene

2013-01-01

308

Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer  

PubMed Central

The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60?mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10?mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5?ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes

2014-01-01

309

Manifestation of Pig-a mutant bone marrow erythroids and peripheral blood erythrocytes in mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea: direct sequencing of Pig-a cDNA from bone marrow cells negative for GPI-anchored protein expression.  

PubMed

Our previous rat studies indicate that the endogenous Pig-a gene is a promising reporter of in vivo mutation and potentially useful as the basis for an in vivo genotoxicity assay. The function of the Pig-a protein in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors is conserved in variety of eukaryotic cells, including human and rodent cells, which implies that Pig-a mutants can be measured in a similar manner in different mammalian species. In the present study, we developed a flow cytometric Pig-a assay for rapidly measuring gene mutation in the mouse. An antibody to TER-119, a specific cell-surface marker of murine erythroid lineage, was used to identify erythrocytes in peripheral blood (PB) and erythroids in bone marrow (BM). An antibody to CD24, a GPI-anchored protein, was used to identify Pig-a mutants as CD24-negative cells. CD-1 mice were administered a single dose of 100mg/kgN-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and PB and BM were collected at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after dosing. While the Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) in PB was increased moderately at 2 and 4 weeks after ENU dosing, the Pig-a MF in BM was strongly increased starting at 1 week after the dosing, with the elevated MF persisting for at least 4 weeks after the dosing. We also used flow cytometric sorting to isolate CD24-negative erythroids from the BM of ENU-treated mice. cDNA sequencing indicated that these cells have mutations in the Pig-a gene, with base-pair substitutions typical of ENU-induced mutation spectra. The results indicate that the Pig-a mutation assay can be adapted for measuring mutation in BM erythroids and PB of mice. Taken together, the data suggest that Pig-a mutants are fixed in the BM, where they further proliferate and differentiate; erythrocytes derived from these BM Pig-a mutants transit from the BM and accumulate in PB. PMID:21549855

Kimoto, Takafumi; Suzuki, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Xiao Mei; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Heflich, Robert H; Miura, Daishiro; Kasahara, Yoshinori

2011-07-14

310

Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

Cicuta, Pietro

311

Flickering Analysis of Erythrocyte Mechanical Properties: Dependence on Oxygenation Level, Cell Shape, and Hydration Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) play an essential role in the respiratory functions of vertebrates, carrying oxygen from lungs to tissues and CO2 from tissues to lungs. They are mechanically very soft, enabling circulation through small capillaries. The small thermally induced displacements of the membrane provide an important tool in the investigation of the mechanics of the cell membrane. However, despite

Young-Zoon Yoon; Ha Hong; Aidan Brown; Dong Chung Kim; Dae Joon Kang; Virgilio L. Lew; Pietro Cicuta

2009-01-01

312

EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPY ON THE IN VIVO FREQUENCY OF GLYCOPHORIN A "NULL" VARIANT ERYTHROCYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...

313

On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.

1980-01-01

314

Isolation of erythrocytes infected with viable early stages of Plasmodium falciparum by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

The erythrocytic life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum is highly associated with severe clinical symptoms of malaria that causes hundreds of thousands of death each year. The parasite develops within human erythrocytes leading to the disruption of the infected red blood cell (iRBC) prior to the start of a new cycle of erythrocyte infection. Emerging mechanisms of resistance against antimalarial drugs require improved knowledge about parasite's blood stages to facilitate new alternative antimalarial strategies. For the analysis of young blood stages of Plasmodium at the molecular level, the isolation of ring stages is essential. However, early stages can hardly be separated from both, late stages and non-infected red blood cells using conventional methods. Here, iRBCs were stained with the DNA-binding dyes Vybrant® DyeCycle™ Violet and SYBR® Green I. Subsequently, cells were subjected to flow-cytometric analysis. This enabled the discrimination of early stage iRBCs as well as late-stage iRBCs from non-infected erythrocytes and the properties of the used dyes were evaluated. Moreover, early stage iRBCs were isolated with high purity (>98%) by FACS. Subsequently, development of sorted early stages of the parasite was monitored over time and compared with control cultures. The described flow cytometry method, based on staining with Vybrant DyeCycle Violet, allows the isolation of viable ring stages of the malarial agent P. falciparum, and thereby provides the basis for new, broad-range molecular investigations of the parasite. PMID:23136095

Philipp, Stephan; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Janssen, Ottmar; Leippe, Matthias; Gelhaus, Christoph

2012-12-01

315

The distribution of glucose and [14C]glucose between erythrocytes and plasma in the rat  

PubMed Central

1. Of the glucose in rat blood 79·8±3·3% (s.d.) was in the plasma. The variance was mostly due to differences between rats. 2. The concentration of glucose in erythrocyte water was 51±8% (s.d.) of that in plasma water. 3. The ratio (specific radioactivity in plasma)/(specific radioactivity in whole blood), i.e. the P/B ratio, was estimated for glucose at intervals after intravenous injection of [U-14C]glucose and [U-14C]fructose. The ratio differed from unity by more than the standard error of a single determination of the specific radioactivity of blood or plasma glucose except from 10 to 17min. after injection of [14C]glucose and from 22 to 30min. after injection of [14C]fructose. At all other times specific radioactivities in blood had to be corrected to give specific radioactivities in plasma. How to do so is described. 4. The P/B ratios were accounted for by a turnover of glucose in erythrocytes of 0·14?mole/min./ml. of erythrocytes. 5. Metabolism of glucose in rat erythrocytes is unlikely to be a major source of lactate. PMID:5801308

Heath, D. F.; Rose, J. G.

1969-01-01

316

Immunochemical evidence for hybrid sialoglycoproteins of human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

The two major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane (alpha and delta, glycophorins A and B) have identical amino acid sequences for the first 26 residues from the amino terminus, except that alpha expresses M or N blood group antigen activity whereas deta carries only blood group N activity. In addition, the asparagine at position 26 on alpha carries an oligosaccharide chain which is absent from the same position on delta. The two sialoglycoproteins differ in their remaining amino acid sequence and delta expresses blood group Ss activity. There are also variant sialoglycoproteins which have properties of both the alpha and delta molecules and may be hybrids of these. Using antibodies directed against different structural regions of the major sialoglycoprotein alpha, we confirm here and two variant erythrocytes (Miltenberger class V (MiV) and Ph) contain hybrid sialoglycoprotein molecules (Fig. 1). These hybrid sialoglycoproteins arise from cross-over events between the genes coding for alpha and delta. It is suggested that the two genes are closely associated in the order alpha, delta (5' leads to 3') on the chromosome. PMID:7015145

Mawby, W J; Anstee, D J; Tanner, M J

1981-05-14

317

Studies on the interaction of the Sophora japonica lectin and concanavalin A with erythrocytes and lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The agglutinating activity of lectins from the seeds of Sophora japonica and Canavalia ensiformis (concanavalin A) with human and murine erythrocytes and lymphocytes have been compared to one another and related to the mitogenic and immunosuppressive properties of these purified proteins. The S. japonica lectin, which demonstrates blood group specificity, is more active than concanavalin A with human erythrocytes, but has a much lower reactivity than concanavalin A with murine red blood cells. Ficin treatment of human erythrocytes results in an increase in agglutinability by both lectins as well as causing the appearance of S. japonica lectin receptors on type O cells. Treatment of murine reythrocytes with ficin alone or followed by beta-galactosidase causes the cells to be more reactive with concanavalin A. Beta-Galactosidase alone has no observable affect on the cells. In contrast, the agglutinability of cells by the S. japonica lectin increases after ficin treatment but is not affected by beta-galaetosidose treatment either after or in the absence of ficinization. Murine lymphocytes react with both lectins in a manner paralleling the agglutination patterns of murine erythrocytes. The S. japonica lectin appears to be devoid of mitogenic and immuno-suppressive activity, in contrast to concanavalin A which suppresses the T helper-dependent antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. These results are discussed in terms of the types of lectin receptors on lymphocytes related to agglutination, induction of blastogenesis and immuno-suppression. PMID:955676

Poretz, R D; Barth, R F

1976-08-01

318

[Sialic acid content and IgG binding of the glycocalyx of preserved erythrocytes].  

PubMed

Fractions of light and heavy erythrocytes were separated by centrifugation from blood samples banked in ACD-AG medium at 4 degrees C for periods up to 6 weeks. Both light and heavy erythrocytes have lost about 4,9% of their content of sialic acids during banking for 6 weeks. This reduction is in accord with a 6%-decrease of their agglutination by means of alcian blue. It is, however, a variance with the inhibition of agglutination by anti-IgG sera. The present findings provide evidence for the role alterations of the red cell membrane may play in the process of recognition and phagocytosis of banked erythrocytes. With regard to these alterations we suggest two types of rapid elimination of transfused banked erythrocytes: a) Primary elimination refers to cells primarily loaded with immunoglobulins such as to get recognized and phagocytized by macrophages. b) Secondary elimination accounts for rigid erythrocytes suffering from additional degradation while retained in the spleen prior to their loading with immunoglobulins and ensuing phagocytosis. Secondary elimination is considered a process more relevant to reutilisation of banked blood. PMID:89989

Halbhuber, K J; Feuerstein, H; Fröber, R; Stibenz, D; Linss, W; Geyer, G

1979-01-01

319

Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation promotes erythrocyte antioxidant defense and reduces protein nitrosative damage in male athletes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of long-term docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary supplementation on the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and oxidative balance in soccer players after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male athletes (age 20.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to a placebo group that consumed an almond-based beverage (n = 6), or to an experimental group that consumed the same beverage enriched with DHA (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken in resting conditions at the beginning and after 8 weeks of nutritional intervention and training in resting and in post-exercise conditions. Oxidative damage markers (malonyldialdehyde, carbonyl and nitrotyrosine indexes) and the activity and protein level of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and peroxidase) were assessed. The results showed that training increased antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes. The experimental beverage increased DHA from 34.0 ± 3.6 to 43.0 ± 3.6 nmol/10(9) erythrocytes. DHA supplementation increased the catalytic activity of superoxide dismutase from 1.48 ± 0.40 to 10.5 ± 0.35 pkat/10(9) erythrocytes, and brought about a reduction in peroxidative damage induced by training or exercise. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with DHA changed the erythrocyte membrane composition, provided antioxidant defense and reduced protein peroxidative damage in the red blood cells of professional athletes after an 8-week training season and acute exercise. PMID:25503390

Martorell, M; Capó, X; Bibiloni, Mdel M; Sureda, A; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Batle, J M; Llompart, I; Tur, J A; Pons, A

2015-02-01

320

Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose concentrations  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ (Group HM: 3 cats) or ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs’ testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P < 0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P < 0.001) and HM (P < 0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 °C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 °C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P = 0.006) and HM (P = 0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to ‘Candidatus M. haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus M. turicensis’ infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832

Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

2009-01-01

321

Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.

1998-01-01

322

EFFECT OF RESIDUAL SPLENIC FUNCTION AND FOLATE LEVELS ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS IN SPLENECTOMIZED HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Rates of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of splenectomized individuals can be used as an index of genetic damage to erythrocyte recursor cells in the bone marrow. his is in contrast to non-splenectomized humans, whose micronucleated erythrocytes are removed by...

323

Effect of Thioridazine on Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background: Thioridazine, a neuroleptic phenothiazine with antimicrobial efficacy is known to trigger anemia. At least in theory, the anemia could result from stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activation of p38 kinase. The present study explored, whether thioridazine elicits eryptosis. Methods: [Ca2+]i has been estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, and hemolysis from hemoglobin release. Results: A 48 hours exposure to thioridazine was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i (30 µM), decrease of forward scatter (30 µM), and increase of annexin-V-binding (?12 µM). Nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+ and p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 (2 µM) significantly blunted but did not abolish annexin-V-binding following thioridazine exposure. Conclusions: Thioridazine stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and activation of p38 kinase. PMID:24152992

Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Arnold, Markus; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

2013-01-01

324

Thalassemic erythrocytes release microparticles loaded with hemichromes by redox activation of p72Syk kinase  

PubMed Central

High counts of circulating microparticles, originated from the membrane of abnormal erythrocytes, have been associated with increased thrombotic risk in hemolytic disorders. Our studies indicate that in thalassemia intermedia patients the number of circulating microparticles correlates with the capability of the thalassemic erythrocytes to release microparticles. The microparticles are characteristically loaded with hemichromes formed by denatured ?-chains. This finding was substantiated by the positive correlation observed in thalassemia intermedia patients between the amount of hemichromes measured in erythrocytes, their capability to release microparticles and the levels of plasma hemichromes. We observed that hemichromes, following their binding to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3, induce the formation of disulfide band 3 dimers that are subsequently phosphorylated by p72Syk kinase. Phosphorylation of oxidized band 3 appears to be relevant for the formation of large hemichromes/band 3 clusters that, in turn, induce local membrane instability and the release of microparticles. Proteomic analysis of microparticles released from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes indicated that, besides hemichromes and clustered band 3, the microparticles contain a characteristic set of proteins that includes catalase, heat shock protein 70, peroxiredoxin 2 and carbonic anhydrase. High amounts of immunoglobulins and C3 have also been found to be associated with microparticles, accounting for their intense phagocytosis. The effect of p72Syk kinase inhibitors on the release of microparticles from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes may indicate new perspectives for controlling the release of circulating microparticles in hemolytic anemias. PMID:24038029

Ferru, Emanuela; Pantaleo, Antonella; Carta, Franco; Mannu, Franca; Khadjavi, Amina; Gallo, Valentina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Graziadei, Giovanna; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Turrini, Francesco

2014-01-01

325

Separation of White Blood Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CONVENIENT way of obtaining white cells from whole blood is simply to allow EDTA-blood to settle in siliconized glasses and then pipette off the leucocyte-rich supernatant after 1.5 h or more. A more rapid separation occurs when agents which aggregate erythrocytes are added to the blood1. The effect of these agents may be utilized even without mixing them with

Arne Bøyum

1964-01-01

326

Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples

Laia Quirós; Xavier Ruiz; Carolina Sanpera; Lluis Jover; Benjamin Piña

2008-01-01

327

The defect of Mk erythrocytes as revealed by sodium dodecylsulphate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The membrane glycoprotein defect of Mk red cells was studied using discontinuous sodium dodecylsulphate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, carbohydrate analytical procedures and lectins. The results suggest that Mk erythrocyte membranes contain only about half of the normal amount of the MN and Ss sialoglycoproteins, both molecules being not qualitatively different from normal. The major membrane protein exhibits an increased molecular weight in the above red cells. Some data on Mg and Miltenberger class five cells are presented for comparison. The results on Mk erythrocytes support the operon concept of the MNSs blood group system proposed previously. PMID:894053

Dahr, W; Uhlenbruck, G; Knott, H

1977-06-01

328

Money Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners count and compare amounts of money less than or equal to one dollar. Learners begin by finding all of the possible combinations of coins that can be used to equal a specified amount of money. They then compare two amounts of money and use number sense skills and problem solving strategies to move coins from one group to another so that both groups are equal in value. Learners play the Money Exchange Game as they roll a die with money amounts and try to be the first person to obtain exactly $1.00. Learners must make monetary exchanges in the game such as trading ten pennies for a dime. Finally, learners shop in a puppet supply store where they are given one dollar to buy items to make a paper bag puppet.

PBS

2012-01-01

329

Macrophage recognition of periodate-treated erythrocytes: involvement of disulfide formation of the erythrocyte membrane proteins.  

PubMed

Upon exposure to 2 mM periodate at 0 degrees C for 15 min, mouse erythrocytes underwent membrane lipid oxidation, oxidation of cell surface sialyl residues into aldehyde-bearing derivatives, and oxidation of SH groups of the membrane proteins into disulfides. The periodate-treated erythrocytes exhibited a remarkable increase in rosette attachment to resident mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of serum. The relationship between the oxidation of the membrane constituents and the macrophage recognition of these cells was investigated. Periodate treatment of erythrocytes in the presence of butylated hydroxytoluene, an inhibitor of lipid oxidation, did not affect the subsequent attachment of the erythrocytes to the macrophages. Reduction of the periodate-treated erythrocytes with borohydride or cyanoborohydride did not affect the erythrocyte attachment. Neuraminidase treatment of erythrocytes before periodate did not affect the attachment either. On reduction of the disulfides of the membrane proteins with dithiothreitol, the periodate-treated erythrocytes lost their ability to attach to the macrophages. Erythrocytes treated with an SH-oxidizing agent, diamide, were then examined for the macrophage recognition. The diamide-treated cells also showed rosette attachment to the macrophages in the absence of serum, but did not when reduced with dithiothreitol. These results indicate that oxidation of the SH groups of the membrane proteins to disulfides causes reversible membrane changes that macrophages recognize, and it is this mechanism that is responsible for the macrophage recognition of the periodate-treated erythrocytes. PMID:2537107

Beppu, M; Ochiai, H; Kikugawa, K

1989-02-13

330

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing.  

E-print Network

Name: __________________________ Part 1. Blood Typing. Indicate the blood type of each of the four samples you tested. Sample 1 Sample 3 Sample 2 Sample 4 Part 2. Red & White Blood Cell Counts. Write down of white blood cells you would expect to see in this same sample of blood. 2. Using the information

Loughry, Jim

331

In vivo shear flow and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in hypertensive patients.  

PubMed Central

1. To evaluate the response of red blood cells subjected to the shear flow in hypertension, the relationships between wall shear phenomena determined in vivo in the brachial artery of hypertensive patients and the modifications of the membrane dynamics measured in vitro in erythrocyte ghosts of 32 patients were investigated. 2. Two fluorescent probes, diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its trimethylamino-derivative (TMA-DPH), localized respectively in the lipid membrane core and at the lipid-water interface, were used. 3. Shear rate, shear stress and blood velocity were positively correlated with TMA-DPH anisotropy (P = 0.015, 0.005 and 0.026, respectively), but not with that of DPH. This indicates that wall shear forces were associated with the microviscosity of the outer part of the cell membrane. 4. The changes in wall shear forces and erythrocyte membrane microviscosity probed by TMA-DPH or DPH were observed to vary in parallel under nitrendipine therapy. 5. These results suggest that in vivo shear forces participate in the control of erythrocyte membrane fluidity or that erythrocytes adapt their membrane properties to blood flow conditions. PMID:12959291

Le Sang Quan, K H; Levenson, J; Del Pino, M; Simon, A; Devynck, M A

1993-01-01

332

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

333

Triggering of programmed erythrocyte death by alantolactone.  

PubMed

The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (?20 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 ?M), ceramide abundance (60 ?M) and DCFDA fluorescence (?40 ?M). The effect of alantolactone (60 ?M) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

2014-01-01

334

Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone  

PubMed Central

The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (?20 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 ?M), ceramide abundance (60 ?M) and DCFDA fluorescence (?40 ?M). The effect of alantolactone (60 ?M) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

2014-01-01

335

Application of a spectrally filtered probing light beam and RGB decomposition of microphotographs for flow registration of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a development of the flow microscopy method to increase the resolving power upon registration of erythrocyte agglutination. We experimentally show that the action of a ultrasonic standing wave on an agglutinating mixture blood-serum leads to the formation of so large erythrocytic immune complexes that it seems possible to propose a new two-wave optical method of registration of the process of erythrocyte agglutination using the RGB decomposition of microphotographs of the flow of the mixture under study. This approach increases the reliability of registration of erythrocyte agglutination and, consequently, increases the reliability of blood typing. Our results can be used in the development of instruments for automatic human blood typing.

Doubrovski, V. A.; Ganilova, Yu. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

2013-08-01

336

Adherence of erythrocytes to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae adheres to a variety of cells, including erythrocytes. A hemadsorption technique was developed to quantitate adherence by photometric measurement of lysates of erythrocytes that attached to sheets of M. pneumoniae grown in cups of Linbro plates. Attachment of sheep erythrocytes (SE) increased with higher ionic strength, was unaffected by minor pH variations (6 to 9), and was blocked by anti-M. pneumoniae antiserum, but was not inhibited by a variety of sugars, amino acids, and bovine serum albumin. The reaction was time and temperature dependent. The temperature curve showed peaks at 14 and 28 degrees C with untreated SE but only one peak at about 38 degrees C with glutaraldehyde-treated SE. The temperature dependence indicated involvement of either metabolic or membrane activities in the binding process. Trypsin treatment of the M. pneumoniae sheet abolished adherence of SE but was only partially effective with human erythrocytes and noneffective with rabbit erythrocytes. The binding capacity of the mycoplasma cells for SE was restored by incubation in growth medium for 3 to 4 h; this restoration was inhibited by 10 mug of chloramphenicol per ml. Neuraminidase treatment of SE removed their attachment capacity but had no effect on attachment of rabbit erythrocytes and only a slight effect on attachment of human erythrocytes. Pretreatment of M. pneumoniae with neuraminic acid partially blocked the adherence of SE, whereas rabbit erythrocyte attachment was not affected. Attached SE could be detached by trypsin, but not by neuraminidase. For human and rabbit erythrocytes, the results suggest binding mechanisms other than the interaction between neuraminidase-sensitive receptors and protein-containing binding sites shown for SE. PMID:39034

Feldner, J; Bredt, W; Kahane, I

1979-07-01

337

Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients.  

PubMed

Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients increase erythrocyte susceptibility to hemolysis and impair cell survival. We explored whether electrolyte-reduced water (ERW) could palliate HD-evoked erythrocyte impairment and anemia. Forty-three patients undergoing chronic HD were enrolled and received ERW administration for 6 month. We evaluated oxidative stress in blood and plasma, erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHb)/ferricyanide reductase activity, plasma metHb, and proinflammatory cytokines in the chronic HD patients without treatment (n=15) or with vitamin C (VC)- (n=15), vitamin E (VE)-coated dialyzer (n=15), or ERW treatment (n=15) during an HD course. The patients showed marked increases (15-fold) in blood reactive oxygen species, mostly H(2)O(2), after HD without any treatment. HD resulted in decreased plasma VC, total antioxidant status, and erythrocyte metHb/ferricyanide reductase activity and increased erythrocyte levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and plasma metHb. Antioxidants treatment significantly palliated single HD course-induced oxidative stress, plasma and RBC PCOOH, and plasma metHb levels, and preserved erythrocyte metHb /ferricyanide reductase activity in an order VC>ERW>VE-coated dialyzer. However, ERW had no side effects of oxalate accumulation easily induced by VC. Six-month ERW treatment increased hematocrit and attenuated proinflammatory cytokines profile in the HD patients. In conclusion, ERW treatment administration is effective in palliating HD-evoked oxidative stress, as indicated by lipid peroxidation, hemolysis, and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in HD patients. PMID:16760903

Huang, K-C; Yang, C-C; Hsu, S-P; Lee, K-T; Liu, H-W; Morisawa, S; Otsubo, K; Chien, C-T

2006-07-01

338

Polar decomposition applied to light back-scattering by erythrocyte suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, polarization property of RBCs was discussed by polar decomposition. Experimental results were compared with a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation for the erythrocyte suspensions with the same concentration. And there is a good agreement for both experimental and simulative results. Furthermore, Mueller matrices were measured for erythrocyte suspensions with different concentration under 10%, in this condition light coherent phenomena can be ignored. Using polar decomposition, the conclusion comes out that degree of polarization (DOP) and diattenuator for erythrocyte suspensions decrease with increasing concentration. Because when suspension concentration increases, scattering coefficient will be changed increasingly simultaneously and DOP and diattenuator decreases with added scattering times. These results will be referred as useful information for noninvasive diagnosis of blood.

Wang, Xue-zhen; Yang, Li-juan; Lai, Jian-cheng; Li, Zhen-hua

2011-06-01

339

THE ACTION OF ENZYMES FROM CLOSTRIDIUM TERTIUM ON THE I ANTIGENIC DETERMINANT OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES.  

PubMed

A method was described for the partial purification of beta galactosidase and beta glucosaminidase from Clostridium tertium culture supernatants. Treatment of erythrocytes with preparations containing both enzymes decreases their ability to react with anti-I cold agglutinins, and with Type XIV antipneumococcal horse serum. Erythrocytes of blood group A(1) are altered more rapidly and extensively than are group O cells. The enzymatic treatment of stroma results in a decrease in ability to absorb anti-I agglutinins and the release of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine as monosaccharides. The data suggest that these two sugars may be structural units of the erythrocyte I determinant, but no direct evidence is available. PMID:14074383

MARCUS, D M; KABAT, E A; ROSENFIELD, R E

1963-08-01

340

Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.  

PubMed

Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants. PMID:23732483

Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

2013-09-01

341

Studies on the interaction of Escherichia coli endotoxin with erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) alters the stability of erythrocytes to hypotonic lysis although the nature and magnitude of the effect varied with temperature and with the type of red blood cell examined. Evidence has been obtained suggesting a possible modulatory role of membrane lipids in governing the molecular consequences of membrane-endotoxin interaction. The marked effect of temperature on the stabilization of red cells by endotoxin was not attributable to variations in toxin binding and was not observed with more conventional structurally unrelated antihemolytic agents. Although chemical modifications which alter the toxicity of endotoxin in vivo also modify its ability to stabilize erythrocytes in vitro, no simple relationship between in vivo endotoxin toxicity and in vitro effects on erythrocyte stability was apparent. The critical dependence of endotoxin antihemolytic effects in vitro on molecular structure may offer a convenient means of assessing the homogeneity of these preparations before performing experiments in vivo. PMID:6751512

Godin, D V; Tuchek, J M; Garnett, M E

1982-07-01

342

[Mechanism of protective effect of amphiphilic compounds during hypertonic hemolysis of erythrocytes].  

PubMed

Antihemolytic effect of various amphiphilic compounds under conditions of red blood cell hypertonic hemolysis at different temperatures (0 and 37 degrees C) and cell exposure to diamide was investigated. The level of maximum antihemolytic activity and values of efficient concentrations for all studied substances were lower at 0 degrees C if compared with 37 degrees C. Exposure of erythrocytes to diamide (5 and 10 mmol/l) did not change cell sensibility to hypertonic medium. There has been demonstrated a temperature-dependent decrease in the efficiency of studiedsubstances under hypertonic hemolysis of erythrocytes exposed to 10 mmol/l diamide. Found reduction in efficiency of amphiphiles at low temperature and at high concentration of diamide was probably caused by similar changes of structural and dynamic state of erythrocyte membrane. PMID:17176840

Orlova, N V; Shpakova, N M

2006-01-01

343

Estimation of serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations in the New Zealand adult population within a background of voluntary folic acid fortification.  

PubMed

National data on the blood folate status of New Zealand adults is lacking. The objective of this study was to describe the blood folate status and examine the predictors of blood folate status in a national sample of adults from New Zealand, a country with voluntary folic acid fortification. The 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey was a nationwide multistage systematic random cross-sectional survey. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured by microbiologic assay. The survey included 4721 participants aged ?15 y, 3359 of whom provided a nonfasting blood sample. Biochemical folate status was measured in 3277 participants. The median serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 23 and 809 nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency, defined as plasma folate <6.8 nmol/L or erythrocyte folate <305 nmol/L, was 2%. Having breakfast daily compared with never eating breakfast was associated with 53% higher serum and 25% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations; consumers of fortified yeast extract spread had 17% higher serum and 14% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations than nonconsumers; daily users of folate-containing supplements compared with nonusers had 48% higher serum and 28% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in New Zealand adults is low. Participants who ate breakfast more frequently, consumed folate-fortified yeast, or used a daily folate supplement had higher blood folate concentrations. PMID:24174623

Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Brown, Rachel C; Parnell, Winsome; Skeaff, C Murray

2014-01-01

344

Influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF injections on selected blood parameters relevant for monitoring programmes in sports drug testing.  

PubMed

The use of growth factors in sports is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC). While the beneficial effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on erythropoiesis and therefore its performance-enhancing properties have been well documented and established for decades, the aim of this study was to elucidate the relevance of the cytokine G-CSF in a doping control context, particularly concerning its influence on selected blood parameters representing central aspects of the Athlete Biological Passport. For that purpose, the effect of repeated subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) injections in therapeutic dosages (10 µg/kg/d) on white blood cells, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and percent reticulocytes was analyzed by using commonly employed fluorescence flow cytometry-based approaches. A total of 20 people were tested (14 male, 6 female) and both white blood cell count and reticulocyte percentages were found to significantly increase following a 5-day treatment with G-CSF. Simultaneously, all other volume-dependent parameters (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) slightly but significantly decreased. Due to the relevance of these measurands for the validity of blood tests for doping controls and the anecdotal evidence of G-CSF being potentially misused by elite athletes, G-CSF analyses might be indicated in case of unusually altered blood profiles. PMID:23047806

Walpurgis, Katja; Slijepcevic, Mirjana; Wenzel, Folker; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Franz, Stefan; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

2012-10-01

345

Plasmodium falciparum Antigens on the Surface of the Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum produce highly immunogenic polymorphic antigens that are expressed on the surface of the host cell. In contrast, few studies have examined the surface of the gametocyte-infected erythrocyte. Methodology/Principal Findings We used flow cytometry to detect antibodies recognising the surface of live cultured erythrocytes infected with gametocytes of P. falciparum strain 3D7 in the plasma of 200 Gambian children. The majority of children had been identified as carrying gametocytes after treatment for malaria, and each donated blood for mosquito-feeding experiments. None of the plasma recognised the surface of erythrocytes infected with developmental stages of gametocytes (I–IV), but 66 of 194 (34.0%) plasma contained IgG that recognised the surface of erythrocytes infected with mature (stage V) gametocytes. Thirty-four (17.0%) of 200 plasma tested recognised erythrocytes infected with trophozoites and schizonts, but there was no association with recognition of the surface of gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (odds ratio 1.08, 95% C.I. 0.434–2.57; P?=?0.851). Plasma antibodies with the ability to recognise gametocyte surface antigens (GSA) were associated with the presence of antibodies that recognise the gamete antigen Pfs 230, but not Pfs48/45. Antibodies recognising GSA were associated with donors having lower gametocyte densities 4 weeks after antimalarial treatment. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence that GSA are distinct from antigens detected on the surface of asexual 3D7 parasites. Our findings suggest a novel strategy for the development of transmission-blocking vaccines. PMID:18509532

Saeed, Maha; Roeffen, Will; Alexander, Neal; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Targett, Geoffrey A. T.; Sutherland, Colin J.

2008-01-01

346

Hydroxylamine treatment increases glutathione-protein and protein-protein binding in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Hydroxylamine is a direct-acting hematotoxic agent leading to hemolytic anemia in animals and man. The effect of hydroxylamine on the morphology, sulfhydryl status and membrane skeletal proteins of human erythrocytes were studied. Loss of reduced glutathione (GSH) from the red blood cells was directly proportional to the hydroxylamine concentration used. This loss of GSH was larger than the sum of the increase in the amounts of extracellular glutathione and intracellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The extracellular glutathione is mainly present as GSSG, which is in agreement with the fact that only GSSG is exported from the erythrocytes by membrane bound ATPases. Lack of GSSG export was not limited by decreased ATP levels in the erythrocytes and we concluded that the GSH that disappeared did not become available as intracellular GSSG. After reduction of the erythrocyte incubates the lost GSH was almost completely recovered indicating that the lost GSH is present in the cell as protein-glutathione mixed disulfides. Glutathione thus stored within the cell can be quickly recovered by combined thioltransferase and glutathione reductase activity when conditions become more favorable again. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane ghosts from human red cells revealed changes in skeletal proteins with a smearing of bands 1, 2 and 3 to the higher molecular weight end of the gel and the appearance of new monomeric and dimeric hemoglobin bands at about 16 and 30 kD. The observed alterations are probably a consequence of disulfide bridge formation between cellular proteins (mainly hemoglobin) and skeletal proteins as well as between hemoglobin monomers. Exposure of hydroxylamine to erythrocytes caused severe Heinz body formation but the outside morphology of the cells was only marginally altered. The described changes in sulfhydryl status of the red blood cells are likely to play a major role in the premature splenic sequestration of hydroxylamine-damaged erythrocytes. PMID:9398534

Spooren, A A; Evelo, C T

1997-12-01

347

Distinct External Signals Trigger Sequential Release of Apical Organelles during Erythrocyte Invasion by Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

The invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands. Parasite proteins that bind erythrocyte receptors during invasion are localized in apical organelles called micronemes and rhoptries. The regulated secretion of microneme and rhoptry proteins to the merozoite surface to enable receptor binding is a critical step in the invasion process. The sequence of these secretion events and the external signals that trigger release are not known. We have used time-lapse video microscopy to study changes in intracellular calcium levels in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites during erythrocyte invasion. In addition, we have developed flow cytometry based methods to measure relative levels of cytosolic calcium and study surface expression of apical organelle proteins in P. falciparum merozoites in response to different external signals. We demonstrate that exposure of P. falciparum merozoites to low potassium ion concentrations as found in blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic calcium levels through a phospholipase C mediated pathway. Rise in cytosolic calcium triggers secretion of microneme proteins such as the 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) to the merozoite surface. Subsequently, interaction of EBA175 with glycophorin A (glyA), its receptor on erythrocytes, restores basal cytosolic calcium levels and triggers release of rhoptry proteins. Our results identify for the first time the external signals responsible for the sequential release of microneme and rhoptry proteins during erythrocyte invasion and provide a starting point for the dissection of signal transduction pathways involved in regulated exocytosis of these key apical organelles. Signaling pathway components involved in apical organelle discharge may serve as novel targets for drug development since inhibition of microneme and rhoptry secretion can block invasion and limit blood-stage parasite growth. PMID:20140184

Singh, Shailja; Alam, M. Mahmood; Pal-Bhowmick, Ipsita; Brzostowski, Joseph A.; Chitnis, Chetan E.

2010-01-01

348

Distinct external signals trigger sequential release of apical organelles during erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites.  

PubMed

The invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands. Parasite proteins that bind erythrocyte receptors during invasion are localized in apical organelles called micronemes and rhoptries. The regulated secretion of microneme and rhoptry proteins to the merozoite surface to enable receptor binding is a critical step in the invasion process. The sequence of these secretion events and the external signals that trigger release are not known. We have used time-lapse video microscopy to study changes in intracellular calcium levels in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites during erythrocyte invasion. In addition, we have developed flow cytometry based methods to measure relative levels of cytosolic calcium and study surface expression of apical organelle proteins in P. falciparum merozoites in response to different external signals. We demonstrate that exposure of P. falciparum merozoites to low potassium ion concentrations as found in blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic calcium levels through a phospholipase C mediated pathway. Rise in cytosolic calcium triggers secretion of microneme proteins such as the 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) to the merozoite surface. Subsequently, interaction of EBA175 with glycophorin A (glyA), its receptor on erythrocytes, restores basal cytosolic calcium levels and triggers release of rhoptry proteins. Our results identify for the first time the external signals responsible for the sequential release of microneme and rhoptry proteins during erythrocyte invasion and provide a starting point for the dissection of signal transduction pathways involved in regulated exocytosis of these key apical organelles. Signaling pathway components involved in apical organelle discharge may serve as novel targets for drug development since inhibition of microneme and rhoptry secretion can block invasion and limit blood-stage parasite growth. PMID:20140184

Singh, Shailja; Alam, M Mahmood; Pal-Bhowmick, Ipsita; Brzostowski, Joseph A; Chitnis, Chetan E

2010-02-01

349

Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6–26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., “positive controls”), and healthy controls (i.e., “negative controls”). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

2013-01-01

350

Erythrocyte Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC): diagnostic and therapeutic implications in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. The last three decades efforts have been made to elucidate the biochemical pathways that are implicated in the process of atherogenesis and plaque development. Chemokines are crucial mediators in every step of this process. Additionally, cellular components of the peripheral blood have been proved important mediators in the formation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. However, until recently data were mostly focusing on leukocytes and platelets. Erythrocytes were considered unreceptive bystanders and limited data supported their importance in the progression and destabilization of the atherosclerotic plaque. Recently erythrocytes, through their Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC), have been proposed as appealing regulators of chemokine-induced pathways. Dissimilar to every other chemokine receptor DARC possesses high affinity for several ligands from both CC and CXC chemokine sub-families. Moreover, DARC is not coupled to a G-protein or any other intracellular signalling system; thus it is incapable of generating second messages. The exact biochemical role of erythrocyte DARC remains to be determined. It is however challenging the fact that DARC is a regulator of almost every CC and CXC chemokine ligand and therefore DARC antagonism could effectively block the complex pre-inflammatory chemokine network. In the present review we intent to provide recent evidence supporting the role of erythrocytes in atherosclerosis focusing on the erythrocyte-chemokine interaction through the Duffy antigen system. PMID:21441947

Apostolakis, Stavros; Chalikias, Georgios K; Tziakas, Dimitrios N; Konstantinides, Stavros

2011-01-01

351

Immunoelectron microscopy of Schüffner's dots in Plasmodium vivax-infected human erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax induces morphologic alterations in infected host erythrocytes that are visible by light microscopy in Romanovsky-stained blood smears as multiple brick-red dots. These morphologic changes, referred to as Schüffner's dots, are important in the identification of this species of malarial parasite and have been associated by electron microscopy with caveolavesicle complexes along the erythrocyte plasmalemma. We have produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb A 20) that identifies an antigen in Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocytes that is associated with the caveola-vesicle complexes of the parasitized host cell. This monoclonal antibody reacts with air-dried P vivax-infected erythrocytes to produce a pattern by the indirect immunofluorescence test (IFT) that is evocative of Schüffner's dots. Immunoelectron microscopy of P vivax-infected human erythrocytes using MAb A 20 confirmed the location of this antigen within vesicles of caveola-vesicle complexes. On Western blots MAb A 20 recognized four polypeptides of 54, 64, 72, and 86 kd. MAb A 20 reacted by IFT with 90% of Sri Lankan isolates and with a Brazilian P vivax isolate, which indicates that the epitope identified by this monoclonal is conserved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3281470

Udagama, P. V.; Atkinson, C. T.; Peiris, J. S.; David, P. H.; Mendis, K. N.; Aikawa, M.

1988-01-01

352

ERYTHROCYTE SURVIVAL IN SHEEP EXPOSED TO OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...

353

Control of erythrocyte shape by calmodulin  

PubMed Central

Erythrocytes are deformable cells whose shapes can be altered by treatments with a variety of drugs. The forms the erythrocyte may assume vary continuously from the spiny "echinocytes" or crenated cells at one extreme to highly folded and dented "cupped" cells at the other extreme. Examination of 39 compounds for cup-forming activity revealed a remarkable correlation between their ability to form cupped cells and their inhibitory activity against the calcium regulatory protein, calmodulin. Calmodulin is known to interact with several erythrocyte proteins including spectrin, spectrin kinase, and the Ca++ ATPase calcium pump of the membrane. These proteins regulate the form of the cytoskeleton as well as intracellular calcium and ATP levels. It is proposed that calmodulin is required to maintain normal erythrocyte morphology and that in the presence of calmodulin inhibitors, the cell assumes a cupped shape. PMID:6833381

1983-01-01

354

[Corrected count].  

PubMed

The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected. PMID:12286542

1991-11-27

355

Laser interference microscopy in erythrocyte study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the laser interference microscopy (LIM) technique, one can measure phase height of cells—a variable proportional to the cell thickness and the difference in the refractive indices of the cell and the surrounding medium. This makes functional optical cell imaging possible, and estimation of shape, thickness, and area of erythrocytes feasible. In this paper, we studied changes in erythrocyte shape and volume with osmolarity and pH. Obtained from the LIM technique, erythrocyte phase heights and area values, as well as the hematocrit-measured erythrocyte volume, were used to estimate changes in the refractive index with osmolarity and pH. A comparison between the estimated refractive index with the refractive index, calculated in the assumption that it can only depend on the hemoglobin concentration in the cell, indicates that these two estimates are identical in the range of osmolarity (250-1000 mOsm) and pH (4.5-10.0) values. Thus, refractive index changes result exclusively from the changes in hemoglobin concentration with the changes in erythrocyte volume. Under these conditions, it is possible to estimate the amount of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte from its phase height and area, obtained from LIM.

Yusipovich, A. I.; Parshina, E. Yu.; Brysgalova, N. Yu.; Brazhe, A. R.; Brazhe, N. A.; Lomakin, A. G.; Levin, G. G.; Maksimov, G. V.

2009-05-01

356

Study of polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorins using microscopic image digital analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study synthetic polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin using image digital analysis. Polycations are oligomers or polymers of natural or synthetic origin, which bear a great number of positive charges at pH 7.4. Several of these polycations are nowadays used in clinic for human and veterinary purposes. New applications of polycations to the development of new drug delivery systems are investigated, in order to promote the drug absorption through the gastro-intestinal and blood brain barriers. However, up to now, there are no clear relationships between macromolecular features of polycations (molecular weight, mean charge density, charge repartition, etc.) and their interactions with blood elements (which bear superficial negative charges). The interaction on the red blood cell membrane with synthetic polycations having well-controlled macromolecular features and functionalized with pendent polyethylene glycol segments was investigated. The alterations over stationary and dynamic viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes were analyzed through laser diffractometry. Image digital analysis was used to study erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin. Results show different reactivities of the polycations on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings could provide more information about the mechanisms of polycation interaction on erythrocyte membranes. We consider that this work could provide useful tools to understand and improve the haemocompatibility of polycations and enlarge their potential in clinic.

Riquelme, B.; Dumas, D.; Relancio, F.; Fontana, A.; Alessi, A.; Foresto, P.; Grandfils, C.; Stoltz, J.; Valverde, J.

2006-04-01

357

In vivo accelerated acetaldehyde metabolism using acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-loaded erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Human erythrocytes were loaded with homogeneous acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH) purified from Alcaligenes Eutrophus (an enzyme species with an apparent Km for acetaldehyde similar to the mitochondrial enzyme), using an encapsulation procedure based on hypotonic haemolysis, isotonic resealing and reannealing. The AcDH-overloaded erythrocytes contained 1.55 +/- 0.25 I.U. of AcDH activity per ml of packed erythrocytes, a value 12-15 times higher than that of corresponding unloaded or native red cells. The AcDH-loaded erythrocytes were found to metabolize 4 +/- 0.8 mumol of acetaldehyde/hr/ml of red blood cells, whereas the glycolytic activity was almost unmodified. Estimates of intracellular adenine nucleotides showed 50% ATP decay in the AcDH-loaded cells when incubated in the presence of acetaldehyde concentrations higher than 50 microM, whereas the [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio was strongly decreased but to the same extent as in control cells, suggesting that this was due to the acetaldehyde itself and not to the presence of encapsulated AcDH. Similar results were obtained using mouse erythrocytes. AcDH-overloaded mouse red blood cells from donor animals were also injected intraperitoneally into compatible recipients (Balb/C) and 80 to 85% of these were found to enter into circulation within 24 hr and to circulate with a half-life of 6-7.3 days (normal half-life 11 days). Following an acute dose of ethanol (2g/kg intraperitoneally), blood levels of acetaldehyde were significantly lower in mice receiving the AcDH-loaded erythrocytes than in controls. Blood levels of ethanol were also lower in the treated mice compared to controls. These results show that AcDH-overloaded erythrocytes can perform in vitro and in vivo as bioreactors improving alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, and suggest that administration of these cells to alcoholic patients could be of value in restoring to normal, or improving, alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. PMID:2085346

Magnani, M; Laguerre, M; Rossi, L; Bianchi, M; Ninfali, P; Mangani, F; Ropars, C

1990-01-01

358

Counting whole numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and use whole numbers up to 100 Here are some links to help you learn more about counting Teach R Kids Math counting and number activity themes Here are some games to help you practice your counting counting cherrios Bunny Count Connect the Dots Game ...

Hirst, Ms.

2007-10-12

359

The pathologic cascade of cerebrovascular lesions in SHRSP: is erythrocyte accumulation an early phase?  

PubMed Central

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is associated with vessel wall changes, microbleeds, blood–brain barrier (BBB) disturbances, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). As spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) may be a valid model of some aspects of human CSVD, we aimed to identify whether those changes occur in definite temporal stages and whether there is an initial phenomenon beyond those common vascular alterations. Groups of 51 SHRSP were examined simultaneously by histologic (Hematoxylin–Eosin, IgG-Immunohistochemistry, vessel diameter measurement) and imaging methods (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 201-Thallium-Diethyldithiocarbamate/99m-Technetium-HMPAO Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography conducted as pilot study) at different stages of age. Vascular pathology in SHRSP proceeds in definite stages, whereas an age-dependent accumulation of erythrocytes in capillaries and arterioles represents the homogeneous initial step of the disease. Erythrocyte accumulations are followed by BBB disturbances and microbleeds, both also increasing with age. Microthromboses, tissue infarctions with CBF reduction, and disturbed potassium uptake represent the final stage of vascular pathology in SHRSP. Erythrocyte accumulations—we parsimoniously interpreted as stases—without cerebral tissue damage represent the first step of vascular pathology in SHRSP. If that initial phenomenon could be identified in patients, these erythrocyte accumulations might be a promising target for implementing prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in human CSVD. PMID:21878945

Schreiber, Stefanie; Bueche, Celine Z; Garz, Cornelia; Kropf, Siegfried; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Juergen; Neumann, Jens; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Goertler, Michael; Reymann, Klaus G; Braun, Holger

2012-01-01

360

Micro determination of plasma and erythrocyte copper by atomic absorption spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

The free and total plasma copper and total erythrocyte copper levels have been determined by simple, yet sensitive and highly specific methods, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For total copper determination, the copper was split from its protein combination in plasma or red cells by the action of hydrochloric acid at room temperature. The liberated copper was chelated by ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extracted into n-butyl acetate by shaking and the organic extract was aspirated into the atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame. The entire procedure was carried out in polypropylene centrifuge tubes, capped during shaking. For the free plasma copper measurement the hydrochloric acid step was omitted. Removal of the plasma or erythrocyte proteins was found to be unnecessary, and, in addition, the presence of trichloracetic acid caused an appreciable lowering of absorption. Using a double-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer and scale expansion × 10, micro methods have been derived for determining the total copper of plasma or erythrocytes with 0·1 ml of sample, and the free copper of plasma with 0·5 ml. The macro plasma copper method requires 2 ml of plasma and is suitable for use with single-beam atomic absorption spectrophotometers. With blood from 50 blood donors, normal ranges of plasma and erythrocyte copper have been determined. PMID:5776543

Blomfield, Jeanette; Macmahon, R. A.

1969-01-01

361

Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

362

Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity.  

PubMed

Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p<0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms. PMID:11541938

Skedina, M A; Katuntsev, V P; Buravkova, L B; Naidina, V P

1998-01-01

363

Blood Cell Damage after in vitro Irradiation of Fresh Whole Blood with 630 nm Laser Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on blood cell damage after irradiation of fresh whole blood with 630 nm laser light was carried out in vitro. Various fluence rates of laser light were used with and without cooling of blood. Damage to the blood was assessed by blood cell counts, osmotic fragility measurements and examination of blood films. Exposure of a 1 mm blood

Frank Fischer; Michael Aulmann; Wolfgang Maier-Borst; Walter J. Lorenz

364

42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Procedure Cell identification or white blood cell differential Erythrocyte count... Monocytes Major red and white blood cell abnormalities Immature red and white blood cells (2) White blood cell...

2013-10-01

365

42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedure Cell identification or white blood cell differential Erythrocyte count... Monocytes Major red and white blood cell abnormalities Immature red and white blood cells (2) White blood cell...

2011-10-01

366

42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Procedure Cell identification or white blood cell differential Erythrocyte count... Monocytes Major red and white blood cell abnormalities Immature red and white blood cells (2) White blood cell...

2012-10-01

367

42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

...Procedure Cell identification or white blood cell differential Erythrocyte count... Monocytes Major red and white blood cell abnormalities Immature red and white blood cells (2) White blood cell...

2014-10-01

368

42 CFR 493.941 - Hematology (including routine hematology and coagulation).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procedure Cell identification or white blood cell differential Erythrocyte count... Monocytes Major red and white blood cell abnormalities Immature red and white blood cells (2) White blood cell...

2010-10-01

369

Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss  

SciTech Connect

Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

1986-03-01

370

Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices. PMID:24292848

Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev

2014-04-01

371

Specific antibodies for desialized M and N blood group antigens.  

PubMed

Antisera obtained by immunizing rabbits with desialized M and N blood group glycoproteins (M' and N' glycoproteins) agglutinate desialized erythrocytes and precipitate desialized glycoproteins, but they do not react with sialic acid containing erythrocytes or glycoproteins. By absorption of anti-M' serum with N' glycoprotein, and of anti-N' serum with M' glycoprotein, reagents specifically agglutinating M' or N' erythrocytes were obtained. The absorbed anti-M' and anti-N' sera were specifically inhibited by M' or N' glycoproteins, respectively. The results show that sialic acid residues of red cell glycoproteins are not essential for the differentiation of M an N blood group determinants. PMID:898835

Lisowska, E; Kordowicz, M

1977-09-01

372

Blood Lipids, Infection, and Inflammatory Markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets. Methods We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20–84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and village region. Results Most of the Tsimane (60%) carried at least one parasite species, averaging 1.3 species per person. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were below the U.S. norms and varied inversely with markers of infection and inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin (Ig) E and eosinophil count. Although no relationship of parasite load to blood-C was found, there was an association between anemia and parasite prevalence. Conclusions We conclude that the highly infected environment of the Tsimane is related to low levels of blood total-C, HDL-C, and LDL-C. This may suggest a potential reason why arterial disease is largely absent in the Tsimane. PMID:20721985

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Kim, Jung KI; Winking, Jeff; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Finch, Caleb E.

2012-01-01

373

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

MedlinePLUS

... occur with bacterial infection, leukemia , myelodysplastic disorders, or myeloproliferative neoplasms , for example. Some immature cells that may be ... g., autoimmune disorders , immune deficiency) Leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Myeloproliferative neoplasms Some diseases trigger a response by the immune ...

374

Immune responses toPlasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic stage antigens in naturally exposed Duffy-negative humans: a potential model for identification of liver-stage antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duffy antigen is the receptor used by Plasmodium vivax to invade erythrocytes. Consequently, individuals lacking Duffy antigen (Fy(-)) do not develop blood-stage infections. We hypothesized that naturallyexposed Fy(-) humans maydevelopimmune responses mainly to pre-erythrocytic stages and could be used to study acquired immunity to P. vivax and to identify liver-stage antigens. We report here that antibody andIFN-cresponsestoknownsporozoiteantigensweresignificantlyinduced bynatural exposure in

Ruobing Wang; Myriam Arevalo-Herrera; Anilza Bonelo; Andres Gomez; Omaira Vera; Liliana Soto; Juana Vergara; Alexander Domingo; Socrates Herrera

2005-01-01

375

Genetic models in applied physiology: selected contribution: effects of spaceflight on immunity in the C57BL/6 mouse. II. Activation, cytokines, erythrocytes, and platelets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This portion of the study quantified the effects of a 12-day space shuttle mission (Space Transport System-108/UF-1) on body and lymphoid organ masses, activation marker expression, cytokine secretion, and erythrocyte and thrombocyte characteristics in C57BL/6 mice. Animals in flight (Flt group) had 10-12% lower body mass compared with ground controls housed either in animal enclosure modules or under standard vivarium conditions (P < 0.001) and the smallest thymus and spleen masses. Percentages of CD25(+) lymphocytes, CD3(+)/CD25(+) T cells, and NK1.1(+)/CD25(+) natural killer cells from Flt mice were higher compared with both controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD71 expression was depressed in the Flt and animal enclosure module control mice compared with vivarium control animals (P < 0.001). Secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-5, by splenocytes from Flt mice was decreased relative to either one or both ground controls (P < 0.05). Flt mice also had high red blood cell and thrombocyte counts compared with both sets of controls; low red blood cell volume and distribution width, percentage of reticulocytes, and platelet volume were also noted (P < 0.05) and were consistent with dehydration. These data indicate that relatively short exposure to the spaceflight environment can induce profound changes that may become significant during long-term space missions.

Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Peters, Luanne L.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Morony, Sean; Stodieck, Louis S.; Lacey, David L.; Simske, Steven J.; Pecaut, Michael J.

2003-01-01

376

Sialic acid content of erythrocytes in uremic patients. Correlation with the age distribution of erythrocytes as assessed by glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase determination.  

PubMed

In a previous study we suggested that an enrichment in young red blood cells (RBC) should occur in the erythrocyte population of uremic-anemic patients. This change in RBC age distribution together with the fact that young cells were reported to be richer in sialic acid would provide an explanation for the observed lack of difference in sialic acid content between patients' and controls' whole erythrocyte populations in spite of an increased neuraminidase activity found to be present in patients' serum. To verify this assumption glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activity, which is an erythrocyte age index, and sialic acid were determined in low and high density fractions separated by centrifugation of packed cells representing young and old RBC, respectively, from two groups of 8 individuals with chronic renal failure and two groups of controls. GOT was determined also in whole erythrocyte populations. Mean GOT activity was significantly higher in the young fractions compared to the old of both patients' and control RBC (14.9 vs. 7.8 and 12.4 vs. 7.5 IU/g Hb). Activity of the whole RBC population was significantly higher in uremics as compared to controls (11.7 vs. 5.6 IU/g Hb) which is compatible with a lower median erythrocyte age. Mean sialic acid was higher in the young fractions as compared to the old (42.7 vs. 35.3 nmol/10(9) cells in controls and 48.9 vs. 43.0 nmol/10(9) cells in patients). These differences together with an enrichment in young cells would compensate for the eventual loss of sialic acid in the whole population resulting from an increased neuraminidase-like activity in patients' serum. PMID:4022218

Gafter, U; Levinsky, H; Malachi, T; Levi, J; Bogin, E; Allalouf, D

1985-01-01

377

Genetic variants involving the major membrane sialoglycoprotein of human erythrocytes. Studies on erythrocytes of type Mk, Miltenberger class V and Mg.  

PubMed Central

1. Membranes from erythrocytes heterozygous for the Mk and Miltenberger Class V (Mi.V) condition and membranes from erythrocytes homozygous for the Mg condition were studied by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis by using the periodate/Schiff stain binding of radioiodinated lectins and labelling with lactoperoxidase. 2. Both the Mk and Mi.V conditions are associated with a decreased content of the major blood-group-MN-active sialoglycoprotein. 3. An unusual blood-group-M-active membrane component was found in Mi.V cells of appropriate genotype. No comparably component was found in Mk erythrocytes. 4. The Mg antigen appears to result from a modification of the MN-active sialoglycoprotein found in normal cells. Our results suggest that the Mg sialoglycoprotein contains fewer sialotetrasaccharides than does the normal sialglycoprotein. This may result from changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein. 5. The results are discussed in relation to differences in the antigenic properties of Mk, Mi.V and Mg cells and their possible influence on the structure of the surface of each of these cells. Images Fig. 1. PMID:736890

Anstee, D J; Tanner, M J

1978-01-01

378

Genetic variants involving the major membrane sialoglycoprotein of human erythrocytes. Studies on erythrocytes of type Mk, Miltenberger class V and Mg.  

PubMed

1. Membranes from erythrocytes heterozygous for the Mk and Miltenberger Class V (Mi.V) condition and membranes from erythrocytes homozygous for the Mg condition were studied by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis by using the periodate/Schiff stain binding of radioiodinated lectins and labelling with lactoperoxidase. 2. Both the Mk and Mi.V conditions are associated with a decreased content of the major blood-group-MN-active sialoglycoprotein. 3. An unusual blood-group-M-active membrane component was found in Mi.V cells of appropriate genotype. No comparably component was found in Mk erythrocytes. 4. The Mg antigen appears to result from a modification of the MN-active sialoglycoprotein found in normal cells. Our results suggest that the Mg sialoglycoprotein contains fewer sialotetrasaccharides than does the normal sialglycoprotein. This may result from changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein. 5. The results are discussed in relation to differences in the antigenic properties of Mk, Mi.V and Mg cells and their possible influence on the structure of the surface of each of these cells. PMID:736890

Anstee, D J; Tanner, M J

1978-10-01

379

Impact of Erythrocyte Duffy Antigen Genetic Polymorphism on the Distribution of Gro?-T, a Novel Human CXC Chemokine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Gro?-T, a human CXC chemokine, has been studied for its potential to mobilize stem cells. Chemokines bind specifically to receptors on target immune cells but also to a homologous erythrocyte blood group antigen, the Duffy Antigen\\/Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) that is subject to genetic polymorphism in humans. A mutation in the DARC gene is common among African Americans and

Timothy W Hepburn; LeeAnn P Tobia; Wei Shi; Timothy A McIntyre; Charles B Davis

2007-01-01

380

Relation between white blood cell count and final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the INFUSE AMI trial).  

PubMed

Although it has been shown that elevated white blood cell count (WBCc) on presentation is associated with an increased risk of cardiac mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the responsible mechanisms are unknown. We therefore sought to investigate whether elevated WBCc is associated with increased infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the Intracoronary Abciximab and Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients With Large Anterior Myocardial Infarction trial. INFUSE AMI randomized patients with STEMI and proximal or mid-left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion to bolus intracoronary abciximab versus no abciximab and to manual aspiration versus no aspiration. WBCc at hospital admission was available in 407 of 452 randomized patients. Patients were stratified according to tertiles of WBCc. At 30 days, a significant stepwise increase in infarct size (percentage of total left ventricular mass) was apparent across tertiles of increasing WBCc (median [interquartile range] for tertiles I vs II vs III = 11.2% [3.8% to 19.6%] vs 17.5% [0.5% to 22.9%] vs 19.1% [13.7 to 26.0], respectively, p <0.0001). Absolute infarct mass in grams and abnormal wall motion score were also significantly increased across tertiles of WBC. By multivariate linear regression analysis, WBCc was an independent predictor of infarct size along with intracoronary abciximab randomization, age, time from symptom onset to first device, proximal left anterior descending location, and baseline TIMI flow of 0/1. In conclusion, in patients with anterior wall STEMI, an elevated admission WBCc is a powerful independent predictor of infarct size measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24063843

Palmerini, Tullio; Brener, Sorin J; Genereux, Philippe; Maehara, Akiko; Della Riva, Diego; Mariani, Andrea; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Godlewski, Jacek; Parise, Helen; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Ochala, Andrzej; Fahy, Martin; Xu, Ke; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W

2013-12-15

381

Plasmodium vivax Invasion of Human Erythrocytes Inhibited by Antibodies Directed against the Duffy Binding Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPlasmodium vivax invasion requires interaction between the human Duffy antigen on the surface of erythrocytes and the P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) expressed by the parasite. Given that Duffy-negative individuals are resistant and that Duffy-negative heterozygotes show reduced susceptibility to blood-stage infection, we hypothesized that antibodies directed against region two of P. vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBPII) would inhibit

Brian T Grimberg; Rachanee Udomsangpetch; Jia Xainli; Amy McHenry; Tasanee Panichakul; Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Liwang Cui; Moses Bockarie; Chetan Chitnis; John Adams; Peter A Zimmerman; Christopher L King

2007-01-01

382

A Prospective Study of Trans Fatty Acids in Erythrocytes and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—High consumption of trans fat has been linked to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed the hypothesis that higher trans fatty acid contents in erythrocytes were associated with an elevated risk of CHD in a nested case-control study among US women. Methods and Results—Blood samples were collected from 32 826 participants of the Nurses' Health Study from

Qi Sun; Jing Ma; Hannia Campos; Susan E. Hankinson; JoAnn E. Manson; Meir J. Stampfer; Kathryn M. Rexrode; Walter C. Willett; Frank B. Hu

2009-01-01

383

Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

Kocan, R.M.

1968-01-01

384

Metabolism of acetylcholine in human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the possible role of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase in the maintenance of membrane phospholipid content and membrane fluidity, experiments were performed to monitor the activity of the enzyme and follow the fate of one of its hydrolytic products, choline. Intact human erythrocytes were incubated with acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C). The incubation resulted in the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline; the reaction was catalyzed by membrane acetylcholinesterase. The studies demonstrate the further metabolism of choline. Experiments were carried out to determine rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, uptake of choline, identification of intracellular metabolites of choline, and identification of radiolabeled membrane components. Erythrocytes at a 25% hematocrit were incubated in an isoosmotic bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4, containing glucose, adenosine, streptomycin and penicillin with 0.3 {mu}Ci of acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C), for 24 hours. Aliquots of the erythrocyte suspension were taken throughout for analysis. Erythrocytes were washed free of excess substrate, lysed, and the hemolysate was extracted for choline and its metabolites. Blank samples containing incubation buffer and radiolabeled acetylcholine only, and erythrocyte hemolysate extracts were analyzed for choline content, the difference between blank samples and hemolysate extracts was the amount of choline originating from acetylcholine and attributable to acetylcholinesterase activity. The conversion of choline to {sup 14}C-betaine is noted after several minutes of incubation; at 30 minutes, more than 80% of {sup 14}C-choline is taken up and after several hours, detectable levels of radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine were present in the hemolysate extract.

Chapman, E.S.

1990-01-01

385

Assignment 2 Counting Cells  

E-print Network

Assignment 2 Counting Cells This assignment is based on funny cells. Please look up the following, you are expected to program Counting Cells that can count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map in a distributed manner. Objective The objective is to count the number of Susceptible Cells on the map. When

Prasad, Sanjiva

386

Influence of hot environments on some blood variables of sheep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-two Polwarth sheep of ages up to 1 year were observed under temperatures varying from 10.5 to 46.5°C. The following blood cell counts were made: erythrocyte (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), eosinophil (EOS), neutrophil (NEU), lymphocyte (LYM) and monocyte (MON). Other traits measured were: haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HT), blood glucose (GLU) and serum protein (PROT). Multivariate analysis of variance was used and the results showed a significant ( P<0.001) effect for the interaction of shearing and temperature treatment. Under temperatures >25°C, sheep presented a decrease of RBC, WBC, HB and HT, these differences being greater in the shorn than in the unshorn animals. Unshorn animals presented higher variations in EOS, NEU, LYM, MON and GLU. Blood glucose increased under high temperatures in the shorn animals (from 56.36±0.65 mg/100 ml to 60.52±0.69 mg/100 ml) as in the unshorn animals (from 54.72±0.74 mg/100 ml to 57.56±0.77 mg/100 ml).

Gomes da Silva, Roberto; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus J. R.; Silva Sobrinho, Américo G.

1992-12-01

387

Studies of the pathogenesis of anemia of inflammation: erythrocyte survival  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocyte survival was investigated in healthy cats and in cats with sterile abscesses. Erythrocyte survival time in cats with sterile abscesses was found to be significantly reduced. The erythrocyte destruction appeared to be the major factor in the early stages of anemia of inflammation.

Weiss, D.J.; Krehbiel, J.D.

1983-10-01

388

Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Hongxia [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Chen, Yong [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Xun [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ma, Shuyuan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ye, Hongyan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai, Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

2010-01-22

389

Membrane-Wrapping Contributions to Malaria Parasite Invasion of the Human Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

The blood stage malaria parasite, the merozoite, has a small window of opportunity during which it must successfully target and invade a human erythrocyte. The process of invasion is nonetheless remarkably rapid. To date, mechanistic models of invasion have focused predominantly on the parasite actomyosin motor contribution to the energetics of entry. Here, we have conducted a numerical analysis using dimensions for an archetypal merozoite to predict the respective contributions of the host-parasite interactions to invasion, in particular the role of membrane wrapping. Our theoretical modeling demonstrates that erythrocyte membrane wrapping alone, as a function of merozoite adhesive and shape properties, is sufficient to entirely account for the first key step of the invasion process, that of merozoite reorientation to its apex and tight adhesive linkage between the two cells. Next, parasite-induced reorganization of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and release of parasite-derived membrane can also account for a considerable energetic portion of actual invasion itself, through membrane wrapping. Thus, contrary to the prevailing dogma, wrapping by the erythrocyte combined with parasite-derived membrane release can markedly reduce the expected contributions of the merozoite actomyosin motor to invasion. We therefore propose that invasion is a balance between parasite and host cell contributions, evolved toward maximal efficient use of biophysical forces between the two cells. PMID:24988340

Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Satchwell, Timothy J.; Hanssen, Eric; Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Riglar, David T.; Toye, Ashley M.; Betz, Timo; Baum, Jake; Gompper, Gerhard

2014-01-01

390

The Serum Levels of Malondialdehyde, Vitamin E and Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in Psoriasis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Psoriasis is a common skin disease which is characterized by increased epidermal proliferation and dermal inflammation affecting 0.1-3% of general population. Most of the psoriasis patients are young or middle aged adults, although no age exempted. The oxidative stress develops due to imbalance in oxidants and antioxidants, which was proposed to have role in psoriasis. Aims and Objectives: The presented research work was planned to evaluate oxidative stress by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as oxidant and serum vitamin E, erythrocyte catalase (CAT) activity as antioxidants in psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: Total 90 clinically diagnosed psoriasis patients of age group of 20 to 60 years and without any drug therapy for preceding two months and 90 matched healthy controls were included in the presented study. The severity of psoriasis was determined by PASI score. The fasting blood sample collected and accessed for serum MDA, serum vitamin E and erythrocyte catalase activity. Results: The study results were compiled and statistical analysis was done using students t-test. Our results showed significantly increased levels of serum MDA (p<0.001) and significantly decreased serum vitamin E (p<0.001) as well as erythrocyte catalase activity (p<0.001) in psoriasis patients as compared to controls. Conclusion: The presented study concluded the oxidative stress in psoriasis, indicated by increased serum MDA and decreased Vitamin E, erythrocyte catalase activity. Our study also supports the possibility of involvement of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:25584212

Ireddy, Shankargouda; Itagi, Inderraj; Kumar H., Siddesh

2014-01-01

391

DNase I hypersensitivity is independent of endogenous topoisomerase II activity during chicken erythrocyte differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Endogenous topoisomerase II cleavage sites were mapped in the chicken beta A-globin gene of 12- to 14-day embryonic erythrocytes. A major topoisomerase II catalytic site was mapped to the 5' end of the globin gene which contained a nucleosome-free and DNase I-hypersensitive site and additional but minor sites were mapped to the second intron and 3' of the gene to a tissue-specific enhancer. Cleavage sites, mapped in situ by indirect end labeling, were aligned to single-base-pair resolution by comparison to a consensus sequence derived for vertebrate topoisomerase II catalytic sites. In contrast to embryonic erythrocytes, endogenous topoisomerase II cleavages were not detected in erythrocytes from peripheral blood of adult chickens; therefore, as the transcriptional activity of the beta A-globin gene declines during terminal differentiation of erythrocytes, the activity of topoisomerase II in situ declines as well, despite the fact that DNase I hypersensitivity persists. The results showed that DNase I-hypersensitive chromatin can be maintained in the absence of topoisomerase II activity and suggested that topoisomerase II acts at hypersensitive sites because of an inherent attraction to some preexisting combination of DNA sequence or chromatin structure associated with DNase I-hypersensitive regions. Images PMID:2851723

Muller, M T; Mehta, V B

1988-01-01

392

Estimation of cell membrane properties and erythrocyte red-ox balance in patients with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with occurrence of the many cardiovascular risk factors such as atherogenic dyslipidemia, visceral fat distribution, arterial hypertension and pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory status. In our study the effect of disorders that appear in MS on red-ox balance and erythrocyte cell membrane properties were estimated. The study comprised 50 patients with diagnosed MS and in 25 healthy subjects. Content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity were estimated in red blood cells. Moreover, conformation status of membrane proteins, membrane fluidity and osmotic fragility were evaluated. MS was found to manifest: (1) the increase of the concentration of TBARS in erythrocytes with no statistically significant differences in antioxidant enzymes activity, (2) disorders in the structure of erythrocyte cytoskeleton proteins, (3) the increase in membrane lipids fluidity at the depth of 5th and 12th carbon atom of fatty acid hydrocarbon chain and significantly decreased fluidity at the depth of 16th carbon atom, (4) increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility. PMID:23053998

Kowalczyk, Edward; Kowalski, Jan; B?aszczyk, Jan; Gwo?dzi?ski, ?ukasz; Cie?wierz, Julita; Sienkiewicz, Monika

2012-12-01

393

Vaccination with Recombinant Aspartic Hemoglobinase Reduces Parasite Load and Blood Loss after Hookworm Infection in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Background Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1. Methods and Findings We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056) and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018) in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049) and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine. PMID:16231975

2005-01-01

394

Beauvericin induced erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling.  

PubMed

Beauvericin is a mycotoxin with antiviral, antibacterial, nematicidal, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity. Similar to nucleated cells erythrocytes may undergo suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered by energy depletion leading to increase of cytosolic Ca²+ activity. The present study thus explored whether beauvericin is able to trigger eryptosis and influence eryptosis following energy depletion. Cell membrane scrambling was estimated from binding of annexin V to phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface, cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis, cytosolic Ca²+ concentration from Fluo3 fluorescence, cytosolic ATP concentration from a luciferase-assay and ion channel activity with whole cell patch clamp. Exposure to beauvericin (? 5 ?M) significantly decreased erythrocyte ATP concentration and increased cytosolic Ca²+ concentration as well as annexin V-binding. The effect of beauvericin on annexin V binding was significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca²+. Glucose depletion (48 h) was followed by, increase of Fluo3 fluorescence, decrease of forward scatter and increase of annexin V-binding. Beauvericin (? 1 ?M) augmented the effect of glucose withdrawal on Fluo3 fluorescence and annexin V-binding, but significantly blunted the effect of glucose withdrawal on forward scatter, an effect paralleled by inhibition of Ca²+ activated K+ channels. The present observations disclose novel effects of beauvericin, i.e. stimulation of Ca²+ entry with subsequent cell membrane scrambling and inhibition of Ca²+ activated K+ channels with blunting of cell shrinkage. PMID:21296643

Qadri, Syed M; Kucherenko, Yuliya; Lang, Florian

2011-04-28

395

Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

1985-01-01

396

STRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE AUTOANTIBODIES  

PubMed Central

The 7S ?-globulins causing erythrocyte autosensitization in 20 patients were isolated by elution and examined for homogeneity or heterogeneity of their L chain types and electrophoretic dispersion. The isolated erythrocyte autoantibodies from 12 patients contained only 1 detectable L chain type. Two of these "monotypic" populations showed appreciable restriction of electrophoretic dispersion, while 2 others more nearly resembled the electrophoretic heterogeneity of normal ?-globulins. The autoantibodies from the other 8 patients exhibited L chains of both types. The single "bitypic" population so tested was relatively polydisperse electrophoretically. As a comparison, anti-Rho isoantibodies from 5 of 6 donors without known hematologic disease showed bitypic reactions, and 2 of these isoantibody populations were relatively polydisperse electrophoretically. One Rh isoantibody is described which contained only 1 demonstrable L chain type. The structural similarities to "paraproteins" observed in a significant proportion of these erythrocyte autoantibodies raise the possibility of their origin from a restricted population of antibody forming cells, and may have implications concerning the pathogenesis of erythrocyte autosensitization. PMID:14253485

Leddy, John P.; Bakemeier, Richard F.

1965-01-01

397

Binding of iralukast to serum proteins and erythrocytes: measurements using ultrafiltration and an erythrocyte partitioning method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of iralukast to plasma (or serum) proteins and to erythrocytes was studied in vitro, at +37°C, using the erythrocyte partitioning method (EPM) and\\/or ultrafiltration (UF) with 14C-labelled iralukast. Iralukast was highly bound in human and animal serum (>99%). Similar bound fraction values were obtained with the two methods: in whole human plasma (or serum) 99.8% (EPM) and 99.9%

Danielle Colussi; Carole Parisot; Gilbert Lefèvre

1999-01-01

398

Production, characterization, and applications of a murine monoclonal antibody to dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1.  

PubMed

A murine IgM monoclonal antibody, which recognizes dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1, has been produced. The antibody correctly identified canine RBC possessing DEA 1.1 in a panel of RBC typed by an independent laboratory. Reactivity of the monoclonal antibody was compared with canine anti-DEA 1.1 antiserum with 163 RBC samples from 145 dogs. Results of agglutination tests with the 2 reagents were in agreement for all samples. A card agglutination test that uses the monoclonal antibody with blood is described. A monoclonal antibody-based test should facilitate blood typing for DEA 1.1 in clinical practice. PMID:1289333

Andrews, G A; Chavey, P S; Smith, J E

1992-11-15

399

Turning erythrocytes into functional micromotors.  

PubMed

Attempts to apply artificial nano/micromotors for diverse biomedical applications have inspired a variety of strategies for designing motors with diverse propulsion mechanisms and functions. However, existing artificial motors are made exclusively of synthetic materials, which are subject to serious immune attack and clearance upon entering the bloodstream. Herein we report an elegant approach that turns natural red blood cells (RBCs) into functional micromotors with the aid of ultrasound propulsion and magnetic guidance. Iron oxide nanoparticles are loaded into the RBCs, where their asymmetric distribution within the cells results in a net magnetization, thus enabling magnetic alignment and guidance under acoustic propulsion. The RBC motors display efficient guided and prolonged propulsion in various biological fluids, including undiluted whole blood. The stability and functionality of the RBC motors, as well as the tolerability of regular RBCs to the ultrasound operation, are carefully examined. Since the RBC motors preserve the biological and structural features of regular RBCs, these motors possess a wide range of antigenic, transport, and mechanical properties that common synthetic motors cannot achieve and thus hold considerable promise for a number of practical biomedical uses. PMID:25415461

Wu, Zhiguang; Li, Tianlong; Li, Jinxing; Gao, Wei; Xu, Tailin; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Galarnyk, Michael; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

2014-12-23

400

Erythrocyte osmotic fragility test as the measure of defence against free radicals in rabbits of different age.  

PubMed

Peroxidation of the unsaturated bonds of membrane lipids increases fragility and cellular lysis of red blood cells. Erythrocyte susceptibility to the free radicals (peroxyl radicals) generated in vitro by 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) was evaluated and expressed as 50% maximal haemolysis time (HT50) in 3 groups of rabbits of different age. Erythrocytes of 1.5-month-old rabbits were more sensitive to free radicals than those of 3.5- and 6-month-old ones. In the three groups, significant negative correlation (r = -0.8 to -0.98) between the lipid peroxidation rate (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS concentration) in blood plasma and the erythrocyte resistance to free radicals was found. This result suggests that the plasma antioxidant defence system is interrelated with that of the red blood cells and that the erythrocytes can be a good model for studies of oxidative stress. The simple haemolysis test reflecting the free radical defence can be useful for evaluating the antioxidant properties of various compounds. PMID:11942120

Brzezi?ska-Slebodzi?ska, E

2001-01-01