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Sample records for blood count erythrocyte

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  3. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  4. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  5. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  6. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  7. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Quantitative C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Urinary Tract Infections among Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    AYAZI, Parviz; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; DANESHI, Mohammad Mahdi; JAHANI HASHEMI, Hassan; PIROUZI, Mahdieh; ESMAILZADEHHA, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count in urinary tract infections (UTI) among hospitalised infants and children in Qazvin, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 127 hospitalised children ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years old 31.79 months (SD 30.73) who were suspected of having a UTI and who did not receive antibiotics prior to being seen at a Qazvin teaching children’s hospital between 2005 and 2006. A urine analysis (U/A) and urine culture (U/C) were performed. The blood was taken for CRP, ESR and WBC analyses. U/C has been considered the gold standard test for a UTI and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (DMSA) as the gold standard for an upper UTI (pyelonephritis). These tests were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy, which is represented as the percent of correct results. Results: Within the study population, 72 patients (56.7%) were younger than two years old 9.86 months (SD 4.56) and 55 (43.3%) were older than two years old 63.58 months (SD 30.96). One hundred and two patients (80.3%) were female. There were 100 cases that had a positive U/C. Of the patients with a positive U/C, 81 had pyuria (WBC more than 5/hpf), 71 had a peripheral WBC count of more than 10 000 /mL, 95 had a CRP of more than 10 mg/L and 82 had an ESR > 10 mm/h. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of CRP when using U/C as the gold standard were, respectively, 96%, 11.1%, 80.2%, 50%, and 78%; when using ESR as the gold standard were, respectively, 55%, 40%, 77.6%, 17.2%, and 52%; and when using WBC counts as the gold standard were, respectively, 69%, 52%, 86.6%, 35.6%, and 65%. The accuracy of CRP, ESR and WBC counts when considering the DMSA as the gold standard were 58.3%, 62.8%, and 64.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Although acute

  9. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests ...

  10. Extracorporeal irradiation of blood: dosimetry corrected for shortened erythrocyte lifespans

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Pate, H.R.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of radiation delivered to erythrocytes during extracorporeal irradiation of blood (ECIB) has been described using Poisson distribution statistics. The Poisson expression for erythrocyte radiation dose distribution was simplified by considering the slight dilution of blood with fluid that is initially in the extracorporeal tubing. An algorithm was devised that allows curtailed lifespans of irradiated erythrocytes to be taken into account in a short computer program of radiation dosimetry for ECIB. Radiation doses to erythrocytes with and without lifespan corrections are compared.

  11. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  12. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Neutropenia and cancer; Absolute neutrophil count and cancer; ANC and cancer ... A person with cancer can get a low white blood cell count from the cancer or from treatment for the cancer. Cancer may ...

  13. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  14. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

  15. Complete blood count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    High numbers of red blood cells may indicate: Cigarette smoking Low oxygen tension in the blood Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema

  16. Laser-based particle-counting microimmunoassay for the analysis of single human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, Z.; Yeung, E.S. Ames Lab., IA )

    1994-05-15

    A particle-counting immunoassay system for ultrasensitive analysis of proteins in a capillary environment has been developed. The assay is based on the agglutination of antibody-coated particles in the presence of an antigen (usually a protein). The particles were electrophoretically migrated in a 20-[mu]m-i.d. capillary past a detection window where a laser beam irradiates continuously. The light scattering events generated by the agglutinated particles were counted while those produced by unreacted particles were electronically rejected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was chosen as a test compound for the off-column as well as for the on-column versions of this method. A limit of detection of 620 molecules of G6PDH (1 zmol) was found in the on-column assay. The standard deviation between runs was approximately 6%, which is comparable to that of standard immunoassay methods. The application to the determination of G6PDH levels in individual human erythrocytes is presented. A 14-fold cell-to-cell variation was found which can be explained by the age distribution in the red blood cells. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  17. ABO blood group glycans modulate sialic acid recognition on erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    ABH(O) blood group polymorphisms are based on well-known intraspecies variations in structures of neutral blood cell surface glycans in humans and other primates. Whereas natural antibodies against these glycans can act as barriers to blood transfusion and transplantation, the normal functions of this long-standing evolutionary polymorphism remain largely unknown. Although microbial interactions have been suggested as a selective force, direct binding of lethal pathogens to ABH antigens has not been reported. We show in this study that ABH antigens found on human erythrocytes modulate the specific interactions of 3 sialic acid-recognizing proteins (human Siglec-2, 1918SC influenza hemagglutinin, and Sambucus nigra agglutinin) with sialylated glycans on the same cell surface. Using specific glycosidases that convert A and B glycans to the underlying H(O) structure, we show ABH antigens stabilize sialylated glycan clusters on erythrocyte membranes uniquely for each blood type, generating differential interactions of the 3 sialic acid-binding proteins with erythrocytes from each blood type. We further show that by stabilizing such structures ABH antigens can also modulate sialic acid-mediated interaction of pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasite. Thus, ABH antigens can noncovalently alter the presentation of other cell surface glycans to cognate-binding proteins, without themselves being a direct ligand. PMID:19704115

  18. Complete blood count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hematocrit may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock ... blood Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema

  19. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  20. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I...

  3. Changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes resulting from blood storage.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-08-01

    The storage of blood for 24 h at 10 degrees C caused significant changes in osmotic fragility of nucleated erythrocytes of pigeons, peafowls, domestic fowls, lizards and toads. Significant decreases in fragility were seen with pigeon and peafowl erythrocytes. However, the osmotic fragility of domestic fowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased significantly. PMID:7863738

  4. Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

  5. [Vesiculation and change of erythrocyte membrane proteins in storage of preserved blood and erythrocyte mass at 4 degrees C].

    PubMed

    Chernitskiĭ, E A; Fedorovich, I E; Slobozhanina, E I

    1993-01-01

    Erythrocyte vesiculation and changes in membrane protein composition during storage of blood and red cell concentrates in solution "Glugicir" at 4 +/- 2 degrees C have been studied. It is shown that the main part of vesicles is shedding after 9 days of storage. This process corresponds to a decrease of protein 3 and to polyphase changes of membrane-bound hemoglobin as is shown by gel-electrophoresis. During 9-day storage, when erythrocyte ATP is constant and the vesicle shedding is small, an increase in membrane-bound hemoglobin and a decrease of spectrin in isolated membranes take place. The above changes are not the result of oxidative processes in membrane lipid bilayer or in hemoglobin. There was also protein destruction in membranes of stored erythrocytes. It is suggested that in stored blood two type of erythrocyte vesiculation take place: one is due to cell senescence, the other results from metabolic depletion. PMID:8307298

  6. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, D.W.; Knoll, J.H.M. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Flint, A.F. ); Pizzimenti, M.F. ); Latt, S.A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1990-05-01

    Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, they were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations.

  7. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  8. Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, D W; Flint, A F; Pizzimenti, M F; Knoll, J H; Latt, S A

    1990-01-01

    Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. We used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TfR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations; 0.1-1 ng of fetal DNA was obtained in the 20-ml maternal samples. In 7/19 cases, a 222-bp band of amplified DNA was detected, consistent with the presence of male DNA in the isolated cells; 6/7 of these were confirmed as male pregnancies by karyotyping amniocytes. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, we were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations. Images PMID:2333281

  9. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of human blood exposed to low-level laser.

    PubMed

    Al Musawi, Mustafa S; Jaafar, M S; Al-Gailani, B; Ahmed, Naser M; Suhaimi, Fatanah M; Bakhsh, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    This study is designed to investigate in vitro low-level laser (LLL) effects on rheological parameter, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), of human blood. The interaction mechanism between LLL radiation and blood is unclear. Therefore, research addresses the effects of LLL irradiation on human blood and this is essential to understanding how laser radiation interacts with biological cells and tissues. The blood samples were collected through venipuncture into EDTA-containing tubes as an anticoagulant. Each sample was divided into two equal aliquots to be used as a non-irradiated sample (control) and an irradiated sample. The aliquot was subjected to doses of 36, 54, 72 and 90 J/cm(2) with wavelengths of 405, 589 and 780 nm, with a radiation source at a fixed power density of 30 mW/cm(2). The ESR and red blood cell count and volume are measured after laser irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated samples. The maximum reduction in ESR is observed with radiation dose 72 J/cm(2) delivered with a 405-nm wavelength laser beam. Moreover, no hemolysis is observed under these irradiation conditions. In a separate protocol, ESR of separated RBCs re-suspended in irradiated plasma (7.6 ± 2.3 mm/h) is found to be significantly lower (by 51 %) than their counterpart re-suspended in non-irradiated plasma (15.0 ± 3.7 mm/h). These results indicate that ESR reduction is mainly due to the effects of LLL on the plasma composition that ultimately affect whole blood ESR. PMID:27250712

  10. Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila

    2005-04-01

    Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 μl of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 μl EDTA blood were mixed with 10 μl of a DRAQ5 solution (500μM, Biostatus) and 10 μl of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 μl of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 μl of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 μl instead of 500μl). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for

  11. Biophotonics of the interaction of low-intensity laser radiation with blood erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blood erythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.

  12. Leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as diagnostic factors in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Rahbarimanesh, Ali Akbar; Salamati, Peyman; Ashrafi, Mohammadreza; Sadeghi, Manelie; Tavakoli, Javad

    2011-01-01

    Febrile convulsion (FC) is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC), aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001) in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113) between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test. PMID:21960077

  13. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  14. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood pressure cuff is ... through the vein. This causes veins below the tourniquet to distend (fill with blood). A needle is ...

  15. Local defects in the nanostructure of the membrane of erythrocytes upon ionizing radiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, E. K.; Sergunova, V. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Boreyko, A. V.; Zavialova, A. V.; Kozlov, A. P.; Chernysh, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate local topological defects in the erythrocyte membranes resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of blood in vitro. Biological effects in the erythrocytes after exposure to UV radiation at a wavelength of 254 nm are equivalent to those after γ radiation. It has been shown that oxidative processes developing in a suspension upon UV radiation result in the disruption of the nanostructure of the membranes of erythrocytes. In the experiments, typical topological defects in the membrane nanostructure were observed. The parameters of the defects differed from the characteristics of the nanostructure of the control cell membrane without irradiation. The characteristic dimensions of the topological defects are commensurate with the size of the spectrin matrix. As a result of the exposure to the UV radiation, polymorphism of the erythrocytes was observed.

  16. Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishko, Tatyana V.; Titar, V. P.; Barchotkina, T. M.; Tishko, D. N.

    2004-09-01

    The holographic methods of phase micro-objects visualization (the holographic phase contrast method and the method of holographic interferometry) are considered. Comparative analysis of classical and holographic methods in microscopy of phase micro-objects is carried out. An arrangement of the holographic interference microscope realizing the holographic methods and experimental results of 3-D imaging of native blood erythrocytes are presented. It is shown that 3-D morphology of blood erythrocytes reflects and determines the state of a human organism and those different physical and chemical factors and internal pathologies influence erythrocytes morphology. The holographic interference microscope was used for investigation of ozone therapy influence on human blood erythrocytes. Blood samples of 60 patients of different age with neurosensoric hardness of hearing before and after ozone therapy were investigated. It was shown that all patients have changed erythrocytes mrophology. Ozone therapy treatment results in normalization of erythrocytes morphology of patients.

  17. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  18. Blood Smear Image Based Malaria Parasite and Infected-Erythrocyte Detection and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Hsiun; Yu, Shyr-Shen; Chan, Yung-Kuan; Jen, Chun-Chu

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an automatic malaria parasite detector is proposed to perceive the malaria-infected erythrocytes in a blood smear image and to separate parasites from the infected erythrocytes. The detector hence can verify whether a patient is infected with malaria. It could more objectively and efficiently help a doctor in diagnosing malaria. The experimental results show that the proposed method can provide impressive performance in segmenting the malaria-infected erythrocytes and the parasites from a blood smear image taken under a microscope. This paper also presents a weighted Sobel operation to compute the image gradient. The experimental results demonstrates that the weighted Sobel operation can provide more clear-cut and thinner object contours in object segmentation. PMID:26289625

  19. Leucocyte and erythrocyte counts during a multi-stage cycling race ('the Milk Race').

    PubMed Central

    Keen, P; McCarthy, D A; Passfield, L; Shaker, H A; Wade, A J

    1995-01-01

    Venous blood samples were taken from eight competitors in mid-evening after a racing day, and in the early morning before the next day's race, three times during the course of the Milk Race, 1992. These were used to gather information about the changes in circulating leucocyte levels in response to the exceptionally high sustained daily workload required during a major multi-stage race. The primary objective was to provide knowledge of 'normal' values against which future clinical judgements of abnormality might be made in these unusual circumstances. During the race, estimated energy output was about 25 MJ (6000 kCal)/day. The mean total circulating leucocyte numbers (per litre of blood), and those of individual leucocyte classes (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil) were all inside the normal range both in the morning and in the evening. Evening counts were, however, 30-50% higher than morning counts, for all classes except eosinophils. We conclude that individual clinical decisions about leucocyte levels can best be made using normal (sedentary man) values if a morning sample is taken. PMID:7788222

  20. Evaluation of erythrocyte flow at a bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Sakota, Daisuke; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulatory support. In the blood pump, a spiral groove bearing was adopted for a thrust bearing. In the spiral groove bearing, separation of erythrocytes and plasma by plasma skimming has been postulated to occur. However, it is not clarified that plasma skimming occurs in a spiral groove bearing. The purpose of this study is to verify whether plasma skimming occurs in the spiral groove bearing of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. For evaluation of plasma skimming in the spiral groove bearing, an impeller levitation performance test using a laser focus displacement meter and a microscopic visualization test of erythrocyte flow using a high-speed microscope were conducted. Bovine blood diluted with autologous plasma to adjust hematocrit to 1.0% was used as a working fluid. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the spiral groove bearing was estimated using image analysis. As a result, hematocrits on the ridge region with gaps of 45 μm, 31 μm, and 25 μm were calculated as 1.0%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Maximum skimming efficiency in this study was calculated as 70% with a gap of 25 μm. We confirmed that separation of erythrocyte and plasma occurred in the spiral groove bearing with decrease in bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. PMID:26736252

  1. Plug Effect of Erythrocytes in Capillary Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Lew, H. S.; Fung, Y. C.

    1970-01-01

    As an idealized problem of the motion of blood in small capillary blood vessels, the low Reynolds number flow of plasma (a newtonian fluid) in a circular cylindrical tube involving a series of circular disks is studied. It is assumed in this study that the suspended disks are equally spaced along the axis of the tube, and that their centers remain on the axis of the tube and that their faces are perpendicular to the tube axis. The inertial force of the fluid due to the convective acceleration is neglected on the basis of the smallness of the Reynolds number. The solution of the problem is derived for a quasi-steady flow involving infinitesimally thin disks. The numerical calculation is carried out for a set of different combinations of the interdisk distance and the ratio of the disk radius to the tube radius. The ratio of the velocity of the disk to the average velocity of the fluid is calculated. The different rates of transport of red blood cells and of plasma in capillary blood vessels are discussed. The average pressure gradient along the axis of the tube is computed, and the dependence of the effective viscosity of the blood on the hematocrit and the diameter of the capillary vessel is discussed. PMID:5409778

  2. Association of human erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins with blood-group Cad specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J P; Blanchard, D

    1982-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6187337

  3. Nickel and blood counts in workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Maria Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Capozzella, Assunta; Schifano, Maria Pia; Tomei, Francesco; Nieto, Hector Alberto; Marrocco, Mariasilvia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Sancini, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Nickel (Ni) and Ni compounds are widely present in the urban air. The purpose of this study is to estimate exposure of individuals to Ni and the correlation between this exposure and the values of blood counts in outdoor workers. This study focused on a sample of 101 outdoor workers (55 male and 46 female; 65 nonsmokers and 36 smokers), all employed in the municipal police in a large Italian city. The personal levels of exposure to Ni were assessed through (a) environmental monitoring of Ni present in the urban air obtained from individual samples and (b) biological monitoring of urinary and blood Ni. The blood count parameters were obtained from the hemochromocytometric tests. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to assess the association between the blood and urinary Ni and the complete blood count. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the associations between the complete blood count and the independent variables (age, gender, years of work for current tasks, cigarette smoking habit (current and never smoker), values of airborne Ni, and blood and urinary Ni). Multiple linear regression analysis performed on the total group of 101 subjects confirms the association among the red blood cells count, the hematocrit, and the urinary Ni (R(2) = 0.520, p = 0.025 and R(2) = 0.530, p = 0.030). These results should lead to further studies on the effects of Ni in working populations exposed to urban pollutants. The possibility that the associations found in our study may be partially explained by other urban pollutants (such as benzene, toluene, and other heavy metals) not taken into consideration in this study cannot be ruled out. PMID:25001206

  4. The energy-less red blood cell is lost: erythrocyte enzyme abnormalities of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Richard; van Solinge, Wouter W

    2005-12-15

    The red blood cell depends solely on the anaerobic conversion of glucose by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway for the generation and storage of high-energy phosphates, which is necessary for the maintenance of a number of vital functions. Many red blood cell enzymopathies have been described that disturb the erythrocyte's integrity, shorten its cellular survival, and result in hemolytic anemia. By far the majority of these enzymopathies are hereditary in nature. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the genetic, biochemical, and structural features of clinically relevant red blood cell enzymopathies involved in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. PMID:16051738

  5. [Effect of anti-inflammatory preparations on the process of thermogenesis in blood erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Sigidin, Ia A; Taratuta, O V

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the influence of the main antiphlogistic agents (prednisolone, acetylsalicylic acid, rheopyrine, chloroquine and indomethacine) on the thermal effect of the peripheral blood erythrocytes in man. It was found that only chloroquine possessed a significant inhibitory effect. This fact pointed to the inhibition by chloroquine of energy production in the process of glycolysis, which could be regarded as one of the factors of the therapeutic action of this preparation. PMID:1081413

  6. Effect of blood storage on erythrocyte/wall interactions: implications for surface charge and rigidity.

    PubMed

    Godin, C; Caprani, A

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode whose charge density ranges from -15 to +27 microC/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode. Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by impedance measurement of the microelectrode. Effects of aging induced by storage of whole blood at 4 degrees C show that the surface charge of erythrocytes rapidly decreases when blood is stored for more than 6 days under our experimental conditions. In comparison with trypsin-treated erythrocytes, an eight day storage induces a 60% decrease in the surface charge of red cells. After two weeks of storage, red cells are no longer negatively charged, presumably because of removal of sialic acid. Cells rigidity is significant after 6 days of storage and influences the electrical contact. Membrane rigidity increase could arise from the surface charge decrease. Finally the surface charge decrease could be importance in the use of stored blood. PMID:9232845

  7. A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60,000 cells (versus ∼2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus ∼15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

  8. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  9. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes. PMID:27429526

  10. Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

  11. Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli are protected from leukocyte phagocytosis by binding to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 in human blood.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Ole-Lars; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Christiansen, Dorte; Fure, Hilde; Castellheim, Albert; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Pharo, Anne; Lindstad, Julie Katrine; Bergseth, Grethe; Leslie, Graham; Lambris, John D; Brandtzaeg, Petter; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-09-01

    The initial interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with erythrocytes and its implications on leukocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human whole blood were examined. Alexa-labeled Escherichia coli, wild-type H44/76 N. meningitidis and the H44/76lpxA lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant were incubated with whole blood using lepirudin as anticoagulant which has no adverse effects on complement. Bacteria free in plasma, bound to erythrocytes or phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The effects of the C3 inhibitor compstatin, a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRa) and a complement receptor 1 (CR1)-blocking antibody (3D9) were examined. Most bacteria (80%) immediately bound to erythrocytes. The binding gradually declined over time, with a parallel increase in phagocytosis. Complement inhibition with compstatin reduced erythrocyte binding and bacterial C3 opsonization. In contrast, the C5aRa efficiently reduced phagocytosis, but did not affect the binding of bacteria to erythrocytes. The anti-CR1 blocking mAb dose-dependently reduced bacterial binding to erythrocytes to nil, with subsequent increased phagocytosis and oxidative burst. LPS had no effect on these processes since similar results were obtained using an LPS-deficient N. meningitidis mutant. In vivo experiments in a pig model of sepsis showed limited binding of bacteria to erythrocytes, consistent with the facts that erythrocyte CR1 receptors are absent in non-primates and that the bacteria were mainly found in the lungs. In conclusion, complement-dependent binding of Gram-negative bacteria to erythrocyte CR1 decreases phagocytosis and oxidative burst by leukocytes in human whole blood. PMID:21839519

  12. Regulation of blood flow distribution in skeletal muscle: role of erythrocyte-released ATP

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Mary L; Sprague, Randy S

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate tissue O2 levels in skeletal muscle is vital for normal physiology and requires a well regulated and appropriately distributed convective O2 supply. Inherent in this fundamental physiological process is the requirement for a mechanism which both senses tissue O2 need and locally adjusts flow to appropriately meet that need. Over the past several years we and others have suggested that, in skeletal muscle, O2 carrying erythrocytes participate in the regulation of total blood flow and its distribution by releasing ATP. Importantly, the release of this vasoactive molecule must be both rapid and well controlled if it is to serve an important physiological role. Here we provide insights into three distinct regulated signalling pathways within the erythrocyte that are activated by exposure to reduced O2 tension or in response to binding of agonists to the prostacyclin or β-adrenergic receptors. Although much has been learned about the role of the erythrocyte in perfusion of skeletal muscle, much remains to be understood. However, what is clear is that the long established passive carrier of O2 also contributes to the regulation of the distribution of microvascular perfusion in skeletal muscle by virtue of its capacity to release ATP. PMID:22586223

  13. Biomembranes from slaughterhouse blood erythrocytes as prolonged release systems for dexamethasone sodium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Drvenica, Ivana T; Bukara, Katarina M; Ilić, Vesna Lj; Mišić, Danijela M; Vasić, Borislav Z; Gajić, Radoš B; Đorđević, Verica B; Veljović, Đorđe N; Belić, Aleksandar; Bugarski, Branko M

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated preparation of bovine and porcine erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as bio-derived materials for delivery of dexamethasone-sodium phosphate (DexP). The obtained biomembranes, i.e., ghosts were characterized in vitro in terms of morphological properties, loading parameters, and release behavior. For the last two, an UHPLC/-HESI-MS/MS based analytical procedure for absolute drug identification and quantification was developed. The results revealed that loading of DexP into both type of ghosts was directly proportional to the increase of drug concentration in the incubation medium, while incubation at 37°C had statistically significant effect on loaded amount of DexP (P < 0.05). The encapsulation efficiency was about fivefold higher in porcine compared to bovine ghosts. Insight into ghosts' surface morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed that besides inevitable effects of osmosis, DexP inclusion itself had no observable additional effect on the morphology of the ghosts carriers. DexP release profiles were dependent on erythrocyte ghost type and amount of residual hemoglobin. However, sustained DexP release was achieved and shown over 3 days from porcine ghosts and 5 days from bovine erythrocyte ghosts. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1046-1055, 2016. PMID:27254304

  14. Molecular identification of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) from the blood of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Glenn, Jolene A.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition affecting the red blood cells of more than 20 species of marine and anadromous fishes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. Among populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) on the west coast of North America the disease causes anemia and elevated mortality in periodic epizootics. Presently, VEN is diagnosed by observation of typical cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in stained blood smears from infected fish. The causative agent, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), is unculturable and a presumed iridovirus by electron microscopy. In vivo amplification of the virus in pathogen-free laboratory stocks of Pacific herring with subsequent virus concentration, purification, DNA extraction, and high-throughput sequencing were used to obtain genomic ENV sequences. Fragments with the highest sequence identity to the family Iridoviridae were used to design four sets of ENV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Testing of blood and tissue samples from experimentally and wild infected Pacific herring as well as DNA extracted from other amphibian and piscine iridoviruses verified the assays were specific to ENV with a limit of detection of 0.0003 ng. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of a 1448 bp fragment of the putative DNA polymerase gene supported inclusion of ENV in a proposed sixth genus of the family Iridoviridae that contains other erythrocytic viruses from ectothermic hosts. This study provides the first molecular evidence of ENV's inclusion within the Iridoviridae family and offers conventional PCR assays as a means of rapidly surveying the ENV-status of wild and propagated Pacific herring stocks.

  15. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  16. Effects of lornoxicam and intravenous ibuprofen on erythrocyte deformability and hepatic and renal blood flow in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arpacı, Hande; Çomu, Faruk Metin; Küçük, Ayşegül; Kösem, Bahadır; Kartal, Seyfi; Şıvgın, Volkan; Turgut, Hüseyin Cihad; Aydın, Muhammed Enes; Koç, Derya Sebile; Arslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Change in blood supply is held responsible for anesthesia-related abnormal tissue and organ perfusion. Decreased erythrocyte deformability and increased aggregation may be detected after surgery performed under general anesthesia. It was shown that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease erythrocyte deformability. Lornoxicam and/or intravenous (iv) ibuprofen are commonly preferred analgesic agents for postoperative pain management. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lornoxicam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ibuprofen (30 mg/kg, iv) on erythrocyte deformability, as well as hepatic and renal blood flows, in male rats. Methods Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: iv lornoxicam-treated group (Group L), iv ibuprofen-treated group (Group İ), and control group (Group C). Drug administration was carried out by the iv route in all groups except Group C. Hepatic and renal blood flows were studied by laser Doppler, and euthanasia was performed via intra-abdominal blood uptake. Erythrocyte deformability was measured using a constant-flow filtrometry system. Results Lornoxicam and ibuprofen increased the relative resistance, which is an indicator of erythrocyte deformability, of rats (P=0.016). Comparison of the results from Group L and Group I revealed no statistically significant differences (P=0.694), although the erythrocyte deformability levels in Group L and Group I were statistically higher than the results observed in Group C (P=0.018 and P=0.008, respectively). Hepatic and renal blood flows were significantly lower than the same in Group C. Conclusion We believe that lornoxicam and ibuprofen may lead to functional disorders related to renal and liver tissue perfusion secondary to both decreased blood flow and erythrocyte deformability. Further studies regarding these issues are thought to be essential. PMID:27536068

  17. Predictions of CD4 lymphocytes’ count in HIV patients from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV diagnosis, prognostic and treatment requires T CD4 lymphocytes’ number from flow cytometry, an expensive technique often not available to people in developing countries. The aim of this work is to apply a previous developed methodology that predicts T CD4 lymphocytes’ value based on total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocytes count applying sets theory, from information taken from the Complete Blood Count (CBC). Methods Sets theory was used to classify into groups named A, B, C and D the number of leucocytes/mm3, lymphocytes/mm3, and CD4/μL3 subpopulation per flow cytometry of 800 HIV diagnosed patients. Union between sets A and C, and B and D were assessed, and intersection between both unions was described in order to establish the belonging percentage to these sets. Results were classified into eight ranges taken by 1000 leucocytes/mm3, calculating the belonging percentage of each range with respect to the whole sample. Results Intersection (A ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ D) showed an effectiveness in the prediction of 81.44% for the range between 4000 and 4999 leukocytes, 91.89% for the range between 3000 and 3999, and 100% for the range below 3000. Conclusions Usefulness and clinical applicability of a methodology based on sets theory were confirmed to predict the T CD4 lymphocytes’ value, beginning with WBC and lymphocytes’ count from CBC. This methodology is new, objective, and has lower costs than the flow cytometry which is currently considered as Gold Standard. PMID:24034560

  18. Microfluidic-based speckle analysis for sensitive measurement of erythrocyte aggregation: A comparison of four methods for detection of elevated erythrocyte aggregation in diabetic rat blood

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical alterations in the plasma and red blood cell (RBC) membrane of diabetic blood lead to excessive erythrocyte aggregation (EA). EA would significantly impede the blood flow and increase the vascular flow resistance contributing to peripheral vascular diseases. In this study, a simple microfluidic-based method is proposed to achieve sensitive detection of hyperaggregation. When a blood sample is delivered into the device, images of blood flows are obtained with a short exposure time for a relatively long measuring time. A micro-particle image velocimetry technique was employed to monitor variation of the flow rate of blood as a function of time. Given that EA formation in the channel creates clear speckle patterns, the EA extent can be estimated by calculating a speckle area (ASpeckle) through a normalized autocovariance function. The hematocrit effect is assessed by comparing optical images transmitted through blood samples. EA variations caused by dextran treatment are quantitatively evaluated using characteristic time (λSpeckle) obtained by fitting the variations of ASpeckle. Other indices including number of RBCs in an aggregate (NRBC), characteristic time of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (λESR), and aggregation index estimated from ultrasound signals (AIEcho) are determined under different EA conditions using conventional techniques. The four different methods are applied to diabetic blood samples to compare their indices under hyperaggregation conditions. It is found that the proposed method can detect variation of EA reasonably, compared with conventional measurement techniques. These experimental demonstrations support the notion that the proposed method is capable of effectively monitoring the biophysical properties of diabetic blood. PMID:25945136

  19. [Erythrocyte concentrates as substitutes of whole blood; changes in transfusion methods in a regional hospital (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Brütsch, M; Frey-Wettstein, M; Schwarz, H

    1978-12-01

    In Switzerland the amount of blood donations is determined by the demands for plasma; as a result there is a surplus of erythrocyte concentrates for which more uses should be found. Trials in a regional general hospital proved that these concentrates can be advantageously employed in the field of surgery and anasthesia: due to close cooperation between the clinical department and the blood donor sevice the demand for erythrocyte concentrates rose from 5 per cent to 80 per cent within 5 years. PMID:740635

  20. Effect of Occupational Exposure on Blood Cell Counts, Electrocardiogram and Blood Pressure in Rice Mill Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aithala, Manjunatha; Das, Kusal Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems interact to regulate the heart rate of about 70 beats per minute. Activation of sympathetic nervous system by emotional or physical stress increases heart rate and the force of heart beat. There are many factors which alter the heart rate. The chemical and mechanical stimulation of receptors can also cause change in blood pressure through autonomic nervous system. Exposure to dust also causes alteration in blood cell counts. This can be due to allergic reactions and inflammation which in turn evoked by dust entering the lungs. Objectives Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of occupational exposure on haematological and cardiovascular parameters of rice mill workers by analysing Blood Cell Counts, ECG and Blood Pressure. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was carried on 134 rice mill workers and an equal number of age and sex matched healthy individual. The blood cell counts were determined by automated cell counter machine, ECG was recorded by using ECG machine and Blood Pressure was measured by using mercurial sphygmomanometer. Results Neurtrophil, Eosinophil and Lymphocyte count among haematological parameters were significantly increased in exposed individuals. Marked variation was seen in ECG and Blood pressure among cardiovascular parameters of exposed individuals compared with control group. Conclusion The findings of our study clearly indicate that the rice mill workers are under high level of dust exposure which has deleterious effects on their blood and tissues. It is due to high oxidative stress. There are abnormalities seen in cardiovascular system. PMID:26674852

  1. Micro-scale dynamic simulation of erythrocyte-platelet interaction in blood flow.

    PubMed

    AlMomani, T; Udaykumar, H S; Marshall, J S; Chandran, K B

    2008-06-01

    Platelet activation, adhesion, and aggregation on the blood vessel and implants result in the formation of mural thrombi. Platelet dynamics in blood flow is influenced by the far more numerous erythrocytes (RBCs). This is particularly the case in the smaller blood vessels (arterioles) and in constricted regions of blood flow (such as in valve leakage and hinge regions) where the dimensions of formed elements of blood become comparable with that of the flow geometry. In such regions, models to predict platelet motion, activation, aggregation and adhesion must account for platelet-RBC interactions. This paper studies platelet-RBC interactions in shear flows by performing simulations of micro-scale dynamics using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. A level-set sharp-interface immersed boundary method is employed in the computations in which RBC and platelet boundaries are tracked on a two-dimensional Cartesian grid. The RBCs are assumed to have an elliptical shape and to deform elastically under fluid forces while the platelets are assumed to behave as rigid particles of circular shape. Forces and torques between colliding blood cells are modeled using an extension of the soft-sphere model for elliptical particles. RBCs and platelets are transported under the forces and torques induced by fluid flow and cell-cell and cell-platelet collisions. The simulations show that platelet migration toward the wall is enhanced with increasing hematocrit, in agreement with past experimental observations. This margination is seen to occur due to hydrodynamic forces rather than collisional forces or volumetric exclusion effects. The effect of fluid shear forces on the platelets increases exponentially as a function of hematocrit for the range of parameters covered in this study. The micro-scale analysis can be potentially employed to obtain a deterministic relationship between fluid forces and platelet activation and aggregation in blood flow past cardiovascular implants

  2. Cisplatin combined with hyperthermia kills HepG2 cells in intraoperative blood salvage but preserves the function of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ting; Tang, Li-hui; Liu, Yun-qing; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-ju; Zhang, Feng-jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-05-01

    The safe use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery remains controversial. Here, we investigated the killing effect of cisplatin combined with hyperthermia on human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells and erythrocytes from IBS in vitro. HepG2 cells were mixed with concentrated erythrocytes and pretreated with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) alone at 37 °C for 60 min and cisplatin (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia at 42 °C for 60 min. After pretreatment, the cell viability, colony formation and DNA metabolism in HepG2 and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration, free hemoglobin (Hb) level, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, and blood gas variables in erythrocytes were determined. Pretreatment with cisplatin (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min significantly decreased HepG2 cell viability, and completely inhibited colony formation and DNA metabolism when the HepG2 cell concentration was 5×10(4) ml(-1) in the erythrocyte (P<0.01). Erythrocytic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, 2,3-DPG level, phosphatidylserine externalization, and extra-erythrocytic free Hb were significantly altered by hyperthermia plus high concentrations of cisplatin (100 and 200 μg/ml) (P<0.05), but not by hyperthermia plus 50 μg/ml cisplatin (P>0.05). In conclusion, pretreatment with cisplatin (50 μg/ml) combined with hyperthermia (42 °C) for 60 min effectively eliminated HepG2 cells from IBS but did not significantly affect erythrocytes in vitro. PMID:25990057

  3. The effect of the prior flow velocity on the structural organization of aggregated erythrocytes in the quiescent blood.

    PubMed

    Pribush, Alexander; Meyerstein, Dan; Meyerstein, Naomi

    2011-02-01

    Usually, investigations of erythrocyte aggregation at rest are focused on effects of the strength of erythrocyte-erythrocyte attractive interactions and the volume fraction of the cells, whereas the role of prior flow velocity has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to fill this gap. The main conclusions extracted from time records of the complex admittance of blood are as follows: (1) Dispersion of blood in a prior flow into discrete aggregates increases the mesh size of network, which, as has been recently shown, is formed in the quiescent blood. (2) If the energy of the flow field is sufficient to prevent the formation of face-to-side intercellular links, so that the dispersed phase consists of linear rouleaux, changes in the mesh size correlate positively with the length of rouleaux. (3) At slower prior flow velocities, the cells are combined into branched aggregates. As the degree of branching increases, the effect becomes less important. (4) The effects of the length of linear rouleaux and the degree of branching of ramified aggregates on the mesh size are qualitatively similar for suspensions with different aggregating media. (5) Erythrocytes suspended in strongly aggregating media form at low flow conditions a network-like structure. In this case, unlike high and moderate prior flow regimes, the mesh size of RBC network at rest is less than that formed after the stoppage of completely dispersed blood. PMID:21036560

  4. Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%. PMID:21917687

  5. Flow Cytometry Analysis Using Sysmex UF-1000i Classifies Uropathogens Based on Bacterial, Leukocyte, and Erythrocyte Counts in Urine Specimens among Patients with Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rydén, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/μl), leukocyte (median, 348/μl), and erythrocyte (median, 23/μl) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  6. Flow cytometry analysis using sysmex UF-1000i classifies uropathogens based on bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens among patients with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Tor; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common bacterial infection. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosis, but new techniques, such as flow cytometry analysis (FCA), have been introduced. The aim of the present study was to evaluate FCA characteristics regarding bacteriuria, leukocyturia, and erythrocyturia in relation to cultured uropathogens in specimens from patients with a suspected UTI. We also wanted to evaluate whether the FCA characteristics can identify uropathogens prior to culture. From a prospective study, 1,587 consecutive urine specimens underwent FCA prior to culture during January and February 2012. Outpatients and inpatients (79.6% and 19.4%, respectively) were included, of whom women represented 67.5%. In total, 620 specimens yielded growth, of which Escherichia coli represented 65%, Enterococcus spp. 8%, Klebsiella spp. 7%, and Staphylococcus spp. 5%. For the uropathogens, the outcome of FCA was compared against the results for specimens with E. coli and those with a negative culture. E. coli had high bacterial (median, 17,914/μl), leukocyte (median, 348/μl), and erythrocyte (median, 23/μl) counts. With the exception of Klebsiella spp., the majority of the uropathogens had considerable or significantly lower bacterial counts than that of E. coli. High leukocyte counts were found in specimens with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and group C streptococci. Elevated erythrocyte counts were found for P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, and group C streptococci, as well as for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In essence, FCA adds new information about the bacterial, leukocyte, and erythrocyte counts in urine specimens for different uropathogens. Based on FCA characteristics, uropathogens can be classified and identified prior to culture. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. have similar FCA characteristics. PMID:25472486

  7. An in vivo quantitative Raman-pH sensor of arterial blood based on laser trapping of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Manman; Xu, Bin; Yao, Huilu; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2016-05-10

    We report on a continuous and non-invasive approach in vivo to monitor arterial blood pH based on the laser trapping and Raman detection of single live erythrocytes. A home-built confocal laser tweezers Raman system (LTRS) is applied to trace the live erythrocytes at different pH values of the extracellular environment to record their corresponding Raman changes in vitro and in vivo. The analysis results in vitro show that when the extracellular environment pH changes from 6.5 to 9.0, the Raman intensity ratio (R1603, 1616 = I1603/I1616) of single erythrocytes decrease regularly; what is more, there is a good linear relationship between these two variables, and the linearity is 0.985, which is also verified successfully via in vivo Raman measurements. These results demonstrate that the Raman signal of single live erythrocytes is possible as a marker of the extracellular pH value. This in vivo and quantitative Raman-pH sensor of arterial blood will be an important candidate for monitoring the acid-base status during the treatment of ill patients and in some major surgeries because of its continuous and non-invasive characters. PMID:27064061

  8. Interactions of dendritic glycopolymer with erythrocytes, red blood cell ghosts and membrane enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Dominika; Janaszewska, Anna; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte; Bryszewska, Maria; Maly, Jan

    2015-12-30

    Interactions between maltose functionalized hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s (95% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI A; 33% maltose decoration denoted as Mal-PEI B) and red blood cells (RBCs) and between red blood cell membranes were investigated. We monitored the degree of hemolysis, the change in cell shape, the influence of polymers on the fluidity of the cell membrane and some cell membrane enzymes to determine their possible cytotoxic impact on them. To observe the extent of hemolysis, the RBCs were incubated with different concentrations of Mal-PEIs. The first significant lysis of RBCs was observed after 6h of incubation. Prolongation of the incubation time increased the number of ruptured cells. Moreover, we observed that Mal-PEI B was more hemolytic than Mal-PEI A in buffer solution. In contrast, an incubation of RBCs with Mal-PEIs in human plasma significantly decreased the hemolytic process and showed higher hemolytic property of Mal-PEI A compared to Mal-PEI B. Also several changes in the shape of the RBCs occurred after incubation with Mal-PEIs. Some of the erythrocytes shrank (echinocytes), but their morphology generally remained unchanged during the incubation. As shown by fluorescence experiments, both polymers induced the increase of fluidity of RBCs membranes. In summary, both types of hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine)s were practically non-hemolytic even at high polymer concentrations. Mal-PEI B was slightly more noxious than the Mal-PEI A in a buffer solution, while in blood plasma, the situation was opposite. Decrease of Na+/K+ ATPase and total ATPase enzymes activity was related with molecule size and number of maltose groups on the surface of molecule. The low hemolytic properties only observed at higher concentration (100μM and 400μM) indicated that Mal-PEIs are promising macromolecules in the area of drug delivery systems. PMID:26498371

  9. [Effect of erythrocyte preserved for different lengths of time on anti-D antibody identification with three blood matching tests].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui-Qing; Lin, Wu-Cun; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The specificity of the antigens and length of preservation time of erythrocytes are the interfering factors in blood group serological tests. In order to clarify the influence of preservation time of erythrocytes on the blood matching test, the titers of anti-D antibody were detected with papain method, BioVue cross matching card and DianaGel cross matching card in 7 series of panel red blood cells preserved for various length of time (0 to 9 months). The results showed that the titer of micro-column gel test (DianaGel card) was one tube higher than that of column agglutinating test (BioVue card). The titer of erythrocytes preserved for 9 months was as high as 256 tested by DianaGel card, but it was only 2 by papain method in the same anti-serum. It is suggested that there was no obvious difference between the results of micro-column gel test and column agglutinating test, and titer of papain method was the lowest. PMID:14575550

  10. [Studies of the blood antioxidant system and oxygen-transporting properties of human erythrocytes during 105-day isolation].

    PubMed

    Brazhe, N A; Baĭzhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V

    2011-01-01

    Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes. PMID:21675192

  11. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

  12. 70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Şerif; Çalışkan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

  13. Dielectric approach to investigation of erythrocyte aggregation. II. Kinetics of erythrocyte aggregation-disaggregation in quiescent and flowing blood.

    PubMed

    Pribush, A; Meiselman, H J; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2000-01-01

    A method based on dielectric properties of dispersed systems was applied to investigate the kinetics of RBC aggregation and the break-up of the aggregates. Experimentally, this method consists of measuring the capacitance at a frequency in the beginning of the beta-dispersion. Two experimental protocols were used to investigate the aggregation process. In the first case, blood samples were fully dispersed and then the flow was decreased or stopped to promote RBC aggregation. It was found that the initial phases of RBC aggregation are not affected by the shear rate. This finding indicates that RBC aggregation is a slow coagulation process. In the second case, RBCs aggregated under flow conditions at different shear rates and after the capacitance reached plateau levels, the flow was ceased. The steady-state capacitance of the quiescent blood and the kinetics of RBC aggregation after stoppage of shearing depend on the prior shear rate. To clarify the reasons for this effect, the kinetics of the disaggregation process was studied. In these experiments, time courses of the capacitance were recorded under different flow conditions and then a higher shear stress was applied to break up RBC aggregates. It was found that the kinetics of the disaggregation process depend on both the prior and current shear stresses. Results obtained in this study and their analysis show that the kinetics of RBC aggregation in stasis consists of two consecutive phases: At the onset, red blood cells interact face-to-face to form linear aggregates and then, after an accumulation of an appropriate concentration of these aggregates, branched rouleaux are formed via reactions of ends of the linear rouleaux with sides of other rouleaux (face-to-side interactions). Branching points are broken by low shear stresses whereas dispersion of the linear rouleaux requires significantly higher energy. PMID:11204548

  14. Diminution of Oxidative Damage to Human Erythrocytes and Lymphocytes by Creatine: Possible Role of Creatine in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Neha; Mahmood, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is naturally produced in the body and stored in muscles where it is involved in energy generation. It is widely used, especially by athletes, as a staple supplement for improving physical performance. Recent reports have shown that Cr displays antioxidant activity which could explain its beneficial cellular effects. We have evaluated the ability of Cr to protect human erythrocytes and lymphocytes against oxidative damage. Erythrocytes were challenged with model oxidants, 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the presence and absence of Cr. Incubation of erythrocytes with oxidant alone increased hemolysis, methemoglobin levels, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. This was accompanied by decrease in glutathione levels. Antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant power of the cell were compromised while the activity of membrane bound enzyme was lowered. This suggests induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes by AAPH and H2O2. However, Cr protected the erythrocytes by ameliorating the AAPH and H2O2 induced changes in these parameters. This protective effect was confirmed by electron microscopic analysis which showed that oxidant-induced cell damage was attenuated by Cr. No cellular alterations were induced by Cr alone even at 20 mM, the highest concentration used. Creatinine, a by-product of Cr metabolism, was also shown to exert protective effects, although it was slightly less effective than Cr. Human lymphocytes were similarly treated with H2O2 in absence and presence of different concentrations of Cr. Lymphocytes incubated with oxidant alone had alterations in various biochemical and antioxidant parameters including decrease in cell viability and induction of DNA damage. The presence of Cr attenuated all these H2O2-induced changes in lymphocytes. Thus, Cr can function as a blood antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative damage, genotoxicity and can potentially increase their lifespan. PMID

  15. A microfluidic biochip for complete blood cell counts at the point-of-care

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, U.; Reddy, B.; Damhorst, G.; Sonoiki, O.; Ghonge, T.; Yang, C.; Bashir, R.

    2016-01-01

    Complete blood cell counts (CBCs) are one of the most commonly ordered and informative blood tests in hospitals. The results from a CBC, which typically include white blood cell (WBC) counts with differentials, red blood cell (RBC) counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin measurements, can have implications for the diagnosis and screening of hundreds of diseases and treatments. Bulky and expensive hematology analyzers are currently used as a gold standard for acquiring CBCs. For nearly all CBCs performed today, the patient must travel to either a hospital with a large laboratory or to a centralized lab testing facility. There is a tremendous need for an automated, portable point-of-care blood cell counter that could yield results in a matter of minutes from a drop of blood without any trained professionals to operate the instrument. We have developed microfluidic biochips capable of a partial CBC using only a drop of whole blood. Total leukocyte and their 3-part differential count are obtained from 10 μL of blood after on-chip lysing of the RBCs and counting of the leukocytes electrically using microfabricated platinum electrodes. For RBCs and platelets, 1 μL of whole blood is diluted with PBS on-chip and the cells are counted electrically. The total time for measurement is under 20 minutes. We demonstrate a high correlation of blood cell counts compared to results acquired with a commercial hematology analyzer. This technology could potentially have tremendous applications in hospitals at the bedside, private clinics, retail clinics and the developing world. PMID:26909365

  16. Human Erythrocyte PIG-A Assay: An Easily Monitored Index of Gene Mutation Requiring Low Volume Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dertinger, Stephen D.; Avlasevich, Svetlana L.; Bemis, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Yuhchyau; MacGregor, James T.

    2015-01-01

    This laboratory has previously described a method for scoring the incidence of rodent blood Pig-a mutant phenotype erythrocytes using immunomag-netic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow®). The current work extends this approach to human blood. The frequencies of CD59- and CD55-negative reticulo-cytes (RETCD59−/CD55−) and erythrocytes (RBCCD59−/CD55−) seve as phenotypic reporters of PIG-A gene mutation. Immunomagnetic separation was found to provide an effective means of increasing the number of reticulocytes and erythro-cytes evaluated. Technical replicates were utilized to provide a sufficient number of cells for precise scoring while at the same time controlling for procedural accuracy by allowing comparison of replicate values. Cold whole blood samples could be held for at least one week without affecting reticulo-cyte, RETCD59−/CD55− or RBCCD59−/CD55− frequencies. Specimens from a total of 52 nonsmoking, self-reported healthy adult subjects were evaluated. The mean frequency of RETCD59−/CD55− and RBCCD592−/CD55− were 6.0 × 10−6 and 2.9 × 10−6, respectively. The difference is consistent with a modest selective pressure against mutant phenotype erythrocytes in the circulation, and suggests advantages of studying both populations of erythrocytes. Whereas intra-subject variability was low, inter-subject variability was relatively high, with RETCD59−/CD55− frequencies differing by more than 30-fold. There was an apparent correlation between age and mutant cell frequencies. Taken together, the results indicate that the frequency of human PIG-A mutant phenotype cells can be efficiently and reliably estimated using a labeling and analysis protocol that is well established for rodent-based studies. The applicability of the assay across species, its simplicity and statistical power, and the relatively non-invasive nature of the assay should benefit myriad research areas involving DNA damage

  17. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  18. Erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and blood pressure in identical twin pairs discordant for insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, T. C.; Dubrey, S. W.; Leslie, D. G.; Hafiz, M.; Noble, M. I.; Lant, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether insulin dependent diabetes is responsible for the abnormal behaviour of the carrier in sodium-lithium countertransport and whether the diabetic state is associated with rise in blood pressure. DESIGN--Case-control study. SETTING--London teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--44 twin pairs discordant for insulin dependent diabetes living in United Kingdom and 44 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and body mass index. None of the twin pairs or the controls had evidence of microalbuminuria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Sodium-lithium countertransport activity in erythrocytes and arterial blood pressure. RESULTS--The mean (95% confidence interval) sodium-lithium countertransport activity (mmol Li per litre of red blood cells per h) of the diabetic twins (0.291 (0.244 to 0.338)) was similar to that of their non-diabetic cotwins (0.247 (0.204 to 0.290)); both values were significantly higher than that of the controls (0.187 (0.157 to 0.216); p < 0.05). In addition, systolic blood pressure was higher in those twins with diabetes (127 (122 to 133) mm Hg) than in the non-diabetic cotwins (122 (117 to 127) mm Hg; p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in mean diastolic blood pressure between any of the groups studied. CONCLUSIONS--The raised erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity in the diabetic twins compared with the controls seems to be inherited rather than a consequence of overt diabetes. The higher systolic blood pressure in diabetic twins than non-diabetic cotwins indicates that insulin dependent diabetes does exert a small influence on systolic blood pressure. PMID:1392822

  19. Efficiency comparison of two preparative mechanisms for magnetic separation of erythrocytes from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, M. D.

    1981-03-01

    Separation efficiencies of erythrocytes, made paramagnetic by oxidation of their cellular oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin with sodium nitrite, were compared under identical magnetic separation conditions with those of cells whose oxyhemoglobin had been reduced to deoxyhemoglobin through exposure to sodium dithionite, and the percentage of high-spin hemoglobin was estimated spectrophotometrically. Both parallel and transverse flow/matrix filter configurations gave greater average separation efficiencies, with less variability, for erythrocytes containing the dithionite-reduced hemoglobin. These findings are thought to originate in the characteristics of the oxidative reaction, since the spectrophotometric data indicate a similar variability in oxidation of oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin.

  20. LC-MS/MS analysis of carboxymethylated and carboxyethylated phosphatidylethanolamines in human erythrocytes and blood plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Naoki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Asai, Akira; Fujita, Ikuko; Hashiura, Aya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    An amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is considered as a target for nonenzymatic glycation, and the potential involvement of lipid glycation in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications has generated interest. However, unlike an early glycation product of PE (Amadori-PE), the occurrence and roles of advanced glycation end products of PE (AGE-PE) in vivo have been unclear. Here, we developed an LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of AGE-PE [carboxymethyl-PE (CM-PE) and carboxyethyl-PE (CE-PE)]. Collision-induced dissociation of CM-PE and CE-PE produced characteristic ions, permitting neutral loss scanning (NLS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of AGE-PE. By NLS analysis, a series of AGE-PE molecular species was detected in human erythrocytes and blood plasma. In LC-MS/MS analysis, MRM enabled the separation and determination of the predominant AGE-PE species. Between healthy subjects and diabetic patients, no significant differences were observed in AGE-PE concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma, whereas Amadori-PE concentrations were higher in diabetic patients. These results provide direct evidence for the presence of AGE-PE in human blood, and indicated that, compared with Amadori-PE, AGE-PE is less likely to be accumulated in diabetic blood. The presently developed LC-MS/MS method appears to be a powerful tool for understanding in vivo lipid glycation and its pathophysiological consequence. PMID:20386060

  1. DNA content determination of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by clastogens and spindle poisons in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Grawe, J.; Amneus, H. Uppsala Univ. ); Zetterberg, G. )

    1993-01-01

    The frequencies and DNA distributions of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice after four different treatments were determined by flow cytometry. Polychromatic erthrocytes were detected using the fluorescent RNA stain thiazole orange, while micronuclei were detected with the DNA stain Hoechst 33342. The treatments were X-irradiation (1 Gy), cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg), vincristine sulfphate (0.08 mg/kg), and cochicine (1 mg/kg). All treatments showed increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at 30h after treatment in the bone marrow (colchicine 50h) and at 50h in the peripheral blood. The clostogenic agents X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide and the spindle poisons vincristine sulphate and cochicine could be grouped according to the fluorescent characteristics of the induced micronuclei as well as the relative frequency of small (0.5-2% if the diploid G1 DNA content) and large (2-10%) micronuclei. In the peripheral blood the relative frequency of large micronuclei was lower than in the bone marrow, indicating that they were partly eliminated before entrance into the peripheral circulation. The nature of presumed micronuclei was verified by sorting. The potential of this approach to give information on the mechanism of induction of micronuclei is discussed.

  2. Age-dependent changes in spontaneous frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in bone marrow and DNA damage in peripheral blood of Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Bhilwade, Hari N; Jayakumar, S; Chaubey, R C

    2014-08-01

    Age-dependent changes in chromosomal damage in bone marrow - a self-proliferating tissue - in the form of spontaneously occurring micronucleated erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood were examined in male and female Swiss mice. In the erythrocyte population in the bone marrow, polychromatic (immature) erythrocytes showed a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei as a function of age of the mice (1-20 months). The increase in micronucleus frequency was less in normochromatic (mature) erythrocytes. The female mice showed a higher frequency of micronuclei than the male mice in all the age groups examined. However, the female to male ratio of micronucleus frequencies in total erythrocytes as well as in polychromatic erythrocytes decreased with age. DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the single-cell gel electrophoresis in peripheral blood of different age groups of mice (1, 6, 12 and 18 months) showed a gradual increase with age. Female mice showed more DNA damage than 1-month and 18-month-old male mice. In conclusion, these results show that there is an accumulation of genetic damage in bone marrow and DNA damage in peripheral blood of mice during ageing, and that females show more alterations than males. PMID:25344168

  3. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.

    1978-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high (6-8 ppm) and moderate (1.5 ppm) amounts of ozone (O3) for various time periods. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone was monitored with red blood cell potassium (rubidium) influx studies, with storage stress combined with ultrastructural studies and with levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Erythrocytes of rats exposed to O3 showed no significant changes either in their potassium influx or in their glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to controls. Erythrocyte differential counts on O3-exposed animals showed significant changes initially as well as following storage stress compared to controls. Rats exposed to 8 ppm O3 for 4 h showed a marked increase in echinocytes. These consistent transformations from discocytes to echinocytes following O3 exposure suggest latent erythrocyte damage has occurred.

  4. Electrochemical Red Blood Cell Counting: One at a Time.

    PubMed

    Sepunaru, Lior; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Holter, Jennifer; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that the concentration of a red blood cell solution under physiological conditions can be determined by electrochemical voltammetry. The magnitude of the oxygen reduction currents produced at an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode was diagnosed analytically at concentrations suitable for a point-of-care test device. The currents could be further enhanced when the solution of red blood cells was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. We show that the enhanced signal can be used to detect red blood cells at a single entity level. The method presented relies on the catalytic activity of red blood cells towards hydrogen peroxide and on surface-induced haemolysis. Each single cell activity is expressed as current spikes decaying within a few seconds back to the background current. The frequency of such current spikes is proportional to the concentration of cells in solution. PMID:27355839

  5. Concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count, a previously underestimated phenomenon in EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yufei; Xu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The proportion and potential risk of concomitant spuriously elevated white blood cell count (SEWC) are underestimated in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP). The proportion, kinetics and prevention of SEWC remain poorly understood. A total of 25 patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP were enrolled in this study. With the hematology analyzer Coulter LH 750, we determined the time courses of WBC count, WBC differential and platelet count in EDTA- and sodium citrate-anticoagulated blood, respectively. Blood smears were prepared to inspect the presence of platelet clumps using light microscopy. The effect of automatic instrumental correction on the extent of SEWC was evaluated. The proportion of SEWC was 92% in EDTA-dependent PTCP and 73.9% of SEWCs were within the normal range. The development of SEWC was time-dependent, and neutrophils and lymphocytes were the main subpopulations involved in SEWC. A strong and significant correlation (r = 0.9937, p < 0.001) was found between the increased WBC count and the decreased platelet count. Both corrected and uncorrected WBC counts at 15 minutes or later after blood collection in EDTA were significantly higher than their basal counts, respectively, p < 0.05. Interestingly, in citrated blood, WBC counts after blood collection were not significantly different from its basal counts, p > 0.05. A high proportion of concomitant SEWCs, which are mainly within normal range, are present in patients with EDTA-dependent PTCP. Proper interpretation of SEWC is crucial to avoid clinic errors. SEWC develops in a time-dependent pattern, although the Coulter LH 750 only partly mitigates the extent of SEWC, sodium citrate is able to effectively prevent SEWC. PMID:25275874

  6. Effect of magnesium deficiency on erythrocyte aging in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Elin, R. J.; Utter, A.; Tan, H. K.; Corash, L.

    1980-01-01

    Rats placed on a magnesium-deficient diet show decreased erythrocyte magnesium concentration, shortened erythrocyte survival, and erythrocyte membrane ultrastructure defects and become progressively anemic. Whether these pathologic processes are due to abnormal erythropoiesis or occur in the peripheral circulation is unknown. In the present study, magnesium and hemoglobin concentrations, reticulocyte count, erythrocyte pyrophosphatase, and pyruvate kinase activities were determined at weekly intervals for 6 weeks in whole blood and age-dependent erythrocyte fractions isolated from inbred Fisher rats fed a diet deficient in magnesium or the same diet with added magnesium. Freeze-fracture electron microscopic examinations were performed on age-dependent erythrocyte fractions to evaluate the membrane defect. The youngest red cells from magnesium-deficient rats were similar to those of control animals with respect to erythrocyte magnesium concentrations, pyrophosphatase activities, and membrane morphology. The older erythrocyte fractions from magnesium-deficient rats showed significant decreases in magnesium concentrations, pyrophosphatase activity, and the presence of membrane abnormalities. Thus, new erythrocytes produced in magnesium-deficient rats appear to be normal but rapidly develop biochemical and morphologic abnormalities with aging in a magnesium-deficient plasma environment. Images Figure 1 PMID:6106388

  7. Cytotoxic effect of poly-dispersed single walled carbon nanotubes on erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2011-01-01

    Single wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are hydrophobic and do not disperse in aqueous solvents. Acid functionalization of SWCNTs results in attachment of carboxy and sulfonate groups to carbon atoms and the resulting acid functionalized product (AF-SWCNTs) is negatively charged and disperses easily in water and buffers. In the present study, effect of AF-SWCNTs on blood erythrocytes was examined. Incubation of mouse erythrocytes with AF-SWCNTs and not with control SWCNTs, resulted in a dose and time dependent lysis of erythrocyte. Using fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs, binding of AF-SWCNTs with erythrocytes could be demonstrated. Confocal microscopy results indicated that AF-SWCNTs could enter the erythrocytes. Treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in exposure of hydrophobic patches on erythrocyte membrane that is indicative of membrane damage. A time and dose dependent increase in externalization of phosphatidylserine on erythrocyte membrane bilayer was also found. Administration of AF-SWCNTs through intravenous route resulted in a transient anemia as seen by a sharp decline in blood erythrocyte count accompanied with a significant drop in blood haemoglobin level. Administration of AF-SWCNTs through intratracheal administration also showed significant decline in RBC count while administration through other routes (gavage and intra-peritoneal) was not effective. By using a recently developed technique of a two step in vivo biotinylation of erythrocytes that enables simultaneous enumeration of young (age <10 days) and old (age>40 days) erythrocytes in mouse blood, it was found that the in vivo toxic effect of AF-SWCNTs was more pronounced on older subpopulation of erythrocytes. Subpopulation of old erythrocytes fell after treatment with AF-SWCNTs but recovered by third day after the intravenous administration of AF-SWCNTs. Taken together our results indicate that treatment with AF-SWCNTs results in acute membrane damage and eventual lysis of erythrocytes. Intravenous

  8. Cytotoxic Effect of Poly-Dispersed Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Erythrocytes In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2011-01-01

    Single wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are hydrophobic and do not disperse in aqueous solvents. Acid functionalization of SWCNTs results in attachment of carboxy and sulfonate groups to carbon atoms and the resulting acid functionalized product (AF-SWCNTs) is negatively charged and disperses easily in water and buffers. In the present study, effect of AF-SWCNTs on blood erythrocytes was examined. Incubation of mouse erythrocytes with AF-SWCNTs and not with control SWCNTs, resulted in a dose and time dependent lysis of erythrocyte. Using fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs, binding of AF-SWCNTs with erythrocytes could be demonstrated. Confocal microscopy results indicated that AF-SWCNTs could enter the erythrocytes. Treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in exposure of hydrophobic patches on erythrocyte membrane that is indicative of membrane damage. A time and dose dependent increase in externalization of phosphatidylserine on erythrocyte membrane bilayer was also found. Administration of AF-SWCNTs through intravenous route resulted in a transient anemia as seen by a sharp decline in blood erythrocyte count accompanied with a significant drop in blood haemoglobin level. Administration of AF-SWCNTs through intratracheal administration also showed significant decline in RBC count while administration through other routes (gavage and intra-peritoneal) was not effective. By using a recently developed technique of a two step in vivo biotinylation of erythrocytes that enables simultaneous enumeration of young (age <10 days) and old (age>40 days) erythrocytes in mouse blood, it was found that the in vivo toxic effect of AF-SWCNTs was more pronounced on older subpopulation of erythrocytes. Subpopulation of old erythrocytes fell after treatment with AF-SWCNTs but recovered by third day after the intravenous administration of AF-SWCNTs. Taken together our results indicate that treatment with AF-SWCNTs results in acute membrane damage and eventual lysis of erythrocytes. Intravenous

  9. Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients have an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing that is associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and increased oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the circadian variability of blood pressure and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) in healthy siblings of T1D patients vs healthy control subjects who had no first-degree relative with T1D. Secondary aims of the study were to explore the influence of both cardiovascular autonomic function and erythrocyte electron transfer activity as oxidative marker on the ambulatory blood pressure profile. Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was undertaken in 25 controls, 20 T1D patients and 20 siblings. In addition to laboratory examination (including homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity) and clinical testing of autonomic function, we measured the rate of oxidant-induced erythrocyte electron transfer to extracellular ferricyanide (RBC vfcy). Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP) midline-estimating statistic of rhythm and pulse pressure were higher in T1D patients and correlated positively with diabetes duration and RBC vfcy; autonomic dysfunction was associated with diastolic BP ecphasia and increased AASI. Siblings had higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, larger SBP amplitude, and higher AASI than controls. Daytime SBP was positively, independently associated with BMI and RBC vfcy. Among non-diabetic people, there was a significant correlation between AASI and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Siblings of T1D patients exhibited a cluster of sub-clinical metabolic abnormalities associated with consensual perturbations in BP variability. Moreover, our findings support, in a clinical setting, the proposed role of transplasma membrane electron transport systems in vascular pathobiology. PMID:20920366

  10. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  11. [A pregnant woman with irregular erythrocyte antibodies for whom no compatible packed red blood cells were available].

    PubMed

    Boonstra, J G; Overbeeke, M A M; de Rijke, Y B; Duvekot, J J

    2005-11-19

    A 45-year-old woman underwent a Caesarean section at a gestational age of over 32 weeks. Screening for irregular erythrocyte antibodies in the transfusion laboratory yielded a positive result. It appeared that the patient had for several years been known to have antibodies against At(a), a high-frequency antigen that may cause severe transfusion reactions when incompatible packed cells are administered. No autologous donated blood was available and the only compatible At(a)-negative unit of packed cells in the Blood Bank of the Council of Europe was damaged during the thawing process. A cell saver was therefore used during the Caesarean section, and family members were summoned for donation. This case report illustrates the necessity of a transfusion plan for pregnant women with (rare) irregular antibodies. PMID:16355577

  12. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  13. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist. PMID:22256137

  14. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  15. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y L; Carter, N P; Price, C M; Colman, S M; Milton, P J; Hackett, G A; Greaves, M F; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    1993-01-01

    Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching for fetal nucleated erythrocytes which do not express either of these antigens. However, significant maternal contamination was present even after MACS enrichment preventing the accurate analysis of fetal cells by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). To overcome this problem, we used simultaneous immunophenotyping of cells with the mouse antifetal haemoglobin antibody, UCH gamma, combined with FISH analysis using chromosome X and Y specific DNA probes. This approach enables selective FISH analysis of fetal cells within an excess of maternal cells. Furthermore, we have confirmed the potential of the method for clinical practice by a pilot prospective study of fetal sex in women referred for amniocentesis between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation. Images PMID:8133505

  17. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  18. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  19. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  20. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  1. IFNγ Responses to Pre-erythrocytic and Blood-stage Malaria Antigens Exhibit Differential Associations With Past Exposure and Subsequent Protection

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Prasanna; Nankya, Felistas; Stoyanov, Cristina; Eccles-James, Ijeoma; Sikyomu, Esther; Naluwu, Kate; Wamala, Samuel; Nalubega, Mayimuna; Briggs, Jessica; Bowen, Katherine; Bigira, Victor; Kapisi, James; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant; Feeney, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The malaria-specific T-cell response is believed to be important for protective immunity. Antimalarial chemoprevention may affect this response by altering exposure to malaria antigens. Methods. We performed interferon γ (IFNγ) ELISpot assays to assess the cellular immune response to blood-stage and pre-erythrocytic antigens longitudinally from 1 to 3 years of age in 196 children enrolled in a randomized trial of antimalarial chemoprevention in Tororo, Uganda, an area of high transmission intensity. Results. IFNγ responses to blood-stage antigens, particularly MSP1, were frequently detected, strongly associated with recent malaria exposure, and lower in those adherent to chemoprevention compared to nonadherent children and those randomized to no chemoprevention. IFNγ responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens were infrequent and similar between children randomized to chemoprevention or no chemoprevention. Responses to blood-stage antigens were not associated with subsequent protection from malaria (aHR 0.96, P = .83), but responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens were associated with protection after adjusting for prior malaria exposure (aHR 0.52, P = .009). Conclusions. In this high transmission setting, IFNγ responses to blood-stage antigens were common and associated with recent exposure to malaria but not protection from subsequent malaria. Responses to pre-erythrocytic antigens were uncommon, not associated with exposure but were associated with protection from subsequent malaria. PMID:25520427

  2. Blood glutathione status and activity of glutathione-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of young trotters in basic training.

    PubMed

    Janiak, M; Suska, M; Dudzińska, W; Skotnicka, E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate response of blood glutathione status and activity of glutathione-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of young trotters in basic training. Nine untrained trotters (aged 16-20 months) were exposed to a 4-month training program based on exercises at low-to-moderate intensity. The conditioning consisted of breaking the horses and running them on distances varying from 4 to 40 km a week. The workloads were increased on a 3-week basis. Exercise intensity was monitored by measuring heart rate and blood lactate. Blood samples were collected at rest, before (RES0) and after (RESt) the conditioning period; moreover, on the latter occasion (on day 112 of training), the blood was also taken immediately after the routine exercise (EXE0) and 60 min thereafter (EXE60). The whole blood samples were analysed for the concentration of reduced, oxidized and total glutathione (GSH, GSSG and TGSH, respectively), while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-disulfide reductase (GR) were determined in haemolysates. Additionally, the erythrocytic concentrations of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its phosphate (NADP(+)) were measured. All investigated parameters except NAD(+) and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) changed during the training period. Following the effortm GPX, NADP(+) and GSH/GSSG were significantly lower (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively) while GSSG was markedly higher than at rest (RESt). The drop in NADP(+), low GSH/GSSG and high GSSG concentration were sustained at EXE60. Glutathione-disulfide reductase activity was higher after the workout but only at EXE60 the increase in activity was significant. Despite the activities of the GSH-GSSG cycle, enzymes were considerably higher after the training period, the elevated concentration of GSSG and significantly lower GSH/GSSG ratio in the post-exercise measurements suggest that production of reactive oxygen

  3. RALP1 Is a Rhoptry Neck Erythrocyte-Binding Protein of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites and a Potential Blood-Stage Vaccine Candidate Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Arumugam, Thangavelu U.; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Takeo, Satoru; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek; Long, Carole A.; Torii, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate. PMID:24002067

  4. Erythrocyte-dependent regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow: role of varied oxyhemoglobin and exercise on nitrite, S-nitrosohemoglobin, and ATP.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Stéphane P; Patel, Rakesh P; Brandon, Angela; Teng, Xinjun; Pearson, James; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; Yuen, Ada H Y; Smolenski, Ryszard T; González-Alonso, José

    2010-12-01

    The erythrocyte is proposed to play a key role in the control of local tissue perfusion via three O(2)-dependent signaling mechanisms: 1) reduction of circulating nitrite to vasoactive NO, 2) S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb)-dependent vasodilatation, and 3) release of the vasodilator and sympatholytic ATP; however, their relative roles in vivo remain unclear. Here we evaluated each mechanism to gain insight into their roles in the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow during hypoxia and hyperoxia at rest and during exercise. Arterial and femoral venous hemoglobin O(2) saturation (O(2)Hb), plasma and erythrocyte NO and ATP metabolites, and leg and systemic hemodynamics were measured in 10 healthy males exposed to graded hypoxia, normoxia, and graded hyperoxia both at rest and during submaximal one-legged knee-extensor exercise. At rest, leg blood flow and NO and ATP metabolites in plasma and erythrocytes remained unchanged despite large alterations in O(2)Hb. During exercise, however, leg and systemic perfusion and vascular conductance increased in direct proportion to decreases in arterial and venous O(2)Hb (r(2) = 0.86-0.98; P = 0.01), decreases in venous plasma nitrite (r(2) = 0.93; P < 0.01), increases in venous erythrocyte nitroso species (r(2) = 0.74; P < 0.05), and to a lesser extent increases in erythrocyte SNO (r(2) = 0.59; P = 0.07). No relationship was observed with plasma ATP (r(2) = 0.01; P = 0.99) or its degradation compounds. These in vivo data indicate that, during low-intensity exercise and hypoxic stress, but not hypoxic stress alone, plasma nitrite consumption and formation of erythrocyte nitroso species are associated with limb vasodilatation and increased blood flow in the human skeletal muscle vasculature. PMID:20852046

  5. Erythrocyte-dependent regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow: role of varied oxyhemoglobin and exercise on nitrite, S-nitrosohemoglobin, and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rakesh P.; Brandon, Angela; Teng, Xinjun; Pearson, James; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; Yuen, Ada H. Y.; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; González-Alonso, José

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte is proposed to play a key role in the control of local tissue perfusion via three O2-dependent signaling mechanisms: 1) reduction of circulating nitrite to vasoactive NO, 2) S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb)-dependent vasodilatation, and 3) release of the vasodilator and sympatholytic ATP; however, their relative roles in vivo remain unclear. Here we evaluated each mechanism to gain insight into their roles in the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow during hypoxia and hyperoxia at rest and during exercise. Arterial and femoral venous hemoglobin O2 saturation (O2Hb), plasma and erythrocyte NO and ATP metabolites, and leg and systemic hemodynamics were measured in 10 healthy males exposed to graded hypoxia, normoxia, and graded hyperoxia both at rest and during submaximal one-legged knee-extensor exercise. At rest, leg blood flow and NO and ATP metabolites in plasma and erythrocytes remained unchanged despite large alterations in O2Hb. During exercise, however, leg and systemic perfusion and vascular conductance increased in direct proportion to decreases in arterial and venous O2Hb (r2 = 0.86–0.98; P = 0.01), decreases in venous plasma nitrite (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.01), increases in venous erythrocyte nitroso species (r2 = 0.74; P < 0.05), and to a lesser extent increases in erythrocyte SNO (r2 = 0.59; P = 0.07). No relationship was observed with plasma ATP (r2 = 0.01; P = 0.99) or its degradation compounds. These in vivo data indicate that, during low-intensity exercise and hypoxic stress, but not hypoxic stress alone, plasma nitrite consumption and formation of erythrocyte nitroso species are associated with limb vasodilatation and increased blood flow in the human skeletal muscle vasculature. PMID:20852046

  6. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³⁷Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors. PMID:24064533

  7. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ackermann, Teresa F; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P; Arthur, J Simon C; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk(+/+)). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk(-/-) mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk(-/-) erythrocytes than in msk(+/+) erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk(-/-) erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk(-/-) mice. The spleens from msk(-/-) mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk(+/+) mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  8. Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V.; Winzelberg, Sarah; Giger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing. Sample Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases. Procedures Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results. Results Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use. PMID:22280380

  9. The Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Count Is Associated With Bone Health in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xianfeng; Yu, Hejun; Zhao, Chenchen; Qian, Yu; Hong, Dun; Huang, Kangmao; Mo, Jian; Qin, An; Fang, Xiangqian; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) count is a routinely used and meaningful index for infection and blood diseases. PBMCs may be closely related to osteoclasts and include osteoclast precursors; we examined the association between the PBMC count and bone health. This research included 2806 community men aged ≥50 years who underwent full health examinations from October 2007 through December 2011 in four medical centers. The PBMC count was significantly high among subjects with “at least osteopenia” compared with controls. In analysis of covariance adjusted for potential confounders, the bone mineral density (BMD) value and T-score had a significant decreasing trend across the quartiles of PBMC count. In univariate analysis, the PBMC count had a strong association with “at least osteopenia” (odds ratio [OR] = 2.520, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.397–4.547). After adjustment for confounding factors (multivariate analysis) from Model 1 to 4, PBMC count remained as an independent risk factor for “at least osteopenia” (OR = 2.481, 95% CI: 1.176–5.236). Moreover, after adjusting for all confounding variables, participants had a significantly high OR in the body mass index (BMI) <25 group (OR = 2.798, CI: 1.122–6.973; P = 0.027) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 group (OR = 2.519, CI: 1.059–5.993; P = 0.037). In conclusion, the PBMC count is significantly associated with bone loss in elderly men and the exact mechanism requires further clarification. PMID:27082593

  10. Brain, blood, and iron: Perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C.M.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J.; Verhaag, Esther M.; Jan J, Vonk; Margolis, Russell L.; Walker, Ruth H.

    2012-01-01

    The terms “neuroacanthocytosis” (NA) and “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation” (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

  11. Sample stability for complete blood cell count using the Sysmex XN haematological analyser

    PubMed Central

    Daves, Massimo; Zagler, Elmar M.; Cemin, Roberto; Gnech, Flora; Joos, Alexandra; Platzgummer, Stefan; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Sample stability is a crucial aspect for the quality of results of a haematology laboratory. This study was conducted to investigate the reliability of haematological testing using Sysmex XN in samples stored for up to 24 h at different temperatures. Materials and methods Haematological tests were performed on whole blood samples collected from 16 ostensibly healthy outpatients immediately after collection and 3 h, 6 h or 24 h afterwards, with triple aliquots kept at room temperature, 4 °C or 37 °C. Results No meaningful bias was observed after 3 h under different storage conditions, except for red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet count (impedance technique, PLT-I) at 37 °C. After 6 h, meaningful bias was observed for mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) at room temperature, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), MCH, MCV and PLT-I at 4 °C, and RBC, RDW, MCHC, MCH and PLT-I at 37 °C. After 24 h, a meaningful bias was observed for MCHC, MCV, platelet count (fluorescent technique, PLT-F) and mean platelet volume (MPV) at room temperature, MCHC, MCV, PLT-I and MPV at 4 °C, and all parameters except RBC count and MPV at 37 °C. Discussion Great caution should be observed when analysing results of haematological tests conducted more than 3 h after sample collection. PMID:26057491

  12. Evaluation of white blood cell count as a possible prognostic marker for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There seems to be increasing evidence that inflammation leads to cancer. For several cancers, an association with white blood cell (WBC) count has been reported. So far, no studies have been performed for cancer of the oral cavity and WBC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to look at whether WBC count can be used as a prognostic marker for recurrence or metastases for oral cancer. Material and methods For 278 patients with oral cancer, the preoperative WBC count was compared with the clinicopathological information: age, gender, T-status, N-status, recurrence, metastases, follow-up time, and time till recurrence or metastases appeared. Results Out of 278 patients, 48 developed recurrence, 24 second tumors, 46 cervical metastases, and 14 distant metastases. The mean follow-up time was 35.97 months (range: 12-107 months). Significant Pearson correlation at the 0.05 level could be found for the T-status (0.046), but not for the N status (0.121). No significant correlation could be found between WBC count and the development of recurrence or metastases. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that elevated WBC count does not seem to be a predictor for recurrence or for further metastases. Further research is recommended to investigate the WBC count in precancerous lesions and in HPV positive patients with oral SCC. PMID:21352591

  13. The effect of blood cell count on coronary flow in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Soylu, Korhan; Gulel, Okan; Yucel, Huriye; Yuksel, Serkan; Aksan, Gokhan; Soylu, Ayşegül İdil; Demircan, Sabri; Yılmaz, Özcan; Sahin, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: The coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is a coronary artery disease with a benign course, but its pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood.The purpose of this controlled study was to investigate the cellular content of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP and the relationship of this with coronary flow rates. Methods: Selective coronary angiographies of 3368 patients were analyzed to assess Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) values. Seventy eight of them had CSFP, and their demographic and laboratory findings were compared with 61 patients with normal coronary flow. Results: Patients’ demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean corrected TFC (cTFC) values were significantly elevated in CSFP patients (p<0.001). Furthermore, hematocrit and hemoglobin values, and eosinophil and basophil counts of the CSFP patients were significantly elevated compared to the values obtained in the control group (p=0.005, p=0.047, p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). The increase observed in hematocrit and eosinophil levels showed significant correlations with increased TFC values (r=0.288 and r=0.217, respectively). Conclusion: Significant changes have been observed in the cellular composition of blood in patients diagnosed with CSFP as compared to the patients with normal coronary blood flow. The increases in hematocrit levels and in the eosinophil and basophil counts may have direct or indirect effects on the rate of coronary blood flow. PMID:25225502

  14. The Effects of Short-Term and Long-Term Testosterone Supplementation on Blood Viscosity and Erythrocyte Deformability in Healthy Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Eric; Vogel, Johannes; Li, Michelle; Peng, Liming; Pencina, Karol; Serra, Carlo; Sandor, Nicolae L.; Jasuja, Ravi; Montano, Monty; Basaria, Shehzad; Gassmann, Max; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone treatment induces erythrocytosis that could potentially affect blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk. We thus investigated the effects of testosterone administration on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability using mouse models. Blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and hematocrits were measured in normal male and female mice, as well as in females and castrated males after short-term (2 wk) and long-term (5–7 mo) testosterone intervention (50 mg/kg, weekly). Castrated males for long-term intervention were studied in parallel with the normal males to assess the effect of long-term testosterone deprivation. An additional short-term intervention study was conducted in females with a lower testosterone dose (5 mg/kg). Our results indicate no rheological difference among normal males, females, and castrated males at steady-state. Short-term high-dose testosterone increased hematocrit and whole-blood viscosity in both females and castrated males. This effect diminished after long-term treatment, in association with increased erythrocyte deformability in the testosterone-treated mice, suggesting the presence of adaptive mechanism. Considering that cardiovascular events in human trials are seen early after intervention, rheological changes as potential mediator of vascular events warrant further investigation. PMID:25774550

  15. Differences in Rat and Human Erythrocytes Following Blood Component Manufacturing: The Effect of Additive Solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SilveiraCavalcante, Luciana; Acker, Jason P.; Holovati, Jelena L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small animal models have been previously used in transfusion medicine studies to evaluate the safety of blood transfusion products. Although there are multiple studies on the effects of blood banking practices on human red blood cells (RBCs), little is known about the effect of blood component manufacturing on the quality of rat RBCs. Methods Blood from Sprague-Dawley rats and human volunteers (n = 6) was collected in CPD anticoagulant, resuspended in SAGM or AS3, and leukoreduced. In vitro quality was analyzed, including deformability, aggregation, microvesiculation, phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, percent hemolysis, ATP, 2,3-DPG, osmotic fragility, and potassium concentrations. Results Compared to human RBCs, rat RBCs had decreased deformability, membrane rigidity, aggregability, and microvesiculation after component manufacturing process. Rat RBCs in SAGM showed higher hemolysis compared to human RBCs in SAGM (rat 4.70 ± 0.83% vs. human 0.34 ± 0.07%; p = 0.002). Rat RBCs in AS3 had greater deformability and rigidity than in SAGM. The number of microparticles/µl and the percentage PS expression were lower in rat RBCs in AS3 than in rat RBCs in SAGM. Hemolysis was also significantly lower in AS3 compared to SAGM (2.21 ± 0.68% vs. 0.87 ± 0.39%; p = 0.028). Conclusion Rat RBCs significantly differ from human RBCs in metabolic and membrane-related aspects. SAGM, which is commonly used for human RBC banking, causes high hemolysis and is not compatible with rat RBCs. PMID:26195928

  16. Full blood count pattern of pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinbami, Akinsegun; Popoola, Abiodun; Adediran, Adewumi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Oshinaike, Olajumoke; Adebola, Philip; Ajibola, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Full blood count has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full blood count parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full blood count analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full blood count pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls. PMID:24009939

  17. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals’ absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  18. HEMODOSE: A Biodosimetry Tool Based on Multi-type Blood Cell Counts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaowen; Blakely, William F; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral blood cell counts are important biomarkers of radiation exposure. In this work, a simplified compartmental modeling approach is applied to simulate the perturbation of the hematopoiesis system in humans after radiation exposure, and HemoDose software is reported to estimate individuals' absorbed doses based on multi-type blood cell counts. Testing with patient data in some historical accidents indicates that either single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts after exposure can be robust indicators of the absorbed doses. In addition, such correlation exists not only in the early time window (1 or 2 d) but also in the late phase (up to 4 wk) after exposure, when the four types of cell counts are combined for analysis. These demonstrate the capability of HemoDose as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system for personnel exposed to unintended high doses of radiation, especially in large-scale nuclear/radiological disaster scenarios involving mass casualties. PMID:26011498

  19. Analysis of nitric oxide consumption by erythrocytes in blood vessels using a distributed multicellular model.

    PubMed

    El-Farra, Nael H; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Liao, James C

    2003-03-01

    Multiple sets of experimental data have shown that the red blood cell (RBC) consumes nitric oxide (NO) about 600-1000-fold slower than the equivalent concentration of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb). Diffusion barriers of various sources have been suggested to explain this observation. In this work, a multicellular, spatially distributed, two-dimensional model, that describes the production, transport, and consumption of NO in blood vessels and the surrounding tissue, is developed. The model is used to assess the relative significance of NO transport barriers that reduce the rate of NO consumption in the blood. Unlike previous models of this system, the model developed here accounts explicitly for the presence of, and interactions among, a population of RBCs inside the lumen of the blood vessel and is, therefore, better suited to analyze, quantitatively, the contribution of each transport barrier as NO diffuses from its site of synthesis to the interior of the RBCs where it interacts with Hb. The model, which uses experimentally derived parameters, shows that extracellular unstirred boundary layer diffusion alone cannot account for the reduced NO consumption by RBC compared to an equivalent concentration of cell-free Hb. Since this result is reached using a two-dimensional representation of the RBCs, which overestimates the importance of the boundary layer diffusion resistance, it would be expected that in the real three-dimensional case, diffusion through the extracellular boundary layer would contribute even less to the overall mass transfer resistance. Consistent with recent experimental findings, the results of our model suggest that, under physiological conditions, transmembrane (membrane and its associated cytoskeleton layer) diffusion limitations in RBCs represent a key source of resistance for NO uptake by RBCs. PMID:12680727

  20. Neutropenia Prediction Based on First-Cycle Blood Counts Using a FOS-3NN Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Shirdel, Elize A.; Korenberg, Michael J.; Madarnas, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Background. Delivery of full doses of adjuvant chemotherapy on schedule is key to optimal breast cancer outcomes. Neutropenia is a serious complication of chemotherapy and a common barrier to this goal, leading to dose reductions or delays in treatment. While past research has observed correlations between complete blood count data and neutropenic events, a reliable method of classifying breast cancer patients into low- and high-risk groups remains elusive. Patients and Methods. Thirty-five patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer under the care of a single oncologist are examined in this study. FOS-3NN stratifies patient risk based on complete blood count data after the first cycle of treatment. All classifications are independent of breast cancer subtype and clinical markers, with risk level determined by the kinetics of patient blood count response to the first cycle of treatment. Results. In an independent test set of patients unseen by FOS-3NN, 19 out of 21 patients were correctly classified (Fisher's exact test probability P < 0.00023 [2 tailed], Matthews' correlation coefficient +0.83). Conclusions. We have developed a model that accurately predicts neutropenic events in a population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the first cycle of a 6-cycle treatment. PMID:22454638

  1. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  2. Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell count as markers of bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takayuki; Uehara, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Go; Arai, Shinpei; Sugano, Mitsutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Neutrophil left shift and white blood cell (WBC) count are routine laboratory tests used to assess neutrophil state, which depends on supply from the bone marrow and consumption in the tissues. If WBC count is constant, the presence of left shift indicates an increase of neutrophil consumption that is equal to an increase of production. A decrease in WBC count indicates that neutrophil consumption surpasses supply. During a bacterial infection, large numbers of neutrophils are consumed. Thus, from onset of infection to recovery, dynamic changes occur in WBC count and left shift data, reflecting the mild to serious condition of the bacterial infection. Although various stimuli in healthy and pathological conditions also cause left shift, a change as sudden and significant is only seen in bacterial infection. Left shift does not occur in the extremely early or late phases of infection; therefore, assessing data from a single time point is unsuitable for diagnosing a bacterial infection. We argue that time-series data of left shift and WBC count reflect real-time neutrophil consumption during the course of a bacterial infection, allowing more accurate evaluation of patient condition. PMID:27034055

  3. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of permethrin in mice: micronuclei analysis in peripheral blood erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Araujo, Andrea Mendez; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Pyrethroids such as permethrin are synthetic compounds widely used in the agriculture of many countries to combat plagues and in domestic products, such as acaricides. Not so long ago these chemicals were characterized as non-toxic for non-target organisms; however, recent studies have showed that these compounds could present toxic potential for many organisms. In this sense, this study presents genotoxic and mutagenic potential of permethrin administered intraperitoneally in mice under artificial conditions by the use of micronucleus assay in the peripheral blood of these animals. The mice were divided into five groups: group I = negative control (distilled water), group II = positive control (cyclophosphamide), group III = 30% of permethrin LD(50) (96 mg/kg), group IV = 50% of permethrin LD(50) (160 mg/kg), and group V = 80% of permethrin LD(50) (256 mg/kg). The peripheral blood was collected 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Results showed that all the tested permethrin dosages presented genotoxic and mutagenic effects 24 h after treatment, which would contradict the classification of this chemical product as moderately toxic, i.e., unable to cause damages to the cell DNA. PMID:22965619

  4. Amikacin can be added to blood to reduce the fall in platelet count.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaomian; Wu, Xiaoli; Deng, Weixiong; Li, Jieqiu; Luo, Wenshen

    2011-10-01

    Our objective was to develop an effective method to prevent the fall in platelet count for patients with anticoagulant-dependent (AD) pseudothrombocytopenia, a spurious phenomenon due to anticoagulant-induced aggregation of platelets. We report a case of insidious multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in which AD pseudothrombocytopenia may be caused by 4 anticoagulants, eg, EDTA, sodium citrate, heparin, and sodium fluoride (NaF). Multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia was confirmed by finding clumped platelets on microscopic evaluation in 4 anticoagulated blood samples. With this case, we tried a variety of reagents, including aminoglycosides, eg, gentamicin and amikacin, vitamin B(6), and aminophylline to inhibit pseudothrombocytopenia. Except for amikacin, all reagents failed to prevent pseudothrombocytopenia. Microscopic examination of K(2)-EDTA-, heparin-, sodium citrate-, and NaF-anticoagulated blood samples showed massive platelet clumping, but no aggregate was seen in the anticoagulated blood with amikacin. When amikacin was added within 1 hour after blood sample withdrawal, platelet, WBC, and RBC counts and hemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume remained unchanged for up to 4 hours at room temperature. These findings suggest that amikacin could inhibit and dissociate pseudo platelet aggregation in multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia and EDTA-induced pseudothrombocytopenia. PMID:21917689

  5. Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  6. Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R

    2011-08-01

    In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and γ radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and γ radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

  7. Dynamics of the protein spectrum changes in blood erythrocytes of male patients with prostate adenocarcinoma after plastic orchiectomy.

    PubMed

    Veshapidze, N; Alibegashvili, M; Chigogidze, T; Gabunia, N; Kotrikadze, N

    2007-02-01

    We have studied erythrocytes electrophoresis profiles in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma before and after plastic orchectomy and in healthy men to detect changes in the protein spectrum of erythrocytes. Our investigations have shown that during this pathology protein spectrum of erythrocytes structure undergoes substantial changes. This is demonstrated by losing of 35 KD molecular weight protein fraction and by appearance of 36 KD molecular weight protein fraction on the erythrocytes electrophoregram. It should be noted, that after plastic orchectomy we can see the relative normalization of erythrocyte's electrophoresis picture and it's approaching to the data of the control group (losing of 120 KD protein fraction and appearance of 48 KD protein fraction), which indicates to the normalization of the condition of the whole organism. It was detected that the synthesis of lower molecular protein fractions, on the one hand is influenced by rising of accantocytes percentage and on the other hand by the activation of the lipid oxidation process in erythrocytes membrane. PMID:17404435

  8. Comparison of Two Methods for the Determination of the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Blood Cell Counts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells. PMID:23450807

  9. A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Shaowen

    2014-01-01

    There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1

  10. Prediction of Preeclampsia by First Trimester Combined Test and Simple Complete Blood Count Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Daglar, Korkut; Dikici, Turkan; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ozgur; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a serious disease which may result in maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Improving the outcome for preeclampsia necessitates early prediction of the disease to identify women at high risk. Measuring blood cell subtype ratios, such as the neutrophil to lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, might provide prognostic and diagnostic clues to diseases. Aim To investigate hematological changes in early pregnancy, using simple complete blood count (CBC) and blood concentrations of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) to determine whether these measures are of any value in the prediction and early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Materials and Methods Six hundred fourteen consecutive pregnant women with preeclampsia (288 with mild disease and 326 with severe disease) and 320 uncomplicated pregnant women were included in the study. Blood samples for routine CBC and first trimester screen, which combines PAPP-A and free β-hCG blood concentrations, were analyzed. Results The NLR values were significantly higher in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the control group (p<0.001). We also confirmed that levels of PAPP-A were lower in patients who developed preeclampsia. Conclusion Because measuring CBC parameters, particularly NLR, is fast and easily applicable, they may be used to predict preeclampsia. PMID:26674673

  11. Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre > 400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis. PMID:25018781

  12. [Seasonal changes in mechanical resistance of erythrocytes of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus)].

    PubMed

    Gulevsky, A K; Shchenyavsky, I I

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes of relative blood reticulocyte counts, free plasma hemoglobin and mechanical erythrocyte resistance were studied in the long-tailed ground squirrel (Citellus undulatus), under different functional conditions (winter hibernation, forced arousal in winter, and summer activity). A significant increase in reticulocyte counts in the ground squirrel blood was observed in April and October, indicating enhancement of erythropoeisis. This conclusion is also confirmed by a significant increase in free plasma hemoglobin at these periods. It has been also shown that erythrocytes of hibernating and forcibly awaken winter ground squirrels have a significantly lower mechanical resistance in comparison with those of active summer animals. The obtained data indicate that during the periods preceding the onset of winter hibernation and transition to summer activity there occurs a seasonal replacement of the erythrocyte pool by a pool more adapted to performance of functions in the novel functional state of the animal-hibernator. PMID:25786319

  13. Vildagliptin in addition to metformin improves retinal blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – results from an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Numerous rheological and microvascular alterations characterize the vascular pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated effects of vildagliptin in comparison to glimepiride on retinal microvascular blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in T2DM. Fourty-four patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy were included in this randomized, exploratory study over 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or glimepiride individually titrated up to 4 mg in addition to ongoing metformin treatment. Retinal microvascular blood flow (RBF) and the arteriolar wall to lumen ratio (WLR) were assessed using a laser doppler scanner. In addition, the erythrocyte elongation index (EI) was measured at different shear stresses using laserdiffractoscopy. Both treatments improved glycaemic control (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; respectively). While only slight changes in RBF and the WLR could be observed during treatment with glimepiride, vildagliptin significantly increased retinal blood flow and decreased the arterial WLR (p < 0.05 vs. baseline respectively). The EI increased during both treatments over a wide range of applied shear stresses (p < 0.05 vs. baseline). An inverse correlation could be observed between improved glycaemic control (HbA1c) and EI (r = −0.524; p < 0.0001) but not with the changes in retinal microvascular measurements. Our results suggest that vildagliptin might exert beneficial effects on retinal microvascular blood flow beyond glucose control. In contrast, the improvement in erythrocyte deformability observed in both treatment groups, seems to be a correlate of improved glycaemic control. PMID:23565740

  14. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.

    2014-02-01

    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 μm fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  15. Calculated changes in pH and pCO2 in arterial blood plasma assuming absence of ion and water exchange between plasma and erythrocytes during their equilibration with alveolar gas.

    PubMed

    Zock, J P; Rispens, P; Zijlstra, W G

    1981-08-01

    As a contribution to solving the problem of pH disequilibrium in arterial blood, the results of two modes of gas exchange in the lung have been calculated using an equilibrium state model of the blood. In both cases the HCO3-/Cl-exchange was assumed to occur after the gas exchange in the pulmonary capillaries. When the gas exchange was assumed to be dependent on intra-erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase, the plasma pH in the arterial blood increased. When plasma erythrocytes were assumed to equilibrate separately with the alveolar gas due to pressure of extra-erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase, plasma pH in the arterial blood decreased. In each case there was a slight increase in pCO2 after the blood had left the pulmonary capillaries. PMID:6793999

  16. Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400 km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778 Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

  17. Blood count and C-reactive protein evolution in gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy surgery

    PubMed Central

    CSENDES J., Attila; MUÑOZ Ch., Andrea; BURGOS L., Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Background The complete blood count (CBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful inflammatory parameters for ruling out acute postoperative inflammatory complications. Aim To determine their changes in gastric cancer patients submitted to total gastrectomy. Methods This is a prospective study, with 36 patients with gastric cancer who were submitted to elective total gastrectomy. On the first, third and fifth postoperative day (POD), blood count and CRP changes were assessed. Patients with postoperative complications were excluded. Results Twenty-one (58%) were men and 15 (42%) women. The mean age was 65 years. The leukocytes peaked on the 1st POD with a mean of 13,826 u/mm³, and decreased to 8,266 u/mm³ by the 5th POD. The bacilliforms peaked on the 1st POD with a maximum value of 1.48%. CRP reached its maximum level on the 3rd POD with a mean of 144.64 mg/l±44.84. Preoperative hematocrit (HCT) was 35% and 33.67% by the 5th POD. Hemoglobin, showed similar values. Conclusions Leukocytes increased during the 1st POD but reached normal values by the 5th POD. CRP peaked on the 3rd POD but did not reach normal values by the 5th POD. PMID:25626929

  18. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  19. Clinical relevance and contemporary methods for counting blood cells in body fluids suspected of inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Chérina; Russcher, Henk; Lindemans, Jan; de Jonge, Robert

    2015-10-01

    In many inflammatory diseases, the cellular components in body fluids [cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serous fluids] are increased, rendering essential diagnostic information. The diagnostic value of the total white blood cell count (WBC) and differential count has been evaluated extensively over the years, and a remarkable amount of knowledge has been gained; yet, there is a great deal of clinical uncertainty whether the diagnosis should be based solely on these variables. In some diseases, such as peritonitis, the total WBC and differential count has high sensitivity; whereas, in differentiating pleural effusions, it lacks the sensitivity required to be clinically useful. Nevertheless, many guidelines consider these tests as cornerstone parameters, and in combination with clinical variables, they can successfully guide clinical decision making in initiating or postponing a treatment course for infection and/or inflammatory diseases while awaiting culture results. Although other methods are available for detecting and differentiating WBCs in body fluids, manual microscopy is still considered the gold standard despite its many limitations. During the last decade, automated analyzers have become a popular method for first line screening. Continued progress in their design has led to major improvements including their speed, improved accuracy and lower variability compared with microscopy. Disadvantages of this method include high imprecision in low ranges (depending on the method) and interfering factors. In a time where automation is at the front line in clinical laboratories, it is essential the results obtained are precise, accurate and reproducible. This review provides an overview of the relevance for cell counting in a variety of diagnostic body fluids, and highlights the current technologies used. PMID:25879321

  20. The Association of High Prevalence of Trophozoites in Peripheral Blood with Lower Antibody Response to P. falciparum Infected Erythrocytes among Asymptomatic Children in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sara N; Hassan, Dina A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Osman, Ihssan M; Ibrahim, Muntasir E; Mohamed, Hiba S; Nour, Bakri Y; Abdulhadi, Nasreldin H

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most prominent variant surface antigens (VSAs) of Plasmodium falciparum are the var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which serves as a parasite-sequestering ligand to endothelial cells. In this study we have examined the antibody reactivity of autologous plasma from symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infected children against the infected erythrocytes' surface antigens using flow cytometry. Methods. Ethidium-bromide-labelled erythrocytic mature forms of P. falciparum parasites obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic children were sequentially incubated with autologous plasma and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated (FITC) antihuman IgG. Plasma antibody reactivity was detected by flow cytometry. Results. Asymptomatic children had more prevalence of trophozoites in peripheral blood (66%) compared to symptomatic children (16%), p = 0.002. The mean percentage of infected RBCs reacting with autologous sera was 89.78 among symptomatic children compared to 79.62 among asymptomatic children (p = 0.09). Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) in the asymptomatic was significantly higher compared to symptomatic children (p value = 0.040). Conclusion. Variant surface antigens on Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs from symptomatic malaria children tend to be better recognized by IgG antibodies. This may suggest a role of some IgG antibodies in severity of malaria. PMID:27433028

  1. The Association of High Prevalence of Trophozoites in Peripheral Blood with Lower Antibody Response to P. falciparum Infected Erythrocytes among Asymptomatic Children in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Sara N.; Hassan, Dina A.; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M.; Osman, Ihssan M.; Ibrahim, Muntasir E.; Nour, Bakri Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most prominent variant surface antigens (VSAs) of Plasmodium falciparum are the var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, which serves as a parasite-sequestering ligand to endothelial cells. In this study we have examined the antibody reactivity of autologous plasma from symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria infected children against the infected erythrocytes' surface antigens using flow cytometry. Methods. Ethidium-bromide-labelled erythrocytic mature forms of P. falciparum parasites obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic children were sequentially incubated with autologous plasma and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated (FITC) antihuman IgG. Plasma antibody reactivity was detected by flow cytometry. Results. Asymptomatic children had more prevalence of trophozoites in peripheral blood (66%) compared to symptomatic children (16%), p = 0.002. The mean percentage of infected RBCs reacting with autologous sera was 89.78 among symptomatic children compared to 79.62 among asymptomatic children (p = 0.09). Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) in the asymptomatic was significantly higher compared to symptomatic children (p value = 0.040). Conclusion. Variant surface antigens on Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs from symptomatic malaria children tend to be better recognized by IgG antibodies. This may suggest a role of some IgG antibodies in severity of malaria. PMID:27433028

  2. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonnie; Henry, David C; Heim, Kyle; Tomkins, Jeffrey P; Kuan, Cheng-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC) is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (μm/hr) and 3.8 (μm3/hr), respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7). Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK). Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis. SBCs may be an important

  3. Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

  4. [AGGREGATION OF METABOLICALLY DEPLETED HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES].

    PubMed

    Sheremet'ev, Yu A; Popovicheva, A N; Rogozin, M M; Levin, G Ya

    2016-01-01

    An aggregation of erythrocytes in autologous plasma after blood storage for 14 days at 4 °C was studied using photometry and light microscopy. The decrease of ATP content, the formation of echinocytes and spheroechinocytes, the decrease of rouleaux form of erythrocyte aggregation were observed during the storage. On the other hand the aggregates of echinocytes were formed in the stored blood. The addition of plasma from the fresh blood didn't restore the normal discocytic shape and aggregation of erythrocytes in the stored blood. The possible mechanisms of erythrocytes and echinocytes aggregation are discussed. PMID:27220249

  5. A more appropriate white blood cell count for estimating malaria parasite density in Plasmodium vivax patients in northeastern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaie; Feng, Guohua; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xiaomei; Bai, Yao; Deng, Shuang; Ruan, Yonghua; Morris, James; Li, Siman; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang

    2016-04-01

    The conventional method of estimating parasite densities employ an assumption of 8000 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl. However, due to leucopenia in malaria patients, this number appears to overestimate parasite densities. In this study, we assessed the accuracy of parasite density estimated using this assumed WBC count in eastern Myanmar, where Plasmodium vivax has become increasingly prevalent. From 256 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, we estimated parasite density and counted WBCs by using an automated blood cell counter. It was found that WBC counts were not significantly different between patients of different gender, axillary temperature, and body mass index levels, whereas they were significantly different between age groups of patients and the time points of measurement. The median parasite densities calculated with the actual WBC counts (1903/μl) and the assumed WBC count of 8000/μl (2570/μl) were significantly different. We demonstrated that using the assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/μl to estimate parasite densities of P. vivax malaria patients in this area would lead to an overestimation. For P. vivax patients aged five years and older, an assumed WBC count of 5500/μl best estimated parasite densities. This study provides more realistic assumed WBC counts for estimating parasite densities in P. vivax patients from low-endemicity areas of Southeast Asia. PMID:26802490

  6. Prognostic value of parameters derived from white blood cell and differential counts in patients receiving palliative radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Tetsuo; Toya, Ryo; Matsuyama, Tomohiko; Semba, Akiko; Matsuyama, Keiya; Oya, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify white blood cell (WBC) parameters with high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy. The prognostic value of seven parameters derived from WBC and differential counts was retrospectively evaluated in patients who underwent palliative radiotherapy between October, 2010 and June, 2013. The analyzed parameters were the total WBC count, the absolute and relative lymphocyte count, the absolute and relative neutrophil count, and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratios. Following univariate analysis, multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for gender, age, disease type, previous chemotherapy, previous radiotherapy and the levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase. A total of 220 patients with a median survival of 4.7 months were identified. All seven parameters were found to be statistically significant predictors of survival on univariate Cox regression analysis (P<0.05). Of these parameters, the low relative lymphocyte and high relative neutrophil counts were consistent predictors of poor survival in patients who received chemotherapy within 1 month prior to blood sampling (n=68) and in patients who received steroid treatment at the time of sampling (n=49). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of survival in all 220 patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, relative lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were of high prognostic value for the survival of patients receiving palliative radiotherapy, even in those receiving medications that affect WBC and differential counts. PMID:27602221

  7. Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.

    1994-01-01

    Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

  8. Comparison of employees' white blood cell counts in a petrochemical plant by worksite and race.

    PubMed Central

    Christian, C. L.; Werley, B.; Smith, A.; Chin, N.; Garde, D.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if employment within a petrochemical plant's quality control (QC) laboratory had any significant effect on the hematopoietic system, and in specific, the white blood cell (WBC) counts, all employees of the QC laboratory were evaluated retrospectively. Trend analysis, linear regression, and Students t tests were performed on all employees of the QC laboratory and on a simple random sample of the rest of this Caribbean petrochemical plant's male employees. Trend analyses revealed a downward trend in 82.6% of the QC laboratory workers and 76.7% in other plant workers. Linear regression and t tests revealed no statistically significant difference by worksite but a significant difference between blacks and whites. The result of the findings of the QC laboratory workers was consistent with that expected in both plant employees and the US general population. A recommendation is made that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reconsider its WBC cutoff level in the benzene standard. PMID:7932841

  9. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis with myeloproliferative syndrome with myelodysplasia: bronchoalveolar lavage reduces white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Seth M; Gutierrez, Guillermo; Ascensao, Joao

    2006-08-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by surfactant component accumulation in the alveolar space. Primary PAP is likely an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). When an underlying disease causes PAP, this is called secondary PAP. Hematologic malignancies are an important cause of secondary PAP. As the pathogenesis of primary PAP has become more fully understood, improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have followed. However, when PAP is secondary to an underlying hematologic malignancy, much remains unclear. Here we describe for the first time a patient with hybrid myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative syndrome and PAP who had a marked decrease in her white blood cell count following a transbronchial biopsy accompanied by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Similar significant decreases in WBC count accompanied clinical improvement following two unilateral BALs. Given that patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis frequently have elevated GM-CSF in bronchoalveolar fluid, this observation provides a unique vantage point to understand the pathophysiology of secondary PAP. PMID:16906593

  10. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  11. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression. PMID:27247599

  12. Use of the Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer for automated counting of blood cells in body fluids.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Dieter; Van Moer, Guy; Martens, Geert A; Nanos, Nikolaos; Smet, Lutgarde; Jochmans, Kristin; De Waele, Marc

    2010-02-01

    The enumeration and identification of blood cells in body fluids offers important information for the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. Manual microscopic methods (hemacytometer total cell count and cytocentrifuged differential count) have inherent analytic and economic disadvantages but are still considered the "gold standard" methods. We evaluated the analytic and clinical performance of the Cell-Dyn Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics Division, Santa Clara, CA) for automated blood cell counting and leukocyte differential counting in cerebrospinal fluid, serous fluid (peritoneal and pleural fluid), and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid, and we compared the performance with the respective manual methods. In the present article, we describe its applicability for the distinct body fluids, and we highlight limitations and caveats. PMID:20093239

  13. Microfluidic-based measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate for biophysical assessment of blood in an in vivo malaria-infected mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study suggests a new erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement method for the biophysical assessment of blood by using a microfluidic device. For an effective ESR measurement, a disposable syringe filled with blood is turned upside down and aligned at 180° with respect to gravitational direction. When the blood sample is delivered into the microfluidic device from the top position of the syringe, the hematocrit of blood flowing in the microfluidic channel decreases because the red blood cell-depleted region is increased from the top region of the syringe. The variation of hematocrit is evaluated by consecutively capturing images and conducting digital image processing technique for 10 min. The dynamic variation of ESR is quantitatively evaluated using two representative parameters, namely, time constant (λ) and ESR-area (AESR). To check the performance of the proposed method, blood samples with various ESR values are prepared by adding different concentrations of dextran solution. λ and AESR are quantitatively evaluated by using the proposed method and a conventional method, respectively. The proposed method can be used to measure ESR with superior reliability, compared with the conventional method. The proposed method can also be used to quantify ESR of blood collected from malaria-infected mouse under in vivo condition. To indirectly compare with the results obtained by the proposed method, the viscosity and velocity of the blood are measured using the microfluidic device. As a result, the biophysical properties, including ESR and viscosity of blood, are significantly influenced by the parasitemia level. These experimental demonstrations support the notion that the proposed method is capable of effectively monitoring the biophysical properties of blood. PMID:25379099

  14. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the frequency of infection in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Ananta; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Leukopenia is a common manifestation of SLE. Addition of immunosuppressive therapy in a SLE patient who is already leukopenic is a clinical concern. It could worsen leukopenia, increase the risk of infection, or both. The aim of this study was to analyze the immediate effect of mycophenolate mofetil on the white blood cell count and the rate of infection in SLE patients. Two hundred and forty-four patients within the Hopkins Lupus Cohort who were newly started on mycophenolate mofetil were included in the study. The white blood cell count and interval infection history on the day mycophenolate mofetil was started were compared with the white blood cell count and interval infection history at the next visit. The study was based on 244 patients who began taking mycophenolate mofetil in the cohort. The study population included 47 % African Americans, 44 % Caucasians, and 9 % other ethnicities. There was a slight but not statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count (6.63 vs. 7.01), after starting mycophenolate mofetil. Patients with a baseline white blood cell count <3000/mm(3) did have a statistically significant increase in the white blood cell count after starting mycophenolate mofetil (2.57 vs. 5.13, P = 0.0047). We also found a statistically significant increase in the risk of bacterial infection (but not viral infection) after starting mycophenolate mofetil (4 vs. 9 %, P = 0.0036). Leukopenia does not worsen with mycophenolate mofetil. However, mycophenolate mofetil appears to slightly increase the rate of bacterial (but not viral) infection. PMID:25836768

  15. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takakazu; Omata, Fumio; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Koyamada, Ryosuke; Okada, Sadamu

    2016-12-01

    While cigarette smoking is a well-recognized cause of elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, studies on longitudinal effect of smoking cessation on WBC count are limited. We attempted to determine causal relationships between smoking and elevated WBC count by retrospective cross-sectional study consisting of 37,972 healthy Japanese adults who had a health check-up between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009 and longitudinal study involving 1730 current smokers who had more than four consecutive annual health check-ups between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2012. In the cross-sectional study, younger age, male gender, increased body mass index, no alcohol habit, current smoking, and elevated C-reactive protein level were associated with elevated WBC count. Among these factors, current smoking had the most significant association with elevated WBC count. In subgroup analyses by WBC differentials, smoking was significantly associated with elevated counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Ex-smoking was not associated with elevated WBC count. In the longitudinal study, both WBC and neutrophil counts decreased significantly in one year after smoking cessation and remained down-regulated for longer than next two years. There was no significant change in either WBC or neutrophil count in those who continued smoking. These findings clearly demonstrated that current smoking is strongly associated with elevated WBC count and smoking cessation leads to recovery of WBC count in one year, which is maintained for longer than subsequent two years. Thus, current smoking is a significant and reversible cause of elevated WBC count in healthy adults. PMID:27583199

  16. Fecal blood loss in patients with colonic polyps: a comparison of measurements with 51chromium-labeled erythrocytes and with the Haemoccult test

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, P.; Holtermueller, K.H.; Preiss, J.; Fischer, J.; Ewe, K.; Schreiber, H.J.; Berres, M.

    1982-11-01

    The quantitative determinations of fecal daily blood loss after intravenous administration of /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocytes in 44 patients with colonic polyps and in 11 controls were compared with the results of the daily performed Haemoccult test without dietary restrictions. A total of 642 stool specimens was analyzed for /sup 51/Cr loss and the Haemoccult test. The mean fecal daily blood loss in the 34 patients with adenomatous polyps of the descending colon and rectosigmoid was 1.36 +/- 0.14 ml/day (mean +/- SEM), in the 10 patients with polyps of the ascending and transverse colon it was 1.28 +/- 0.31 ml/day, and in the 11 controls 0.62 +/- 0.07 ml/day. There was no positive Haemoccult test in the controls. In fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the descending colon and rectosigmoid containing 2.0-3.99 ml blood/day, the Haemoccult-test was positive in 86%. Fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the ascending colon and transverse colon containing equal blood loss yielded a positive Haemoccult test result in 26%. Thus, the positivity of the Haemoccult test is determined by the fecal daily blood loss and the anatomic location of colonic bleeding sites.

  17. Whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability are related to endothelium-dependent vasodilation and coronary risk in the elderly. The prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study.

    PubMed

    Sandhagen, Bo; Lind, Lars

    2012-01-01

    It has previously been shown that a high hemoglobin value, a major determinant of whole blood viscosity (WBV), predicts cardiovascular events. One putative mechanism might be an impaired endothelial function. Erythrocyte deformability is another rheologic feature of the erythrocyte being of importance for the flow properties of the blood, especially in the capillaries. The present study evaluates the relationships between blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability assessed as erythrocyte fluidity (EF), coronary risk and endothelial vasodilatory function. In the population-based PIVUS study (1016 subjects aged 70); endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) was evaluated by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine given in the brachial artery and the brachial artery ultrasound technique with measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). WBV, plasma viscosity (PV) and EF were measured in a random sample of 573 subjects. WBV and PV were positively and EF negatively related to Framingham risk score. EDV was inversely related to both whole blood and plasma viscosity. FMD was not related to any rheologic variable. In multiple regression analyses WBV and EF were significantly related to EDV independently of gender, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in the forearm, but not FMD, was negatively related to whole blood viscosity and positively related to EF independently of traditional risk factors in elderly subjects, indicating a pathophysiological link between impaired hemorheology and coronary risk. PMID:22240364

  18. A case of myeloproliferative neoplasm with a normal complete blood cell count: A novel problem of the JAK2 era

    PubMed Central

    YE, XIU-PENG; BAO, SHEN; GAO, HUAN-MIN; GUO, YING; WEI, YU-PING

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported a case of a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in a patient with a normal complete blood cell count. Bone marrow biopsy showed bone marrow hyperplasia, an elevated megakaryocyte count, megakaryocytic dysplasia and pleomorphic changes, multiple megakaryocyte clusters and focal reticulin fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the patient was positive for the JAK2-V617F mutation, and negative for the JAK2 exon 12 and 13 mutations and the BCR-ABL (p210) fusion gene. The patient's condition was basically stable and at the time of writing, the patient remained in a stable condition with no specific symptoms of disease. The present study also analyzed the diagnostic and clinical features of MPNs, and a literature review was performed. MPN with a normal complete blood cell count is a rare disease, and attention should be focused on this entity in the clinic. PMID:26998136

  19. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C. PMID:18190587

  20. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  1. Development and validation of a useful HPLC-UV method for quantification of total and phosphorylated-ribavirin in blood and erythrocytes of HCV+ patients.

    PubMed

    D'Avolio, Antonio; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Simiele, Marco; Turini, Stefano; Agnesod, Danilo; Boglione, Lucio; Cusato, Jessica; Baietto, Lorena; Cariti, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Andrea; Sciandra, Mauro; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia is the main cause of discontinuation of the combination therapy with alpha-interferon-2b and ribavirin for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The determination of intracellular ribavirin levels in blood, including the levels of its phosphorylated metabolites, might be useful for predicting ribavirin-induced anemia, which could be caused by the accumulation of these molecules within the erythrocytes. In this work, we simplified and validated a previously developed assay method, to make it suitable for routine monitoring of cellular ribavirin. Whole blood diluted with a five-fold volume of ice-cold distilled underwent a process of acid phosphatase digestion to convert phosphorylated ribavirin metabolites to free ribavirin. The resulting mixture, spiked with an internal standard, was treated with a protein precipitation protocol in acetonitrile, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The calibration curve for ribavirin levels in whole blood was linear at concentrations from 625 to 320,000 ng/mL (r(2)=0.998). Accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision for ribavirin and phosphorylated-ribavirin quality controls were all below 9.0%. We tested this method by monitoring blood ribavirin concentrations in 13 HCV+ patients, receiving alpha interferon-plus ribavirin combination therapy. PMID:22513116

  2. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    PubMed

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  3. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Meredith E.; Myers, David R.; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T.; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G.; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A.; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J.; Switz, Neil A.; Sulchek, Todd A.; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2016-01-01

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  4. [Determination of full blood count normal reference values for adults in France].

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Vol, Sylviane; Cornet, Edouard; Bardet, Valérie; Couaillac, Jean-Paul; Fossat, Chantal; Luce, Jean-Charles; Maldonado, Eric; Siguret, Virginie; Tichet, Jean; Lantieri, Olivier; Corberand, Joël

    2014-01-01

    The full blood count (FBC) is the most prescribed laboratory test in France. Due to the lack of data, there is a great variability in reference values of the FBC, between medical laboratories. The aim of this work was to provide normal reference values for FBC in adults. These normal values were defined in a population of 33 258 healthy adults, 19 612 men and 13 646 women. These values were determined after excluding subjects having conditions in order to modify, either directly or indirectly, FBC parameters. For each parameter, we provide results for values of standard parameters, by sex and age, from 16 to 69 years. In addition, we present FBC values from a population of 339 subjects aged over 69 years with no comorbidities. These normal values are proposed to be used in everyday practice. They make it possible to distinguish, without ambiguity, a normal situation from a pathological situation. Moreover, they can be applied to the entire metropolitan France. PMID:25336130

  5. Preoperative Aspartate Aminotransferase to White Blood Cell Count Ratio Predicting Postoperative Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weijia; Wang, Yongqin; Liao, Yan; He, Songqing; Jin, Junfei

    2016-04-01

    Effective biomarkers for predicting prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after hepatectomy is urgently needed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of the preoperative peripheral aspartate aminotransferase to white blood cell count ratio (AWR) for the prognostication of patients with HCC.Clinical data of 396 HCC patients who underwent radical hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the low-AWR group (AWR ≤5.2) and the high-AWR group (AWR >5.2); univariate analysis, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and the multivariate analysis by Cox regression were conducted, respectively.The results showed that AWR was associated with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), tumor size, Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HCC. AWR > 5.2, AFP > 100 ng/mL, size of tumor >6 cm, number of multiple tumors, B-C of BCLC stage, PVTT, and distant metastasis were predictors of poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Except for recurrence, which was an independent predictor for OS only, AWR >5.2, size of tumor >6 cm, and PVTT were independent predictors of both DFS and OS.We concluded that preoperative AWR > 5.2 was an adverse predictor of DFS and OS in HCC after hepatectomy, AWR might be a novel prognostic biomarker in HCC after curative resection. PMID:27057915

  6. Prediction of outcome in breast cancer patients using test parameters from complete blood count

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, PINGPING; ZONG, YULONG; LIU, MOHAN; TAI, YANHONG; CAO, YUAN; HU, CHENGIIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of test parameters from pretreatment complete blood count (CBC) for predicting outcome in breast cancer patients. A total of 162 patients with breast cancer and a long follow-up were enrolled in this study. Red cell indices (RCIs) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) from CBC prior to treatment, as well as related clinical data, were retrospectively collected. We evaluated the association of RCI and NLR with tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. We further performed survival analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by RCI and NLR median values, to evaluate their prognostic effects. In the disease-free survival (DFS) analysis, patients in the higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and NLR groups exhibited shorter DFS times compared with those in the lower MCH and NLR groups (P=0.017 for MCH and P=0.039 for NLR). The univariate analysis revealed that both MCH and NLR were significantly associated with DFS. The Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that only MCH was an independent predictor associated with disease relapse (hazard ratio = 1.975, 95% confidence interval: 1.118–3.487, P=0.019), whereas no index was associated with overall survival. Our results suggest that MCH prior to treatment may be a predictive marker associated with DFS in breast cancer. PMID:27284423

  7. Erythrocyte deformability - A partner of the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Silva-Herdade, Ana Santos; Andolina, Giulia; Faggio, Caterina; Calado, Ângelo; Saldanha, Carlota

    2016-09-01

    We aim to establish an in vivo animal model of acute inflammation using PAF (platelet activating factor) as inflammatory agent and to study the erythrocyte deformability changes induced by the inflammatory response. Counting the number of rolling and adherent neutrophils to endothelium after 2, 4 and 6h of intrascrotal injection of PAF we showed the induction of an inflammatory state. Blood samples are collected in order to measure the erythrocyte deformability and to quantify NO efflux from the red blood cells (RBCs). The results show an increased number of rolling and adherent neutrophils after 2h and 4h of inflammation as well as decreased values of erythrocyte deformability in the same time-points. This result is in line with the need of a low blood viscosity to the recruitment process that will improve leukocyte migration towards the endothelial wall. NO efflux from RBCs is also affected by the inflammatory response at the first hours of inflammation. This animal model demonstrates in vivo the association between an acute inflammatory response and the rheological properties of the blood, namely the RBCs deformability. For those reasons we consider this as an adequate model to study acute inflammatory responses as well as hemorheological parameters. PMID:27142964

  8. Expression of Merozoite Surface Protein Markers by Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes in Peripheral Blood and Tissues of Children with Fatal Malaria▿

    PubMed Central

    Dobaño, Carlota; Rogerson, Stephen J.; Taylor, Terrie E.; McBride, Jana S.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is a pathological feature of fatal cerebral malaria. P. falciparum is genetically diverse among, and often within, patients. Preferential sequestration of certain genotypes might be important in pathogenesis. We compared circulating parasites with parasites sequestered in the brain, spleen, liver, and lung in the same Malawian children with fatal malaria, classifying serotypes using antibodies to merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 and immunofluorescence in order to differentiate parasites and to quantify the proportions of each serotype. We found (i) similar distributions of various serotypes in different tissues and (ii) concordance between parasite serotypes in peripheral blood and parasite serotypes in tissues. No serotypes predominated in the brain in cerebral malaria, and parasites belonging to a single serotype did not cluster within individual vessels or within single tissues. These findings do not support the hypothesis that cerebral malaria is caused by cerebral sequestration of certain virulent types. PMID:17118989

  9. Observational study of erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening test for detecting low lead exposure in children: Impact of lowering the blood lead action threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. )

    1991-02-01

    We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.

  10. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shidong; Zou, Zhenyu; Li, Hao; Zou, Guijun; Li, Zhao; Xu, Jian; Wang, Lingde; Du, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient’s peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Methods Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China) between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital. Results Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P < 0.001), whereas there were no differences in the sex, age, degree of tumour differentiation or largest tumour diameter. Lymph node metastasis and a high preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count were independent risk factors for liver metastasis (OR: 2.178, 95%CI: 1.148~4.134, P = 0.017; OR: 12.422, 95%CI: 5.076~30.398, P < 0.001), although the risk was lower in patients with rectal versus colon cancer (OR: 0.078, 95%CI: 0.020~0.309, P < 0.001). Primary tumour site (P<0.001), degree of tumour differentiation (P = 0.009), T, N and M classifications, TNM staging and preoperative monocyte counts (P<0.001) were associated with the 5-year overall survival (OS) of CRC patients. A preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count > 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95

  11. Three-dimensional counting of morphologically normal human red blood cells via digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu; Lee, Yeon H.

    2015-01-01

    Counting morphologically normal cells in human red blood cells (RBCs) is extremely beneficial in the health care field. We propose a three-dimensional (3-D) classification method of automatically determining the morphologically normal RBCs in the phase image of multiple human RBCs that are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC holograms are first recorded by DHM, and then the phase images of multiple RBCs are reconstructed by a computational numerical algorithm. To design the classifier, the three typical RBC shapes, which are stomatocyte, discocyte, and echinocyte, are used for training and testing. Nonmain or abnormal RBC shapes different from the three normal shapes are defined as the fourth category. Ten features, including projected surface area, average phase value, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, perimeter, mean corpuscular hemoglobin surface density, circularity, mean phase of center part, sphericity coefficient, elongation, and pallor, are extracted from each RBC after segmenting the reconstructed phase images by using a watershed transform algorithm. Moreover, four additional properties, such as projected surface area, perimeter, average phase value, and elongation, are measured from the inner part of each cell, which can give significant information beyond the previous 10 features for the separation of the RBC groups; these are verified in the experiment by the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test. We also apply the principal component analysis algorithm to reduce the dimension number of variables and establish the Gaussian mixture densities using the projected data with the first eight principal components. Consequently, the Gaussian mixtures are used to design the discriminant functions based on Bayesian decision theory. To improve the performance of the Bayes classifier and the accuracy of estimation of its error rate, the leaving-one-out technique is applied. Experimental results show that the proposed method can

  12. Application of an intracellular assay for determination of tenofovir-diphosphate and emtricitabine-triphosphate from erythrocytes using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Hua; Rower, Caitlin; McAllister, Kevin; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Klein, Brandon; Meditz, Amie; Guida, L Anthony; Kiser, Jennifer J; Bushman, Lane R; Anderson, Peter L

    2016-04-15

    This communication describes the application of an existing intracellular methodology to the quantitation of tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) and emtricitabine-triphosphate (FTC-TP) from erythrocytes using dried blood spots (DBS). Concentrations were determined from a 3mm DBS punch extracted into a 70:30 methanol:water solution (lysed cellular matrix). This extraction solution was then subjected to a previously validated analytical procedure for lysed cellular matrix. Experiments for DBS validation used replicate samples from study participants to demonstrate acceptable reproducibility with spot volumes ranging from 10-50 μL and punch location either from the edge or center of the spot. Analysis of paired DBS with purified red blood cells showed that a 3mm DBS punch contained an average of 11.9 million cells for the observed hematocrit range of the participants (35-50%). Numerous stability tests were completed showing that whole blood in an EDTA vacutainer could sit for 24h at room temperature prior to spotting, and DBS could remain at room temperature for up to five days including shipment at ambient using 2-days delivery. DBS stability in storage was acceptable up to 18 months at -20°C or -80°C and DBS could undergo 4 Freeze/Thaw cycles. The described method was applied to HIV prophylaxis studies, demonstrating powerful associations with HIV acquisition through its ability to discriminate gradients of adherence. PMID:26829517

  13. Blood Leukocyte Count on Admission Predicts Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Hapsari, Rosmarini; Siswanto, Bambang B; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Jukema, J Wouter

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the hypothesis that blood leukocyte count adds prognostic information in patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI). A total of 585 patients with acute non-STEMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score ≥ 3) were enrolled in this cohort retrospective study. Blood leukocyte count was measured immediately after admission in the emergency department. The composite of death, reinfarction, urgent revascularization, and stroke during hospitalization were defined as the primary end point of the study. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 9.6 years and most of them were male (79%). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis involving seven variables (history of smoking, hypertension, heart rate > 100 beats/minute, serum creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL, blood leukocyte count > 11,000/µL, use of β-blocker, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), leukocyte count > 11,000/µL demonstrated to be a strong predictor of the primary end point (hazard ratio = 3.028; 95% confidence interval = 1.69-5.40, p < 0.001). The high blood leukocyte count on admission is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with acute non-STEMI. PMID:26060384

  14. Plasma ascorbic acid level and erythrocyte fragility in preeclampsia and eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Ozan, H; Esmer, A; Kolsal, N; Copur, O U; Ediz, B

    1997-01-01

    An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the circulation is blamed to cause preeclampsia and eclampsia. In this study plasma ascorbic acid level was analysed in 13 eclamptic, 14 mild preeclamptic, 12 severe preeclamptic and 20 uncomplicated pregnancies to see whether there is any correlation with blood pressure, proteinuria, serum triglyceride level, erythrocyte fragility and leukocyte count. Plasma ascorbic acid level was normal and had no significant difference among the groups. Fasting serum triglyceride level was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group but it did not differ among the three study groups. Erythrocyte fragility was found to be increased in all three study groups. Blood leukocyte count was increased in the study groups, especially in the eclampsia group. However, plasma ascorbic acid level and erythrocyte fragility were found to have no significant correlation with blood pressure and proteinuria. It was concluded that though the ascorbic acid levels were normal in both the study and the control groups, erythrocyte fragility increased probably due to an elevation in peroxide and free radical levels in preeclampsia and eclampsia groups, but without any correlation with the severity of the clinical picture. PMID:9031958

  15. Using peripheral smear review, age and absolute lymphocyte count as predictors of abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytoses diagnosed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jared M; Cruser, Dan L; Myers, Jerome B; Fernelius, Colby A; Holm, Mitchel T; Waldner, Dale L

    2008-09-01

    Absolute lymphocytosis in the elderly raises the possibility of malignancy and generally warrants further investigation. To better correlate clinical variables with the frequency of neoplastic lymphoid processes in this population, we retrospectively reviewed archived flow cytometric analyses from peripheral blood specimens on patients of 50 years of age and older that had been deemed suspicious for a lymphoproliferative process after peripheral smear review. Age, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), white blood cell count and relative lymphocyte count were correlated with the results of flow cytometry. Of 71 total cases, 42 (59%) had an abnormal immunophenotype. Independent variables that showed significant differences between normal and abnormal immunophenotype were mean age (p = 0.001) and ALC (p = 0.0032). We combined age and absolute lymphocyte count variables to look for the best possible cutoff values to predict the likelihood of an abnormal immunophenotype. ALC cutoff values of >or=4 x 10(9) cells/L for patients over 67 years of age, and >6.7 x 10(9) cells/L for patients between 50 and 67 years of age, had a high sensitivity for detecting an abnormal immunophenotype. PMID:18798107

  16. A comparative study on the blood and milk cell counts of healthy, subclinical, and clinical mastitis Karan Fries cows

    PubMed Central

    Alhussien, Mohanned; Kaur, Mandheer; Manjari, Pasumarti; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Dang, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was aimed to study the use of cell counts as an early indicator of mammary health. Materials and Methods: Milk and blood cell counts were estimated from 8 healthy, 8 subclinical (SCM), and 8 clinically mastitis (CM) groups of Karan Fries (KF) cows. Results: Total leucocyte counts and neutrophil percent in blood and milk somatic cells and milk neutrophil percent of healthy cows increased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows and CM cows. Viability of blood and milk neutrophils was more in healthy cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM and CM cows. Significant (p<0.05) decrease were also observed in both the blood and milk lymphocytes and monocytes of SCM and CM cows. Phagocytic activity (PA) of blood neutrophils also decreased significantly (p<0.05) in SCM cows. There was no difference between the PA of SCM and CM cows. Milk neutrophil percent was more in the SCM and clinically infected milk than in the blood of these cows. About 96-97% of the neutrophils had segmented nucleus in both healthy and subclinical milk, whereas, 2-3% were having band shaped or immature nuclei. There was a significant decrease in the segmented neutrophils, whereas, band neutrophils increase significantly to about 5% in the infected milk of mastitic cows. Viability of the milk neutrophils decreased more in case of subclinical and clinical milk as compared to that of blood. PA was found to be highest in the milk of healthy group of cows, but decreased significantly (p<0.05) in subclinically infected cows. However, there was no difference between the PA of milk neutrophils of SCM and CM cows. PA of milk was also found to be significantly lower in the milk of healthy cows when compared to that of blood neutrophils. Conclusion: This study indicated that percent neutrophils and their type in conjunction with milk somatic cell counts can be used as a more reliable indicator of mammary health in cows. PMID:27047156

  17. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  18. Transcriptomic landscape for lymphocyte count variation in poly I:C-induced porcine peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hou, Y; Guo, J; Chen, H; Liu, X; Wu, Z; Zhao, S; Zhu, M

    2016-02-01

    Lymphocyte count is an important phenotypic metric that has been reported to be related to the individual antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. To date, aside from information regarding several genes and pathways, little is known about the mechanism by which gene expression affects variation in lymphocyte count. In this work, we investigated the lymphocyte count variation after poly I:C stimulation and compared the transcriptomes of pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts before and after poly I:C stimulation. Pigs with large and small differences of lymphocyte counts were designated as extreme response (ER) and moderate response (MR) pigs respectively. Lymphocyte counts in all animals were observed to decline after poly I:C stimulation. Transcriptomic analysis identified 1121 transcripts (981 differentially expressed genes) in MR pigs and 1045 transcripts (904 differentially expressed genes) in ER pigs. We found that the majority of the differentially expressed genes were involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the innate immune response of ER pigs was more rapid than that of MR pigs. Results indicated that the activation of signaling pathways associated with cell death, cytotoxicity and apoptosis may contribute to the poly I:C-induced decrease of lymphocyte counts in the periphery. Moreover, the differential expression patterns of chemokines and FAS either totally or partially provided an interpretation for the different degrees of decrease in the lymphocyte counts between MR and ER pigs. Overall, our study will provide further understanding of the molecular basis for the antiviral capacity of pigs and other mammals. PMID:26607402

  19. Cell counting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, M C; Lawler, G

    2001-05-01

    This unit presents protocols for counting cells using either a hemacytometer or electronically using a Coulter counter. Cell counting with a hemacytometer permits effective discrimination of live from dead cells using trypan blue exclusion. In addition, the procedure is less subject to errors arising from cell clumping or size heterogeneity. Counting cells is more quickly and easily performed using an electronic counter, but live-dead discrimination is unreliable. Cell populations containing large numbers of dead cells and/or cell clumps are difficult to count accurately. In addition, electronic counting requires resetting of the instrument for cell populations of different sizes; heterogeneous populations can give rise to inaccurate counts, and resting and activated cells may require counting at separate settings. In general, electronic cell counting is best performed on fresh peripheral blood cells. PMID:18770655

  20. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    PubMed Central

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  1. Accuracy of a New Platelet Count System (PLT-F) Depends on the Staining Property of Its Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Atsushi; Takagi, Yuri; Kono, Mari; Morikawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet count is essential for the diagnosis and management of hemostasis abnormalities. Although existing platelet count methods installed in common hematology analyzers can correctly count platelets in normal blood samples, they tend to miscount platelets in some abnormal samples. The newly developed PLT-F channel in the XN-Series hematology analyzer (Sysmex) has been reported to be a reliable platelet count system, even in abnormal samples. However, how the PLT-F platelet counting system achieves such accuracy has not been described in scientific articles. Methods Isolated platelets, erythrocytes, and fragmented erythrocytes were examined using an automated hematology analyzer. The samples were labeled by combining PLT-F reagents and anti-CD62p, CD63, Grp75, Calreticulin, CD41, or CD61 antibody, and analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy or flow cytometry. Results The PLT-F system correctly discriminated platelets in erythrocytes. Its reagents strongly stained some intraplatelet organelles labeled with anti-Grp75, but only faintly stained the plasma membrane of both platelets and erythrocytes. Microscopic observation and flow cytometric examination revealed that all of these strongly stained cells were also labeled with platelet-specific anti-CD41 and anti-CD61 antibodies. Conclusions This study revealed that the staining property of the PLT-F reagents, by which platelets and fragmented erythrocytes are clearly distinguished, contributes to the platelet-counting accuracy of the PLT-F system. PMID:26496387

  2. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  3. Characterization of recombinant alpha-galactosidase for use in seroconversion from blood group B to O of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A; Leng, L; Monahan, C; Zhang, Z; Hurst, R; Lenny, L; Goldstein, J

    1996-03-15

    Alpha-Galactosidase (alpha-GAL) purified from green coffee bean cleaves the terminal galactose residues from the surface of group B erythrocytes, thereby converting these cells serologically to group O cells. Such enzymatically converted red cells have been transfused into group A and O recipients as part of the first phase of FDA-approved clinical trials. Recently we expressed the recombinant alpha-GAL (r)alpha-GAL) in large quantities in a methylotrophic yeast strain Pichia pastoris and purified the protein to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on a macro prep S50 column. Purified (r)alpha-GAL, migrating as a single band of 41 kDa on a SDS-PAGE, appears to be identical to its native counterpart in specific activity (32 U/mg) and kinetic parameters (K(m) =0.363 mM and V(max) = 46.9 U/mg). Both enzymes demonstrate the same pH profile in the pH range from 2 to 9, with an optimal pH at 6.4 when tested with the substrate p-nitrophenol-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. Furthermore, as with its native counterpart, (r)alpha-GAL specifically cleaves alpha-linked terminal galactose residues from group B red cells without affecting other major antigens on the red cell surface. In addition, we developed a method for using RT-PCR to detect possible DNA contamination in the purified protein preparation, which is one of the concerns for in vivo studies. Thus, with a simple procedure for over-expression and purification of (r)alpha-GAL from P. pastoris culture, one can readily obtain the enzyme needed for large-scale sero-conversion of red cells. PMID:8619622

  4. [Lysophosphatidic acid and human erythrocyte aggregation].

    PubMed

    Sheremet'ev, Iu A; Popovicheva, A N; Levin, G Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the morphology and aggregation of human erythrocytes has been studied. Morphology of erythrocytes and their aggregates were studied by light microscopy. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid changes the shape of red blood cells: diskocyte become echinocytes. Aggregation of red blood cells (rouleaux) was significantly reduced in autoplasma. At the same time there is a strong aggregation of echinocytes. This was accompanied by the formation of microvesicles. Adding normal plasma to echinocytes restores shape and aggregation of red blood cells consisting of "rouleaux". A possible mechanism of action of lysophosphatidic acid on erythrocytes is discussed. PMID:25509147

  5. A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.

    PubMed

    Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B

    1980-08-01

    The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of erythrocyte membranes in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Morariu, V V; Petrov, L

    1986-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the apparent water diffusional exchange through erythrocyte membranes in cases of policitemia vera, chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis was measured by using a nuclear magnetic resonance method in the presence of Mn2+. The thermal transition shifted to lower temperatures in all cases, regardless of the stage of the disease, suggesting a structural alteration of the membrane. The shift of transition indirectly suggests a lower penetration of the erythrocytes by Mn2+. The water exchange time at 37 degrees C also increased, mainly in the blast crisis; it seems to have a prognostic value of some clinical interest. No simple correlation of the water exchange and the following clinical investigations was observed: the white count, the percentage of promyelocites and myeloblasts, the sedimentation rate of blood, the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, the total concentration of proteins, albumin and immunoglobulins, respectively, in plasma. PMID:3742482

  7. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R.; Wang, Hongmei; Levy, Lawrence B.; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  8. Low NK cell counts in peripheral blood are associated with inferior overall survival in patients with follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Danielle; Smith, Mitchell R.; Borghaei, Hossein; Millenson, Michael M.; Li, Tianyu; Litwin, Samuel; Anad, Rachna; Al-Saleem, Tahseen

    2013-01-01

    Host immune responses influence follicular lymphoma (FL) outcomes. To test our hypothesis that immune cells in blood reflect that response, we assessed by peripheral blood flow cytometry in 75 untreated FL patients the absolute counts of: lymphocytes (ALC), CD4+T (ACD4C), CD8+T (ACD8C) and natural killer (ANKC) cells. Low ANKC was the only parameter associated with inferior overall survival by univariate analysis (p= 0.02), and trended to significance in multivariable analysis with ACD4C (p= 0.08). Five (24%) patients with low initial ANKC died, while none with normal/high ANKC have died Conclusions: Evaluation of blood ANKC may be a useful indicator of outcome in previously untreated FL patients. PMID:23968916

  9. Effect of anionic amphophiles on erythrocyte properties.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D E; Utterback, N G; Wujek, J J

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary study describes effects of two pharmacologic agents on erythrocyte behavior. Increased erythrocyte aggregation has been proposed as important in the pathogenesis of a number of disorders, but the exact mechanism by which it plays a role in disease production remains unclear. Several anionic amphophiles have been reported to benefit diabetic vascular disease and atherosclerosis. If anionic amphophiles enter the erythrocyte plasma membrane they can increase its negative charge, reducing the energy of attraction between red blood cells and diminishing erythrocyte aggregation. Erythrocytes were studied after suspension in phosphate-buffered saline containing dextran as an aggregation-promoting agent. A marginal reduction of the suspension's viscosity was found at low shear rate when 2,5- dihydroxybenzene sulfonate was added. Additionally, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was marginally influenced. Both dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and acetylsalicylate protected human erythrocytes from hemolysis at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M. The removal of erythrocyte sialic acid using neuraminidase to reduce surface negative charge led to unequivocal interference with aggregation (MAI technique of CHIEN et al., J. Gen. Physiol., 1973) by both anionic amphophiles were studied. Dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and actylsalicylate reduced the aggregation propensity of sialic-free erythrocytes, suggesting that the effect on the low shear rate viscosity of sialic acid-containing erythrocytes, though modest, is real. PMID:6587820

  10. Diet of racing sled dogs affects erythrocyte depression by stress.

    PubMed

    Adkins, T O; Kronfeld, D S

    1982-09-01

    Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

  11. Smart and Fast Blood Counting of Trace Volumes of Body Fluids from Various Mammalian Species Using a Compact, Custom-Built Microscope Cytometer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingjuan; Smith, Zachary J; Lin, Tzu-yin; Carrade Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    We report an accurate method to count red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells, as well as to determine hemoglobin in the blood of humans, horses, dogs, cats, and cows. Red and white blood cell counts can also be performed on human body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal fluid. The approach consists of using a compact, custom-built microscope to record large field-of-view, bright-field, and fluorescence images of samples that are stained with a single dye and using automatic algorithms to count blood cells and detect hemoglobin. The total process takes about 15 min, including 5 min for sample preparation, and 10 min for data collection and analysis. The minimum volume of blood needed for the test is 0.5 μL, which allows for minimally invasive sample collection such as using a finger prick rather than a venous draw. Blood counts were compared to gold-standard automated clinical instruments, with excellent agreement between the two methods as determined by a Bland-Altman analysis. Accuracy of counts on body fluids was consistent with hand counting by a trained clinical lab scientist, where our instrument demonstrated an approximately 100-fold lower limit of detection compared to current automated methods. The combination of a compact, custom-built instrument, simple sample collection and preparation, and automated analysis demonstrates that this approach could benefit global health through use in low-resource settings where central hematology laboratories are not accessible. PMID:26496235

  12. Assessment of Blood Collection from the Lateral Saphenous Vein for Microfilaria Counts in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Infected with Brugia pahangi

    PubMed Central

    Alworth, Leanne C; Berghaus, Roy D; Kelly, Lisa M; Supakorndej, Prasit; Burkman, Erica J; Savadelis, Molly D; Cooper, Tanya L; Salyards, Gregory W; Harvey, Stephen B; Moorhead, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The NIH guidelines for survival bleeding of mice and rats note that using the retroorbital plexus has a greater potential for complications than do other methods of blood collection and that this procedure should be performed on anesthetized animals. Lateral saphenous vein puncture has a low potential for complications and can be performed without anesthesia. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are the preferred rodent model for filarial parasite research. To monitor microfilaria counts in the blood, blood sampling from the orbital plexus has been the standard. Our goal was to refine the blood collection technique. To determine whether blood collection from the lateral saphenous vein was a feasible alternative to retroorbital sampling, we compared microfilaria counts in blood samples collected by both methods from 21 gerbils infected with the filarial parasitic worm Brugia pahangi. Lateral saphenous vein counts were equivalent to retroorbital counts at relatively high counts (greater than 50 microfilariae per 20 µL) but were significantly lower than retroorbital counts when microfilarial concentrations were lower. Our results indicate that although retroorbital collection may be preferable when low concentrations of microfilariae need to be enumerated, the lateral saphenous vein is a suitable alternative site for blood sampling to determine microfilaremia and is a feasible refinement that can benefit the wellbeing of gerbils. PMID:26678366

  13. Smart fast blood counting of trace volumes of body fluids from various mammalian species using a compact custom-built microscope cytometer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Gao, Tingjuan; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Carrade-Holt, Danielle; Lane, Stephen M.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Dwyre, Denis M.; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Cell counting in human body fluids such as blood, urine, and CSF is a critical step in the diagnostic process for many diseases. Current automated methods for cell counting are based on flow cytometry systems. However, these automated methods are bulky, costly, require significant user expertise, and are not well suited to counting cells in fluids other than blood. Therefore, their use is limited to large central laboratories that process enough volume of blood to recoup the significant capital investment these instruments require. We present in this talk a combination of a (1) low-cost microscope system, (2) simple sample preparation method, and (3) fully automated analysis designed for providing cell counts in blood and body fluids. We show results on both humans and companion and farm animals, showing that accurate red cell, white cell, and platelet counts, as well as hemoglobin concentration, can be accurately obtained in blood, as well as a 3-part white cell differential in human samples. We can also accurately count red and white cells in body fluids with a limit of detection ~3 orders of magnitude smaller than current automated instruments. This method uses less than 1 microliter of blood, and less than 5 microliters of body fluids to make its measurements, making it highly compatible with finger-stick style collections, as well as appropriate for small animals such as laboratory mice where larger volume blood collections are dangerous to the animal's health.

  14. White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project

    PubMed Central

    Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein

  15. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

  16. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  17. Dose-effect and dose-response relationships of blood lead to erythrocytic protoporphyrin in young children

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P.B.; Bornschein, R.L.; Succop, P.

    1985-10-01

    Dose-effect and dose-response relationships were analyzed for blood lead concentration (PbB) vs blood protoporphyrin concentration using multiple data points from 165 children, ages 3-36 months. Protoporphyrin concentrations were measured using a front-face flurometer designed to measure zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and an extraction method designed to measure total protoporphyrin as the free base (FEP). Estimations were made of the thresholds for PbB effects on FEP and ZPP, as well as the slopes of the PbB-FEP and PbB-ZPP interactions. There was essentially no difference in thresholds estimated using ZPP vs FEP as the effect parameter. There was no apparent effect of age on threshold. However, the slope for PbB vs ZPP was less steep than the slope for PbB vs FEP. Moreover, the average ratio FEP:ZPP was markedly elevated at 3 months (1.84:1) and decreased slowly, attaining unity at 33 months. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, as well as the implications for interpretation of lead screening program data.

  18. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC) counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48) and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94). Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1) (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010) and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p < 0.001) and lower HDL cholesterol (55 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 1 mg/dl, p = 0.031) as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600) and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index < 600). Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p < 0.001; 2166 ± 86 vs. 827 ± 62 pg/ml, p = 0.005) than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437). In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p < 0.001) or light (6829 ± 352/μl, p = 0.001) smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl). There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158). Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male

  19. [A new separation protocol (DRBCP-F) for automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator for collection of leukocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates and plasma].

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    Previously published studies on automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator proved fairly good quality of the collected red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), with the disadvantage of a low hematocrit of the filtered RBC and a high platelet contamination of the FFP (RBCP-F protocol.) The DRBCP-F protocol was designed to eliminate the above-mentioned disadvantages and to provide 1 unit of leuko-depleted (filtered) RBC, 2 units of FFP, and additionally 1 platelet concentrate (PC) from the buffy coat. Twenty automated blood component collections (2 cycles, Latham bowl at 5,500 rpm, 230 ml isotonic saline for volume balance, PAGGS-M as additive solution) were performed. The RBC were filtered in a closed system after storage at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Blood cell counts and biochemical parameters of the RBC were determined initially and after 49 days. PC were separated from buffy coat after a soft spin. The volume of the RBC amounted to 293 +/- 12 ml (mean +/- SD) with a hematocrit of 0.61 +/- 0.05 l/l. Residual leukocytes after filtration were found to be 0.04 x 10(6) +/- 0.06 per unit. After storage, the following data were obtained: hemolysis 0.38%, ATP 2.1 +/- 0.4 mumol/g Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) 1.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/g Hb, ph 6.3 +/- 0.1, potassium 6.4 mmol per unit, and LDH in the supernatant was 219 U/l. None of the RBC showed bacterial growth after 49 days. The volume of the collected FFP was 398 +/- 32 ml, with 3.4 +/- 3.5 x 10(3) residual platelets and 5 +/- 12 leukocytes per microliter. Platelet concentrates contained 90.2 +/- 32 x 10(9) platelets in 88 +/- 14 ml plasma. Automated blood donation with the DRBCP-F protocol provided RBC with very low residual leukocyte counts, adequate hematocrit and good metabolic status up to 49 days, and FFP with low platelet contamination. The platelet concentrates were even superior to those prepared from whole blood using the buffy coat method. The storable leuko-depleted RBC are

  20. Adenosine deaminase activity in serum, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats infected with Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Pimentel, Victor C; da Silva, Aleksandro S; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Souza, Viviane C G; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Rezer, João F P; Badke, Manoel R T; Leal, Daniela B R; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Monteiro, Silvia G; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2012-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a systemic disease of humans and domestic animals, mainly dogs, cattle and swine. The course of human leptospirosis varies from mild to severe fatal forms and the most severe form of human leptospirosis is principally caused by Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae (L. icterohaemorrhagiae). The enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) plays an important role in the production and differentiation of blood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of ADA in serum, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of rats infected with L. icterohaemorrhagiae, as compared with non-infected rats. Twenty-four adult rats, divided into two uniform groups (A and B) were used for the enzymatic assays. The animals in Group B were inoculated intraperitoneally with 2×10(8) leptospires/rat, and the rodents in Group A (control) were not-inoculated. Blood collection was performed on days 5 and 15 post-infection (PI) and the blood used to assess the ADA activity. The infection by L.icterohaemorrhagiae altered erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit, causing a decrease in all these parameters on day 15 PI. Lymphocytes decreased significantly on day 15 PI, and ADA activity in serum was inhibited in infected rats on days 5 and 15 PI and its activity in erythrocytes were increased on day 5 PI. On day 5 PI, we found an increase in ADA activity in erythrocytes of infected rats. No correlation was observed between hematocrit and erythrocyte ADA activity on days 5 and 15 PI. The ADA activity was inhibited in rats infected on day 15 PI. A positive correlation (r(2)=60) was also observed between the number of lymphocytes and ADA activity in lymphocytes on day 15 PI (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the ADA activity is altered in serum, lymphocytes and erythrocytes in experimental infection by L.icterohaemorrhagiae in rats, concomitantly with hematological parameters. PMID:21320715

  1. Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Oyewale, J O

    1994-02-01

    The osmotic resistance of pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes at different temperatures and pH was studied. Erythrocytes from female pigeons showed greater osmotic resistance than those from males, but no sex difference appeared with erythrocytes from peafowls. Pigeon erythrocytes were more resistant and the red blood cell, packed cell volume and haemoglobin values were higher than those in peafowls. Although no significant differences appeared in their haematological values, erythrocytes from the lizard were more resistant than erythrocytes from the toad. At higher temperature, the osmotic resistance of pigeon, lizard and toad erythrocytes increased, while that of peafowl erythrocytes decreased. The resistance of toad erythrocytes decreased in acidic and alkaline solutions, but that of peafowl erythrocytes increased in both solutions. However, with pigeon and lizard erythrocytes, the resistance was unaltered in alkaline solution and decreased in acidic solution. PMID:8085400

  2. A reliable screening protocol for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in pregnancy: an alternative approach to electronic blood cell counting.

    PubMed

    Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Changtrakul, Yossombat; Ukosanakarn, Uthai; Ussawaphark, Wichai; Schelp, Frank P

    2005-01-01

    Primary screening for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies usually involves an accurate blood count using an expensive electronic blood cell counter A cheaper alternative method was tested by using a modified osmotic fragility (OF) test and a modified dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP) test. Altogether 423 pregnant Thai women participated in this project. Hemoglobin patterns and globin genotypes were determined using an automated high-performance liquid chromatography analyzer and polymerase chain reaction analysis of alpha- and beta-globin genes. Among the 423 subjects, 264 (62.4%) carried thalassemia genes. The combined OF and DCIP tests detected all pregnant carriers of the 3 clinically important thalassemias, ie, alpha0-thalassemia, beta-thalassemia, and hemoglobin E with a sensitivity of 100.0%, specificity of 87.1%, positive predictive value of 84.5%, and negative predictive value of 100.0%, which show more effectiveness than these values for the standard method based on RBC counts. A combination of modified OF and DCIP tests should prove useful and applicable to prenatal screening programs for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in communities with limited facilities and economic resources. PMID:15762286

  3. Subcompartmentalisation of Proteins in the Rhoptries Correlates with Ordered Events of Erythrocyte Invasion by the Blood Stage Malaria Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Gout, Alexander M.; Dekiwadia, Chaitali; Marapana, Danushka S.; Angrisano, Fiona; Turnbull, Lynne; Riglar, David T.; Rogers, Kelly L.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Ralph, Stuart A.; Speed, Terence P.; Baum, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction – the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion. PMID:23049965

  4. Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56+ APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 109/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56+ APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. PMID:24206578

  5. Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats.

    PubMed

    Teległów, Aneta; Dabrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Bilski, Jan; Jaśkiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Głodzik, Jacek; Lizak, Dorota; Kepińska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    This is the first report on the effects of a single bout of swimming to exhaustion in cold water on rat erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in body temperature of experimental rats swimming in water at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C when compared to the control. Erythrocyte aggregation indices did not change after swimming in water at 4 degrees C whereas erythrocyte deformability increased at shear stress 1,13 [Pa] and 15,96 [Pa]. Physical effort performed in water at 4 degrees C when compared to the control group resulted in an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes that influenced the increase in their fluidity and permeability even though that of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids decreased. Physical effort performed in 25 degrees C water resulted in an increase in saturated fatty acid content and a decrease in all polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids when compared to the control group. Swimming of untrained old rats in cold water affected rheological properties oferythrocytes in a negligible way while changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes were more pronounced. PMID:22195477

  6. Reticulated platelets interfere with flow cytometric reticulocyte counts.

    PubMed

    Ivory, K; Sarria, B; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Hughes, D A

    2007-10-01

    As part of an iron absorption study, we needed to accurately count reticulocytes in the peripheral blood of healthy human volunteers before measuring their enrichment with stable iron isotopes given in an oral dose. Recent studies have suggested the usefulness of reticulocyte counting by flow cytometry, through a combination of differential light scatter and measurement of the stoichiometric binding of thiazole orange (TO) to RNA within the maturing erythrocyte. Using this method we set out to improve the precision of our quantitative analysis by counting more cells, as reticulocytes normally comprise <2% of the red cell population. To ensure exclusion of other cell types, we identified WBCs and platelets with CD16+CD45- allophycocyanin and CD61- phycoerythrin, respectively. After removal of CD16(+) CD45(+) TO(+) WBCs and CD61(+) TO(-) platelets from analysis, the remaining cells were a combination of CD61(-) TO(-) erythrocytes, CD61(-) TO(+) reticulocytes and CD61(+) TO(+) reticulated platelets. Reticulocyte counts were lower after exclusion of CD61(+) TO(+) cells from analysis. They were similarly lower when erythrocyte precursors were positively identified through their glycophorin A expression and TO uptake. We conclude that it is necessary to exclude reticulated platelets from flow cytometric reticulocyte analysis. PMID:17824916

  7. Peripheral blood T Regulatory cell counts may not predict transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows that allograft survival rates show a positive correlation with the number of circulating T regulatory cells (Tregs). This study investigated both the number and the cytokine profiles exhibited by Foxp3+ Tregs in blood, spleen and lymph nodes of Lewis rat recipients of BN rat cardiac allografts after a single-dose of Rapamycin (RAPA). Results Rats were divided into three groups: control group (containing healthy control and acute rejection group), and recipients treated with a single dose of RAPA on either Day 1 (1D group)or Day 3 (3D group) post-transplant. We analyzed the number of Foxp3+Tregs and the expression of Foxp3 and cytokines in the peripheral blood and the peripheral lymphoid tissues. No difference was found in the numbers of circulating Foxp3+ Tregs between these three groups. RAPA administration significantly increased Foxp3 expression in peripheral lymphoid tissues after a single dose of RAPA on Day 3 post-transplant. Foxp3+Tregs inhibited the activity of effector T cells (Teff) via the secretion of TGF-β1. Conclusion The number of Tregs in the recipient's blood may not be a good predictor of transplant rejection. Foxp3+Tregs inhibit the activity of Teff cells mainly in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:20633262

  8. Conjugated Bilirubin Triggers Anemia by Inducing Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Gatidis, Sergios; Freise, Noemi F; Bock, Hans; Kubitz, Ralf; Lauermann, Christian; Orth, Hans Martin; Klindt, Caroline; Schuier, Maximilian; Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Liu, Guilai; Schmidt, Sebastian; Xu, Haifeng C; Qadri, Syed M; Herebian, Diran; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Mayatepek, Ertan; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Karl S; Föller, Michael; Lang, Philipp A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic failure is commonly associated with anemia, which may result from gastrointestinal bleeding, vitamin deficiency, or liver-damaging diseases, such as infection and alcohol intoxication. At least in theory, anemia during hepatic failure may result from accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Here we show that bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice leads to severe anemia despite increased reticulocyte numbers. Bilirubin stimulated suicidal death of human erythrocytes. Mechanistically, bilirubin triggered rapid Ca2+ influx, sphingomyelinase activation, formation of ceramide, and subsequent translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Consistent with our in vitro and in vivo findings, incubation of erythrocytes in serum from patients with liver disease induced suicidal death of erythrocytes in relation to their plasma bilirubin concentration. Consistently, patients with hyperbilirubinemia had significantly lower erythrocyte and significantly higher reticulocyte counts compared to patients with low bilirubin levels. Conclusion: Bilirubin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death, thus contributing to anemia during liver disease. (Hepatology 2015;61:275–284) PMID:25065608

  9. Predicting frequent asthma exacerbations using blood eosinophil count and other patient data routinely available in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Price, David; Wilson, Andrew M; Chisholm, Alison; Rigazio, Anna; Burden, Anne; Thomas, Michael; King, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting. Patients and methods Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12–80 years from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990–2013, were examined for 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent blood eosinophil count. Baseline variables predictive (P<0.05) of exacerbation in the outcome year were compared between patients who had two or more exacerbations and those who had no exacerbation or only one exacerbation, using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Exacerbation was defined as asthma-related hospital attendance/admission (emergency or inpatient) or acute oral corticosteroid (OCS) course. Results Blood eosinophil count >400/µL (versus ≤400/µL) increased the likelihood of two or more exacerbations >1.4-fold (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39, 1.58); P<0.001). Variables that significantly increased the odds by up to 1.4-fold included increasing age (per year), female gender (versus male), being overweight or obese (versus normal body mass index), being a smoker (versus nonsmoker), having anxiety/depression, diabetes, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or rhinitis, and prescription for acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with treatment at British Thoracic Society step 2 (daily controller ± reliever), treatment at step 0 (none) or 1 (as-needed reliever) increased the odds by 1.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, and treatment at step 3, 4, or 5 increased the odds by 1.3-, 1.9-, or 3.1-fold, respectively (all P<0.05). Acute OCS use was the single best predictor of two or more exacerbations. Even one course increased the odds by more than threefold (OR: 3.75 [95% CI: 3

  10. Prognostic impact of white blood cell count in intermediate risk acute myeloid leukemia: relevance of mutated NPM1 and FLT3-ITD

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Hendrik J.M.; Valk, Peter J.M.; de Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Ossenkoppele, Gert; Vellenga, Edo; Huls, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    Background High white blood cell count at presentation is an unfavorable prognostic factor for treatment outcome in intermediate cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia. Since the impact of white blood cell count on outcome of subgroups defined by the molecular markers NPMc+ and FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) is unknown, we addressed this issue. Design and Methods We studied the effect of white blood cell count on outcome in a clinically and molecularly well-defined cohort of 525 patients with acute myeloid leukemia using these molecular markers. In addition, since an increased white blood cell count has been associated with an increased FLT3-ITD/FLT3 (wild-type) ratio, we investigated whether the effect of white blood cell count on outcome could be explained by the FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio. Results This analysis revealed that white blood cell count had no impact on outcome in patients with the genotypic combinations ‘NPMc+ without FLT3-ITD’ and ‘NPM1 wild-type with or without FLT3-ITD’. In contrast, white blood cell count had a significant impact on complete remission rate (P=0.034), event-free survival (P=0.009) and overall survival (P<0.001) in patients with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD’. A FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio greater than 1 was also associated with a reduced complete remission rate (P=0.066) and significantly reduced event-free survival (P= 0.001) and overall survival (P=0.001) in patients with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD’. Multivariable analysis revealed that white blood cell count and FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio were independent prognostic indicators for outcome in the subgroup with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD’. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that both high white blood cell count and FLT3-ITD/FLT3 ratio are prognostic factors in patients with acute myeloid leukemia with the genotypic combination ‘NPMc+ with FLT3-ITD'. PMID:21606167

  11. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. Results White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (p<0.0001 for all). Conclusions Both white blood cell counts and NLR can be used as a simple test in the diagnosis of testicular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). PMID:27136467

  12. Erythrocyte ion channels in regulation of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Birka, Christina; Myssina, Svetlana; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A; Tanneur, Valerie; Duranton, Christophe; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M

    2004-01-01

    Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei, key organelles in the regulation of apoptosis. Until recently, erythrocytes were thus not considered subject to this type of cell death. However, exposure of erythrocytes to the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin was shown to induce cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing and breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry with subsequent phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface, all typical features of apoptosis. Further studies revealed the participation of ion channels in the regulation of erythrocyte "apoptosis." Osmotic shock, oxidative stress and energy depletion all activate a Ca2(+)-permeable non-selective cation channel in the erythrocyte cell membrane. The subsequent increase of Ca2+ concentration stimulates a scramblase leading to breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry and activates Ca2+ sensitive K+ (Gardos) channels leading to KCl loss and (further) cell shrinkage. Phosphatidylserine exposure and cell shrinkage are blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+, in the presence of the cation channel inhibitors amiloride or ethylisopropylamiloride, at increased extracellular K+ or in the presence of the Gardos channel inhibitors clotrimazole or charybdotoxin. Thus, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ and cellular loss of K+ participate in the triggering of erythrocyte scramblase. Nevertheless, phosphatidylserine exposure is not completely abrogated in the nominal absence of Ca2+, pointing to additional Ca2(+)-independent pathways. One of those is activation of sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide which in turn leads to stimulation of erythrocyte scramblase. The exposure of phosphatidylserine at the extracellular face of the cell membrane stimulates phagocytes to engulf the apoptotic erythrocytes. Thus, sustained activation of the cation channels eventually leads to clearance of affected erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Erythropoietin inhibits the non-selective cation channel and thus

  13. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values. PMID:25369713

  14. Estimating malaria parasite density: assumed white blood cell count of 10,000/μl of blood is appropriate measure in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background White blood cells count (WBCc) is a bedrock in the estimation of malaria parasite density in malaria field trials, interventions and patient management. White blood cells are indirectly and relatively used in microscopy to estimate the density of malaria parasite infections. Due to frequent lack of facilities in some malaria-endemic countries, in order to quantify WBCc of patients, an assumed WBCc of 8.0 X 10(9)/L has been set by the World Health Organization to help in estimating malaria parasite densities. Methods This comparative analysis study, in Central Ghana, compiled laboratory data of 5,902 Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite positive samples. Samples were obtained from consented participants of age groups less than five years. Full blood counts (FBC) of participants’ samples were analysed using the ABX Micros 60 Haematology Analyzer. Blood slides were read by two competent microscopists to produce concordant results. All internal and external quality control measures were carried out appropriately. Parasite densities were calculated using participants’ absolute WBCc and assumed WBCc of 5,000 to 10,000 per microlitre of blood. Results From the 5,902 Pf malaria positive samples, the mean (SD) WBCc and geometric mean parasite density were 10.4 (4.6) × 10(9)/L and 7,557/μL (95 % CI 7,144/μL to 7,994/μL) respectively. The difference in the geometric mean parasite densities calculated using absolute WBCs and compared to densities with assumed WBCs counts were significantly lower for 5.0 × 10(9)/L; 3,937/μL, 6.0 × 10(9)/L; 4,725/μL and 8.0 × 10(9)/L; 6,300/μL. However, the difference in geometric mean parasite density, 7,874/μL (95 % CI, 7,445/μL to 8,328/μL), with assumed WBCc of 10.0 × 10(9)/L was not significant. Conclusion Using the assumed WBCc of 8.0 X 10(9)/L or lower to estimate malaria parasite densities in Pf infected children less than five years old could result in significant underestimation of

  15. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Stiegel, Matthew A.; Pleil, Joachim D.; Sobus, Jon R.; Madden, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  16. Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network.

    PubMed

    Crosslin, David R; McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J; McCarty, Catherine A; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Crawford, Dana C; Crane, Paul K; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B; Carlson, Chris S; Jarvik, Gail P

    2012-04-01

    White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e-55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy-/-). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn's disease. PMID:22037903

  17. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Madden, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in environmental exposure in time and from person to person. Previously, environmentally controlled human exposure chambers have been used to study DE and O3 dose-response patterns separately, but investigation of co-exposures has not been performed under controlled conditions. Because a mixture is a more realistic exposure scenario for the general public, in this study we investigate the relationships of urban levels of urban-level DE exposure (300 μg/m3), O3 (0.3 ppm), DE + O3 co-exposure, and innate immune system responses. Fifteen healthy human volunteers were studied for changes in ten inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and counts of three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) following controlled exposures to DE, O3, and DE+O3. The results show subtle cytokines responses to the diesel-only and ozone-only exposures, and that a more complex (possibly synergistic) relationship exists in the combination of these two exposures with suppression of IL-5, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and TNF-α that persists up to 22-hours for IFN-γ and TNF-α. The white blood cell differential counts showed significant monocyte and lymphocyte decreases and neutrophil increases following the DE + O3 exposure; lymphocytes and neutrophils changes also persist for at least 22-hours. Because human studies must be conducted under strict safety protocols at environmental levels, these effects are subtle and are generally only seen with detailed statistical analysis. This study indicates that the observed associations between environmental exposures and cardiopulmonary effects are possibly mediated by inflammatory response mechanisms. PMID:27058360

  18. Cord Blood Units with High CD3(+) Cell Counts Predict Early Lymphocyte Recovery After In Vivo T Cell-Depleted Single Cord Blood Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Nerea; García-Cadenas, Irene; Díaz-Heredia, Cristina; Martino, Rodrigo; Barba, Pere; Ferrà, Christelle; Canals, Carme; Elorza, Izaskun; Olivé, Teresa; Badell, Isabel; Sierra, Jorge; Valcárcel, David; Querol, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Although high absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) early after transplantation is a simple surrogate for immune reconstitution, few studies to date have established the predictive factors for ALC after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). We retrospectively studied the factors associated with early lymphocyte recovery and the impact of the ALC on day +42 (ALC42) of ≥300 × 10(6)/L on outcomes in 210 consecutive pediatric and adult patients (112 males; median age, 15 years; range, 0.3 to 60 years; interquartile range, 4 to 36 years) who underwent myeloablative in vivo T cell-depleted single UCBT between 2005 and 2014 for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. In a logistic multivariate regression model, factors favoring a higher ALC42 were higher infused CD3(+) cell dose (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.2; P = .004), lower antithymocyte globulin dose (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5; P = .01), and better HLA match (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.1; P = .03). In multivariate analysis, lower ALC42 was associated with higher nonrelapse mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.32; P = .001), whereas a higher ALC42 was associated with better disease-free survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.6; P < .001) and overall survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.6; P < .001). Our study suggests that the selection of better HLA-matched cord blood units containing higher CD3(+) cell counts and the use of conditioning regimens with lower ATG doses could improve immune reconstitution after UCBT. PMID:27038860

  19. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  20. Vanadate-induced suicidal erythrocyte death.

    PubMed

    Föller, Michael; Sopjani, Mentor; Mahmud, Hasan; Lang, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Vanadium, a trace element, as vanadate (VO4(3-)) is known to interfere with a wide variety of enzymes including Ca2+ ATPase and Na+/+ ATPase. VO4(3-) is excreted mainly via the kidney. In renal insufficiency, the impaired VO4(3-) excretion leads to VO4(3-) accumulation in blood.The present study explored the effect of VO4(3-) on eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes. Eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptotic cells are phagocytosed and thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Stimulators of eryptosis include an increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. Erythrocyte Ca2+ activity was estimated from Fluo-3 fluorescence, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V-binding, and erythrocyte volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure of erythrocytes to VO4(3-) increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, enhanced the percentage of annexin V-binding erythrocytes, decreased erythrocyte forward scatter, and lowered the intracellular ATP concentration. In conclusion, VO4(3-) induces eryptosis at least partially through increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, an effect presumably contributing to the development of anemia in chronic renal failure. PMID:18319605

  1. Minimal sensor count approach to fuzzy logic rotary blood pump flow control.

    PubMed

    Casas, Fernando; Ahmed, Nisar; Reeves, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551

  2. Factors Affecting Tissue Oxygenation in Erythrocyte Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Aykut, Güçlü; Yürük, Koray; İnce, Can

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell transfusions are used to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in anemic states. But, because of the changes during storage of blood components and the specifics of preparation, erythrocytes may have controversial effects on tissue oxygenation and microcirculation. Also, the patient situation may play a role in the differing responses in oxygenation and microcirculation. In this review, the studies concerning the effects of banked blood and patient characteristics on microcirculation and tissue oxygenation are summarized. PMID:27366403

  3. Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Hänscheid, Thomas; Längin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Pötschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

    2008-01-01

    Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited

  4. Influence of the first radioactive iodine ablation on peripheral complete blood count in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Radioactive iodine (RAI) is considered to be related with hematologic changes. This study aimed to evaluate influence of the first RAI ablation on peripheral complete blood count (CBC) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Data of CBC at baseline and 6 months after RAI were obtained in 385 patients with DTC with approximately 3700 MBq 131I (ranging 2220–7585 MBq). Further comparison was done in 196 patients with 1-month postablation data available. Routine blood examinations were performed to determine impact of RAI on white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte in both sexes. Continuous variables were compared by paired t tests and independent samples t test, and categorical variables were compared by chi-square analysis. Data with repeated measurements were analyzed by analysis of variance. The first RAI after thyroidectomy was associated with mild, yet significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte, which persisted for 6 months. One month after RAI, significant declines were found in all CBC, including RBC and hemoglobin (all P < 0.05). While CBC partly recovered 6 months after RAI, this follow-up CBC still demonstrated significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte (all P < 0.05) without gender differences. Significant rises in RBC and hemoglobin in males and females were found. The decline of platelet in females was more obvious than in males at 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI. On the contrary, the rises of RBC and hemoglobin in males were higher than in females. There were no significant complications during the follow-up. WBC and platelet decreased obviously 1 month after RAI. While they partly recovered 6 months after RAI, they were still lower than the baseline. However, RBC and hemoglobin transiently decreased at 1 month and then increased to levels even higher than baseline 6 months later. At 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI, the decline of platelet in females

  5. Influence of the first radioactive iodine ablation on peripheral complete blood count in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianpeng; Meng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Guizhi; Jia, Qiang; Tan, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Renfei; Li, Xue; Liu, Na; Zhou, Pingping; Upadhyaya, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) is considered to be related with hematologic changes. This study aimed to evaluate influence of the first RAI ablation on peripheral complete blood count (CBC) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).Data of CBC at baseline and 6 months after RAI were obtained in 385 patients with DTC with approximately 3700 MBq I (ranging 2220-7585 MBq). Further comparison was done in 196 patients with 1-month postablation data available. Routine blood examinations were performed to determine impact of RAI on white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte in both sexes. Continuous variables were compared by paired t tests and independent samples t test, and categorical variables were compared by chi-square analysis. Data with repeated measurements were analyzed by analysis of variance.The first RAI after thyroidectomy was associated with mild, yet significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte, which persisted for 6 months. One month after RAI, significant declines were found in all CBC, including RBC and hemoglobin (all P < 0.05). While CBC partly recovered 6 months after RAI, this follow-up CBC still demonstrated significant declines in WBC, platelet, and lymphocyte (all P < 0.05) without gender differences. Significant rises in RBC and hemoglobin in males and females were found. The decline of platelet in females was more obvious than in males at 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI. On the contrary, the rises of RBC and hemoglobin in males were higher than in females. There were no significant complications during the follow-up.WBC and platelet decreased obviously 1 month after RAI. While they partly recovered 6 months after RAI, they were still lower than the baseline. However, RBC and hemoglobin transiently decreased at 1 month and then increased to levels even higher than baseline 6 months later. At 3700 to 4440 MBq of RAI, the decline of platelet in females was more obvious

  6. Evaluation of nucleated red blood cell count by Sysmex XE-2100 in patients with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia and in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Buoro, Sabrina; Vavassori, Mauro; Pipitone, Silvia; Benegiamo, Anna; Lochis, Eleonora; Fumagalli, Sabina; Falanga, Anna; Marchetti, Marina; Crippa, Alberto; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Current haematology analysers have variable sensitivity and accuracy for counting nucleated red blood cells in samples with low values and in all those conditions characterised by altered sensitivity of red blood cells to the lysing process, such as in beta-thalassaemia or sickle-cell diseases and in neonates. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the automated analyser XE-2100 at counting nucleated red blood cells in the above-mentioned three categories of subjects with potentially altered red blood cell lysis sensitivity and yet a need for accurate nucleated red blood cell counts. Materials and methods We measured nucleated red blood cell count by XE-2100 in peripheral blood samples of 187 subjects comprising 55 patients with beta-thalassaemia (40 major and 15 traits), 26 sickle-cell patients, 56 neonates and 50 normal subject. Results were compared with those obtained by optical microscopy. Agreement between average values of the two methods was estimated by means of Pearson’s correlation and bias analysis, whereas diagnostic accuracy was estimated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves. Results The comparison between the two methods showed a Pearson’s correlation of 0.99 (95% CI; 0.98–0.99; p<0.001) and bias of −0.61 (95% CI, −1.5–0.3). The area under the curve of the nucleated red blood cell count in all samples was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96–1.00; p<0.001). Sub-analysis revealed an area under curve of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with thalassaemia, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85–1.00; p<0.001) for patients with sickle cell anaemia, and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0–1.0) for neonates. Discussion XE-2100 has excellent performance for nucleated red blood cell counting, especially in critical populations such as patients with haemoglobinopathies and neonates. PMID:25761322

  7. Effect of surgical castration of bull calves at different stages of maturity with or without analgesia on the acute phase response (APR) and complete blood count (CBC)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objective was to determine if surgical castration at birth or weaning impacts the acute phase response (APR) or complete blood counts (CBC) and whether concurrent administration of an oral analgesic (meloxicam) ameliorates inflammation. Bull calves (n=29) from the University of Arkansas re...

  8. Weight gains, blood parameters, and fecal egg counts when meat-goat kids were finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters associated with forage nutrient-use and anemia from gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infection, and fecal egg counts (FEC) patterns of meat goat kids finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium...

  9. APOE Polymorphism Is Associated with C-reactive Protein Levels but Not with White Blood Cell Count: Dong-gu Study and Namwon Study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yong-Woon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Hee Nam; Cauley, Jane A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the association of the APOE polymorphism with serum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count in two large population-based studies in Korean. The datasets included the Dong-gu study (n = 8,893) and the Namwon Study (n = 10,032). APOE genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship of APOE genotypes with C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and serum lipids. In the multivariate model, carriers of E3E4 or E4E4 genotype had significantly lower C-reactive protein levels compared with carriers of E3E3 genotype group (0.50 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L; 0.37 mg/L vs. 0.67 mg/L, respectively, for the Dong-gu Study and 0.47 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L; 0.45 mg/L vs. 0.66 mg/L, respectively, for the Namwon Study). However, there was no difference in white blood cell count among APOE genotypes. We found that the APOE E4 allele is associated with lower C-reactive protein levels, but not white blood cell count. Our results suggest that APOE genotype may influence C-reactive protein levels through non-inflammatory pathway. PMID:26130946

  10. Micronucleus test of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of the people living in the radiation pollution zone as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical plant on April 6, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyinskikh, N.N.; Ivanchuk, I.I.; Ilyinskikh, E.N.

    1997-10-01

    We have carried out analysis of the number of blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes with micronuclei in the inhabitants of four settlements located near the place of the accident which happened at the atomic power station of the Siberian Chemical plant (Tomsk-7) on April 6, 1993. In all cases, the people examined showed a considerable increase in the number of cells with micronuclei as compared with the control. We observed the same people for two years and found a gradual decrease in the number of cells with micronuclei. It has been shown in this work that people born in 1963-1970 have a much higher level of cells with micronuclei which we tend to regard as a result of the radiation accident at the Siberian chemical plant in 1963. The data we have obtained allow us to conclude that penetration of radionuclides into the human organism in the prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to the formation of stable clones of erythroid cells with micronuclei and a higher level of erythrocytes with micronuclei which can remain in the blood for a long time.

  11. The Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Count Is Associated With Bone Health in Elderly Men: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianfeng; Yu, Hejun; Zhao, Chenchen; Qian, Yu; Hong, Dun; Huang, Kangmao; Mo, Jian; Qin, An; Fang, Xiangqian; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-04-01

    The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) count is a routinely used and meaningful index for infection and blood diseases. PBMCs may be closely related to osteoclasts and include osteoclast precursors; we examined the association between the PBMC count and bone health. This research included 2806 community men aged ≥50 years who underwent full health examinations from October 2007 through December 2011 in four medical centers. The PBMC count was significantly high among subjects with "at least osteopenia" compared with controls. In analysis of covariance adjusted for potential confounders, the bone mineral density (BMD) value and T-score had a significant decreasing trend across the quartiles of PBMC count. In univariate analysis, the PBMC count had a strong association with "at least osteopenia" (odds ratio [OR] = 2.520, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.397-4.547). After adjustment for confounding factors (multivariate analysis) from Model 1 to 4, PBMC count remained as an independent risk factor for "at least osteopenia" (OR = 2.481, 95% CI: 1.176-5.236). Moreover, after adjusting for all confounding variables, participants had a significantly high OR in the body mass index (BMI) <25 group (OR = 2.798, CI: 1.122-6.973; P = 0.027) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 group (OR = 2.519, CI: 1.059-5.993; P = 0.037). In conclusion, the PBMC count is significantly associated with bone loss in elderly men and the exact mechanism requires further clarification. PMID:27082593

  12. Trilinolein improves erythrocyte deformability during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S K; Chan, P; Lee, T Y; Yung, J M; Hong, C Y

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro effect of trilinolein, a triglyceride with linoleic acid as the major fatty acid residue in the esterified positions of glycerol, on erythrocyte deformability was studied in blood samples collected from 12 patients before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Erythrocyte deformability was measured with a filtration method and expressed as red cell filtration rate (RFR). RFR was reduced after CPB and the reduction was time dependent. Trilinolein at a concentration of 10(-7) M significantly reversed the CPB-induced reduction of RFR when it was mixed with blood samples collected 30, 60 and 90 min from the start of CPB. This study confirmed the effect of CPB on erythrocyte deformability and showed that this damage could be significantly improved by mixing blood with trilinolein. PMID:8054252

  13. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content. PMID

  14. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  15. Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

  16. White blood cell counts in persons aged 65 years or more from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Correlations with baseline clinical and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bovill, E G; Bild, D E; Heiss, G; Kuller, L H; Lee, M H; Rock, R; Wahl, P W

    1996-06-01

    A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons aged 65 years or older. Baseline data were collected over a 12-month period in 1989-1990. WBC counts were statistically significantly higher in people with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than in those who were free of disease. WBC counts correlated (p < 0.01) positively with coagulation factors, measures of glucose metabolism, creatinine, smoking, and triglycerides. In contrast, WBC counts correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and height. The correlations between WBC counts and risk factors were similar in both the entire cohort and the subgroup of persons who had never smoked. The authors conclude that WBC counts in the elderly are associated with prevalent and subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as well as its risk factors. PMID:8633599

  17. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  18. Leflunomide-induced lung injury that developed after its withdrawal, coinciding with peripheral blood lymphocyte count decrease.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Takeshi; Koyama, Takako; Ohtani, Ryoko; Niiro, Hiroaki; Yoshizawa, Seiji; Harada, Mine; Inokuma, Shigeko

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year-old rheumatoid arthritis (RA) female with lung fibrosis was treated with leflunomide (LEF) for only 12 days, and responded well. Twenty-five days after the withdrawal of the drug, she had fever, dyspnea, and an elevated serum C-reactive protein level. Chest CT revealed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidations forming a mosaic pattern, in lung fields including the upper, anterior and central areas, and honeycomb patterns in the lung bases and backs. The level of plasma A771726, an active metabolite of LEF, was still as high as that usually noted under LEF therapy. After pulsed steroid and cholestyramine administration, A771726 was depleted and she recovered. The peripheral blood lymphocyte count that had been approximately 1,000/microL, decreased to 220/microL just at the onset of lung injury, and rapidly and steadily returned to the preinjury level preceding recovery from the injury. Serum albumin level decreased in association with lung injury, and gradually returned to the preinjury level. Special caution is necessary when prescribing leflunomide to elderly patients with preexisting interstitial lung disease, and remains necessary until at least 1 month after its withdrawal. PMID:18161003

  19. Determination of erythrocyte sodium sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Oberleithner, Hans; Wilhelmi, Marianne

    2013-10-01

    Sodium buffer capacity of vascular endothelium depends on an endothelial glycocalyx rich in negatively charged heparan sulfate. It has been shown recently that after the mechanical interaction of blood with heparan sulfate-depleted endothelium, erythrocytes also lose this glycocalyx constituent. This observation led to the conclusion that the vascular sodium buffer capacity of an individual could be derived from a blood sample. A test system (salt blood test (SBT)) was developed based upon the sodium-dependent erythrocyte zeta potential. Erythrocyte sedimentation velocity was measured in isosmotic, biopolymer-supplemented electrolyte solutions of different sodium concentrations. Erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS), inversely related to erythrocyte sodium buffer capacity, was expressed as the ratio of the erythrocyte sedimentation velocities of 150 mM over 125 mM Na(+) solutions (ESS = Na(+) 150/Na(+) 125). In 61 healthy individuals (mean age, 23 ± 0.5 years), ESS ranged between 2 and 8. The mean value was 4.3 ± 0.19. The frequency distribution shows two peaks, one at about 3 and another one at about 5. To test whether ESS reflects changes of the endothelial glycocalyx, a cultured endothelial monolayer was exposed for 3 hours to a rhythmically moving blood layer (drag force experiment). When applying this procedure, we found that ESS was reduced by about 21 % when the endothelium was pretreated for 4 days with the glycocalyx protective agent WS 1442. In conclusion, the SBT could possibly serve as an in vitro test system for the evaluation of erythrocyte/vascular salt sensitivity allowing follow-up measurements in the prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunctions. PMID:23686295

  20. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet

  1. Characterization of lipid domains in erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, W; Glaser, M

    1991-01-01

    Fluorescence digital imaging microscopy was used to study the lateral distribution of the lipid components in erythrocyte membranes. Intact erythrocytes labeled with phospholipids containing a fluorophore attached to one fatty acid chain showed an uneven distribution of the phospholipids in the membrane thereby demonstrating the presence of membrane domains. The enrichment of the lipotropic compound chlor-promazine in domains in intact erythrocytes also suggested that the domains are lipid-enriched regions. Similar membrane domains were present in erythrocyte ghosts. The phospholipid enrichment was increased in the domains by inducing membrane protein aggregation. Double-labeling experiments were done to determine the relative distributions of different phospholipids in the membrane. Vesicles made from extracted lipids did not show the presence of domains consistent with the conclusion that membrane proteins were responsible for creating the domains. Overall, it was found that large domains exist in the red blood cell membrane with unequal enrichment of the different phospholipid species. Images PMID:1996337

  2. Opioids and rat erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, D L; Wei, L X; Lin, E T; Rezvani, A; Way, E L

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was noted that opioids in vitro reduced human red blood cell deformability. The effect was found to be dose-dependent, naloxone reversible and preferentially selective kappa ligands exhibited the highest potency. To extend these findings studies were carried out using rat erythrocytes. The time required for erythrocytes to pass through a 5.0 um pore membrane was determined and used as an index of deformability. Opioids added in vitro produced inhibition of deformability in a dose-dependent, naloxone reversible manner. Injecting naive animals with morphine or nalbuphine also produced dose related reductions in red cell deformability. The degree of inhibition produced by nalbuphine correlated well with its plasma concentrations as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chronic morphine treatment by pellet implantation resulted in the development of tolerance as evidenced by a loss in the ability of morphine in vitro to inhibit red cell deformability. Addition of naloxone resulted in a decrease in filtration time. Thus, the data confirm and extend previous findings on human red blood cells. In as much as previous data from this laboratory demonstrated that opioids inhibit calcium flux from erythrocytes by inhibiting calcium-ATPase and calcium efflux is necessary for normal deformability, it is concluded that opioids act to reduce red cell deformability by inhibition of the calcium pump. PMID:3123933

  3. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Specialist Financial Support Online Chats Support Groups Peer-to-Peer Support LLS Community Blogs Caregiver Support Other Helpful ... Information Specialist Financial Support Online Chats Support Groups Peer-to-Peer Support LLS Community Blogs Caregiver Support ...

  4. Complete Blood Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplasia Chemo or radiation therapy Know as thrombocytosis: Cancer (lung, gastrointestinal, breast , ovarian , lymphoma) Rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus Iron deficiency anemia Hemolytic anemia Myeloproliferative disorder (e.g., essential thrombocythemia) MPV (Not always ...

  5. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  6. Effect of the addition of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC for up to 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Sirdah, Mahmoud Mohammed; Abushahla, Abdelnasser Kassem; Al-Sarraj, Heba Abd Allah

    2013-01-01

    Background The complete blood count is one of the most common routine tests. This study aimed to evaluate possible effects of the antioxidant taurine on the complete blood count of whole blood stored at room temperature and at 4ºC over seven days. Methods Venous blood samples of 25 healthy males were distributed into two sets of tubes with each set of four tubes containing 50 µL of solutions with zero, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L taurine. The tubes were kept at room temperature or at 4ºC. Complete blood counts were performed on seven successive days. The mean percentage changes [Δ = (mean value - mean baseline value) / mean baseline value x 100] were calculated and compared. Results Complete blood count parameters exhibited different patterns of behavior which were affected by the storage temperature, time and taurine concentration. Taurine at room temperature significantly enhanced the stability of: the platelet count over seven days (Δ7 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 5.45, 6.11, and 5.80 x 109 cells/L, respectively); the red blood cell count over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 1.59, 2.79, and 1.98 x 1012 cells/L, respectively); mean corpuscular hemoglobin over five days (Δ5 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were -0.91,-1.52 and -0.84 fl respectively); and red cell distribution width over two days (Δ2 at 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L taurine were 0.90%, 1.30% and -0.1%, respectively). No additional stabilizing effects of taurine were reported for the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and hemoglobin, while it negatively affected the white blood cell stability. Conclusion Complete blood count parameters exhibited variable stability patterns in respect to temperature, time and taurine concentration. PMID:23580884

  7. Electronic platelet counts with the Coulter counter. Reassessment of a correction factor.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, E L; Wehman, J; Wall, B

    1976-09-01

    Platelet counts are determined on the Coulter electronic counter by counting the diluted platelet-rich plasma obtained by sedimentation or centrifugation of whole blood. In calculating the whole-blood platelet count, an empirical correction factor for platelet-free plasma trapped by sedimented erythrocytes has been recommended, and a widely-distributed circular slide rule calculator incorporates the correction factor. In this study, visual and electronic platelet counts were compared in 100 specimens with counts ranging from 10 to 1,100 X 10(3) per mul and hematocrits ranging from 17.5 to 48.5%. Platelet-rich plasma samples prepared by a centrifugation method (Plateletfuge) gave machine counts in close agreement with those of samples prepared by sedimentation. Whole-blood platelet counts determined with the circular calculator were consistently lower than visual counts, with an average difference of -17%. The electronic counts were recalculated after elimination of the correction factor, and agreement then improved to an average difference of only +1.6%. The correction factor for trapped platelet-free plasma leads to erroneously low values and should not be used. PMID:961629

  8. Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts in Late-Life Predict Eight-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Ji Young; Ross, G. Webster; Chen, Randi; Abbott, Robert D.; Bell, Christina; Willcox, Bradley; Launer, Lenore; Petrovitch, Helen; Kaya, Brock; Masaki, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Previous studies have found that higher white blood cell count is associated with incident stroke. However, there are inconsistent results in the elderly and only a few studies have included differential white blood cell counts or Asian populations. We studied the association between total and differential white blood cell counts and incident stroke in an older Asian population. Design Prospective population-based study with 8 years of follow-up. Setting The Honolulu Heart Program, Oahu, Hawaii. Participants Three thousand, three hundred and forty-two Japanese-American men (ages 71–93 years) who were free of stroke and had baseline WBC counts in 1991–93. Measurements Participants were divided into quartiles of total and differential WBC counts for analysis, and were followed for incident stroke (all strokes [ALL-CVA], thromboembolic [TE-CVA] and hemorrhagic [HEM-CVA]) for eight years using data from a comprehensive hospital surveillance system. Results Age-adjusted incident ALL-CVA rates increased significantly with total WBC quartiles (7.68, 9.04, 9.26, 14.10, per 1,000 person years follow-up, respectively, p=0.001).Hazard ratios for ALL-CVA for each quartile of total and differential WBC counts were obtained using Cox regression, with the lowest quartile as the reference group. After full adjustment including age, cardiovascular risk factors, fibrinogen, prevalent CHD, cancer or COPD, and aspirin/NSAID use, hazard ratios in the highest quartiles of total WBC and neutrophil counts were 1.62 (95%CI=1.04–2.52, p=0.033) and 2.19 (95%CI=1.41–3.39, p<0.001)respectively. These significant associations were also seen for TE-CVA, but not for HEM-CVA. No significant associations were found between lymphocyte or monocyte counts and incident stroke or subtypes. Conclusion In elderly Japanese-American men, higher total WBC and neutrophil counts were independent predictors of overall stroke, as well as thromboembolic stroke. PMID:25739422

  9. Evaluation of oxidant/antioxidant status, trace mineral levels, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in goats naturally infected with Anaplasma ovis.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Seyedeh Missagh; Bahrami, Somayeh; Rasooli, Aria; Hasanvand, Saman

    2016-08-01

    Anaplasma ovis, an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects erythrocytes, is the major cause of ovine and caprine anaplasmosis. This study was performed to assess in goats infected with A. ovis the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, antioxidant status, and serum levels of microminerals. Blood samples were collected from 104 mixed breed goats in Ahvaz area, southwest Iran and subjected to parasitologic, hematologic, oxidant/antioxidant, and micromineral assessment. Anaplasma infection was detected in 30 samples (28.8 %) by microscopic examination of blood smears while PCR-RFLP analysis revealed infection with A. ovis in 68 samples (65.4 %). Studied animals were divided into three groups based on A. ovis infection: Uninfected goats as control group (group 1), PCR positive without parasitemia (group 2) and PCR positive with parasitemia (group 3). Hematological evaluation showed significantly increased lymphocyte and monocyte counts in Anaplasma-infected groups (group 2 and 3). A significantly lower MCHC and higher MCV were also observed in infected groups. In group 3 significant rises in erythrocyte's osmotic fragility in different salt concentrations and also in median corpuscular fragility (MCF) was seen. Evaluation of the antioxidant defense system of the erythrocytes revealed a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in group 3. There was no significant difference in serum micromineral levels between infected and uninfected animals. Overall, the observed substantial decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities with remarkable elevated levels of erythrocyte osmotic fragility indicate high exposure of erythrocytes to oxidative damage in Anaplasma-infected goats. These results also suggest that the disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms in caprine anaplasmosis can promote the development of anemia. PMID:27142027

  10. Brucella melitensis Invades Murine Erythrocytes during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  11. Brucella melitensis invades murine erythrocytes during infection.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; Hanot Mambres, Delphine; Deghelt, Michaël; Hack, Katrin; Machelart, Arnaud; Lhomme, Frédéric; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Vermeersch, Marjorie; De Trez, Carl; Pérez-Morga, David; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. We observed that Brucella melitensis is able to persist for several weeks in the blood of intraperitoneally infected mice and that transferred blood at any time point tested is able to induce infection in naive recipient mice. Bacterial persistence in the blood is dramatically impaired by specific antibodies induced following Brucella vaccination. In contrast to Bartonella, the type IV secretion system and flagellar expression are not critically required for the persistence of Brucella in blood. ImageStream analysis of blood cells showed that following a brief extracellular phase, Brucella is associated mainly with the erythrocytes. Examination by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy formally demonstrated that B. melitensis is able to invade erythrocytes in vivo. The bacteria do not seem to multiply in erythrocytes and are found free in the cytoplasm. Our results open up new areas for investigation and should serve in the development of novel strategies for the treatment or prophylaxis of brucellosis. Invasion of erythrocytes could potentially protect the bacterial cells from the host's immune response and hamper antibiotic treatment and suggests possible Brucella transmission by bloodsucking insects in nature. PMID:25001604

  12. Variations on Fibrinogen-Erythrocyte Interactions during Cell Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; de Oliveira, Sofia; Freitas, Teresa; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte hyperaggregation, a cardiovascular risk factor, is considered to be caused by an increase in plasma adhesion proteins, particularly fibrinogen. We have recently reported a specific binding between fibrinogen and an erythrocyte integrin receptor with a β3 or β3-like subunit. In this study we evaluate the influence of erythrocyte aging on the fibrinogen binding. By atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy measurements we found that increasing erythrocyte age, there is a decrease of the binding to fibrinogen by decreasing the frequency of its occurrence but not its force. This observation is reinforced by zeta-potential and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. We conclude that upon erythrocyte aging the number of fibrinogen molecules bound to each cell decreases significantly, due to the progressive impairment of the specific fibrinogen-erythrocyte receptor interaction. Knowing that younger erythrocytes bind more to fibrinogen, we could presume that this population is the main contributor to the cardiovascular diseases associated with increased fibrinogen content in blood, which could disturb the blood flow. Our data also show that the sialic acids exposed on the erythrocyte membrane contribute for the interaction with fibrinogen, possibly by facilitating its binding to the erythrocyte membrane receptor. PMID:21464904

  13. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  14. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  15. Kinetic model for erythrocyte aggregation.

    PubMed

    Bertoluzzo, S M; Bollini, A; Rasia, M; Raynal, A

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that light transmission through blood is the most widely utilized method for the study of erythrocyte aggregation. The curves obtained had been considered empirically as exponential functions. In consequence, the process becomes characterized by an only parameter that varies with all the process factors without discrimination. In the present paper a mathematical model for RBC aggregation process is deduced in accordance with von Smoluchowski's theory about the kinetics of colloidal particles agglomeration. The equation fitted the experimental pattern of the RBC suspension optical transmittance closely and contained two parameters that estimate the most important characteristics of the aggregation process separately, i.e., (1) average size of rouleaux at equilibrium and (2) aggregation rate. The evaluation of the method was assessed by some factors affecting erythrocyte aggregation, such as temperature, plasma dilutions, Dextran 500, Dextran 70 and PVP 360, at different media concentrations, cellular membrane alteration by the alkylating agent TCEA, and decrease of medium osmolarity. Results were interpreted considering the process characteristics estimated by the parameters, and there were also compared with similar studies carried out by other authors with other methods. This analysis allowed us to conclude that the equation proposed is reliable and useful to study erythrocyte aggregation. PMID:10660481

  16. Complex of vitamins and antioxidants protects low-density lipoproteins in blood plasma from free radical oxidation and activates antioxidants enzymes in erythrocytes from patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Konovalova, G G; Lankin, V Z; Tikhaze, A K; Nezhdanova, I B; Lisina, M O; Kukharchuk, V V

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of a complex containing antioxidant vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and antioxidant element selenium on the contents of primary (lipid peroxides) and secondary products (malonic dialdehyde) of free radical lipid oxidation in low-density lipoproteins isolated from the plasma of patients with coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia by means of preparative ultracentrifugation. Activity of key antioxidant enzymes in the blood was measured during treatment with the antioxidant preparation. Combination treatment with antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant element selenium sharply decreased the contents of primary and secondary free radical oxidation products in circulating low-density lipoproteins and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. Activities of superoxide dismutase and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase increased 1 and 2 months after the start of therapy, respectively. PMID:14631494

  17. Decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialic acid content is associated with increased erythrocyte aggregation in human diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M E; Williams, D T; Niththyananthan, R; Rampling, M W; Heslop, K E; Johnston, D G

    1992-03-01

    1. Sialic acid moieties of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins are the principal determinants of the negative charge on the cell surface. The resultant electrostatic repulsion between the cells reduces erythrocyte aggregation and hence the low shear rate viscosity and yield stress of blood. 2. Using g.c.-m.s., a decrease in sialic acid content has been observed in the major erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein, glycophorin A, obtained from nine diabetic patients compared with that from seven normal control subjects [median (range): 3.30 (0.01-11.90) versus 18.60 (3.20-32.60) micrograms/100 micrograms of protein, P less than 0.02]. 3. Erythrocyte aggregation, measured by viscometry as the ratio of suspension viscosity to supernatant viscosity (LS/S) in fibrinogen solution, was increased in ten diabetic patients compared with ten normal control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 37.6 +/- 1.3 versus 33.8 +/- 0.6, P less than 0.02). 4. In the patients in whom both viscometry and carbohydrate analysis were performed, the decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialylation and the increase in erythrocyte aggregation in fibrinogen solution were related statistically (LS/S correlated negatively with glycophorin sialic acid content, r = 0.73, P less than 0.05). 5. Decreased glycophorin sialylation provides an explanation at the molecular level for increased erythrocyte aggregation and it may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:1312416

  18. Alteration of human erythrocyte membrane properties by complement fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Durocher, J R; Gockerman, J P; Conrad, M E

    1975-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies of complement-coated radiolabeled erythrocytes have shown rapid removal of these cells from the peripheral blood with a return of these cells into the circulation within a few hours. We studied complement-coated human erythrocytes and measured surface charge and deformability, two parameters believed to be important in erythrocyte survival. Erythrocytes were coated with complement by two in vitro techniques: the addition of (a) low ionic strength sucrose, and (b) IgM cold agglutinins. Erythrocytes obtained from three patients with cold agglutinin disease were used as a source of in vivo complement-coated cells. No difference was found in surface charge as measured by electrophoretic mobility between erythrocytes from normal subjects and complement-coated erythrocytes from any of the three sources. When deformability was measured by filtration through 3-mum polycarbonate sieves, marked decreases in deformability were found in complement-coated erythrocytes. The filtration returned toward control levels by incubating the complement-coated erythrocytes in serum for 1 h and correlated with decreases in immune adherence. Using screen filtration pressure as a measure of deformability, a positive correlation between number of C3 molecules per erythrocyte and decreased deformability was found. C3b appeared responsible for the decreased deformability of the erythrocytes, since conversion of C3b to C3d resulted in a return of deformability toward normal. The data suggested that the sequestration of complement-coated human erythrocytes in the microvasculature can be explained in part by decreased deformability and changes in immune adherence. PMID:1120777

  19. A prospective comparative clinical study of peripheral blood counts and indices in patients with primary brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Subeikshanan, V; Dutt, A; Basu, D; Tejus, MN; Maurya, VP; Madhugiri, VS

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elevation of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis in many malignancies including recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Objectives: This study was aimed at assessing if the NLR and other leukocyte counts and indices were deranged in treatment-naïve patients with primary brain tumors when compared with an age-matched healthy control group. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective comparative clinical observational study by design. A healthy control population was compared with treatment-naïve patients diagnosed with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors. Leukocyte counts (neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts) as well as leukocyte ratios such as the NLR and the monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) were calculated. We also evaluated if the counts and indices were related to the tumor volume. Results: In all patients with tumors, the platelet and neutrophil counts were elevated when compared to the controls. In contrast, monocyte counts and the MLR were found to be decreased in patients with tumors when compared to the controls. The subset of patients with glioblastoma showed a significant increase in NLR when compared to the controls. Conclusions: Significant changes in the neutrophil, monocyte, and platelet counts as well as NLR and MLR were observed. Prospective longitudinal studies are required to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:27089106

  20. Change in peripheral blood lymphocyte count in dogs following adoptive immunotherapy using lymphokine-activated T killer cells combined with palliative tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Mie, Keiichiro; Shimada, Terumasa; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) count in dogs following adoptive immunotherapy using lymphokine-activated T killer cells (T-LAK) in combination with surgery. Fifteen tumor-bearing dogs treated with T-LAK therapy combined with palliative resection of tumors were enrolled in the present study. T-LAK were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by culture with recombinant human interleukin -2 (rhIL-2) and solid phase anti-canine cluster of differentiation (CD)3 antibody. T-LAK were administrated intravenously at 2-4-week intervals. After the first administration of T-LAK, counts of PBL and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells) increased and the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased, with significant increases in CD8(+) cells (P<0.05). In 8 tumor-bearing dogs that were administered sequential T-LAK, available data on changes in PBL and T lymphocyte phenotypes until the fifth administration were also analyzed. In tumor-bearing dogs administered 5 rounds of T-LAK, CD8(+) cell counts were maintained high until the fifth administration of T-LAK. Moreover, the CD4/CD8 ratio remained low until the fifth administration of T-LAK. These results indicate that T-LAK therapy combined with surgery may increase peripheral blood T lymphocytes, particularly CD8(+) cells, in tumor-bearing dogs. PMID:27436446

  1. Prevalence and Diagnosis of Hemotrophic Mycoplasma Infection in Research Sheep and Its Effects on Hematology Variables and Erythrocyte Membrane Fragility

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Joseph A; Spath, Samantha N; Bergin, Ingrid L; Lim, Ailam; Bolin, Steven R; Dyson, Melissa C

    2014-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma) infection in research sheep can confound experimental results and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Prevalence and clinicopathologic studies historically relied on blood-smear diagnosis, but systematic studies using current molecular techniques are warranted. Here we sought to report the prevalence of subclinical infection in our study population, compare diagnostic sensitivity and specificity between blood smears and a PCR assay, and determine the effects of infection on CBC variables and erythrocyte membrane fragility. We collected whole-blood samples from 111 convenience-sampled research sheep. All samples were tested for hemoplasmas by using a PCR assay, blood smears were evaluated for visual presence of hemoplasmas, and CBC and osmotic fragility assays were performed. Subclinical prevalence, according to PCR diagnosis, was 14.1% (14 of 99) in our study population. Relative to the PCR assay, blood-smear diagnosis was 8.3% sensitive and 100% specific for hemoplasma detection. Subclinical infection was associated with changes in MCV, MCHC, RBC distribution width, and absolute monocyte count. Acute infection was associated with changes in RBC mass, Hgb concentration, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Acute infection was associated with increased mean erythrocyte fragility compared with that in uninfected control and treated sheep. We demonstrated that hemoplasma infection is common in our study population, blood-smear evaluation is insensitive at detecting infection, and infection is associated with changes in CBC variables and increased erythrocyte membrane fragility. These findings raise concerns regarding the suitability of hemoplasma-infected sheep for biomedical research. PMID:25527029

  2. Correlation of serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and neutrophil percentage with histopathology findings in acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is based on careful history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigation. The aim of the study is to analyze the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC) and Neutrophil percentage (NP) in improving the accuracy of diagnosis of acute appendicitis and to compare it with the intraoperative assessment and histopathology findings. Materials and methods This investigation was a prospective double blinded clinical study. The study was done on 173 patients surgically treated for acute appendicitis. The WBC, NP, and measurement of CRP were randomly collected pre-operatively from all involved patients. Macroscopic assessment was made from the operation. Appendectomy and a histopathology examination were performed on all patients. Gross description was compared with histopathology results and then correlated with CRP, WBC, and NP. Results The observational accuracy was 87,3%, as compared to histopathological accuracy which was 85.5% with a total of 173 patients that were operated on. The histopathology showed 25 (14.5%) patients had normal appendices, and 148 (85.5%) patients had acutely inflamed, gangrenous, or perforated appendicitis. 52% were male and 48% were female, with the age ranging from 5 to 59 with a median of 19.7. The gangrenous type was the most frequent (52.6%). The WBC was altered in 77.5% of the cases, NP in 72.3%, and C-reactive protein in 76.9% cases. In those with positive appendicitis, the CRP and WBC values were elevated in 126 patients (72.8%), whereas NP was higher than 75% in 117 patients (67.6%). Out of 106 patients with triple positive tests, 101 (95.2%) had appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the 3 tests in combination were 95.3%, 72.2%, and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion The raised value of the CRP was directly related to the severity of inflammation (p

  3. Effect of supplements: Probiotics and probiotic plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri-Tehrani, Hajar-Alsadat; Rabbani-Khorasgani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Sayyed Mohsen; Mokarian, Fariborz; Mahdavi, Hoda; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy is frequently used in treatment approaches of pelvic malignancies. Nevertheless, it has some known systemic effects on blood cells and the immune system that possibly results in their susceptibility to infection. Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients that provide a health advantage to the consumer. Honey has prebiotic properties. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate probable effects of probiotic or probiotics plus honey on blood cell counts and serum IgA levels in patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven adult patients with pelvic cancer were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either: (1) Probiotic capsules (including: Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophiles) (n = 22), (2) probiotic capsules plus honey (n = 21) or (3) placebo capsules (n = 24) all for 6 weeks. Blood and serum samples were collected for one week before radiotherapy and 24-72 h after the end of radiotherapy. Results: White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), platelet counts, and serum IgA level were not significantly changed in patients taking probiotic (alone or plus honey) during pelvic radiotherapy. The mean decrease in RBC count was 0.52, 0.18, and 0.23 × 106 cells/μL, WBC count was 2.3, 1.21, and 1.34 × 103 cells/μL and platelet count was, 57.6, 53.3, and 66.35 × 103 cells/μL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. The mean decrease of serum IgA was 22.53, 29.94, and 40.73 mg/dL for the probiotic, probiotic plus honey, and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: The observed nonsignificant effect of probiotics may be in favor of local effects of this product in the gut rather than systemic effects, however, as a trend toward a benefit was indicated, further studies are necessary in order to extract effects of probiotics or

  4. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  5. Mature Erythrocytes of Iguana iguana (Squamata, Iguanidae) Possess Functional Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Campello, Silvia; Corrado, Mauro; Di Giambattista, Livia; Cirotti, Claudia; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy analyses of Iguana iguana blood preparations revealed the presence of mitochondria within erythrocytes with well-structured cristae. Fluorescence microscopy analyses upon incubation with phalloidin-FITC, Hoechst 33342 and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm)-sensitive probe MitoTracker Red indicated that mitochondria i) widely occur in erythrocytes, ii) are polarized, and iii) seem to be preferentially confined at a "perinuclear" region, as confirmed by electron microscopy. The analysis of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption showed that red blood cells retain the capability to consume oxygen, thereby providing compelling evidence that mitochondria of Iguana erythrocytes are functional and capable to perform oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26367118

  6. Cloning and expression of chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Weraarchakul-Boonmark, N; Jeong, J M; Murthy, S N; Engel, J D; Lorand, L

    1992-01-01

    We report the sequences of cDNAs encoding chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13). The complete mRNA consists of 3345/3349 nucleotides and predicts a single open reading frame. Nine peptide sequences derived from partial digests of the isolated protein agreed with the corresponding translation of the open reading frame. Approximately 60% identities between the avian protein and three related mammalian enzymes were found. Chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase mRNA is most abundant in red blood cells and kidney, and it accumulates during erythroid cell differentiation. Images PMID:1357669

  7. Dantrolene protects erythrocytes against oxidative stress during whole-body irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Emin Büyükokuroğlu, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Koç, Mehmet; Bakan, Nuri

    2003-06-01

    In our study, we examined the radioprotective effects of dantrolene against gamma irradiation-induced damage of blood cells after total body irradiation of rats. Rats were divided into three groups of eight rats each. The first group was the control group receiving no dantrolene or irradiation, the second group received total body irradiation (RT) with 5 Gy of gamma irradiation only, and the third group received dantrolene at a dose of 5 mg x kg(-1) plus RT. Dantrolene was given intraperitoneally 30 min before RT. All groups were sacrificed 2 h after RT, and blood samples were taken. Leukocyte, and thrombocyte counts and hemoglobin levels were measured. Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plasma and erythrocytes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activities (GSH-Px) in erythrocytes were determined. It was found that pretreatment with dantrolene at a dose of 5 mg x kg(-1) significantly reduced the MDA levels and increased the antioxidant SOD and GSH-Px activities, and prevented the decrease in leukocyte and thrombocyte counts. We conclude that dantrolene has clear antioxidant properties when given prior to radiation exposure and the protective effect of dantrolene against damage inflicted by radiation, depends, at least in part, on the decrease in lipid peroxidation and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD and GSH-Px. PMID:12736901

  8. Graphic analysis of osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, T; Sudo, K; Nishi, N; Sarashi, A; Kimura, E

    1976-11-01

    A precise and highly reproducible method for analyzing the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes with a minute amount of blood (less than 10 mul) is described. The osmotic fragility curves are recorded with a coil planet centrifuge with accessories and a scanning photodensitometer. The recorded curves are transcribed by a DuPont Curve Resolver and their components are analyzed. Normal fragility curves obtained from healthy adults revealed slightly skewed Gaussian curves and they were resolved into several typical Gaussian components which differed according to the physical and clinical conditions of subjects. Each resolved component is supposed to correspond to the population of erythrocytes having a nearly identical osmotic fragility. The method is proved to be useful for the detection of altered membrane properties of erythrocytes in various diseases. PMID:996851

  9. Dietary calcium intake is associated with adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory state and blood pressure, but not with erythrocyte intracellular calcium and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Thaís; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2013-09-28

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 18–50 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000®. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ≥ 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23411109

  10. [Experimental Evaluation of Radioprotective Efficacy of Synthetic Genistein on Criteria of Glutathione System and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Peripheral Blood in Irradiated Rats].

    PubMed

    Grebenyuk, A N; Tarumov, R A; Basharin, V A; Kovtun, V U

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate experimentally the radioprotective effectiveness of synthetic genistein in terms of the glutathione system and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of irradiated rats. The animals were exposed to single acute X-ray irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy. Genistein was administered intraperitoneally at 200 mg/kg 1 hour before radiation exposure. The irradiation caused the initiation of lipid peroxidation in the background depletion of reduced glutathione. Decrease by 25% in the number of malondialdehyde in the rats treated with genistein was registered 5 min after irradiation compared with the control. It is established thatl day after irradiation the level of reduced glutathione in the rats treated with genistein was 26% higher. However, intraperitoneal administration of genistein did not cause statistically significant changes in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase during the whole period of observation. The results suggest that the radioprotective effect of synthetic genistein is implemented, along with other mechanisms, by stimulating the glutathione system and reducing the severity of lipid peroxidation. PMID:26863780

  11. Is the blood basophil count sufficiently precise, accurate, and specific?: three automated hematology instruments and flow cytometry compared.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Erik K; Henriksson, Carola E; Holthe, Mette R; Urdal, Petter

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of the basophil count of 3 hematology instruments with a flow cytometric method (FCM) in which CD123 and CD193 were used as basophil markers. By analyzing 112 patient samples, we found the ADVIA 120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL) and CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA) to underestimate the number of basophils by approximately 50% and the Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) and ADVIA to overestimate the basophil count in some samples with pathologic leukocytes. All 3 instruments had large (25%-50%) analytic within-run coefficients of variation. Compared with the FCM, we found a relatively good correlation for the CELL-DYN basophil count (r = 0.81), an intermediate correlation for the Sysmex (r = 0.64), and a poor correlation for the ADVIA (r = 0.24). When excluding the 52 samples flagged for the presence of pathologic leukocytes, these correlations were found to be 0.84, 0.90, and 0.57, respectively. The basophil count of the 3 instruments is, at least presently, of unsatisfactory quality. PMID:22180481

  12. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity. PMID:26196576

  13. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-01-01

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous “membrane detoxification proteins” implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality. PMID:24305632

  14. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  15. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  16. Identification of mutagens by frequency analysis of micronuclear normochromic erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhurkov, V.S.; Rossner, P.; Pastorkova, A.; Feldt, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of the frequency of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in mammalian bone marrow is a rapid and simple test used at the stage of detection of potential mutagens and carcinogens. Reports have recently been published that normochromic erythrocytes with micronuclei may accumulate in the peripheral blood of mice exposed repeatedly to chemical mutagens. The authors of these reports recommend that this modified micronuclear test be used for the intravital detection of mutagens. To assess the potential of this method for investigating the effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutants occurring in drinking water, the authors of this paper compared the frequency of mature normochromic erythrocytes and young polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in the peripheral blood as well as the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of mice who were given cyclophosphamide, a model mutagen, with their drinking water.

  17. Subcutaneous administration of carrier erythrocytes: slow release of entrapped agent

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, J.R.; Corrier, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated (/sup 14/C)sucrose, (/sup 3/H)inulin, and /sup 51/Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated (/sup 3/H)inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs.

  18. Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.

    1982-11-01

    To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

  19. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid

  20. Are polymorphisms in metabolism protective or a risk for reduced white blood cell counts in a Chinese population with low occupational benzene exposures?

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ling-li; Zhang, Guang-hui; Huang, Jing-wen; Li, Yong; Zheng, Guo-qiao; Zhang, De-ting; Zhou, Li-fang; Tao, Xi-dan; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Yun-jie; Sun, Pin; Frank, Arthur; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genetic variations in metabolic enzyme genes may enhance hematotoxicity in benzene-exposed populations. Objective: To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolism genes and white blood cells (WBCs). Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five benzene-exposed workers and 220 unexposed indoor workers were recruited in China. We explored the relationship between metabolic enzymes polymorphisms [glutathione S-transferase T1/M1 (GSTT1/M1) null, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1)rs1695, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) rs3813867, rs2031920, rs6413432, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) rs1051740, rs2234922] by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and WBC. Results: The exposed group had lower WBC counts (P<0.001) than the unexposed group. Increased susceptibility to hematotoxicity, as evidenced by lower WBC counts, was found in workers with null-GSTT1 (P = 0.045), null-GSTM1 (P = 0.030), rs2031920 (P = 0.020), and rs3813867 (P = 0.014) genotypes. White blood cell counts were also lower in workers with null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: Null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM1 genotypes and Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1: rs2031920, rs3813867) may support the hematotoxicity of benzene-exposed workers in China, and we can make use of it to select susceptible population. PMID:26179485

  1. Thermal destruction of erythrocyte spectrin: Rheology, deformability, and stability with respect to detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, M. V.; Mansurov, V. A.; Ivashkevich, É. V.

    1996-05-01

    By means of blood heating in the region of the thermal denaturation transition of spectrin (50°C) the relationship between the stability of erythrocytes with respect to detergents and their deformability and rheological parameters of blood was studied.

  2. Mature parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA) of Plasmodium falciparum binds to the 30-kDa domain of protein 4.1 in malaria-infected red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Waller, Karena L; Nunomura, Wataru; An, Xiuli; Cooke, Brian M; Mohandas, Narla; Coppel, Ross L

    2003-09-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum mature parasite-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (MESA) is exported from the parasite to the infected red blood cell (IRBC) membrane skeleton, where it binds to protein 4.1 (4.1R) via a 19-residue MESA sequence. Using purified RBC 4.1R and recombinant 4.1R fragments, we show MESA binds the 30-kDa region of RBC 4.1R, specifically to a 51-residue region encoded by exon 10 of the 4.1R gene. The 3D structure of this region reveals that the MESA binding site overlaps the region of 4.1R involved in the p55, glycophorin C, and 4.1R ternary complex. Further binding studies using p55, 4.1R, and MESA showed competition between p55 and MESA for 4.1R, implying that MESA bound at the IRBC membrane skeleton may modulate normal 4.1R and p55 interactions in vivo. Definition of minimal binding domains involved in critical protein interactions in IRBCs may aid the development of novel therapies for falciparum malaria. PMID:12730097

  3. Performance, Blood Parameters, and Fecal Egg Counts When Meat Goats Were Finished on Alfalfa, Red Clover, or Orchardgrass Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Appalachian Region of the USA, meat goat industries are growing rapidly on small farms to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This experiment was conducted to evaluate weight gain, blood parameters (measurements of nutrient use and anemia resulting from infection with the GI parasite Haem...

  4. Association between white blood cell count and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in urban Han Chinese: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shukang; Zhang, Chengqi; Zhang, Guang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Yanxun; Ding, Lijie; Sun, Xiubin; Jia, Hongying; Xue, Fuzhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The white blood cell (WBC) count is a simple and convenient marker of inflammation for use in medical practice; however, its association with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been determined. We examined the relationship between WBC and NAFLD to provide a convenient and useful marker for the prediction of NAFLD. Setting A longitudinal cohort participating in a large health check-up programme for the Chinese population was selected and followed up from 2005 to 2011. Participants A total of 21 307 male and female participants without NAFLD who underwent health check-ups at least twice between 2005 and 2011 were included in this study. 15 201 participants (7286 men and 7915 women) were eligible for inclusion. Results The baseline distribution of age, WBC, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globin (GLO) and the prevalence of males, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, smoking and regular exercise were significantly different between the incident NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (p<0.05). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of WBC, which predicted the occurrence of NAFLD. Compared with the lowest WBC quartile (Q1), the HRs and 95% CIs of the other WBC quartiles (Q2, Q3 and Q4) for incident NAFLD were 1.090 (0.978 to 1.215), 1.174 (1.055 to 1.305) and 1.152 (1.035 to 1.281), respectively, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, regular exercise, BMI, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALB and GLO. Conclusions Our study clearly showed that WBC count was a significant factor associated with incident NAFLD in Han Chinese. PMID:27251683

  5. Platelet Inhibition by Nitrite Is Dependent on Erythrocytes and Deoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Srihirun, Sirada; Sriwantana, Thanaporn; Unchern, Supeenun; Kittikool, Dusadee; Noulsri, Egarit; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Fucharoen, Suthat; Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N.; Sibmooh, Nathawut

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrite is a nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in tissues and blood, which can be converted to NO under hypoxia to facilitate tissue perfusion. Although nitrite is known to cause vasodilation following its reduction to NO, the effect of nitrite on platelet activity remains unclear. In this study, the effect of nitrite and nitrite+erythrocytes, with and without deoxygenation, on platelet activity was investigated. Methodology/Finding Platelet aggregation was studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and PRP+erythrocytes by turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry, respectively. In PRP, DEANONOate inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP while nitrite had no effect on platelets. In PRP+erythrocytes, the inhibitory effect of DEANONOate on platelets decreased whereas nitrite at physiologic concentration (0.1 µM) inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release. The effect of nitrite+erythrocytes on platelets was abrogated by C-PTIO (a membrane-impermeable NO scavenger), suggesting an NO-mediated action. Furthermore, deoxygenation enhanced the effect of nitrite as observed from a decrease of P-selectin expression and increase of the cGMP levels in platelets. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood showed inverse correlations with the nitrite levels in whole blood and erythrocytes. Conclusion Nitrite alone at physiological levels has no effect on platelets in plasma. Nitrite in the presence of erythrocytes inhibits platelets through its reduction to NO, which is promoted by deoxygenation. Nitrite may have role in modulating platelet activity in the circulation, especially during hypoxia. PMID:22276188

  6. Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2002-07-01

    The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

  7. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

  8. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. PMID:26917244

  9. Frequencies and Specificities of “Enzyme-Only” Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?

    PubMed Central

    Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13). PMID:24790773

  10. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  11. Reduced sodium concentration and increased sodium-potassium pump activity of erythrocytes in human hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, G.; Engel, C.R.

    1987-06-01

    Erythrocyte Nai, Nai/Ki and ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake (K transport) were measured in whole blood of 16 normotensive and 19 hypertensive white male subjects, within seconds or minutes after withdrawal of blood. Erythrocyte Nai and Nai/Ki were reduced (p less than 0.05), and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was increased (p less than 0.01) in hypertensive subjects. In a separate group of hypertensive white male subjects, an inverse correlation was found between erythrocyte Nai/Ki and ouabain-binding sites per erythrocyte (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01, n = 9). The abnormalities of erythrocyte cation fluxes in hypertensive subjects are similar to those induced by aldosterone in vascular smooth muscle cells and by glucocorticoid administration in the erythrocytes of human subjects, suggesting similarities in pathogenesis.

  12. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 μm. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  13. Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 μm. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

  14. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  15. Natural Functional SNPs in miR-155 Alter Its Expression Level, Blood Cell Counts, and Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Congcong; He, Huabin; Liu, An; Liu, Huazhen; Huang, Haibo; Zhao, Changzhi; Jing, Lu; Ni, Juan; Yin, Lilin; Hu, Suqin; Wu, Hui; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation, and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans. PMID:27532002

  16. Natural Functional SNPs in miR-155 Alter Its Expression Level, Blood Cell Counts, and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Congcong; He, Huabin; Liu, An; Liu, Huazhen; Huang, Haibo; Zhao, Changzhi; Jing, Lu; Ni, Juan; Yin, Lilin; Hu, Suqin; Wu, Hui; Li, Xinyun; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus) and humans (Homo sapiens). In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B). Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation, and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3′ terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans. PMID:27532002

  17. Thalassemic erythrocytes inhibit in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Brockelman, C R; Wongsattayanont, B; Tan-ariya, P; Fucharoen, S

    1987-01-01

    Blood specimens from 100 thalassemic patients were screened in vitro for inhibitory effects on growth and multiplication of Plasmodium falciparum. The culture medium mixture designated REM consisted of 9 volumes of minimum essential medium (GIBCO Laboratories, Grand Island, N.Y.) and 1 volume of RPMI 1640 (GIBCO) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated human serum. Parasite multiplication in erythrocytes containing normal hemoglobin cultured in RPMI or REM was similar. Significant reduction in parasite multiplication rates was observed in erythrocytes containing abnormal hemoglobin when these were cultured in REM. The degree of reduction in five types of thalassemic erythrocytes was in the following descending order: hemoglobin H disease with Hb Constant Spring, classical hemoglobin H disease, beta(0)-thalassemia-hemoglobin E in which blood harbored a high percentage of hemoglobin F-containing cells, beta (0)-thalassemia-hemoglobin E in which blood harbored few hemoglobin F-containing cells, and beta-thalassemia heterozygous variant. PMID:3539999

  18. White Blood Cell, Neutrophil, and Lymphocyte Counts in Individuals in the Evacuation Zone Designated by the Government After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Akira; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yasumura, Seiji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphocytes are susceptible to damage from radiation, and the white blood cell (WBC) count, including counts of neutrophils and lymphocytes, is a useful method of dosimetry. According to the basic survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey (FHMS), among 13 localities where evacuation was recommended, Iitate and Namie had more individuals with external radiation exposure of more than 5 mSv than the other evacuation areas. We analyzed whether or not WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased after the disaster. Methods The subjects of this study were 45 278 men and women aged 20 to 99 years (18 953 men and 26 325 women; mean age 56 years) in the evacuation zone who participated in the Comprehensive Health Check (CHC) from June 2011 to the end of March 2012. Results Significant differences were detected in the mean values of WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, and for the proportion of individuals under the minimum standard for WBC and neutrophil counts, among the 13 localities. However, the distribution of individuals at each 200-cell/µL increment in lymphocyte count were similar in these areas, and the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts did not decrease in Iitate or Namie specifically. Conclusions No marked effects of radiation exposure on the distribution of WBC counts, including neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were detected within one year after the disaster in the evacuation zone. PMID:25311030

  19. Exposure to ozone and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemi, Y.; Ohmori, K.; Ito, T.; Osaka, F.; Matuura, Y. )

    1992-10-01

    In order to learn the biological effect of photochemical oxidants on living bodies, we exposed newborn and adult rats, of both sexes, to ozone at a concentration of 0.25 ppm, which can be encountered in an urban environment, and then measured the osmotic resistance of their erythrocytes. The results of experiments using newborn rats indicated a positive increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in whole blood following ozone exposure for 4 weeks. An increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in the top part obtained by centrifugation was observed following ozone exposure for 12 weeks. This tendency was especially evident among male rats. On the other hand, no increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes was recognized in the adult animals which had been exposed to the same concentration of ozone for 18 months.

  20. Erythrocyte and platelet proteomics in hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Halder, Suchismita; Karmakar, Shilpita

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes undergo ineffective erythropoesis, hemolysis, and premature eryptosis in sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Abnormal hemoglobin variants associated with hemoglobinopathy lead to vesiculation, membrane instability, and loss of membrane asymmetry with exposal of phosphatidylserine. This potentiates thrombin generation resulting in activation of the coagulation cascade responsible for subclinical phenotypes. Platelet activation also results in the release of microparticles, which express and transfer functional receptors from platelet membrane, playing key roles in vascular reactivity and activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Over the last decade, proteomics had proven to be an important field of research in studies of blood and blood diseases. Blood cells and its fluidic components have been proven to be easy systems for studying differential expressions of proteins in hematological diseases encompassing hemoglobinopathies, different types of anemias, myeloproliferative disorders, and coagulopathies. Proteomic studies of erythrocytes and platelets reported from several groups have highlighted various factors that intersect the signaling networks in these anucleate systems. In this review, we have elaborated on the current scenario of anucleate blood cell proteomes in normal and diseased individuals and the cross-talk between the two major constituent cell types of circulating blood. PMID:26611378

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  2. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  3. Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.

    1983-03-30

    The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

  4. The micronucleus test and erythropoiesis. Effects of erythropoietin and a mutagen on the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes (P/N ratio).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Nagae, Y; Li, J; Sakaba, H; Mozawa, K; Takahashi, A; Shimizu, H

    1989-11-01

    It is considered that a decrease of the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) (P/N) in the micronucleus test is an indicator of bone marrow toxicity induced by mutagens. However, the exact meaning of fluctuation in the P/N ratio is not yet known. We have studied this point by counting the total number of erythrocytes and nucleated cells in the bone marrow following various treatments. The P/N ratio decreased gradually with time after administration of mitomycin C. Our data suggest that the decrease of P/N ratio was attributable to an increase in the numbers of the denominator, i.e. NCE, caused by rapid differentiation and multiplication or denucleation of erythroblasts which remained in the bone marrow instead of entering the peripheral blood stream. A decrease of P/N ratio was also observed in the early phase after administration of erythropoietin, an agent which induces differentiation and multiplication of erythroblasts. This phenomenon might result from an increase of PCE delivery into the blood circulation. However, following the initial decrease, the P/N ratio increased gradually 48 h after administration of erythropoietin. It is supposed that this increase probably resulted from an increase in PCE in the bone marrow due to the direct effects of erythropoietin on erythropoiesis. The drastic change in erythropoiesis in the bone marrow induced by either mutagen or erythropoietin treatment will affect the fluctuations of the P/N ratio or the number of micronucleated erythrocytes per non-micronucleated erythocytes in the micronucleus test. This contrasts with the original explanation for such fluctuations which attributed them to replenishment of the marrow by peripheral blood. PMID:2516221

  5. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Gutierrez, E.; Kohorn, E.I.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treated under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters - including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters - were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among factors on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates.

  6. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Gutierrez, E.; Kohorn, E.I.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treatment under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters, including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among fators on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates.

  7. CELLS, PROTEINS, AND CERTAIN PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of rhodanese-thiosulfate loaded murine carrier erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, P.; Yao, C.C.; Makary, M.H.; Way, J.L.

    1986-03-05

    Since the therapeutic potential of murine erythrocytes employed in the encapsulation of rhodanese as a cyanide detoxification mechanism is dependent on a prolong circulatory lifespan, in vivo survival studies were initiated in normal adult Balb/c mice. After a single intravenous administration of the /sup 14/C-sucrose loaded carrier erythrocytes, radioactive analyses in whole blood indicated a biexponential decay. Initially, a rapid decline in /sup 14/C-sucrose radioactivity in whole blood (t/sub 1/2/ = 23 minutes) is followed by a slower decline with an apparent t/sub 1/2/ of 11 days. In contrast, when /sup 14/C-sucrose was not encapsulated, greater than 90% was eliminated from the circulation within 10 minutes. Leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose out of the carrier erythrocytes is minimal, since less than 2% of the initial dose of encapsulated /sup 14/C-sucrose appear in plasma. When rhodanese-loaded carrier erythrocytes was employed, a similar survival curve was observed. In summary, these results suggest that carrier erythrocytes represent a viable alternative approach for the detoxification of exogenous chemical toxicants.

  9. Differential White Blood Cell Count and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Ye, Zheng; Cooper, Andrew J.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Biggs, Mary L.; Chen, Liang-Kung; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Hanefeld, Markolf; Ingelsson, Erik; Lai, Wen-An; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lind, Lars; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Mohan, Viswanathan; Muscari, Antonio; Nilsson, Goran; Ohrvik, John; Chao Qiang, Jiang; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tamakoshi, Koji; Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora; Wang, Ya-Yu; Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Zoli, Marco; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p = 1.5*10−18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2 = 83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p = 1.5*10−4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p = 0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p = 0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p = 7.7*10−13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p = 7.7*10−5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate. PMID:20976133

  10. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis. PMID:25976965

  11. Delayed blood regeneration in lead exposure: An effect on reserve capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Jensen, B.M.; Sando, S.H.; Jogensen, P.J.; Antonsen, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.

  12. [Nanocerium restores the erythrocytes stability to acid hemolysis by inhibition of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species in old rats].

    PubMed

    Kotsuruba, A V; Kopjak, B S; Sagach, V F; Spivak, N Ja

    2015-01-01

    In experiments in vivo the effect of nanocerium (cerium oxide nanoparticles) on the stability of red blood cells to acid hemolysis, levels of both ROS and RNS generation and H2S pools in plasma and erythrocytes of old rats were investigated. In red blood cells of old rats the proton penetration into the matrix of erythrocytes showed a significant raising and the fate of labile "aging" erythrocytes in old animals compared with adult were up- regulated. These phenomena paralleled with significant up-regulation of ROS and RNS generation. Introduction for 14 days per os to old rats 0.1 mg/kg of nanocerium fully restored resistance of erythrocytes to acid hemolysis by ROS and RNS in both plasma and erythrocytes reduction. Nanocerium decreased the erythrocytes and, conversely, significantly increased the plasma's pools of H2S. PMID:26040029

  13. White Blood Cell Count to Mean Platelet Volume Ratio Is a Prognostic Factor in Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Fakour, Sanam; Arjmand, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Leukocyte and platelet have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to determine the usefulness of a novel marker named white blood cell count to mean platelet volume ratio (WMR) for predicting outcomes of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with or without MetS. Subjects and Methods A total of 331 NSTE-ACS individuals (60±12.5 years, 57.4% male) were enrolled and followed for a median of 24 months. MetS was identified using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results Patients were divided into two groups: high WMR (WMR≥720) and low WMR (WMR<720). Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MetS rates were significantly greater in the higher WMR group compared to those in the low WMR group (MACE: 14.3% vs. 25%, p=0.014; MetS: 50.9% vs. 75%, p<0.001). MetS was diagnosed in 62.2% of patients. MACE incidence in patients with or without MetS was comparable (p=0.737). Among MetS individuals, patients in the high WMR group had more MACE than the low WMR group (11.2% vs. 26.5%, p=0.007). However, MACE was comparable among non-MetS individuals (p=0.681). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) of MACE incidence for high-WMR in MetS individuals was 2.616 (95% confidence interval: 1.282–5.339, p=0.008). However, HR of MACE incidence for high WMR in non-MetS individuals was not significant. Conclusion Among NSTE-ACS patients without revascularization therapy, elevated admission WMR was associated with an increased risk of developing composite MACE in MetS individuals but not in non-MetS patients. PMID:27014354

  14. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23353616

  15. Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colón, Lisandra; Sepúlveda García, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramón; Cuyar Bermúdez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Báez, Fernando; Vázquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

  16. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Malaria-Infected Erythrocytes Using a Cell Microarray Chip

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yuka; Shinohara, Yasuo; Tamiya, Eiichi; Horii, Toshihiro; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the major human infectious diseases in many endemic countries. For prevention of the spread of malaria, it is necessary to develop an early, sensitive, accurate and conventional diagnosis system. Methods and Findings A cell microarray chip was used to detect for malaria-infected erythrocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth), was made from polystyrene, and the formation of monolayers of erythrocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 was used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for malaria diagnosis. An erythrocyte suspension in a nuclear staining dye, SYTO 59, was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 10 min standing to allow the erythrocytes to settle down into the microchambers. About 130 erythrocytes were accommodated in each microchamber, there being over 2,700,000 erythrocytes in total on a chip. A microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive erythrocytes within 5 min, and 0.0001% parasitemia could be detected. To examine the contamination by leukocytes of purified erythrocytes from human blood, 20 µl of whole blood was mixed with 10 ml of RPMI 1640, and the mixture was passed through a leukocyte isolation filter. The eluted portion was centrifuged at 1,000×g for 2 min, and the pellet was dispersed in 1.0 ml of medium. SYTO 59 was added to the erythrocyte suspension, followed by analysis on a cell microarray chip. Similar accommodation of cells in the microchambers was observed. The number of contaminating leukocytes was less than 1 on a cell microarray chip. Conclusion The potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of malaria-infected erythrocytes was shown, it offering 10–100 times higher sensitivity than that of conventional light microscopy and easy operation in 15 min with purified erythrocytes. PMID:20967248

  17. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Stepanova, Eugenia; Karmaus, Wilfried; Naboka, Marina; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; Mousseau, Tim; Shestopalov, Viacheslav M; Vena, John; Svendsen, Erik; Underhill, Dwight; Pastides, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs) and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure. PMID:18513393

  18. Lipid peroxidation, erythrocyte superoxide-dismutase activity and trace metals in young male footballers.

    PubMed

    Metin, Gokhan; Atukeren, Pinar; Alturfan, A Ata; Gulyasar, Tevfik; Kaya, Mehmet; Gumustas, M Koray

    2003-12-30

    Physical training is known to induce oxidative stress in individuals subjected to intense exercise. In this study, we investigated plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of 25 young male footballers and a control group of similar age. Red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) values, and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels were also examined. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of all subjects was determined in order to establish their functional capacity. The main finding of the present study was that plasma MDA levels, one of the most commonly used markers of lipid peroxidation, of this group of footballers aged under 21 decreased slightly when compared with those of the control group (p < 0.001). In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity was higher in the footballer group than in the controls (p < 0.001). Footballers who are under regular training showed an improved antioxidant activity in comparison to sedentary controls. Plasma copper concentration, RBC count and Hb concentration of the footballer group were all significantly lower than those of the control group, (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). Investigating the footballers' data with Spearman's correlation analyses, the correlation coefficients (r) between Zn/Cu ratio and SOD was positive (r=0.44; p < 0.05); and between VO2max and SOD (r=0.42; p < 0.05) were both positive. On the basis of statistical analysis, we suggest that regular exercise may be beneficial in cases of oxidative damage by reducing the amount of lipid peroxidation and increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme SOD. PMID:14703604

  19. Reproducibility of erythrocyte polyamine measurements and correlation with plasma micronutrients in an antioxidant vitamin intervention study.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Kucuk, O; Franke, A A; Liu, L Q; Custer, L J; Higuchi, C M

    1996-07-01

    Erythrocyte polyamine measurements have been previously investigated as candidate biomarkers for hyperproliferation and recently as a potential intermediate endpoint in clinical chemoprevention trials with difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis. This study was performed to determine the reproducibility of erythrocyte polyamine measurements and their possible correlation with plasma micronutrients in seven healthy adults in an antioxidant vitamin intervention study. As part of this cross-over intervention study, three subjects took beta-carotene (31.4 mg/day) plus D-alpha-tocopherol acetate (720 IU/day) supplements during the first 3 months and four subjects took the supplements during the second 3 months. Heparinized blood samples were collected at baseline and every month over total 6 months for simultaneous determination of erythrocyte polyamines and plasma micronutrients by the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. For all the measures of erythrocyte polyamines the intraindividual variation was smaller than that between subjects, and three or four measurements required to accurately characterize long-term erythrocyte polyamines for an individual. The intra-class correlations were moderately high for all erythrocyte polyamine measurements, indicating a good reproducibility for intra-individual erythrocyte polyamine measurements. Based on monthly values, significant inverse correlations were found between erythrocyte spermidine and the plasma levels of retinol (r = -0.50) and lutein (r = -0.52). There were also significant inverse associations between erythrocyte spermine and plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol (r = -0.29), lutein (r = -0.44), lycopene (r = -0.29), beta-cryptoxanthin (r = -0.30), and total carotenoids (r = -0.29). The effects of supplementation upon the associations between erythrocyte polyamines and plasma nutrient levels were additionally addressed. The results indicate an acceptable longitudinal reproducibility

  20. Cation channels, cell volume and the death of an erythrocyte.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Lang, Karl S; Wieder, Thomas; Myssina, Svetlana; Birka, Christina; Lang, Philipp A; Kaiser, Stephanie; Kempe, Daniela; Duranton, Christophe; Huber, Stephan M

    2003-11-01

    Similar to a variety of nucleated cells, human erythrocytes activate a non-selective cation channel upon osmotic cell shrinkage. Further stimuli of channel activation include oxidative stress, energy depletion and extracellular removal of Cl-. The channel is permeable to Ca2+ and opening of the channel increases cytosolic [Ca2+]. Intriguing evidence points to a role of this channel in the elimination of erythrocytes by apoptosis. Ca2+ entering through the cation channel stimulates a scramblase, leading to breakdown of cell membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, and stimulates Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels, thus leading to KCl loss and (further) cell shrinkage. The breakdown of phosphatidylserine asymmetry is evidenced by annexin binding, a typical feature of apoptotic cells. The effects of osmotic shock, oxidative stress and energy depletion on annexin binding are mimicked by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 microM) and blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Nevertheless, the residual annexin binding points to additional mechanisms involved in the triggering of the scramblase. The exposure of phosphatidylserine at the extracellular face of the cell membrane stimulates phagocytes to engulf the apoptotic erythrocytes. Thus, sustained activation of the cation channels eventually leads to clearance of affected erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Susceptibility to annexin binding is enhanced in several genetic disorders affecting erythrocyte function, such as thalassaemia, sickle-cell disease and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The enhanced vulnerability presumably contributes to the shortened life span of the affected erythrocytes. Beyond their role in the limitation of erythrocyte survival, cation channels may contribute to the triggering of apoptosis in nucleated cells exposed to osmotic shock and/or oxidative stress. PMID:12905029

  1. Insulin radioreceptor assay on murine splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, F.; Kahn, R.

    1982-02-01

    Insulin radioreceptor assays were developed using splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes from individual mice. Splenic leukocytes were prepared using an NH/sub 4/Cl buffer which did not alter insulin binding, but gave much higher yields than density gradient methods. Mouse erythrocytes were isolated from heparinized blood by three passages over a Boyum gradient, and a similar buffer was used to separate cells from free (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin at the end of the binding incubation. Insulin binding to both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes had typical pH, temperature, and time dependencies, and increased linearly with an increased number of cells. Optimal conditions for the splenic leukocytes (6 x 10/sup 7//ml) consisted of incubation with (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.0. In cells from 20 individual mice, the specific (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin binding was 2.6 +/- 0.1% (SEM), and nonspecific binding was 0.3 +/- 0.04% (10.6% of total binding). Erythrocytes (2.8 x 10/sup 9//ml) were incubated with (/sup 125/)iodoinsulin at 15 C for 2 h in Hepes buffer, pH 8.2. In cells from 25 individual mice, the specific (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin binding was 4.5 +/- 0.2%, and nonspecific binding was 0.7 +/- 0.03% (13.6% of total binding). In both splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes, analysis of equilibrium binding data produced curvilinear Scatchard plots with approximately 3500 binding sites/leukocyte and 20 binding sites/erythrocyte. These data demonstrate that adequate numbers of splenic leukocytes and peripheral erythrocytes can be obtained from individual mice to study insulin binding in a precise and reproducible manner.

  2. Erythrocyte G Protein as a Novel Target for Malarial Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean C; Harrison, Travis; Hamm, Heidi E; Lomasney, Jon W; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi

    2006-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious health problem because resistance develops to all currently used drugs when their parasite targets mutate. Novel antimalarial drug targets are urgently needed to reduce global morbidity and mortality. Our prior results suggested that inhibiting erythrocyte Gs signaling blocked invasion by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Methods and Findings We investigated the erythrocyte guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs as a novel antimalarial target. Erythrocyte “ghosts” loaded with a Gs peptide designed to block Gs interaction with its receptors, were blocked in β-adrenergic agonist-induced signaling. This finding directly demonstrates that erythrocyte Gs is functional and that propranolol, an antagonist of G protein–coupled β-adrenergic receptors, dampens Gs activity in erythrocytes. We subsequently used the ghost system to directly link inhibition of host Gs to parasite entry. In addition, we discovered that ghosts loaded with the peptide were inhibited in intracellular parasite maturation. Propranolol also inhibited blood-stage parasite growth, as did other β2-antagonists. β-blocker growth inhibition appeared to be due to delay in the terminal schizont stage. When used in combination with existing antimalarials in cell culture, propranolol reduced the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations for existing drugs against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold and was also effective in reducing drug dose in animal models of infection. Conclusions Together these data establish that, in addition to invasion, erythrocyte G protein signaling is needed for intracellular parasite proliferation and thus may present a novel antimalarial target. The results provide proof of the concept that erythrocyte Gs antagonism offers a novel strategy to fight infection and that it has potential to be used to develop combination therapies with existing antimalarials. PMID:17194200

  3. In vitro studies on peroxidative changes leading to hemolysis of erythrocytes infested with malarial parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Meera, S; Rao, A V; D'Souza, V; Rao, S B

    1999-07-01

    Blood erythrocytes of 25 confirrhed malarial patients infested with P. vivax were analyzed for peroxidation and hemolysis and results compared with 10 uninfected normal control samples. Results indicated significant increase in peroxide formation measured as malondialdehyde, both in presence and absence of H2O2, in parasite infested erythrocytes. These changes induced hemolysis of infected erythrocytes which was increased manifold in presence of H2O2 and could probably be the reason for extensive anemia reported in malaria. PMID:10522162

  4. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Erythrocyte invasion receptors for Plasmodium falciparum: new and old.

    PubMed

    Satchwell, T J

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the complex process by which the invasive form of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, the merozoite, attaches to and invades erythrocytes as part of its blood stage life cycle represents a key area of research in the battle to combat malaria. Central to this are efforts to determine the identity of receptors on the host cell surface, their corresponding merozoite-binding proteins and the functional relevance of these binding events as part of the invasion process. This review will provide an updated summary of studies identifying receptor interactions essential for or implicated in P. falciparum merozoite invasion of human erythrocytes, highlighting the recent identification of new receptors using groundbreaking high throughput approaches and with particular focus on the properties and putative involvement of the erythrocyte proteins targeted by these invasion pathways. PMID:26862042

  6. Effect of osmotic pressure to bioimpedance indexes of erythrocyte suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (β=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.

  7. Erythrocyte Energy Metabolism in Hereditary Spherocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Claude F.; Young, Lawrence E.

    1967-01-01

    The incorporation of extracellular orthophosphate-32P into cellular ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, and inorganic phosphate has been measured over a period of 6 hours in vitro in red blood cells from normal subjects and from patients with hereditary spherocytosis who had undergone splenectomy. The pattern of labeling of the intracellular compounds was found to be the same in both types of red blood cells, as reported by other workers using much shorter periods of incubation. In addition, in the present study it was possible to compare the net flux of extracellular phosphate into ATP between the two groups of erythrocytes. These latter results suggest that the actual turnover rate of ATP was not abnormal in these patients with hereditary spherocytosis. PMID:6027083

  8. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  9. Retention of radiolead by human erythrocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.C.

    1989-06-15

    An in vitro method was developed to assess human erythrocyte lead uptake and release directly, rapidly, and reproducibly; the technique requires small aliquots of blood and uses silicone fluid to separate erythrocytes from their suspending media. Uptake occurred rapidly and was directly related to temperature. Increasing quantities of available elemental lead were associated with increasing absolute quantities but decreasing percentages of uptake. Low values of pH diminished the uptake and enhanced the release of radiolead by erythrocytes, and could be correlated with diminished lead-hemoglobin binding para-Chloromecuribenzoate increased and dithiothreitol inhibited radiolead uptake but neither compound affected lead release, suggesting that sulfhydryl groups are important for lead binding to the erythrocyte. Cyanamide and N-ethylmaleimide did not significantly affect the net uptake or release of radiolead. Calcium disodium EDTA, penicillamine, and dimercaprol significantly reduced lead uptake, although only incubation with dimercaprol resulted in a net removal of lead from erythrocytes. Iron and ceruloplasmin significantly decreased radiolead uptake, but inorganic metal cations other than iron, hyperosmolarity, human serum albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin had no significant effect on uptake or release.

  10. Aluminum Trichloride Induces Hypertension and Disturbs the Function of Erythrocyte Membrane in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyue; Cao, Zheng; Sun, Xudong; Zuang, Cuicui; Huang, Wanyue; Li, Yanfei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al accumulates in erythrocyte and causes toxicity on erythrocyte membrane. The dysfunction of erythrocyte membrane is a potential risk to hypertension. The high Al content in plasma was associated with hypertension. To investigate the effect of AlCl3 on blood pressure and the function of erythrocyte membrane, the rats were intragastrically exposed to 0, 64(1/20 LD50), 128(1/10 LD50), and 256(1/5 LD50) mg/kg body weight AlCl3 in double distilled water for 120 days, respectively. Then, we determined the systolic and mean arterial blood pressures of rats, the osmotic fragility, the percentage of membrane proteins, the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-pX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the erythrocyte membrane in this experiment. The results showed that AlCl3 elevated the systolic and mean arterial blood pressure of rats, increased the osmotic fragility, decreased the percentage of membrane protein, inhibited the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, CAT, SOD and GSH-pX, and increased the MDA content of erythrocyte membrane. These results indicate that AlCl3 may induce hypertension by disturbing the function of erythrocyte membrane. PMID:26354416

  11. Identification of the phorbol ester receptor in human and avian erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, C.M.; Sando, J.J.; Speizer, L.A.

    1986-05-01

    The ability of phorbol esters to inhibit the uptake of a fluorescent glucose analogue in goose but not human erythrocytes is consistent with earlier reports that the human red blood cell lacks the phorbol ester receptor. However, they have located specific phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding sites in both human and goose erythrocytes. Human and goose red blood cells contain 2 classes of phorbol ester receptors with similar affinities, however the human erythrocyte contains 1/3 as many phorbol ester receptors as does the goose red blood cell. An additional contrast in the binding of phorbol esters to human and goose red blood cells is the temperature-induced enhancement of binding to goose, but not human erythrocytes. Equilibrium phorbol ester binding to goose red blood cells at 37/sup 0/C is enhanced 3.3 +/- 0.4 times that amount bound at 4/sup 0/C. Equilibrium binding of phorbol esters to human erythrocytes is identical at both temperatures. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation profiles of C-kinase substrates also differ between the human and goose erythrocyte.

  12. The nature of multiphoton fluorescence from red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Murphy, Michael; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana M.; Evans, Conor L.; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We report on the nature of multiphoton excited fluorescence observed from human erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC's) and their "ghosts" following 800nm sub-15 fs excitation. The detected optical signal is assigned as two-photon excited fluorescence from hemoglobin. Our findings are supported by wavelength-resolved fluorescence lifetime decay measurements using time-correlated single photon counting system from RBC's, their ghosts as well as in vitro samples of various fluorophores including riboflavin, NADH, NAD(P)H, hemoglobin. We find that low-energy and short-duration pulses allow two-photon imaging of RBC's, but longer more intense pulses lead to their destruction.

  13. Microscopy and Microanalysis of Blood in a Snake Head Fish, Channa gachua Exposed to Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Pala, Eva M; Dey, Sudip

    2016-02-01

    Conventional and highly sophisticated analytical methods (Cyria et al., 1989; Massar et al., 2012a) were used to analyze micro-structural and micro-analytical aspects of the blood of snake head fish, Channa gachua, exposed to municipal wastes and city garbage. Red (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts and hemhemoglobin content were found to be higher in pollution affected fish as compared with control. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of abnormal erythrocytes such as crenated cells, echinocytes, lobopodial projections, membrane internalization, spherocytes, ruptured cells, contracted cells, depression, and uneven elongation of erythrocyte membranes in fish inhabiting the polluted sites. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of silicon and lead in the RBCs of pollution affected fish. Significance of the study includes the highly sophisticated analytical approach, which revealed the aforementioned micro-structural abnormalities. PMID:26914995

  14. Complete blood counts, liver function tests, and chest x-rays as routine screening in early-stage breast cancer: value added or just cost?

    PubMed

    Louir, Raphael J; Tonneson, Jennifer E; Gowarty, Minda; Goodney, Philip P; Barth, Richard J; Rosenkranz, Kari M

    2015-11-01

    Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for breast cancer staging include pre-treatment complete blood count (CBC) and liver function tests (LFT) to screen for occult metastatic disease. To date, the relevance of these tests in detecting metastatic disease in asymptomatic women with early-stage breast cancer (Stage I/II) has not been demonstrated. Although chest x-rays are no longer recommended in the NCCN guidelines, many centers continue to include this imaging as part of their screening process. We aim to determine the clinical and financial impact of these labs and x-rays in the evaluation of early-stage breast cancer patients. A single institution IRB-approved retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer treated from January 1, 2005–December 31, 2009. We collected patient demographics, clinical and pathologic staging, chest x-ray, CBC, and LFT results at the time of referral. Patients were stratified according to radiographic stage at the time of diagnosis. We obtained Medicare reimbursement fees for cost analysis. From 2005 to 2009, 1609 patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were treated at our institution. Of the 1082 patients with radiographic stage I/II disease, 27.3 % of patients had abnormal CBCs. No additional testing was performed to evaluate these abnormalities. In the early-stage population, 24.7 % of patients had elevated LFTs, resulting in 84 additional imaging studies. No metastatic disease was detected. The cost of CBC, LFTs and chest x-rays was $110.20 per patient, totaling $106,410.99. Additional tests prompted by abnormal results cost $58,143.30 over the five-year period. We found that pre-treatment CBCs, LFTs, and chest x-rays did not improve detection of occult metastatic disease but resulted in additional financial costs. Avoiding routine ordering of these tests would save the US healthcare system $25.7 million annually. PMID:26467045

  15. Nigella sativa oil reduces aluminium chloride-induced oxidative injury in liver and erythrocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Bouasla, Ihcene; Bouasla, Asma; Boumendjel, Amel; Messarah, Mahfoud; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed Salah; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2014-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) supplementation against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats. Simultaneously, a preliminary phytochemical study was affected in order to characterize the bioactive components containing in the NSO using chemical assays. The antioxidant capacities of NSO were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that NSO was found to contain large amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into two groups, in which group A received standard diet, whereas group B treated daily with an oral gavage dose of 2 ml NSO/kg body weight. After 5 weeks pretreatment, both groups were divided again into two subgroups (A and B) of six animals each and treated for other 3 weeks. Therefore, subgroup A1 was served as a control which received standard diet, but subgroup A2 received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw mixed with food). Subgroup B1 received both AlCl3 and NSO; however, subgroup B2 received NSO only. Results showed that AlCl3 exhibited an increase in white blood cell counts and a marked decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content. Plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin concentration were higher in AlCl3 group than those of the control, while albumin and total protein concentration were significantly lower. Compared to the control, a significant raise of hepatic and erythrocyte malondialdehyde level associated with a decrease in reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, activities of AlCl3 treated rats. However, the administration of NSO alone or combined with AlCl3 has improved the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that AlCl3 has induced the oxidative stress, altered the biochemical parameters and the hepatic histological profile, but the

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of pirfenidone using erythrocyte rodent micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Alcántar-Díaz, Blanca E; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M; Zamora-Perez, Ana L; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Bertha A; Sánchez-Parada, María Guadalupe; García-Bañuelos, Jesús J; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Pirfenidone is a non-steroidal antifibrotic compound that has been proposed in clinical protocols and experimental studies as a pharmacological treatment for fibroproliferative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxicity or cytotoxicity of three doses of pirfenidone using the micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rodent models. Pirfenidone was administered orally to Balb-C mice for 3 days, and also was administered topically to hairless Sprague Dawley rats during the final stage of gestation. Mice were sampled every 24 h over the course of 6 days; pregnant rats were sampled every 24 h during the last 6 days of gestation, and pups were sampled at birth. Blood smears were analyzed and the frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNEs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), were recorded in samples from mice, pregnant rats and rat neonates. Increases in MN frequencies (p<0.03) were noted only in the positive control groups. No genotoxic effects or decreased PCE values were observed neither in newborn rats transplacentally exposed to pirfenidone, or in two adult rodent models when pirfenidone was administered orally or topically. PMID:22683486

  17. Microscopic evaluation of vesicles shed by erythrocytes at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Moore, Timothy; Sorokulova, Iryna; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Pascoe, David; Rudisill, Mary; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2013-11-01

    The images of human erythrocytes and vesicles were analyzed by a light microscopy system with spatial resolution of better than 90 nm. The samples were observed in an aqueous environment and required no freezing, dehydration, staining, shadowing, marking, or any other manipulation. Temperature elevation resulted in significant concentration increase of structurally transformed erythrocytes (echinocytes) and vesicles in the blood. The process of vesicle separation from spiculated erythrocytes was video recorded in real time. At a temperature of 37°C, mean vesicle concentrations and diameters were found to be 1.50 ± 0.35 × 10(6) vesicles per microliter and 0.365 ± 0.065 μm, respectively. The vesicle concentration increased approximately threefold as the temperature increased from 37 to 40°C. It was estimated that 80% of all vesicles found in the blood are smaller than 0.4 μm. Accurate account of vesicle numbers and dimensions suggest that 86% of the lost erythrocyte material is lost not by vesiculation but by another, as yet, unknown mechanism. PMID:23964014

  18. Eicosanoid synthesis by purified thrombocytes and erythrocytes from warm- and cold-acclimated American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Herman, C A

    1997-04-01

    Amphibian blood plays an important role in eicosanoid synthesis. Although clotting frog blood produces eicosanoids, the cellular source of prostaglandins and thromboxanes in bullfrog blood is unknown. Thromboxane (TX)B2 synthesis from purified thrombocytes was affected by 30-day cold-acclimation at 5 degrees, but not PGE2 or leukotriene (LT) synthesis. Although no cyclooxygenase activity has been found in human erythrocytes, frog erythrocytes were capable of forming cyclooxygenase products, but the amounts were lower than those produced by thrombocytes. Additionally, there was no effect of cold exposure on eicosanoid production by isolated erythrocytes. Similar to some mammalian nucleated white blood cells, nucleated bullfrog thrombocytes and erythrocytes produced leukotrienes. The production of eicosanoids by thrombocytes was stimulated by A23187 and thrombin. Erythrocytes were stimulated by A23187. Control synthesis by erythrocytes and thrombocytes was inhibited by 5 microM indomethacin (cyclooxygenase pathway) or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (5-lipoxygenase pathway) and cyclooxygenase products were increased in the presence of nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Thrombin stimulation of eicosanoid production by thrombocytes was inhibited when the inhibitors were present prior to the final centrifugation of the cell isolation. The results suggest that cold exposure can affect eicosanoid synthesis in thrombocytes, but not erythrocytes, and that thrombocytes are a major source of eicosanoids in bullfrogs. The production of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products by nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes suggests a role for these compounds in hemostasis and inflammatory responses in these animals. PMID:9126474

  19. Blood oxidative stress markers after ultramarathon swimming.

    PubMed

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kyparos, Antonios; Tsalis, Georgios; Loupos, Dimitrios; Pavlidou, Anastasia; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Data on redox balance in response to marathon swimming are lacking, whereas findings from studies using other types of ultraendurance exercise are controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ultramarathon swimming on selective blood oxidative stress markers. Five well-trained male swimmers aged 28.8 (6.0) years participated in the study. Blood samples were obtained before and after the ultramarathon swimming, for full blood count analysis and determination of protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The swimmers swam 19.4 (3.4) hours, covering 50.5 (15.0) km. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count, and leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were significantly elevated after swimming, whereas protein carbonyls, TBARS and TAC did not significantly change. The findings of the present study indicate that well-trained swimmers were able to regulate a redox homeostasis during ultra-long duration swimming. It is also postulated that the relatively low intensity of marathon swimming may not be a sufficient stimulus to induce oxidative stress in well-trained swimmers. The fact that low-intensity long-duration exercise protocols are not associated with oxidative damage is useful knowledge for coaches and athletes in scheduling the content of the training sessions that preceded and followed these exercise protocols. PMID:20613649

  20. Pathogenesis of acute avian malaria. II. Anemia mediated by a cold-active autohemagglutinin from the blood of chickens with acute Plasmodium gallinaceum infection.

    PubMed

    Soni, J L; Cox, H W

    1975-03-01

    A cold-active hemagglutinin for trypsinized human type "O" erythrocytes (CAH) from blood of chickens with acute Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria was found to be associated with 19 S and 7 S globulin fractions of malarious chicken blood, but cleavage with 2-mercaptoethanol indicated that it was primarily of the IgM class of antibody. In serologic tests CAH reacted with trypsinized erythrocytes, and anti-chicken globulin. It did not react with other of the antigens or antibodies detected in the blood of malarious chickens. When the absorbed and eluted CAH was injected into normal chickens it produced an anaphylactic-like shock and caused a 25% reduction in red blood cell counts within 48 hours. Plasma samples collected during this interval showed signs of hemolysis. Reactions of blood cells from the recipient birds with fluorescein conjugated anti-chicken globulin indicated that CAH reacted with erythrocytes. The absence of fluorescent activity 3 days after injection suggested that these erythrocytes had been removed from the circulation. When normal chickens were injected with trypsinized autologous blood cells, CAH was detected within 3 days. The agglutination test again was active at temperatures below 22 degrees C and was negative when tested at 37 degrees C. In these birds the appearance of CAH was accompanied by reductions in red blood cell counts and by hemolysis. The results of these experiments suggest that CAH was not stimulated by plasmodial parasite antigen, but rather by autoantigens, which appear to be common to heterologous animal species, and which were in some manner expressed by the presence of the intracellular parasites, or by trypsin treatment. The experiments further suggest that this autohemagglutinin was partially causal of malarial anemia. The presence of other anemia factor(s) was indicated by anemia following injection of plasma that had been absorbed free of CAH. PMID:804265

  1. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  2. The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo

    2014-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRPα-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by

  3. Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

  4. Dielectric Properties and Ion Mobility in Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, H.; Schwan, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The impedance of erythrocytes of man, cattle, sheep, dog, cat, rabbit, and chicken was measured in the range from 0.5 to 250 Mc. The dielectric constant of the red cell interior is 50 at 250 Mc, varies but little with species, and can readily be accounted for by the cells' hemoglobin content. The electrical conductivity of the red cell interior was determined between 70 and 100 Mc. The values differ from species to species within the rather limited range from 4.4 to 5.3 mmho/cm. Removal of the cell membranes does not affect the conductivity. Hence, the cell interior behaves, from an electrical point of view, like a highly concentrated hemoglobin solution. A theoretical value for the electrical conductivity of erythrocyte interiors, which is calculated on the basis of the salt content of the cell, ion mobility, and the volume concentration of the hemoglobin, is roughly twice as large as the measured value. This discrepancy is typical not only of the red blood cell. Pertinent measurements show that it is probably caused by hydrodynamic and possibly by electrostatic effects also, which lower the mobility of the ions. From the lower electrical mobility it appears that a lowered diffusion constant of the electrolytes and nonelectrolytes within the cell is indicated. PMID:5970566

  5. A novel Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry associated adhesin mediates erythrocyte invasion through the sialic-acid dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Gaurav; Reddy, K. Sony; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Mian, Syed Yusuf; Singh, Hina; Mittal, Shivani Arora; Amlabu, Emmanuel; Bassat, Quique; Mayor, Alfredo; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Gaur, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is central to blood-stage infection and malaria pathogenesis. This intricate process is coordinated by multiple parasite adhesins that bind erythrocyte receptors and mediate invasion through several alternate pathways. P. falciparum expresses 2700 genes during the blood-stages, of which the identity and function of many remains unknown. Here, we have identified and characterized a novel P. falciparum rhoptry associated adhesin (PfRA) that mediates erythrocyte invasion through the sialic-acid dependent pathway. PfRA appears to play a significant functional role as it is conserved across different Plasmodium species. It is localized in the rhoptries and further translocated to the merozoite surface. Both native and recombinant PfRA specifically bound erythrocytes in a sialic-acid dependent, chymotrypsin and trypsin resistant manner, which was abrogated by PfRA antibodies confirming a role in erythrocyte invasion. PfRA antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion and in combination with antibodies against other parasite ligands produced an additive inhibitory effect, thus validating its important role in erythrocyte invasion. We have thus identified a novel P. falciparum adhesin that binds with a sialic acid containing erythrocyte receptor. Our observations substantiate the strategy to block P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion by simultaneously targeting multiple conserved merozoite antigens involved in alternate invasion pathways. PMID:27383149

  6. A novel Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry associated adhesin mediates erythrocyte invasion through the sialic-acid dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Anand, Gaurav; Reddy, K Sony; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Mian, Syed Yusuf; Singh, Hina; Mittal, Shivani Arora; Amlabu, Emmanuel; Bassat, Quique; Mayor, Alfredo; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Gaur, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is central to blood-stage infection and malaria pathogenesis. This intricate process is coordinated by multiple parasite adhesins that bind erythrocyte receptors and mediate invasion through several alternate pathways. P. falciparum expresses 2700 genes during the blood-stages, of which the identity and function of many remains unknown. Here, we have identified and characterized a novel P. falciparum rhoptry associated adhesin (PfRA) that mediates erythrocyte invasion through the sialic-acid dependent pathway. PfRA appears to play a significant functional role as it is conserved across different Plasmodium species. It is localized in the rhoptries and further translocated to the merozoite surface. Both native and recombinant PfRA specifically bound erythrocytes in a sialic-acid dependent, chymotrypsin and trypsin resistant manner, which was abrogated by PfRA antibodies confirming a role in erythrocyte invasion. PfRA antibodies inhibited erythrocyte invasion and in combination with antibodies against other parasite ligands produced an additive inhibitory effect, thus validating its important role in erythrocyte invasion. We have thus identified a novel P. falciparum adhesin that binds with a sialic acid containing erythrocyte receptor. Our observations substantiate the strategy to block P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion by simultaneously targeting multiple conserved merozoite antigens involved in alternate invasion pathways. PMID:27383149

  7. Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Quintanar-Escorza, M.A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T.; Navarro, L.; Maldonado, M.; Arevalo, B.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2007-04-01

    Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

  8. Erythrocyte stiffness during morphological remodeling induced by carbon ion radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new

  9. Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2014-01-01

    The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new

  10. Magnetic measurements on human erythrocytes: Normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Lama

    2003-05-01

    In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of μeff=7.6 μB per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for μeff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.

  11. Topical pimecrolimus lacks genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by means of micronucleus erythrocyte rodent assay.

    PubMed

    Flores-García, Aurelio; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zamora-Pérez, Ana L; Garibaldi-Becerra, Vicente; Barba-Barajas, Martha; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M

    2011-10-01

    Topical pimecrolimus is an alternative treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, rare cases of malignancy have been reported with their use. This study was performed to investigate the possible geno- or cytotoxic effect in mouse bone marrow caused by systemic absorption of pimecrolimus 1% cream. In order to determine this, induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in mouse peripheral blood was determined after the cutaneous application of three different doses, daily for 5 consecutive days. No differences were found in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes, MNE, and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the different groups of study. In conclusion, under described conditions, no geno- or cytotoxic effects were detected after the cutaneous application of pimecrolimus. PMID:21749197

  12. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  13. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin Methyldopa Lower-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to: Anemia Bleeding Bone marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor) Deficiency of a hormone called erythropoietin (caused by ...

  14. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  15. Blunted apoptosis of erythrocytes in mice deficient in the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit Gαi2

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Lang, Elisabeth; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Fehrenbacher, Birgit; Honisch, Sabina; Chen, Hong; Fakhri, Hajar; Umbach, Anja T.; Liu, Guilai; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Liu, Guoxing; Schaller, Martin; Mack, Andreas F.; Lupescu, Adrian; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Putative functions of the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit Gαi2-dependent signaling include ion channel regulation, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Erythrocytes may, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, undergo eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Eryptosis may be triggered by increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ceramide. In the present study, we show that Gαi2 is expressed in both murine and human erythrocytes and further examined the survival of erythrocytes drawn from Gαi2-deficient mice (Gαi2−/−) and corresponding wild-type mice (Gαi2+/+). Our data show that plasma erythropoietin levels, erythrocyte maturation markers, erythrocyte counts, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were similar in Gαi2−/− and Gαi2+/+ mice but the mean corpuscular volume was significantly larger in Gαi2−/− mice. Spontaneous PS exposure of circulating Gαi2−/− erythrocytes was significantly lower than that of circulating Gαi2+/+ erythrocytes. PS exposure was significantly lower in Gαi2−/− than in Gαi2+/+ erythrocytes following ex vivo exposure to hyperosmotic shock, bacterial sphingomyelinase or C6 ceramide. Erythrocyte Gαi2 deficiency further attenuated hyperosmotic shock-induced increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Gαi2−/− erythrocytes were more resistant to osmosensitive hemolysis as compared to Gαi2+/+ erythrocytes. In conclusion, Gαi2 deficiency in erythrocytes confers partial protection against suicidal cell death. PMID:27499046

  16. Blunted apoptosis of erythrocytes in mice deficient in the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit Gαi2.

    PubMed

    Bissinger, Rosi; Lang, Elisabeth; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Fehrenbacher, Birgit; Honisch, Sabina; Chen, Hong; Fakhri, Hajar; Umbach, Anja T; Liu, Guilai; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Liu, Guoxing; Schaller, Martin; Mack, Andreas F; Lupescu, Adrian; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M

    2016-01-01

    Putative functions of the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit Gαi2-dependent signaling include ion channel regulation, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Erythrocytes may, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, undergo eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Eryptosis may be triggered by increased cytosolic Ca(2+) activity and ceramide. In the present study, we show that Gαi2 is expressed in both murine and human erythrocytes and further examined the survival of erythrocytes drawn from Gαi2-deficient mice (Gαi2(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (Gαi2(+/+)). Our data show that plasma erythropoietin levels, erythrocyte maturation markers, erythrocyte counts, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were similar in Gαi2(-/-) and Gαi2(+/+) mice but the mean corpuscular volume was significantly larger in Gαi2(-/-) mice. Spontaneous PS exposure of circulating Gαi2(-/-) erythrocytes was significantly lower than that of circulating Gαi2(+/+) erythrocytes. PS exposure was significantly lower in Gαi2(-/-) than in Gαi2(+/+) erythrocytes following ex vivo exposure to hyperosmotic shock, bacterial sphingomyelinase or C6 ceramide. Erythrocyte Gαi2 deficiency further attenuated hyperosmotic shock-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) activity and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Gαi2(-/-) erythrocytes were more resistant to osmosensitive hemolysis as compared to Gαi2(+/+) erythrocytes. In conclusion, Gαi2 deficiency in erythrocytes confers partial protection against suicidal cell death. PMID:27499046

  17. Cell Electrofusion in Centrifuged Erythrocyte Pellets Assessed by Dielectric Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Asami, Koji

    2016-04-01

    We have characterized cell electrofusion in cell pellets by dielectric spectroscopy. Cell pellets were formed from horse erythrocyte suspensions by centrifugation and were subjected to intense AC pulses. The dielectric spectra of the pellets were measured over a frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz. The application of AC pulses caused low-frequency (LF) dielectric relaxation below about 100 kHz. The LF dielectric relaxation was markedly affected not only by pretreatment of cells at 50 °C, which disrupts the spectrin network of erythrocytes, but also by the parameters of the AC pulses (frequency of the sine wave and repeat count of the pulses). The occurrence of the LF dielectric relaxation was qualitatively accounted for by modeling fusion products in the pellet by prolate spheroidal cells whose long axes run parallel to the applied electric field. PMID:26407874

  18. Permeability properties of erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed

    TEORELL, T

    1952-05-01

    1. Erythrocyte ghosts from human blood were produced by gentle water hemolysis. The ghost-containing hemolysate (about 20 mN) was added to media of different composition (KCl, NaCl, glucose, sucrose, etc.) and varying concentration ranging from 8 to 840 mN. The volume changes of the ghost cells were followed by a light absorption method. The potassium and sodium concentrations were also analyzed in some representative cases. 2. The ghosts shrank, or swelled, in two stages. An initial phase with a momentary expulsion, or uptake, of water leading to an osmotic equilibrium, was followed by a second phase in which a slow swelling or shrinking proceeded toward a final constant volume. 3. The ghosts were semipermeable in the sense that water always passed rapidly in either direction so as to maintain isotonicity with the external medium. The relation between ghost cell volumes (V) and the total concentration (C(e)) of the suspension medium can be expressed by a modified van't Hoff-Mariotte law: (C(e) + a)(V - b) = constant. Here a is a term correcting for an internal pressure and b is the non-solvent volume of the ghost cells. This means that the ghosts behave as perfect osmometers. 4. On the other hand appreciable concentration differences of the K and Na ions could be maintained across the intact ghost cell membranes for long periods. Whether this phenomenon is due simply to very low cation permeability or to active transport processes cannot be decided, although the first assumption appears more probable. 5. When the ghosts were treated with small concentrations of a lytic substance like Na oleate, the alkali ion transfer was greatly increased. This seems to be a simple exchange diffusion process with simultaneous, continued maintenance of osmotic equilibrium (= the second phase). A simplified theory is also given for the kinetics of the volume variations and ion exchange during the second phase (cf. the Appendix). 6. Miscellaneous observations on the effects of p

  19. A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Philip; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel…

  20. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  1. Clot contraction: compression of erythrocytes into tightly packed polyhedra and redistribution of platelets and fibrin.

    PubMed

    Cines, Douglas B; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Hayes, Vincent; Massefski, Walter; Litvinov, Rustem I; Rauova, Lubica; Lowery, Thomas J; Weisel, John W

    2014-03-01

    Contraction of blood clots is necessary for hemostasis and wound healing and to restore flow past obstructive thrombi, but little is known about the structure of contracted clots or the role of erythrocytes in contraction. We found that contracted blood clots develop a remarkable structure, with a meshwork of fibrin and platelet aggregates on the exterior of the clot and a close-packed, tessellated array of compressed polyhedral erythrocytes within. The same results were obtained after initiation of clotting with various activators and also with clots from reconstituted human blood and mouse blood. Such close-packed arrays of polyhedral erythrocytes, or polyhedrocytes, were also observed in human arterial thrombi taken from patients. The mechanical nature of this shape change was confirmed by polyhedrocyte formation from the forces of centrifugation of blood without clotting. Platelets (with their cytoskeletal motility proteins) and fibrin(ogen) (as the substrate bridging platelets for contraction) are required to generate the forces necessary to segregate platelets/fibrin from erythrocytes and to compress erythrocytes into a tightly packed array. These results demonstrate how contracted clots form an impermeable barrier important for hemostasis and wound healing and help explain how fibrinolysis is greatly retarded as clots contract. PMID:24335500

  2. Clot contraction: compression of erythrocytes into tightly packed polyhedra and redistribution of platelets and fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Cines, Douglas B.; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Hayes, Vincent; Massefski, Walter; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Rauova, Lubica; Lowery, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Contraction of blood clots is necessary for hemostasis and wound healing and to restore flow past obstructive thrombi, but little is known about the structure of contracted clots or the role of erythrocytes in contraction. We found that contracted blood clots develop a remarkable structure, with a meshwork of fibrin and platelet aggregates on the exterior of the clot and a close-packed, tessellated array of compressed polyhedral erythrocytes within. The same results were obtained after initiation of clotting with various activators and also with clots from reconstituted human blood and mouse blood. Such close-packed arrays of polyhedral erythrocytes, or polyhedrocytes, were also observed in human arterial thrombi taken from patients. The mechanical nature of this shape change was confirmed by polyhedrocyte formation from the forces of centrifugation of blood without clotting. Platelets (with their cytoskeletal motility proteins) and fibrin(ogen) (as the substrate bridging platelets for contraction) are required to generate the forces necessary to segregate platelets/fibrin from erythrocytes and to compress erythrocytes into a tightly packed array. These results demonstrate how contracted clots form an impermeable barrier important for hemostasis and wound healing and help explain how fibrinolysis is greatly retarded as clots contract. PMID:24335500

  3. Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Braun, J

    1999-03-01

    In iron deficiency and lead poisoning, the enzyme ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of zinc, instead of iron, into protoporphyrin IX, resulting in the formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). In healthy blood donors, there is a good inverse correlation between serum ferritin and ZPP levels. In renal failure patients and in patients with anemia caused by a variety of chronic disorders, two different types of iron deficiency are found: (a) absolute iron deficiency and (b) relative, or functional, iron deficiency. The latter occurs when iron, despite adequate stores, is not delivered rapidly enough to the erythroblasts. ZPP is not only indicative of absolute iron deficiency, but it is also, for now, the best indicator of iron-deficient erythropoiesis, along with the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells. By contrast, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation may not adequately assess functional iron deficiency. Elevated ZPP levels in renal failure patients can be caused by different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as chronic inflammatory disease, lead poisoning, and the presence of uremic factors, all of which could potentially inhibit heme biosynthesis. However, ZPP levels do not consistently predict an erythropoietic response to iron supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients, and thus, iron overload during i.v. iron supplementation cannot be detected by measuring ZPP. PMID:10084287

  4. The effects of residual pump blood on patient plasma free haemoglobin levels post cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    H, Schotola; Aj, Wetz; Af, Popov; I, Bergmann; Bc, Danner; Fa, Schöndube; M, Bauer; A, Bräuer

    2016-09-01

    At the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, there are invariably several hundred millilitres of residual pump blood in the reservoir, which can either be re-transfused or discarded. The objective of this prospective observational study was to investigate the quality of the residual pump blood, focusing on plasma free haemoglobin (pfHb) and blood cell counts. Fifty-one consecutive patients were included in the study. Forty-nine units of residual pump blood and 58 units of transfused red blood cell (RBC) concentrates were analysed. The mean preoperative pfHb of the patients was 0.057 ± 0.062 g/l, which increased gradually to 0.55 ± 0.36 g/l on arrival in the intensive care unit postoperatively. On the first postoperative day, the mean pfHb had returned to within the normal range. Our data showed that haemoglobin, haematocrit, and erythrocyte counts of residual pump blood were approximately 40% of the values in standardised RBC concentrates. Plasma free haemoglobin was significantly higher in residual pump blood compared to RBC concentrates, and nearly twice as high as the pfHb in patient blood samples taken contemporaneously. Our findings indicate that residual pump blood pfHb levels are markedly higher compared to patients' blood and RBC concentrates, but that its administration does not significantly increase patients' pfHb levels. PMID:27608341

  5. Evaluation of the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Anumolu, Venkata Naga Sri Harsha; Srikanth, Adusumilli; Paidi, Kusumalatha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anemia of chronic disease is defined as anemia occurring in chronic infections, inflammatory conditions, or neoplastic disorders which are not due to marrow deficiencies or other diseases, and occurring despite the presence of adequate iron stores and vitamins. Aims: To evaluate the relation between anemia and periodontitis by estimation of blood parameters and to assess whether periodontitis like other inflammatory conditions can lead to anemia. It is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 healthy controls, 50 chronic generalized gingivitis, and 50 chronic generalized periodontitis patients were selected. Hemoglobin levels (Hb), erythrocyte count red blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), mean corpuscular volu e (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC), gingival index, plaque index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded. Intergroup comparison of blood parameters is by one-way ANOVA. Intergroup pair wise comparison of the three groups is by Newman–Keuls multiple post-hoc procedures. Karl Pearsons's correlation coefficient method is used for correlation between different parameters for three groups. Results: The results revealed a decrease in Hb and erythrocyte counts and increase in white blood corpuscles counts in chronic generalized periodontitis when compared to healthy controls and chronic generalized gingivitis group. There was no statistically significant difference in MCV, MCH, MCHC, and ESR among the groups. Conclusions: The treatment of periodontitis can lead to an improvement in hematocrit and other related blood parameters in chronic generalized periodontitis patients with anemia. This provides evidence that periodontitis like other chronic diseases may also cause anemia. PMID:27563199

  6. Insulin Inhibits Low Oxygen-Induced ATP Release from Human Erythrocytes: Implication for Vascular Control

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Madelyn S.; Ellsworth, Mary L.; Achilleus, David; Stephenson, Alan H.; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Sridharan, Meera; Adderley, Shaquria; Sprague, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective ATP released from human erythrocytes in response to reduced oxygen tension (pO2) participates in the matching of oxygen (O2) supply with need in skeletal muscle by stimulating increases in blood flow to areas with increased O2 demand. Here we investigated the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes and impairs their ability to stimulate dilation of isolated arterioles exposed to decreased extra-luminal pO2. Methods Erythrocyte ATP release was stimulated pharmacologically (mastoparan 7) and physiologically (reduced pO2) in the absence or presence of insulin. We also examined the ability of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles perfused with buffer containing erythrocytes treated with insulin or its vehicle (saline) to dilate in response to decreased extra-luminal pO2. Results Insulin significantly attenuated mastoparan 7– and reduced pO2–induced ATP release. In vessels perfused with untreated erythrocytes, low extra-luminal pO2 resulted in an increase in vessel diameter. In contrast, when erythrocytes were treated with insulin, no vasodilation occurred. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that insulin inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes in response to reduced pO2 and impairs their ability to stimulate dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles. These results suggest that hyperinsulinemia could hinder the matching of O2 supply with need in skeletal muscle. PMID:19412833

  7. FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.

    2004-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and δN-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

  8. Effects of racing and gender on viscoelastic properties of horse blood.

    PubMed

    Wood, S C; Fedde, M R

    1997-02-01

    Splenic contraction in racing horses increases the hematocrit (hct), thereby increasing blood viscosity. We tested as to whether racing also affects the elastic properties of blood. Mares and geldings were studied for thus purpose. After racing, there was: (i) an increased erythrocyte count independent of gender and race distance (0.32 to 1.7 km): (ii) an increased mean erythrocyte volume in both sexes; (iii) an increased heterogeneity of RBC size in both sexes; (iv) an increased plasma fibrinogen concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in both sexes; and (v) an increased elastic yield stress (EYS). When corrected to a constant hct of 65%, the blood of mares, but not geldings, had increased EYS after racing. Gender differences in fibrinogen response (p = 0.72) did not account for this and the mechanism is not known. Since EYS is analogous to the point at which ketchup starts to flow from a bottle, its increase could be deleterious in vascular beds characterized by pulsatile flow, e.g. the coronary circulation. PMID:9108630

  9. Standardization of stain used for diagnosing erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1987-01-01

    Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS), a viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN)-like disease, has been observed in several areas in the Northwest. This virus disease is clinically diagnosed by microscopic examination of blood smears for intracytoplasmic erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Fish biologists involved in EIBS diagnostic work have been using several types of hematological stains. It became apparent that standardization of the staining procedure was needed. Comparative tests were conducted on blood smears and kidney imprints with the following commonly used blood stains: (1) Leishman-Giesma, (2) Pinacyanol chloride, (3) Powell 's Giemsa, (4) Harleco's Giemsa, (5) Diff Quik differential stain, (6) Wright's.Pinacyanol chloride stain was found to be the most consistent. The following staining procedure is recommended.

  10. A dynamic and stationary rheological study of erythrocytes incubated in a glucose medium.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Bibiana; Foresto, Patricia; D'Arrigo, Mabel; Valverde, Juana; Rasia, Rodolfo

    2005-02-28

    A higher than normal glucose concentration in a suspending medium may produce non-enzymatic glycosylation of erythrocyte proteins. This process can modify the viscoelastic properties of erythrocytes. In this paper, we studied the possible relationship between glucose concentration in a suspending medium and erythrocyte rheological parameters. Human venous blood was obtained from the antecubital veins of 10 healthy volunteers. Blood samples were anticoagulated with EDTA and centrifuged. Red blood cells (RBCs) were washed and subsequently divided in aliquots, which were incubated in vitro with glucose solutions of different concentrations. Dynamic and stationary viscoelastic parameters of RBCs were determined by laser diffractometry in an Erythrodeformeter. Aggregate shape parameter (ASP) of the RBCs was determined by digital image processing. Significant changes were observed both in ASP and in rheological parameters when the glucose concentration in the medium was increased, demonstrating that a glucose concentration as low as 1% induces alterations in the mechanical properties of RBCs. PMID:15680283

  11. Viscoelastic behavior of erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Tözeren, A; Skalak, R; Sung, K L; Chien, S

    1982-01-01

    A nonlinear viscoelastic relation is developed to describe the viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membrane. This constitutive equation is used in the analysis of the time-dependent aspiration of an erythrocyte membrane into a micropipette. Equations governing this motion are reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of the Volterra type. A numerical procedure based on a finite difference scheme is used to solve the integral equation and to match the experimental data. The data, aspiration length vs. time, is used to determine the relaxation function at each time step. The inverse problem of obtaining the time dependence of the aspiration length from a given relaxation function is also solved. Analytical results obtained are applied to the experimental data of Chien et al. 1978. Biophys. J. 24:463-487. A relaxation function similar to that of a four-parameter solid with a shear-thinning viscous term is proposed. PMID:7104447

  12. Erythrocyte Enrichment in Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Cultures Based on Magnetic Susceptibility of the Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaoxia; Abbot, Stewart; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Zhao, Rui; Kameneva, Marina V.; Moore, Lee R.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Using novel media formulations, it has been demonstrated that human placenta and umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells can be expanded and differentiated into erythroid cells with high efficiency. However, obtaining mature and functional erythrocytes from the immature cell cultures with high purity and in an efficient manner remains a significant challenge. A distinguishing feature of a reticulocyte and maturing erythrocyte is the increasing concentration of hemoglobin and decreasing cell volume that results in increased cell magnetophoretic mobility (MM) when exposed to high magnetic fields and gradients, under anoxic conditions. Taking advantage of these initial observations, we studied a noninvasive (label-free) magnetic separation and analysis process to enrich and identify cultured functional erythrocytes. In addition to the magnetic cell separation and cell motion analysis in the magnetic field, the cell cultures were characterized for cell sedimentation rate, cell volume distributions using differential interference microscopy, immunophenotyping (glycophorin A), hemoglobin concentration and shear-induced deformability (elongation index, EI, by ektacytometry) to test for mature erythrocyte attributes. A commercial, packed column high-gradient magnetic separator (HGMS) was used for magnetic separation. The magnetically enriched fraction comprised 80% of the maturing cells (predominantly reticulocytes) that showed near 70% overlap of EI with the reference cord blood-derived RBC and over 50% overlap with the adult donor RBCs. The results demonstrate feasibility of label-free magnetic enrichment of erythrocyte fraction of CD34+ progenitor-derived cultures based on the presence of paramagnetic hemoglobin in the maturing erythrocytes. PMID:22952572

  13. Effects of lead chloride on human erythrocyte membranes and on kinetic anion sulphate and glutathione concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gugliotta, Tiziana; De Luca, Grazia; Romano, Pietro; Rigano, Caterina; Scuteri, Adriana; Romano, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Our study concerns the effects of exposure to lead chloride on the morphology, K(+) efflux, SO(4)(-) influx and GSH levels of the human erythrocyte. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes and washed three times. The cells were suspended at 3% hematocrit and incubated for 1 h at 25°C in a medium containing increasing concentrations of lead chloride (0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 μM). After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged and the erythrocyte pellets were divided into three aliquots for testing. The results show: an increase in the permeability of erythrocytes treated with lead chloride with consequent damage and cellular death, especially in the presence of high concentrations; an increase in potassium ion efflux; alterations in the morphology and membrane structure of the red blood cells; and a decrease in sulphate uptake, due either to the oxidative effect of this compound on the band 3 protein, which loses its biological valence as a carrier of sulphate ions, or to a decrease in the ATP erythrocyte concentration. In conclusion, the exposure of erythrocytes to Pb(2+) ions leads to a reduction in the average lifetime of the erythrocytes and the subsequent development of anemia. These data are discussed in terms of the possible effect of lead on the reduction-oxidation systems of the cell. Oxidant agents, such as lead, are known to cross-link integral membrane proteins, leading to K/Cl-cotransport. The increased K(+) efflux affects the altered redox state. PMID:22941203

  14. In vivo erythrocyte sickling in the Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon): methodology.

    PubMed

    Parshall, C J; Vainisi, S J; Goldberg, M F; Wolf, E D

    1975-06-01

    The Japanese sika deep (Cervus nippon) proved to be a suitable animal model for the study of acute phases of in vivo erythrocyte sickling. Ophthalmologic studies can be conducted during or after 1 to 6 hours of effective in vivo sickling. Intravenous administration of 1.75 to 3.5% sodium bicarbonate solution at a rate of 500 to 1,000 ml per hour produced a transient state of alkalosis and in vivo erythrocyte sickling in the sika deer. The percentage of sickled erythrocytes increased as the blood pH increased. Concurrently, the packed cell volume decreased. Sickling was enhanced by 100% oxygen ventilation after endotracheal intubation and light anesthetization. After the induction of erythrocyte sickling, a sickling-reversal phenomenon occurred despite continued bicarbonate administration. During the course of this reversal, the percentage of sickled erythrocytes steadily decreased, the venous blood pH decreased, and the packed cell volume slowly increased. Because of the sickling-reversal phenomenon, chronic erythrocyte sickling was not achieved. PMID:238437

  15. A study on the effect of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici on erythrocyte immune function in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Zhao, Hong; Guan, Yin; Song, Yanbin; Meng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly studied the effect of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici on erythrocyte immune function in SD rats with acute blood stasis. The methods used the effect on erythrocyte immune function. After intragastric administration of suspension of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici to SD rats for 3 weeks, on the 21st day from intragastric administration, SD rats were made into blood stasis model and bloods were collected to determine the C3b, C3bRR, RFIR, and RFER in erythrocyte immune function. Meanwhile, serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level of rats were determined, and experimental results were analysed with analysis of variance and Q test. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici had a very good effect on enhancement of erythrocyte immune function in SD rats. PMID:24311883

  16. Crystalline inclusions in erythrocytes parasitized with Babesia equi following treatment of ponies with imidocarb.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C F; Taylor, W J; Kitchen, H

    1980-08-01

    Four splenectomized Welsh ponies were infected with Babesia equi. Two ponies were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, and two were not treated. By light microscopic examination, 1% to 2% of the parasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies contained crystalline inclusions. The crystals were rectangular, diamond, or burr shaped. They occupied most of the erythrocytic cytoplasm, and, as a result, the remainder of the pale staining cytoplasm was inconspicuous in Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears. The size and shape of intraerythrocytic inclusions varied when examined by electron microscopy, but in most instances they were either adhered to or were located close to the parasite. The sides of crystals were either smooth or serrated, and corners were either sharp or notched. Fractures or faults were common in large crystals. Parasitized erythrocytes of nontreated ponies and nonparasitized erythrocytes of treated ponies did not contain crystals. Four hemoglobulin types were identified in five noninfected, nontreated Welsh ponies from the same herd. PMID:6255836

  17. A new method for culturing Plasmodium falciparum shows replication at the highest erythrocyte densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Glushakova, Svetlana; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum replicates poorly in erythrocyte densities greater than a hematocrit of 20%. A new method to culture the major malaria parasite was developed by using a hollow fiber bioreactor that preserves healthy erythrocytes at hematocrit up to 100%. P. falciparum replicated equally well at all densities studied. This method proved advantageous for large-scale preparation of parasitized erythrocytes (and potentially immunogens thereof), because high yields ( approximately 10(10) in 4 days) could be prepared with less cost and labor. Concomitantly, secreted proteins were concentrated by molecular sieving during culture, perhaps contributing to the parasitemic limit of 8%-12% with the 3D7 strain. The finding that P. falciparum can replicate at packed erythrocyte densities suggests that this system may be useful for study of the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria, of which one feature is densely packed blood cells in brain microvasculature.

  18. Inter-rater reliability of malaria parasite counts and comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The introduction of artemesinin-based treatment for falciparum malaria has led to a shift away from symptom-based diagnosis. Diagnosis may be achieved by using rapid non-microscopic diagnostic tests (RDTs), of which there are many available. Light microscopy, however, has a central role in parasite identification and quantification and remains the main method of parasite-based diagnosis in clinic and hospital settings and is necessary for monitoring the accuracy of RDTs. The World Health Organization has prepared a proficiency testing panel containing a range of malaria-positive blood samples of known parasitaemia, to be used for the assessment of commercially available malaria RDTs. Different blood film and counting methods may be used for this purpose, which raises questions regarding accuracy and reproducibility. A comparison was made of the established methods for parasitaemia estimation to determine which would give the least inter-rater and inter-method variation Methods Experienced malaria microscopists counted asexual parasitaemia on different slides using three methods; the thin film method using the total erythrocyte count, the thick film method using the total white cell count and the Earle and Perez method. All the slides were stained using Giemsa pH 7.2. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to find the inter-rater reliability for the different methods. The paired t-test was used to assess any systematic bias between the two methods, and a regression analysis was used to see if there was a changing bias with parasite count level. Results The thin blood film gave parasite counts around 30% higher than those obtained by the thick film and Earle and Perez methods, but exhibited a loss of sensitivity with low parasitaemia. The thick film and Earle and Perez methods showed little or no bias in counts between the two methods, however, estimated inter-rater reliability was slightly better for the thick film method. Conclusion The thin film

  19. Ultrasonic Backscattering from Suspended Erythrocytes: Dependence on Frequency and Size.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ihyuan

    The ultrasonic scattering properties of blood have been intensively investigated since the echo signal from red blood cells carries abundant diagnostic information for the study of blood flow and blood properties in the vessels. Recently, ultrasound of frequency higher than 20 MHz has been implemented in intravascular imaging to obtain better images of the vessel wall. In this research measurements were extended to 30 MHz to better understand the effect of blood on the operation of these intravascular devices. The experimentally measured backscatter of saline suspended porcine erythrocytes for frequency up to 30 MHz agrees very well with the theoretical analysis which indicate that Rayleigh scattering is still valid below this frequency. The analysis utilize the T-matrix method to calculate the backscattering cross section of an erythrocyte modeled as a fluid sphere, disk, and biconcave disk. Measurements on the backscattering coefficients of porcine, bovine, and lamb erythrocytes reveal that the backscatter has a square dependence on cell volume. The cell size dependent backscatter is also analyzed via a continuum approach. It is found that the echo intensity of high frequency ultrasound suffers greatly from the attenuation. The dilemma may be solved by using a spherically focused transducer. An analysis of the focused beam reflected from a perfect planar reflector leads to the modification of the standard substitution method for the backscatter measurement since the "image source" theory is found to be inappropriate for the focused beam. Reflection of the focused beam near the focal point is described based on Huygens' principle. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the backscatter is dependent upon the position of the scatterer and the geometry of the transducer if a focused beam is used. Since ultrasound velocity information is needed for scattering measurements, an innovative method for measuring the acoustic speed and the attenuation coefficient

  20. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  1. Signal transduction pathways in erythrocyte nitric oxide metabolism under high fibrinogen levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Carlota; Freitas, T.; Lopez de Almeida, J. P.; Silva-Herdade, A.

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies show that the fibrinogen molecule modulates the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) in erythrocyte. The in vitro induced hiperfibrinogenemia interferes in the metabolism of the NO in the erythrocyte in dependence of the phosphorylation degree of the band 3. The soluble form of fibrinogen binds into CD47 protein present in the erythrocyte membrane. The soluble thrombomodulin is an inflammatory marker that binds to the erythrocyte CD47 in a site with a sequence peptide known as 4N1K. A study done in vitro shows that when hiperfibrinogenemia was induced in the presence of the peptide 4N1K agonist of CD47 it were observed variations in the efflux of NO from erythrocyte and an increase in the concentrations of GSNO, peroxinitrite, nitrite and nitrate of the erythrocytes. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the peptide 4N1K, on the metabolism of NO in the erythrocyte under high fibrinogen concentration and in the presence of inhibitors of the status of phosphorylation of protein band 3. In this in vitro study, whole blood samples were harvested from healthy subjects and NO, peroxynitrite, nitrite, nitrate and S-nitro-glutathione (GSNO) were determined in presence of 4N1K, calpeptine, Syk inhibitor and under high fibrinogen concentrations. The results obtained in erythrocytes under high fibrinogen levels when 4N1K is present with the Syk inhibitor or with calpeptine, showed in relation to the control samples increased significant concentrations of efflux of NO and of peroxynitrite, nitrite, nitrate and GSNO. In conclusion it was verified that in the in vitro model of hiperfibrinogenemia the peptide 4N1K, agonist of CD47, induces mobilization of NO in the erythrocyte in dependence of the status of phosphorylation of protein band 3.

  2. Quantitation of protein 3 content of circulating erythrocytes at the single-cell level

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, L.K.; Brown, L.K.; Dockter, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    The density and size of human erythrocytes has been roughly correlated with cell age, with the denser and smaller cells being older. Observations of this type have led to a hypothesis that the membranes of circulating erythrocytes are dynamic with respect to composition and that material is lost from the membrane during cell maturation and circulation. In this study, flow cytofluorimetry was used to investigate the distribution of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (protein 3) in heterogeneous samples of circulating red cells. We verified that protein 3 can be specifically and quantitatively labeled in intact human erythrocytes with eosin-5-maleimide, a luminescent probe. Individual cells were accordingly analyzed for size by forward light scattering and for protein 3 content by quantitation of eosin fluorescence. Initial results indicated that the smallest erythrocytes had a protein 3 content equal to that of the largest circulating erythrocytes. This result was independently verified by light scatter-activated cell sorting; direct measurement of cell diameters by microscopy verified that the cell sizes of erythrocytes showing the 10% greatest and 10% smallest light-scattering signal were indeed distinct. Independent analysis of the size-sorted erythrocytes for protein 3 content was accomplished by gel electrophoresis of stroma from 150,000 large and small erythrocytes. Quantitative scanning densitometry of silver-stained gels of prepared stroma showed that protein 3 content of each set of fractionated cells was equal and did not vary as a function of cell size. Taken in combination with the reported correlation between increasing red blood cell age and decreasing cell size, these results indicate that any loss of membranous material during the cell aging process is not random.

  3. Meta-analysis of rare and common exome chip variants identifies S1PR4 and other loci influencing blood cell traits.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Hematologic measures such as hematocrit and white blood cell (WBC) count are heritable and clinically relevant. We analyzed erythrocyte and WBC phenotypes in 52,531 individuals (37,775 of European ancestry, 11,589 African Americans, and 3,167 Hispanic Americans) from 16 population-based cohorts with Illumina HumanExome BeadChip genotypes. We then performed replication analyses of new discoveries in 18,018 European-American women and 5,261 Han Chinese. We identified and replicated four new erythrocyte trait-locus associations (CEP89, SHROOM3, FADS2, and APOE) and six new WBC loci for neutrophil count (S1PR4), monocyte count (BTBD8, NLRP12, and IL17RA), eosinophil count (IRF1), and total WBC count (MYB). The association of a rare missense variant in S1PR4 supports the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in leukocyte trafficking and circulating neutrophil counts. Loss-of-function experiments for S1pr4 in mouse and s1pr4 in zebrafish demonstrated phenotypes consistent with the association observed in humans and altered kinetics of neutrophil recruitment and resolution in response to tissue injury. PMID:27399967

  4. Erythrocyte fragility and chronic intermittent pigmenturia in a dog.

    PubMed

    LeGrange, S N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Grindem, C B; Beutler, E

    1995-04-01

    A 2-year-old spayed female Shetland Sheepdog had recurrent episodes of discolored urine. Treatments administered for presumed urinary tract infection did not prevent recurrence. Episodes of pigmenturia appeared to correlate with stressful situations or excessive activity. Examination of urine sediment consistently revealed that RBC were not evident, despite a positive result for blood on urinalysis. This was suggestive of hemoglobinuria, and diagnostic testing was instituted to determine the underlying cause. Results of alkaline and osmotic fragility tests were useful in determining that an increase in erythrocyte fragility was the underlying cause of the recurrent pigmenturia. Erythrocyte fragility testing should be considered in animals that do not respond to appropriate treatments for pigmenturia. PMID:7768705

  5. Piezo1 plays a role in erythrocyte volume homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Faucherre, Adèle; Kissa, Karima; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Jopling, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitivity is an inherent property of virtually all cell types, allowing them to sense and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Stretch-activated ion channels represent a class of mechanosensitive proteins which allow cells to respond rapidly to changes in membrane tension; however their identity has remained elusive. The piezo genes have recently been identified as a family of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels. We set out to determine the role of piezo1 during zebrafish development. Here we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of piezo1 impairs erythrocyte survival without affecting hematopoiesis or differentiation. Our results demonstrate that piezo1 is involved in erythrocyte volume homeostasis, disruption of which results in swelling/lysis of red blood cells and consequent anemia. PMID:23872304

  6. Heat transport in laminar flow of erythrocyte suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, A S

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of thermal conductivity were made in laminar flow of dog and turkey erythrocyte suspensions in a stainless stell tube of about 1 mm ID. These measurements were independent of the shear rate, showing that the red cell motion relative to plasma in flowing blood had no effect on the heat transfer. Measurements of thermal conductivity were further made in suspensions of polystyrene spheres of 100 mum and were found to be dependent upon the shear rate. The Graetz solution corresponding to uniform wall temperature was used for determining the value of thermal conductivity in an apparatus calibrated with tap water. The overall accuracy of the results is within 10%. A model based on the particle rotation with the entrained fluid is proposed. It is pointed out that the diffusion of platelets, red cells, and possibly plasma proteins (such as fibrinogen) will be augmented if they happen to be in the hydrodynamic field of rotating erythrocytes. PMID:1150598

  7. Maturation of Plasmodium falciparum in multiply infected erythrocytes and the potential role in malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Orjih, Augustine U

    2014-11-01

    Erythrocytes containing two or more parasites, referred to here as multiply infected erythrocytes (MIEs), are common in the blood of humans infected by Plasmodium falciparum. It is necessary to study these cells closely because the excess numbers of parasites they contain suggest that they could be overloaded with virulence factors. Here, microscopic examinations of blood smears from patients showed that up to seven merozoites can successfully invade an erythrocyte and mature to ring stage. However, in vitro culture showed that only up to three parasites can mature to late schizont stage. These observations were made by culturing the parasites in erythrocytes containing hemoglobin AA (HbAA), HbAS, and HbSS. Biochemical analysis of saponin-concentrated culture suggests that more hemozoin is produced in a MIE than in a singly infected erythrocyte (SIE). Studies have shown that ingestion of excessive hemozoin destroys monocytes and neutrophils, which could impair the immune system. Cultured parasites were also examined by transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that the quantity of knobs was dramatically increased on the membranes of erythrocytes containing multiple schizonts, compared to those containing only one schizont. Knobs contain, among other things, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) complex which mediates sequestration and promotes severe malaria. These findings suggest that P. falciparum increases its virulence by producing MIEs. On sexual life cycle of the parasite, microphotographs are presented in this report showing, for the first time, that two gametocytes can develop in one erythrocyte; they are referred to here as twin gametocytes. It is not known whether they can infect mosquitoes. PMID:25120031

  8. Seasonal changes of blood values in the Andean mouse Abrothrix andinus.

    PubMed

    Rosenmann, M; Ruiz, G

    1993-05-01

    1. Biomonthly measurements of hematological indices were conducted in freshly captured Abrothrix andinus (Rodentia:Cricetidae) over a period of one year. 2. All blood values were in the same range for adult males and females, but juveniles showed lower red blood cell counts (RBC) and erythrocytes of larger size. 3. High RBC numbers, a slight but significant increase of blood hemoglobin concentration (Hb), and a significant decrease in mean cell volume (MCV) were found during the winter months. 4. Hematocrit values (Hct) and the mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC) were relatively constant throughout the year. 5. Plasticity of MCV and an inverse correlation between size and the number of RBC may provide an enlarged diffusion area during winter. This mechanism appears to be a useful seasonal adjustment, since the increase of Hct and the concurrent increase in blood viscosity are avoided. PMID:8099866

  9. Influence of NO-containing gas flow on various parameters of energy metabolism in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Martusevich, A K; Solov'yova, A G; Peretyagin, S P; Karelin, V I; Selemir, V D

    2014-11-01

    We studied the influence of NO-containing gas phase on some parameters of energy metabolism in human erythrocytes. Whole blood samples were aerated with gas flows from the Plazon instrument (NO concentrations 800 and 80 ppm) and from the experimental generator (75 ppm). Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in direct and reverse reactions, lactate level, and a number of derived coefficients were estimated. Treatment of blood with 800 ppm NO inhibited erythrocyte energy metabolism, and its 10-fold dilution attenuated the effect. The use of ROS-free gas flow containing 75 ppm of NO promoted optimization of the process under investigation. PMID:25403392

  10. Diabetic foot disease is associated with reduced erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Avivit; Livshits, Leonid; Srulevich, Ariel; Raz, Itamar; Yedgar, Shaul; Barshtein, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic foot disease is multifactorial and encompasses microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Abnormal blood rheology may also play a part in its development. Using a cell flow analyser (CFA), we examined the association between erythrocyte deformability and diabetic foot disease. Erythrocytes from diabetic patients with no known microvascular complications (n = 11) and patients suffering from a diabetic foot ulcer (n = 11) were isolated and their average elongation ratio (ER) as well as the ER distribution curve were measured. Average ER was decreased in the diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with diabetes and no complications (1·64 ± 0·07 versus 1·71 ± 0·1; P = 0·036). A significant rise in the percentage of minimally deformable red blood cells RBCs in diabetic foot patients compared with the patients with no complications was observed (37·89% ± 8·12% versus 30·61% ± 10·17%; P = 0·039) accompanied by a significant decrease in the percentage of highly deformable RBCs (12·47% ± 4·43% versus 17·49% ± 8·17% P = 0·046). Reduced erythrocyte deformability may slow capillary flow in the microvasculature and prolong wound healing in diabetic foot patients. Conversely, it may be the low-grade inflammatory state imposed by diabetic foot disease that reduces erythrocyte deformability. Further study of the rheological changes associated with diabetic foot disease may enhance our understanding of its pathogenesis and aid in the study of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26018868

  11. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Manas; Soni, Harsh; Sood, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that makes them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of Ca++ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  12. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-07-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a 'sterile' environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. 'Non-culturability', reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis'). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  13. The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Marnie; Bester, Janette; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Blood in healthy organisms is seen as a ‘sterile’ environment: it lacks proliferating microbes. Dormant or not-immediately-culturable forms are not absent, however, as intracellular dormancy is well established. We highlight here that a great many pathogens can survive in blood and inside erythrocytes. ‘Non-culturability’, reflected by discrepancies between plate counts and total counts, is commonplace in environmental microbiology. It is overcome by improved culturing methods, and we asked how common this would be in blood. A number of recent, sequence-based and ultramicroscopic studies have uncovered an authentic blood microbiome in a number of non-communicable diseases. The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as ‘dysbiosis’). Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. ‘Dysbiosis’ is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues. To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term ‘atopobiosis’ for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location. Atopobiosis may contribute to the dynamics of a variety of inflammatory diseases. Overall, it seems that many more chronic, non-communicable, inflammatory diseases may have a microbial component than are presently considered, and may be treatable using bactericidal antibiotics or vaccines. PMID:25940667

  14. Studies on blood rheology in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Persson, S U; Gustavsson, C G; Larsson, H; Persson, S

    1991-10-01

    The rheologic properties of blood were studied in 6 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) and compared with those of a control group of 10 healthy subjects. Blood viscosity was studied with a rotational viscometer and blood cell deformability with a filtrometer giving values for clogging particles (CP) and red cell transit time (RCTT). Blood viscosity at varying shear rates was found to be increased both at natural (p less than 0.025-0.005) and standardized hematocrit, 45% (p less than 0.05 at 40 s-1) in patients with PPH. Red cell deformability was reduced as indicated by a significant increase of RCTT (p less than 0.01). Increased values for hematocrit (p less than 0.001), hemoglobin concentration (p less than 0.001), and erythrocyte count (p less than 0.005) were found and decreased values for mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (p less than 0.025) and HDL cholesterol (p less than 0.005). Plasma viscosity, white cell deformability, white cell count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and plasma fibrinogen concentration did not significantly differ from the values found in the control group. It is concluded that patients with PPH have impaired blood rheology. The hemorheologic abnormalities in these patients may be of hemodynamic significance. PMID:1952272

  15. Structural Changes of Erythrocyte Surface Glycoconjugates after Treatment with Medicinal Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vitak, Taras Y; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia there is dysregulation of ion homeostasis, violation of redox metabolism and functioning of membrane enzymes, as well as changes in the structural and functional states of erythrocyte membranes. As a result, the aggregation ability of erythrocytes increased and their deformability decreased. These changes lead to complications to microcirculation blood flow and provoke the development of vascular complications caused by diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the effect of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on the structure of carbohydrate determinants of surface membrane glycoconjugates of rat peripheral blood erythrocytes under both normal conditions and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. The research was carried out using Wistar outbred white rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg for 14 days. The treatment of diabetic rats by submerged culture mycelium powder restored the physiological balance between sialylation and desialylation processes, renewed the membrane surface charge of red blood cells, normalized aggregation properties, and caused the structural recovery of oligosaccharide chains of erythrocyte membrane surface glycoconjugates. The discovered changes show an improvement in the erythrocyte functional state and rejuvenation of their population caused by biologically active compounds of the studied medicinal mushrooms. PMID:26756299

  16. Some physiologic blood values of wild diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.

    1972-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 54 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), 30 lesser scaup (A. affinis), 3 ring-necks (A. collaris), and 3 buffleheads (Bucephala albeola), which were wintering on Chesapeake Bay. These blood samples were used for: red blood cell counts (cans. 2.56 x 106/mm3; scaup 2.45 x 106/mm3; ring-necks 2.50 x 106mm3; buffiehead 2.64 x lO6/mm3), packed cell volume (cans. 52.2%; scaup 57.1%; ring-neck 49.1%; buffieheads 54.3%), total protein (cans. 4.4 g/100 ml; scaup 4.4 g/100 mi; ring-neck 3.5 g/100 ml; buffiehead 3.8 g/100 ml), erythrocyte measurements, and electrophoretic analysis of plasma and serum. Variations between individuals of the same species and sex were slight but a possible difference between male and female erythrocyte numbers and packed cell volumes was evident in the canvasback and scaup samples.

  17. Impact of correcting the lymphocyte count to improve the sensitivity of TB antigen-specific peripheral blood-based quantitative T cell assays (T-SPOT.®TB and QFT-GIT)

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N.; Lehloenya, Rannakoe J.; Meldau, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background The standardized blood-based TB antigen-specific T cell assay, T-SPOT.®TB, is ~10% more sensitive than QuantiFERON®-TB-GIT (QFT-GIT) in detecting presumed latent TB infection (LTBI). Whilst T-SPOT.®TB uses a fixed number of lymphocytes per well, QFT-GIT uses a fixed volume of blood (~1 mL). However, the person-to-person lymphocyte count can vary by 2 to 3 fold. We hypothesized that this variability could explain the reduced sensitivity of QFT-GIT. The findings could have potential implications for improving case detection. Methods T-SPOT.®TB was compared to QFT-GIT readouts before and after normalization of lymphocyte count (by adjusting the blood volume or lymphocyte enrichment within a fixed 1 mL volume) to an arbitrary value of 2.5×106 cells/mL. Within-test variability was evaluated to meaningfully interpret results. Results In patient-specific optimization experiments IFN-γ concentrations significantly increased when QFT-GIT positive samples were enriched with increasing concentrations of lymphocytes (1×106 vs. 2.5×106 cells/mL). However, for the group as a whole lymphocyte enrichment whilst maintaining a ~1 mL volume, compared to un-enriched samples, did not significantly increase IFN-γ [median (range): 0.03 (0–4.41) vs. 0.20 (0–2.40) IU/mL; P=0.64]. There was also no increase in IFN-γ readouts when QFT-GIT lymphocyte numbers were corrected (to 2.5×106 lymphocytes/mL) using volume adjustment. Interestingly, adjusted values were significantly lower than unadjusted ones [median (range): 0.02 (0–12.93) vs. 0.09 (0–14.23) IU/mL; P=0.008]. Conclusions In QFT-GIT negative subjects lymphocyte enrichment did not increase QFT-GIT positivity rates. The reduced clinical sensitivity of the QFT-GIT assay, compared to T-SPOT.®TB, is likely to be due to factors other than lymphocyte count alone. Further studies are required to clarify these findings. PMID:27076944

  18. Hematology and blood chemistry of macaws, Ara rubrogenys.

    PubMed

    García del Campo, A L; Huecas, V; Fernández, A; Puerta, M L

    1991-01-01

    1. The hematology and blood chemistry of 10 captive adult Ara rubrogenys is described. 2. They showed 3,650,000 erythrocytes/mm3, a hematocrit of 49.9% and a blood hemoglobin content of 15.2 g/100 ml. 3. Leukocyte number was 10,000 cells/mm3, the differential counts being 42.2% heterophils, 0.8% eosinophils, 2.4% basophils, 49.9% lymphocytes and 4.5% monocytes. 4. The number of thrombocytes was 21,800 cells/mm3. 5. Plasma composition was (mg/100 ml): glucose 295; triglycerides 102; cholesterol 166; urea 5.8; uric acid 5; creatinine 0.3; bilirubin was not detected and total protein concentration was 3.2 g/100 ml. Enzymatic activities were (units/1): GOT 188; GPT 10 and alkaline phosphatase 315. PMID:1685390

  19. Long-term physiological effects of enhanced O/sub 2/ release by inositol hexaphosphate-loaded erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Teisseire, B.; Ropars, C.; Villereal, M.C.; Nicolau, C.

    1987-10-01

    A continuous lysing and resealing procedure with erythrocytes permitted incorporation in these cells of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP/sub 6/), a strong allosteric effector of Hb. This leads to significant rightward shifts of the HbO/sub 2/ dissociation curves with in vitro P/sub 50/, values increasing from 32.2 +/- 1.8 torr for control erythrocytes to 86 +/- 60 torr. The shape of the dissociation curve was still sigmoidal, although the Hill coefficient was decreased. The life span of InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes equaled that of control erythrocytes. Erythrocyte-survival studies were done using /sub 51/Cr labeling of cells. The long-term physiological effects of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes on piglets were increased O/sub 2/ release and reduced cardiac output. The reduced O/sub 2/ affinity of the InsP/sub 6/-loaded erythrocytes was still effective 20 days after transfusion in awake piglets. The electrolyte concentration appeared stable over the 5-day observation period except for a transient, but significant, hyperkalemia immediately after transfusion. The reductions in the O/sub 2/ affinity of Hb reported here are large compared with previously reported values. Introduction of InsP/sub 6/ into viable erythrocytes improves tissue oxygenation when, for any reason, normal blood flow is impaired.

  20. Effects of cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hideki; Kondo, Takahito; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Tagami, Sei-Ichi; Kuroshima, Akihiro; Kawakami, Yoshikazu

    1991-06-01

    Effects of acute and chronic cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes were investigated. Blood from both cold-acclimated (CA) and cold-adapted (CG) rats had significantly lower concentrations of glutathione than blood from control animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased significantly in CA rats and tended to rise in CG rats. Activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes was inconsistent in that it tended to increase in CA rats but decreased significantly in CG rats. The results may imply that CG rats suffered deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, there were marked decreases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in acutely cold-exposed rats in conjunction with unchanged levels of glutathione. In all treatments the state of riboflavin metabolism was estimated to be adequate, since no increases were observed in the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient.

  1. Erythrocytes oxidative damage and hematological effects of 2,4,4',5-tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone in rats.

    PubMed

    Badraoui, Riadh; Abdelmoula, Nouha B; Rebai, Tarek

    2011-07-01

    The effects of subchronic exposure to tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone (TCDS) on hematological parameters [white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrite (Ht) levels] were examined. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes was also assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and enzyme antioxidant activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)]. TCDS was administered orally, dissolved in water, ad libitum to 12 female rats at 28.9 mg/kg/day for 6 or 12 weeks. Results showed that TCDS induced significant decreases in RBC, Hb, and Ht. Whereas MCV, MCH, and MCHC remain unchanged and WBC increased only in the second period of the study. Moreover erythrocyte TBARS level increased, and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, GPx, and CAT) activities decreased. We concluded that TCDS intoxication promotes erythrocyte oxidative damage and disrupt hematological constituents in rats. PMID:20382005

  2. The Effect of Covalently-Attached ATRP-Synthesized Polymers on Membrane Stability and Cytoprotection in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Clafshenkel, William P.; Murata, Hironobu; Andersen, Jill; Creeger, Yehuda; Russell, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrocytes have been described as advantageous drug delivery vehicles. In order to ensure an adequate circulation half-life, erythrocytes may benefit from protective enhancements that maintain membrane integrity and neutralize oxidative damage of membrane proteins that otherwise facilitate their premature clearance from circulation. Surface modification of erythrocytes using rationally designed polymers, synthesized via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), may further expand the field of membrane-engineered red blood cells. This study describes the fate of ATRP-synthesized polymers that were covalently attached to human erythrocytes as well as the effect of membrane engineering on cell stability under physiological and oxidative conditions in vitro. The biocompatible, membrane-reactive polymers were homogenously retained on the periphery of modified erythrocytes for at least 24 hours. Membrane engineering stabilized the erythrocyte membrane and effectively neutralized oxidative species, even in the absence of free-radical scavenger-containing polymers. The targeted functionalization of Band 3 protein by NHS-pDMAA-Cy3 polymers stabilized its monomeric form preventing aggregation in the presence of the crosslinking reagent, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3). A free radical scavenging polymer, NHS-pDMAA-TEMPO˙, provided additional protection of surface modified erythrocytes in an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Preserving or augmenting cytoprotective mechanisms that extend circulation half-life is an important consideration for the use of red blood cells for drug delivery in various pathologies, as they are likely to encounter areas of imbalanced oxidative stress as they circuit the vascular system. PMID:27331401

  3. Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

  4. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  5. Profiling the erythrocyte membrane proteome isolated from patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Bruno M; Charro, Nuno; Blonder, Josip; Lopes, Carlos; Azevedo, Pilar; Bugalho de Almeida, António; Chan, King C; Prieto, DaRue A; Issaq, Haleem; Veenstra, Timothy D; Penque, Deborah

    2012-12-01

    Structural and metabolic alterations in erythrocytes play an important role in the pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whether these dysfunctions are related to the modulation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients diagnosed with COPD remains to be determined. Herein, a comparative proteomic profiling of the erythrocyte membrane fraction isolated from peripheral blood of smokers diagnosed with COPD and smokers with no COPD was performed using differential (16)O/(18)O stable isotope labeling. A total of 219 proteins were quantified as being significantly differentially expressed within the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of smokers with COPD and healthy smokers. Functional pathway analysis showed that the most enriched biofunctions were related to cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development, immune response, oxidative stress and cytoskeleton. Chorein (VPS13A), a cytoskeleton related protein whose defects had been associated with the presence of cell membrane deformation of circulating erythrocytes was found to be down-regulated in the membrane fraction of erythrocytes obtained from COPD patients. Methemoglobin reductase (CYB5R3) was also found to be underexpressed in these cells, suggesting that COPD patients may be at higher risk for developing methemoglobinemia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22538302

  6. Stiffness of normal and pathological erythrocytes studied by means of atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dulińska, Ida; Targosz, Marta; Strojny, Wojciech; Lekka, Małgorzata; Czuba, Paweł; Balwierz, Walentyna; Szymoński, Marek

    2006-03-31

    During recent years, atomic force microscopy has become a powerful technique for studying the mechanical properties (such as stiffness, viscoelasticity, hardness and adhesion) of various biological materials. The unique combination of high-resolution imaging and operation in physiological environment made it useful in investigations of cell properties. In this work, the microscope was applied to measure the stiffness of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Erythrocytes were attached to the poly-L-lysine-coated glass surface by fixation using 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 1 min. Different erythrocyte samples were studied: erythrocytes from patients with hemolytic anemias such as hereditary spherocytosis and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency patients with thalassemia, and patients with anisocytosis of various causes. The determined Young's modulus was compared with that obtained from measurements of erythrocytes from healthy subjects. The results showed that the Young's modulus of pathological erythrocytes was higher than in normal cells. Observed differences indicate possible changes in the organization of cell cytoskeleton associated with various diseases. PMID:16443279

  7. The first case of a complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, R; Prehu, M O; Beuzard, Y; Rosa, J

    1978-01-01

    An inherited and complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase was discovered in the erythrocytes of a 42-yr-old man of French origin whose blood hemoglobin concentration was 19.0 g/dl. Upon physical examination he was normal with the exception of a ruddy cyanosis. The morphology of his erythrocytes was also normal and there was no evidence of hemolysis. The erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level was below 3% of normal values and, as a consequence, the affinity of the cells for oxygen was increased. Diphosphoglycerate mutase activity was undetectable in erythrocytes as was that of diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of all the other erythrocyte enzymes that were tested were normal except for nomophosphoglycerate mutase which was diminished to 50% of the normal value. The levels of reduced glutathione, ATP, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and of triose phosphates were elevated, whereas those of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were decreased. This report sheds new light on the role of diphosphoglycerate mutase in the metabolism of erythrocytes. Images PMID:152321

  8. Chlorella is an effective dietary source of lutein for human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Taiki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Nakashima, Yuya; Maruyama, Isao; Higuchi, Ohki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella contains a high amount of carotenoids, especially lutein, and has received attention as a possible dietary source for improving carotenoid levels in human blood. In the present study, we performed a 2-month single arm human study, and investigated the efficacy of Chlorella supplementation (9 g Chlorella/day; equivalent to 32 mg lutein/day) on lutein and other carotenoid concentrations in plasma as well as erythrocytes of 12 healthy subjects. Following Chlorella supplementation, lutein was the predominant carotenoid in erythrocytes, showing a 4-fold increase (from 14 to 54 pmol/mL packed cells). After the one month without Chlorella ingestion, erythrocyte lutein then decreased to a basal level (17 pmol/mL packed cells). Erythrocyte carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene) levels were proportional to plasma carotenoid levels. The results suggest the transfer of Chlorella carotenoids, especially lutein, from plasma lipoprotein particles to the erythrocyte membrane. Chlorella intake would be effective for improving and maintaining lutein concentrations in human erythrocytes. PMID:24088514

  9. Impaired cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Cholera, Rushina; Brittain, Nathaniel J.; Gillrie, Mark R.; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Diakité, Séidina A. S.; Arie, Takayuki; Krause, Michael A.; Guindo, Aldiouma; Tubman, Abby; Fujioka, Hisashi; Diallo, Dapa A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Ho, May; Wellems, Thomas E.; Fairhurst, Rick M.

    2008-01-01

    Sickle trait, the heterozygous state of normal hemoglobin A (HbA) and sickle hemoglobin S (HbS), confers protection against malaria in Africa. AS children infected with Plasmodium falciparum are less likely than AA children to suffer the symptoms or severe manifestations of malaria, and they often carry lower parasite densities than AA children. The mechanisms by which sickle trait might confer such malaria protection remain unclear. We have compared the cytoadherence properties of parasitized AS and AA erythrocytes, because it is by these properties that parasitized erythrocytes can sequester in postcapillary microvessels of critical tissues such as the brain and cause the life-threatening complications of malaria. Our results show that the binding of parasitized AS erythrocytes to microvascular endothelial cells and blood monocytes is significantly reduced relative to the binding of parasitized AA erythrocytes. Reduced binding correlates with the altered display of P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), the parasite's major cytoadherence ligand and virulence factor on the erythrocyte surface. These findings identify a mechanism of protection for HbS that has features in common with that of hemoglobin C (HbC). Coinherited hemoglobin polymorphisms and naturally acquired antibodies to PfEMP-1 may influence the degree of malaria protection in AS children by further weakening cytoadherence interactions. PMID:18192399

  10. Decreased Antibiotic Prescription in an Italian Pediatric Population With Nonspecific and Persistent Upper Respiratory Tract Infections by Use of a Point-of-Care White Blood Cell Count, in Addition to Antibiotic Delayed Prescription Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Sassi, Roberto; Boccazzi, Antonio; del Gaizo, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test, in delayed antibiotic strategy, if the usages of a point-of-care leukocyte count would significantly decrease the prescription rate of antibiotics for children with nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections. A prospective clinical trial was performed in 23 primary care pediatric doctors’ offices on children with nonspecific upper respiratory tract infection with fever for at least 48 hours. The children were randomized into 2 groups: one using a point-of-care white blood cell (WBC) count as guidance and the other prescribing antibiotics to all children, according to delayed antibiotics prescription strategy. A total of 792 patients participated. In the WBC group (n = 437), 56 patients had WBC >15 000/mm3 and received antibiotics. At follow-up, an additional 44 children received antibiotics. In the control group (n = 355), antibiotics were prescribed to all children. The reduction of antibiotic usage was 77% between the groups. The decrease in antibiotic usage gave no influence on recovery, complications, or other medical outcome. PMID:27335990

  11. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Egler, Jasmin; Briglia, Marilena; Fazio, Antonella; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The natural phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor cantharidin, primarily used for topical treatment of warts, has later been shown to trigger tumor cell apoptosis and is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Similar to apoptosis of tumor cells, erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and translocation of cell membrane phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i), ceramide, oxidative stress and dysregulation of several kinases. Phosphatidylserine abundance at the erythrocyte surface was quantified utilizing annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide from antibody binding, and reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with cantharidin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥10 μg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥25 μg/mL), significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥25 μg/mL), but did not significantly modify ceramide abundance or ROS. The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following cantharidin treatment was not significantly blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+ but was abolished by kinase inhibitor staurosporine (1 μM) and slightly decreased by p38 inhibitor skepinone (2 μM). Exposure of erythrocytes to cantharidin triggers suicidal erythrocyte death with erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling, an effect sensitive to kinase inhibitors staurosporine and skepinone. PMID:26226001

  12. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe3+ protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 21 ± 2 μM, ca. 100× higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  13. Erythrocyte sodium/potassium ATPase activity in severe preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Adair, CD; Haupert, GT; Koh, HP; Wang, Y; Veille, J-C; Buckalew, V

    2011-01-01

    Objective Elevated blood levels of endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF) may decrease erythrocyte sodium pump activity in preeclampsia. As the highest EDLF levels might be expected in severe preeclampsia, we investigated sodium pump activity in that group of patients. Study Design Erythrocyte sodium pump activity was determined by 86Rubidium uptake (in nM per hour per 106 cells) in women with severe preeclampsia and those with normal pregnancies, matched for gestational age, and in healthy nonpregnant women (n = 12 in each group). Differences between groups were analyzed by a two-sided Student t-test. Result Sodium pump activity was significantly increased in normotensive pregnancies as compared with normotensive non-pregnant women (81.4 ± 8.4 vs 61.1 ± 7.4, mean ± s.d., p<0.05), and was decreased 43% in severe preeclamptic pregnancies as compared with normotensive pregnancies (46.4 ± 14.1 vs 81.4 ± 8.4, p<0.05). Conclusion Severe preeclampsia is associated with significantly lower erythrocyte sodim pump activity than normotensive pregnancy. These data suggest that plasma levels of a biologically active EDLF are elevated in patients with severe preeclampsia. PMID:19158804

  14. Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  15. Micronucleated erythrocytes in newborn rats exposed to raltegravir placental transfer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Gómez-Meda, Belinda Claudia; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés

    2014-01-01

    The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of irradiated erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Nabila S.; Desouky, Omar S.; Ismail, Nagla M.; Dakrory, Amira Z.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of gamma radiation on the lipid part of the erythrocyte membrane, and to test the efficiency of lipoic acid as a radioprotector. This effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed an increase in the number of spin density by 14%, 22% and 65% after exposure to 25, 50 and 100 Gy respectively; whereas there was a decline in the obtained density after incubation with lipoic acid by a factor of approximately 32%. The FT-IR spectra of the irradiated erythrocytes samples showed a marked decrease in the intensity of all characteristic peaks, which increased as the irradiation dose increased. The second-derivative of these spectra, allow the conformationally sensitive membrane acyl chain methylene stretching modes to be separated from the protein (mostly hemoglobin) vibrations that dominate the spectra of intact cells. The 2850 cm -1 band showed changes in the band shape and position after exposure to 50 and 100 Gy. Therefore it can be concluded that the band at 2850 cm -1 only is useful in monitoring the radiation effect of the lipids cell membrane intact cells.

  17. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Dobešová, Z; Loukotová, J; Nováková, O; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J

    2016-01-01

    Significant relationships between ion transport and membrane lipid composition (cholesterol, total phospholipids and sphingomyelins) were found in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats. In these animals mean cellular hemoglobin content correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Na(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Immature erythrocytes exhibit lower mean cellular hemoglobin content (MCHC) than mature ones. The aim of the present study was to find a relationship between erythrocyte maturity, membrane lipid composition and ion transport activity in Wistar rats aged three months which were subjected to repeated hemorrhage (blood loss 2 ml/day for 6 days) to enrich circulating erythrocytes with immature forms. Immature and mature erythrocyte fractions in control and hemorrhaged rats were separated by repeated centrifugation. Hemorrhaged rats had increased number of reticulocytes but reduced hematocrit and MCHC compared to control rats. Immature erythrocytes of hemorrhaged rats differed from mature ones of control animals by elevated Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, reduced Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity and increased Rb(+) leak. These ion transport changes in immature erythrocytes were accompanied by higher concentration of total phospholipids in their cell membranes. Membrane phospholipid content correlated positively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and cation leaks but negatively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Moreover, they were also negatively related with MCHC which correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Rb(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Thus certain abnormalities of erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition detected in hypertensive animals might be caused by higher incidence of immature cells. PMID:26988297

  18. Influence of Cocoa Flavanols and Procyanidins on Free Radical-induced Human Erythrocyte Hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin Yan; Schramm, Derek D.; Gross, Heidrun B.; Holt, Roberta R.; Kim, Sun H.; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine L.; Keen, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    Cocoa can be a rich source of antioxidants including the flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and catechin, and their oligomers (procyanidins). While these flavonoids have been reported to reduce the rate of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in experimental animal models, little is known about their effect on human erythrocyte hemolysis. The major objective of this work was to study the effect of a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage on the resistance of human erythrocytes to oxidative stress. A second objective was to assess the effects of select purified cocoa flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, the procyanidin Dimer B2 and one of its major metabolites, 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin, on free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in vitro. Peripheral blood was obtained from 8 healthy subjects before and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after consuming a flavonoid-rich cocoa beverage that provided 0.25 g/kg body weight (BW), 0.375 or 0.50 g/kg BW of cocoa. Plasma flavanol and dimer concentrations were determined for each subject. Erythrocyte hemolysis was evaluated using a controlled peroxidation reaction. Epicatechin, catechin, 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-(4β > 8)epicatechin (Dimer B2) were detected in the plasma within 1 h after the consumption of the beverage. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to hemolysis was reduced significantly following the consumption of the beverages. The duration of the lag time, which reflects the capacity of cells to buffer free radicals, was increased. Consistent with the above, the purified flavonoids, epicatechin, catechin, Dimer B2 and the metabolite 3ʹ-O-methyl epicatechin, exhibited dose-dependent protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 μM. Erythrocytes from subjects consuming flavonoid-rich cocoa show reduced susceptibility to free radical-induced hemolysis (p < 0.05). PMID:15712596

  19. Influence of fibrinogen and haematocrit on erythrocyte sedimentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Holley, L; Woodland, N; Hung, W T; Cordatos, K; Reuben, A

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of haematocrit, fibrinogen concentration and fibrinogen availability (amount of fibrinogen per red blood cell) on erythrocyte sedimentation. The Westergren technique was applied to blood samples from 36 subjects and to their blood manipulated to haematocrits of 10, 20, 30 and 40%. Readings were taken every 10 minutes for 300 minutes. Previous studies indicate that erythrocyte sedimentation occurs in three phases. In this study, we show that haematocrit has little influence on either the rate of fall of particles in the first phase (m1) or the duration of the first phase. This is also true for fibrinogen availability and for fibrinogen concentration at low haematocrits. At high haematocrits m1 increases with fibrinogen concentration. The rate of fall of rouleaux during phase 2 (m2) and ESR60 both decrease exponentially with haematocrit and increase linearly with fibrinogen concentration. While m2 is more closely correlated to fibrinogen availability than to fibrinogen concentration or to haematocrit, this is not the case for ESR60. Thus haematocrit, fibrinogen concentration and fibrinogen availability are more important to the velocity of sedimentation in the second phase than to the sedimenting velocity during phase 1 or to the duration of phase 1. PMID:10690265

  20. The marginal band and its role in the ellipsoidal shape of Geochelone carbonaria erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Coiro, J R; Brunner, A; Mitsutani, C Y; Weisz, V M; Fiori, A M

    1978-01-01

    Erythrocytes from a chelonian (Geochelone carbonaria) were submitted to physical and chemical treatments. Observations of their change in shape from ellipsoidal to spherical were made by means of light microscopy. A 100% change to the spherical shape was attained with erythrocytes under high temperature treatment (42 degrees C) for 45 min., and at room temperature (29 degrees C) plus colchicine, for 60 min. Erythrocytes kept at room temperature present changes in shape while those kept at low temperature (10 degrees C) did not exhibit significant changes in their original ellipsoidal shape, but displayed an intact marginal band (MB). By direct examination the diameter of microtubules was found to be nearly 300 A in the dissociated form and 0.70 mu when bundled. In cross section the value found for microtubule diameter was up to 210 A. These measures are compatible with those found by several other authors. Counting of microtubules by ultrathin sectioning indicated approximately 70 tubules per cell, a value that is higher than that found in other species. By means of electron microscopy the marginal band can be observed intact or dissociated into several dense rings formed by parallel microtubules running nearly or accompanying the periphery of the stroma. Temperature and colchicine are responsible for the depolymerization of the microtubules. In the stroma of spherical erythrocytes a dense peripheric fold can be observed but microtubules were never found. It is suggested therefore that the role of the marginal band is essential to maintain the ellipsoidal shape of chelonian erythrocytes. PMID:751572

  1. Anomalous diffusion of erythrocytes in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, O G

    1984-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of erythrocytes was measured using quasi-elastic light-scattering (QELS) techniques. The cells were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solutions with and without a macromolecule, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP[360]). In the presence of the PVP(360) an anomalously high diffusion coefficient was measured for metabolizing cells with a normal transmembrane potential. The results are in agreement with experiments on rouleau formation by red blood cells and are supportive of the hypothesis of a long-range coherent interaction between metabolically active biological cells. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:6478035

  2. Immune phagocytosis of Plasmodium yoelii-infected erythrocytes by macrophages and eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Tosta, C E; Wedderburn, N

    1980-01-01

    Unstimulated peritoneal cells from C57Bl mice were allowed to phagocytose in vitro different mixtures of Percoll-separated parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes (PE and NPE) from the blood of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii in the presence of immune and normal serum. Immune serum caused a significant enhancement of phagocytosis, and both the number of PE adhering to and/or ingested by 100 macrophages and the number of the latter cells engaged in phagocytosis was increased. The effect of immune serum was more marked when the ratio of PE/macrophages was 5--40/1, but was less at a ratio of 80/1, when considerable phagocytosis of PE occurred in the presence of normal serum. From 83--100% of the phagocytosed cells were parasitized erythrocytes, even when the ratio of PE/NPE was as low as 1/15. In the system used, macrophages were unable to discriminate between non-parasitized erythrocytes from infected mice and normal erythrocytes. Eosinophils were also observed to engage in phagocytosis of parasitized erythrocytes. Their activity was entirely dependent on immune serum and was never directed against non-parasitized red blood cells. PMID:7460387

  3. Serum pantetheinase/vanin levels regulate erythrocyte homeostasis and severity of malaria.

    PubMed

    Rommelaere, Samuel; Millet, Virginie; Rihet, Pascal; Atwell, Scott; Helfer, Emmanuèle; Chasson, Lionel; Beaumont, Carole; Chimini, Giovanna; Sambo, Maria do Rosário; Viallat, Annie; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia. Therefore, scoring pantetheinase in serum may serve as a severity marker in malaria infection. This disease triggers an acute stress in erythrocytes, which enhances cytoadherence and hemolysis. We speculated that serum pantetheinase might contribute to erythrocyte resistance to stress under homeostatic conditions. We show that mutant mice with a reduced serum PA are anemic and prone to phenylhydrazine-induced anemia. A cytofluorometric and spectroscopic analysis documented an increased frequency of erythrocytes with an autofluorescent aging phenotype. This is associated with an enhanced oxidative stress and shear stress-induced hemolysis. Red blood cell transfer and bone marrow chimera experiments show that the aging phenotype is not cell intrinsic but conferred by the environment, leading to a shortening of red blood cell half-life. Therefore, serum pantetheinase level regulates erythrocyte life span and modulates the risk of developing complicated malaria. PMID:26343328

  4. On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

  5. Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  6. EFFECT OF CHEMOTHERAPY ON THE IN VIVO FREQUENCY OF GLYCOPHORIN A "NULL" VARIANT ERYTHROCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...

  7. [Two-week magnetic deprivation does not alter rheologic parameters of rat's erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Katiukhin, L N

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the work was to explore likelihood of impairment of erythrocytes deformation and aggregation properties in a compensated magnetic field of the Earth. It was shown that complete magnetic deprivation does not alter rat's hemorheology substantially. Stress-related changes were found neither in blood nor adrenals of the animals. PMID:24490287

  8. Eryptosis Indices as a Novel Predictive Parameter for Biocompatibility of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qian; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Yao; Xiang, Lixin; Li, Fengjie; Deng, Xiaojun; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Li; Chen, Lili; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) have been widely used in clinical diagnosis. Hemocompatibility of the nanoparticles is usually evaluated by hemolysis. However, hemolysis assessment does not measure the dysfunctional erythrocytes with pathological changes on the unbroken cellular membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of suicidal death of erythrocytes (i.e. eryptosis indices) as a novel predictive and prognostic parameter, and to determine the impact of Fe3O4-MNPs on cellular membrane structure and the rheology properties of blood in circulation. Our results showed that phosphatidylserine externalization assessment was significantly more sensitive than classical hemolysis testing in evaluating hemocompatibility. Although no remarkable changes of histopathology, hematology and serum biochemistry indices were observed in vivo, Fe3O4-MNPs significantly affected hemorheology indices including erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, red blood cell aggregation index, and erythrocyte electrophoresis time, which are related to the mechanical properties of the erythrocytes. Oxidative stress induced calcium influx played a critical role in the eryptotic activity of Fe3O4-MNPs. This study demonstrated that Fe3O4-MNPs cause eryptosis and changes in flow properties of blood, suggesting that phosphatidylserine externalization can serve as a predictive parameter for hemocompatibility assay. PMID:26537855

  9. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding. PMID:26703732

  10. Triggering of Programmed Erythrocyte Death by Alantolactone

    PubMed Central

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Egler, Jasmin; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The sesquiterpene alantolactone counteracts malignancy, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Signaling of alantolactone induced apoptosis involves altered gene expression and mitochondrial depolarization. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and oxidative stress. The present study explored, whether alantolactone stimulates eryptosis. To this end, erythrocyte volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface from FITC-annexin-V-binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and oxidative stress from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to alantolactone (≥20 μM) significantly decreased erythrocyte forward scatter and increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells. Alantolactone significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (60 μM), ceramide abundance (60 μM) and DCFDA fluorescence (≥40 μM). The effect of alantolactone (60 μM) on annexin-V-binding was not significantly modified by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, alantolactone stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect paralleled by increase of [Ca2+]i, ceramide abundance and oxidative stress. PMID:25533522

  11. Irradiation Can Selectively Kill Tumor Cells while Preserving Erythrocyte Viability in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Qing; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Yin; Wang, Lie-Ju; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Yan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of how to safely apply intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) in cancer surgery has not yet been obtained. Here, we investigated the optimal dose of 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation for killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901), and colonic carcinoma (SW620) tumor cells while preserving co-cultured erythrocytes obtained from 14 healthy adult volunteers. HepG2, SGC7901, or SW620 cells were mixed into the aliquots of erythrocytes. After the mixed cells were treated with 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation (30, 50, and 100 Gy), tumor cells and erythrocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation in Percoll with a density of 1.063 g/ml. The viability, clonogenicity, DNA synthesis, tumorigenicity, and apoptosis of the tumor cells were determined by MTT assay, plate colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, subcutaneous xenograft implantation into immunocompromised mice, and annexin V/7-AAD staining, respectively. The ATP concentration, 2,3-DPG level, free Hb concentration, osmotic fragility, membrane phosphatidylserine externalization, blood gas variables, reactive oxygen species levels, and superoxide dismutase levels in erythrocytes were analyzed. We found that 137Cs gamma-ray irradiation at 50 Gy effectively inhibited the viability, proliferation, and tumorigenicity of HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells without markedly damaging the oxygen-carrying ability or membrane integrity or increasing the oxidative stress of erythrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrated that 50 Gy irradiation in a standard 137Cs blood irradiator might be a safe and effective method of inactivating HepG2, SGC7901, and SW620 cells mixed with erythrocytes, which might help to safely allow IBS in cancer surgery. PMID:26018651

  12. Structurally conserved erythrocyte-binding domain in Plasmodium provides a versatile scaffold for alternate receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyk, Jakub; Lim, Nicholas T. Y.; Arnott, Alicia; He, Wen-Qiang; Nguitragool, Wang; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Mok, Yee-Foong; Murphy, James M.; Smith, Katherine R.; Lee, Stuart; Bahlo, Melanie; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites gain entry into human red blood cells is essential for developing strategies to stop blood stage infection. Plasmodium vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes, which are immature red blood cells. The organism has two erythrocyte-binding protein families: namely, the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) and the reticulocyte-binding protein (PvRBP) families. Several members of the PvRBP family bind reticulocytes, specifically suggesting a role in mediating host cell selectivity of P. vivax. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first high-resolution crystal structure of an erythrocyte-binding domain from PvRBP2a, solved at 2.12 Å resolution. The monomeric molecule consists of 10 α-helices and one short β-hairpin, and, although the structural fold is similar to that of PfRh5—the essential invasion ligand in Plasmodium falciparum—its surface properties are distinct and provide a possible mechanism for recognition of alternate receptors. Sequence alignments of the crystallized fragment of PvRBP2a with other PvRBPs highlight the conserved placement of disulfide bonds. PvRBP2a binds mature red blood cells through recognition of an erythrocyte receptor that is neuraminidase- and chymotrypsin-resistant but trypsin-sensitive. By examining the patterns of sequence diversity within field isolates, we have identified and mapped polymorphic residues to the PvRBP2a structure. Using mutagenesis, we have also defined the critical residues required for erythrocyte binding. Characterization of the structural features that govern functional erythrocyte binding for the PvRBP family provides a framework for generating new tools that block P. vivax blood stage infection. PMID:26715754

  13. [Induction of DNA damage in blood leucocytes and of cytogenetic injuries in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes in mice exposed to low-LET and high-LET radiation and in their progeny].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A; Zaichkina, S I; Sirota, N P; Abdullaev, S A; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Sorokina, S S; Romanchenko, S P; Smirnova, E N

    2014-01-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the molecular and cellular levels of the response of the hematopoietic system in mice and their progeny to the action of low-LET and high-LET radiation at different times after exposure. The damage to the genome at the molecular level was assessed by the comet assay in peripheral blood leucocytes, whereas at the cellular level it was estimated by means of the micronuclear test in the marrow cells, after exposure of mice to X-radiation of 1, 3 and 5 Gy and to a high-LET low-intensity radiation at thedoses of 0.14 and 0.35 Gy, as well as to a combined effect of these types of radiation. When accessing the level of the DNA damage to individual cells by the comet assay, we also used, apart from a commonly accepted parameter %TDNA, additional characteristics: the proportions of leucocytes with an intact and highly fragmented DNA. Using these parameters, we detected the changes characterizing the dynamics of the leukocyte population in mouse blood at different times after the action of X-ray and high-LET radiation. It was found that: (1) the DNA damage increases with the dose of high-LET radiation; (2) the level of damage in the progeny of the animals exposed to high-LET radiation does not differ from that in unirradiated animals both at the molecular and cytogenetic levels; and (3) a decrease in the radiosensitivity of the progeny of the mice exposed to high-LET radiation at a dose of 0.35 Gy makes itself evident only at the molecular level, which may point to the possible transgeneration transmission of genomic lesions. PMID:25775822

  14. Effect of an allostatic modulator on stress blood indicators and meat quality of commercial young bulls in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio Lozano, M S; Méndez Medina, R D; Reyes Mayorga, K; Rubio García, M E; Ovando, M A; Ngapo, T M; Galindo Maldonado, F A

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of an allostatic modulator (AM) on stress blood indicators and meat quality traits, the feed of 80 non-castrated 18-20 month-old bulls was supplemented with 10 g/day of an AM for 30 days before slaughter. Another 80 bulls served as control animals. The AM was comprised of ascorbic acid, acetoxybenzoic acid and sodium and potassium chloride. Blood samples were taken at slaughter for analyses of hematocrit value, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations. Post-mortem measures of meat color and pH were made at 24h and color, shear force and cooking loss on meat from 20 animals at 28 days. The AM supplementation resulted in lower hematocrit value, erythrocyte count and glucose level (P<0.05), higher a* (P<0.0001) and b* (P<0.0001) at 24h and lower b* (P<0.05) at 28 days. Thus AM treatment improved some stress blood indicators and meat color and therefore merits further investigation. PMID:25817802

  15. [Erythrocyte antigen for the rapid intravital diagnosis of fowl typhoid and pullorum disease].

    PubMed

    Giurov, B; Kostov, G

    1983-01-01

    A stable erythrocyte antigen was obtained for the rapid diagnosis of typhoid and pullorum disease in birds, which was tested under laboratory and field conditions. It was found that with the use of whole blood or serum taken from birds that had been either experimentally infected or had died of spontaneous infection of Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella enteritidis the erythrocyte antigen was substantially superior to the routinely used colour ordinary test-antigen in terms of time consumed, intensity, and number of reacting birds. Discussed is the effect of its quick adoption into practice on the basis of its higher epizootiologic, epidemiologic, and economic value. PMID:6364560

  16. Functional analysis of erythrocyte determinants of Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Amy K.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2012-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum parasite is an obligate intracellular pathogen whose invasion and remodeling of the human erythrocyte results in the clinical manifestations of malarial disease. The functional analysis of erythrocyte determinants of invasion and growth is a relatively unexplored frontier in malaria research, encompassing studies of natural variation of the erythrocyte, as well as genomic, biochemical and chemical biological and transgenic approaches. These studies have allowed the functional analysis of the erythrocyte in vitro, resulting in the discovery of critical erythrocyte determinants of Plasmodium infection. Here, we will focus on the varied approaches used for the study of the erythrocyte in Plasmodium infection, with a particular emphasis on erythrocyte invasion. PMID:22726752

  17. The Cell Adhesion Molecule “CAR” and Sialic Acid on Human Erythrocytes Influence Adenovirus In Vivo Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Wodrich, Harald; Billet, Olivier; Perreau, Matthieu; Hippert, Claire; Mennechet, Franck; Schoehn, Guy; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Dreja, Hanna; Ibanes, Sandy; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Wang, Jennifer P.; Finberg, Robert W.; Cusack, Stephen; Kremer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it has been known for 50 years that adenoviruses (Ads) interact with erythrocytes ex vivo, the molecular and structural basis for this interaction, which has been serendipitously exploited for diagnostic tests, is unknown. In this study, we characterized the interaction between erythrocytes and unrelated Ad serotypes, human 5 (HAd5) and 37 (HAd37), and canine 2 (CAV-2). While these serotypes agglutinate human erythrocytes, they use different receptors, have different tropisms and/or infect different species. Using molecular, biochemical, structural and transgenic animal-based analyses, we found that the primary erythrocyte interaction domain for HAd37 is its sialic acid binding site, while CAV-2 binding depends on at least three factors: electrostatic interactions, sialic acid binding and, unexpectedly, binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human erythrocytes. We show that the presence of CAR on erythrocytes leads to prolonged in vivo blood half-life and significantly reduced liver infection when a CAR-tropic Ad is injected intravenously. This study provides i) a molecular and structural rationale for Ad–erythrocyte interactions, ii) a basis to improve vector-mediated gene transfer and iii) a mechanism that may explain the biodistribution and pathogenic inconsistencies found between human and animal models. PMID:19119424

  18. [The influence of extracorporeal laser radiation on structural indices of erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Khetsuriani, R G; Aladashvili, L M; Arabuli, M B; Tophuria, D Z; Tchlikadze, N G

    2015-01-01

    Object of the research was to study the diffractometric indices of erythrocytes, while 1 ml of the blood of the experimental animals was irradiated extracorporally by helium-neon laser. For this purpose 1 ml blood was taken from normal weight, (1200 gr) grown up shinshila rabbits, that we divided into 7 groups and irradiated with 10 vat helium-neon laser during 0.5-1 minutes. After irradiation blood was injected back to the organism of rabbits. After 2-6 hours from irradiation blood was taken from veins, to study by electronic microscope and later to be processed by diffractometric analysis method. The examinations testify that after extracorporeal irradiation diffractometric characteristics of erythrocytes' membranes are lower than after general irradiation, which indicates to the different energetic possibilities of laser. The extracorporeal irradiation, performed by laser and input of radiated blood back to organism is considered to be a shock therapy from the side of erythrocytes, which promote the defense function of the organism itself. The base for the shock therapy should be important factors such as homeostasis, compensative-adaptive mechanisms and so on. Exactly this above mentioned should be manifested after the sensitized cells are led back to the body (1 ml of blood) and with their existence they should promote display of the defense mechanisms. PMID:25693223

  19. Increased erythrocyte adhesion to VCAM-1 during pulsatile flow: Application of a microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    White, Jennell; Lancelot, Moira; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hines, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by microvascular occlusion mediated by adhesive interactions of sickle erythrocytes (SSRBCs) to the endothelium. Most in vitro flow adhesion assays measure SSRBC adhesion during continuous flow, although in vivo SSRBC adhesive interactions occur during pulsatile flow. Using a well-plate microfluidic flow adhesion system, we demonstrate that isolated SSRBCs adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) at greater levels during pulsatile versus continuous flow. A significant increase in adhesive interactions was observed between all pulse frequencies 1 Hz to 2 Hz (60–120 beats/min) when compared to non-pulsatile flow. Adhesion of isolated SSRBCs and whole blood during pulsatile flow was unaffected by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and exposure of SSRBCs to pulsatile flow did not affect the intrinsic adhesive properties of SSRBCs. The cell type responsible for increased adhesion of whole blood varied from patient to patient. We conclude that low flow periods of the pulse cycle allow more adhesive interactions between sickle erythrocytes and VCAM-1, and sickle erythrocyte adhesion in the context of whole blood may better reflect physiologic cellular interactions. The microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay used in this study may have applications for clinical assessment of sickle erythrocyte adhesion during pulsatile flow. PMID:24898561

  20. Importance of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) to marine toxicology studies.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Camacho-Magaña, Claudia; Gómez-Meda, Belinda; Ramos-Ibarra, María; Batista-González, Cecilia; Zúñiga-González, G

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the presence of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNES) from peripheral blood of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) to evaluate the possibility to use this species as potential bioindicator of genotoxic compounds. Forty-eight blood samples from 12 bottlenose dolphins were obtain from three Mexican dolphinariums, and from 10 dolphins was possible to obtain more than one sample at different sampling times. Smears were processed and observed with an epifluorescence microscope. The average of MNES and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) from the 48 samples was 24.3 +/- 6.1 MNES/10,000 total erythrocytes (TE), and 9.1 +/- 5.5 PCE/1,000 TE. MNES and PCE number did not show differences between gender and age. No variations in the MNES values of the bottlenose dolphins that were sampled more than one occasion were found. Comparisons among dolphinariums revealed differences in MNES frequency, with the highest significant frequency observed in dolphins from dolphinarium "A" (26.0 +/- 5.9 MNES/10,000 TE) than dolphinarium "B" (19.5 +/- 3.1 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.05) and dolphinarium "C" (18.6 +/- 3.5 MNES/10,000 TE) (p < 0.007). The presence of MNES and PCE in the bottlenose dolphin may provide a useful marine mammal model to detect DNA damage by means of micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity expositions. PMID:17278706

  1. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  2. EFFECT OF RESIDUAL SPLENIC FUNCTION AND FOLATE LEVELS ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS IN SPLENECTOMIZED HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rates of micronucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of splenectomized individuals can be used as an index of genetic damage to erythrocyte recursor cells in the bone marrow. his is in contrast to non-splenectomized humans, whose micronucleated erythrocytes are removed by...

  3. Delivery of drugs bound to erythrocytes: new avenues for an old intravascular carrier.

    PubMed

    Villa, Carlos H; Pan, Daniel C; Zaitsev, Sergei; Cines, Douglas B; Siegel, Donald L; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-07-01

    For several decades, researchers have used erythrocytes for drug delivery of a wide variety of therapeutics in order to improve their pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, controlled release and pharmacodynamics. Approaches include encapsulation of drugs within erythrocytes, as well as coupling of drugs onto the red cell surface. This review focuses on the latter approach, and examines the delivery of red blood cell (RBC)-surface-bound anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-microbial agents, as well as RBC carriage of nanoparticles. Herein, we discuss the progress that has been made in surface loading approaches, and address in depth the issues relevant to surface loading of RBC, including intrinsic features of erythrocyte membranes, immune considerations, potential surface targets and techniques for the production of affinity ligands. PMID:26228773

  4. A forward genetic screen identifies erythrocyte CD55 as essential for Plasmodium falciparum invasion **

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Elizabeth S.; Jiang, Rays H.Y.; Moechtar, Mischka A.; Barteneva, Natasha S.; Weekes, Michael P.; Nobre, Luis V.; Gygi, Steven P.; Paulo, Joao A.; Frantzreb, Charles; Tani, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Junko; Watanabe, Seishi; Goldberg, Jonathan; Paul, Aditya S.; Brugnara, Carlo; Root, David E.; Wiegand, Roger C.; Doench, John G.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify host determinants for malaria have been hindered by the absence of a nucleus in erythrocytes, precluding genetic manipulation in the cell where the parasite replicates. We used cultured red blood cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells to carry out a forward genetic screen for Plasmodium falciparum host determinants. We found that CD55 is an essential host factor for P. falciparum invasion. CD55-null erythrocytes were refractory to invasion by all isolates of P. falciparum because parasites failed to attach properly to the erythrocyte surface. Thus, CD55 is an attractive target for the development of malaria therapeutics. Hematopoietic stem cell-based forward genetic screens may be valuable for the identification of additional host determinants of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25954012

  5. Nucleotypic effects without nuclei: genome size and erythrocyte size in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gregory, T R

    2000-10-01

    Previously reported haploid genome sizes (C-values) and erythrocyte sizes (measured as mean dry diameters) were compared for 67 species of mammals representing 31 families and 16 orders. Measurements on erythrocytes of four species of bats were also included in the study. Erythrocyte size was significantly positively correlated with genome size at each of the specific, generic, familial, and ordinal levels, with the relationship becoming much stronger following the exclusion of the order Artiodactyla, a group unique among mammals in terms of red blood cell morphology. Physiologically, these results are relevant in light of the known relationship between C-value and mass-corrected metabolic rate in homeotherms. In evolutionary terms, they provide insights into the constraints on genome expansion among mammals and are therefore of interest in attempts to solve the long-standing C-value enigma (also known as the C-value paradox). PMID:11081981

  6. Effect of safeners on damage of human erythrocytes treated with chloroacetamide herbicides.

    PubMed

    Bernasinska, Joanna; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta

    2013-09-01

    Chloroacetamides are used as pre-emergent substances for growth control of annual grasses and weeds. Since they can be harmful for crop plants, protective compounds (safeners) are used along with herbicides. So far, their effects on human blood cells have not been evaluated, and this study is the very first one devoted to this subject. We examined the harmful effects of chloroacetamides, their metabolites and safeners, used alone or in combination with herbicides, on human erythrocytes measuring the extent of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Higher impact of herbicides than their metabolites on all of the investigated parameters was found. Safeners alone did not produce any damage to erythrocytes and did not elicit any changes in oxidative stress parameters. Combination of safener with herbicide did not attenuate hemolysis of erythrocytes compared to the herbicide alone. Safeners reduced lipid peroxidation induced by herbicides, which suggest the role of safeners as antioxidants. PMID:23732483

  7. A simulation study of flow dynamics of erythrocytes through diverging and converging bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2015-03-01

    A numerical model has been developed to predict the cells deformation and motion in a symmetric diverging and converging bifurcation of a microchannel. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics are incorporated. The model was utilized to evaluate the effect of different biophysical parameters, such as: initial cell position, membrane stiffness and shape of the cells on deformation and motion of the erythrocytes in the bifurcating curved microchannel. The numerical results demonstrate that erythrocytes in microvessels blunt velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and the transit velocity of erythrocytes is strongly influenced by cell deformability, shape of the cells, and the vessel geometry. These results may provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of hemodynamic behavior of microscale blood flow. The authors acknowledge the support of the State Key Program for Basic Researches of China (2014CB921103 and 2010CB923404), the National ``Climbing'' Program of China (91021003), and the National Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2010012).

  8. Delivery of drugs bound to erythrocytes: new avenues for an old intravascular carrier

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Carlos H; Pan, Daniel C; Zaitsev, Sergei; Cines, Douglas B; Siegel, Donald L; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, researchers have used erythrocytes for drug delivery of a wide variety of therapeutics in order to improve their pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, controlled release and pharmacodynamics. Approaches include encapsulation of drugs within erythrocytes, as well as coupling of drugs onto the red cell surface. This review focuses on the latter approach, and examines the delivery of red blood cell (RBC)-surface-bound anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-microbial agents, as well as RBC carriage of nanoparticles. Herein, we discuss the progress that has been made in surface loading approaches, and address in depth the issues relevant to surface loading of RBC, including intrinsic features of erythrocyte membranes, immune considerations, potential surface targets and techniques for the production of affinity ligands. PMID:26228773

  9. Regional differences in erythrocyte transit in normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Hogg, J C; Martin, B A; Lee, S; McLean, T

    1985-10-01

    We measured regional blood volume and flow in the lungs of nine mongrel dogs. The time taken for the erythrocytes to transit through individual lung regions was calculated from the relationship t = V/Q, where V is blood volume and Q is flow. The data show that the total pulmonary blood volume was 82 +/- 6 ml and that the average time spent in the pulmonary vascular bed was 2.86 +/- 0.31 s. The frequency distribution of the transit times ranged from 0.41 to 6 s in the experiment with the shortest mean transit (1.62 s) and from 0.9 to greater than 20 s in the experiment with the longest mean transit time (4.6 s). The regional data show that the longer transit times were in the upper lung and that expansion of the blood volume as flow increased down the lung prevented an excessive shortening of the transit time. We conclude that increasing regional blood flow is associated with an expansion of regional blood volumes so that the transit times remain relatively constant. PMID:4055606

  10. Induction of Suicidal Erythrocyte Death by Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Bissinger, Rosi; Waibel, Sabrina; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The HIV protease inhibitor, nelfinavir, primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections, has later been shown to be effective in various infectious diseases including malaria. Nelfinavir may trigger mitochondria-independent cell death. Erythrocytes may undergo eryptosis, a mitochondria-independent suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress and increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i). During malaria, accelerated death of infected erythrocytes may decrease parasitemia and thus favorably influence the clinical course of the disease. In the present study, phosphatidylserine abundance at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, reactive oxidant species (ROS) from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence, and [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence. A 48 h treatment of human erythrocytes with nelfinavir significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥5µg/mL), significantly decreased forward scatter (≥2.5µg/mL), significantly increased ROS abundance (10 µg/mL), and significantly increased [Ca2+]i (≥5 µg/mL). The up-regulation of annexin-V-binding following nelfinavir treatment was significantly blunted, but not abolished by either addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) or removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, exposure of erythrocytes to nelfinavir induces oxidative stress and Ca2+ entry, thus leading to suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage and erythrocyte membrane scrambling. PMID:26008229

  11. Viral erythrocytic necrosis: Chapter 2.2.7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of extensive efforts, the etiological agent of VEN has not been propagated in fish cell lines making its characterization difficult. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of red blood cells from diseased fish convincingly demonstrates the presence of iridovirus-like particles that have been given the name erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV). While the ENV virions in red blood cells of various species of fish from differing geographic locations may appear morphologically distinct (Smail 1982; Wolf 1988), at least one strain of ENV has now been partially sequenced, confirming it to be a member of the family Iridoviridae (Emmenegger et al. in press). However, the genetic relatedness of ENV from various fish hosts has not yet been investigated. 

  12. Triggering of Erythrocyte Death by Triparanol

    PubMed Central

    Officioso, Arbace; Manna, Caterina; Alzoubi, Kousi; Lang, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor Triparanol has been shown to trigger apoptosis in several malignancies. Similar to the apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, the suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress which may activate erythrocytic Ca2+ permeable unselective cation channels with subsequent Ca2+ entry and increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). The present study explored whether and how Triparanol induces eryptosis. To this end, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ROS formation from 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) dependent fluorescence. As a result, a 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Triparanol (20 µM) significantly increased DCFDA fluorescence and significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. Triparanol (15 µM) significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells, and significantly decreased the forward scatter. The effect of Triparanol on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, Triparanol leads to eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane. Triparanol is at least in part effective by stimulating ROS formation and Ca2+ entry. PMID:26305256

  13. Application of a spectrally filtered probing light beam and RGB decomposition of microphotographs for flow registration of ultrasonically enhanced agglutination of erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Ganilova, Yu. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We propose a development of the flow microscopy method to increase the resolving power upon registration of erythrocyte agglutination. We experimentally show that the action of a ultrasonic standing wave on an agglutinating mixture blood-serum leads to the formation of so large erythrocytic immune complexes that it seems possible to propose a new two-wave optical method of registration of the process of erythrocyte agglutination using the RGB decomposition of microphotographs of the flow of the mixture under study. This approach increases the reliability of registration of erythrocyte agglutination and, consequently, increases the reliability of blood typing. Our results can be used in the development of instruments for automatic human blood typing.

  14. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  15. Effects of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 on erythrocytes, platelets and clot viscoelasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Janette; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2016-01-01

    Complex interactions exist between cytokines, and the interleukin family plays a fundamental role in inflammation. Particularly circulating IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 are unregulated in systemic and chronic inflammatory conditions. Hypercoagulability is an important hallmark of inflammation, and these cytokines are critically involved in abnormal clot formation, erythrocyte pathology and platelet hyper-activation, and these three cytokines have known receptors on platelets. Although these cytokines are always unregulated in inflammation, we do not know how the individual cytokines act upon the structure of erythrocytes and platelets, and which of the viscoelastic clot parameters are changed. Here we study the effects of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 at low physiological levels, representative of chronic inflammation, by using scanning electron microscopy and thromboelastography. All three interleukins caused the viscoelastic properties to display an increased hypercoagulability of whole blood and pathology of both erythrocytes and platelets. The most pronounced changes were noted where all three cytokines caused platelet hyper-activation and spreading. Erythrocyte structure was notably affected in the presence of IL-8, where the morphological changes resembled that typically seen in eryptosis (programmed cell death). We suggest that erythrocytes and platelets are particularly sensitive to cytokine presence, and that they are excellent health indicators. PMID:27561337

  16. Hemoglobin degradation in malaria-infected erythrocytes determined from live cell magnetophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lee R.; Fujioka, Hisashi; Williams, P. Stephen; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Grimberg, Brian; Zimmerman, Peter; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    During intra-erythrocytic development, malaria trophozoites digest hemoglobin, which leads to parasite growth and asexual replication while accumulating toxic heme. To avoid death, the parasite synthesizes insoluble hemozoin crystals in the digestive vacuole through polymerization of β-hematin dimers. In the process, the heme is converted to a high-spin ferriheme whose magnetic properties were studied as early as 1936 by Pauling et al. Here, by magnetophoretic cell motion analysis, we provide evidence for a graduated increase of live cell magnetic susceptibility with developing blood-stage parasites, compatible with the increase in hemozoin content and the mechanism used by P. falciparum to avoid heme toxicity. The measured magnetophoretic mobility of the erythrocyte infected with a late-stage schizont form was m = 2.94 × 10−6 mm3 s/kg, corresponding to the net volume magnetic susceptibility (relative to water) of Δχ = 1.80 × 10−6, significantly higher than that of the oxygenated erythrocyte (−0.18×10−6) but lower than that of the fully deoxygenated erythrocyte (3.33×10−6). The corresponding fraction of hemoglobin converted to hemozoin, calculated based on the known magnetic susceptibilities of hemoglobin heme and hemozoin ferriheme, was 0.50, in agreement with the published biochemical and crystallography data. Magnetophoretic analysis of live erythrocytes could become significant for antimalarial drug susceptibility and resistance determination. PMID:16461330

  17. Inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes are associated with unstable hemoglobin and resemble human Heinz bodies.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filomena; Di Santi, Annalisa; Caldora, Mercedes; Ferretti, Luigi; Bentivegna, Flegra; Pica, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the erythrocyte inclusions found during the hematological screening of loggerhead population of the Mediterranean Sea. We studied the erythrocyte inclusions in blood specimens collected from six juvenile and nine adult specimens of the loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Seas. Our study indicates that the percentage of mature erythrocytes containing inclusions ranged from 3 to 82%. Each erythrocyte contained only one round inclusion body. Inclusion bodies stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa show that their cytochemical and ultrastructure characteristics are identical to those of human Heinz bodies. Because Heinz bodies originate from the precipitation of unstable hemoglobin (Hb) and cause globular osmotic resistance to increase, we analyzed loggerhead Hb using electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography to detect and quantitate Hb fractions. We also tested the resistance of Hb to alkaline pH, heat, isopropanol denaturation, and globular osmosis. Our hemogram results excluded the occurrence of any infection, which could be associated with an inclusion body, in all the specimens. Negative Feulgen staining indicated that the inclusion bodies are not derived from DNA fragmentation. We hypothesize that amino acid substitutions could explain why loggerhead Hb precipitates under normal physiologic conditions, forming Heinz bodies. The identification of inclusion bodies in loggerhead erythrocytes allow us to better understand the haematological characteristics and the physiology of these ancient reptiles, thus aiding efforts to conserve such an endangered species. PMID:21538919

  18. Encapsulation of glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes: a new procedure for ammonia detoxification.

    PubMed

    Kosenko, Elena A; Venediktova, Natalia I; Kudryavtsev, Andrey A; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Kaminsky, Yury G; Felipo, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2008-12-01

    There are a number of pathological situations in which ammonia levels increase leading to hyperammonemia, which may cause neurological alterations and can lead to coma and death. Currently, there are no efficient treatments allowing rapid and sustained decrease of ammonia levels in these situations. A way to increase ammonia detoxification would be to increase its incorporation in glutamine by glutamine synthetase. The aim of this work was to develop a procedure to encapsulate glutamine synthetase in mouse erythrocytes and to assess whether administration of these erythrocytes containing glutamine synthetase (GS) reduce ammonia levels in hyperammonemic mice. The procedure developed allowed the encapsulation of 3 +/- 0.25 IU of GS / mL of erythrocytes with a 70% cell recovery. Most metabolites, including ATP, remained unaltered in glutamine synthetase-loaded erythrocytes (named ammocytes by us) compared with native erythrocytes. The glutamine synthetase-loaded ammocytes injected in mice survived and retained essentially all of their glutamine synthetase activity for at least 48 h in vivo. Injection of these ammocytes into hyperammonemic mice reduced ammonia levels in the blood by about 50%. The results reported indicate that ammocytes are able to keep their integrity, normal energy metabolism, the inserted glutamine synthetase activity, and can be useful to reduce ammonia levels in hyperammonemic situations. PMID:19088795

  19. Quantitative evaluation of respiration induced metabolic oscillations in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn; Madsen, Mads F; Danø, Sune; Quistorff, Bjørn; Sørensen, Preben G

    2009-04-01

    The changes in the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide (P(O(2)) and P(CO(2))) during blood circulation alter erythrocyte metabolism, hereby causing flux changes between oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. In the study we have modeled this effect by extending the comprehensive kinetic model by Mulquiney and Kuchel [P.J. Mulquiney, and P.W. Kuchel. Model of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate metabolism in the human erythrocyte based on detailed enzyme kinetic equations: equations and parameter refinement, Biochem. J. 1999, 342, 581-596.] with a kinetic model of hemoglobin oxy-/deoxygenation transition based on an oxygen dissociation model developed by Dash and Bassingthwaighte [R. Dash, and J. Bassingthwaighte. Blood HbO(2) and HbCO(2) dissociation curves at varied O(2), CO(2), pH, 2,3-DPG and temperature levels, Ann. Biomed. Eng., 2004, 32(12), 1676-1693.]. The system has been studied during transitions from the arterial to the venous phases by simply forcing P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) to follow the physiological values of venous and arterial blood. The investigations show that the system passively follows a limit cycle driven by the forced oscillations of P(O(2)) and is thus inadequately described solely by steady state consideration. The metabolic system exhibits a broad distribution of time scales. Relaxations of modes with hemoglobin and Mg(2+) binding reactions are very fast, while modes involving glycolytic, membrane transport and 2,3-BPG shunt reactions are much slower. Incomplete slow mode relaxations during the 60 s period of the forced transitions cause significant overshoots of important fluxes and metabolite concentrations - notably ATP, 2,3-BPG, and Mg(2+). The overshoot phenomenon arises in consequence of a periodical forcing and is likely to be widespread in nature - warranting a special consideration for relevant systems. PMID:19162390

  20. Higher Early Monocyte and Total Lymphocyte Counts Are Associated with Better Overall Survival after Standard Total Body Irradiation, Cyclophosphamide, and Fludarabine Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Double Umbilical Cord Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Le Bourgeois, Amandine; Peterlin, Pierre; Guillaume, Thierry; Delaunay, Jacques; Duquesne, Alix; Le Gouill, Steven; Moreau, Philippe; Mohty, Mohamad; Campion, Loïc; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-08-01

    This single-center retrospective study aimed to report the impact of early hematopoietic and immune recoveries after a standard total body irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine (TCF) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen for double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in adults. We analyzed 47 consecutive patients older than 17 years who engrafted after a dUCB TCF allo-SCT performed between January 2006 and April 2013 in our department. Median times for neutrophil and platelet recoveries were 17 (range, 6 to 59) and 37 days (range, 0 to 164), respectively. The 3-year overall (OS) and disease-free survivals, relapse incidence, and nonrelapse mortality were 65.7%, 57.2%, 27.1%, and 19%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher day +30 monocyte (≥615/mm(3); hazard ratio [HR], .04; 95% confidence interval [CI], .004 to .36; P < .01) and day +42 lymphocyte (≥395/mm(3); HR, .16; 95% CI, .03 to .78; P = .02) counts were independently associated with better OS. These results suggest that early higher hematopoietic and immune recovery is predictive of survival after dUCB TCF RIC allo-SCT in adults. Factors other than granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which was used in all cases, favoring expansion of monocytes or lymphocytes, should be tested in the future as part of the UCB transplantation procedure. PMID:27118570

  1. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps find out how much Rh immune globulin (RhoGAM) she must receive to prevent her body from ... in the mother's blood. The standard dose of RhoGAM is enough in this case. Normal value ranges ...

  2. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results of a differential are usually reported as absolute values of the five types of WBCs and/or ... a percent of the total number of WBCs. Absolute values are calculated by multiplying the total number of ...

  3. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S; Eviatar, J

    1985-09-01

    The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192

  4. Study of polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorins using microscopic image digital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, B.; Dumas, D.; Relancio, F.; Fontana, A.; Alessi, A.; Foresto, P.; Grandfils, C.; Stoltz, J.; Valverde, J.

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study synthetic polycation effects on erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin using image digital analysis. Polycations are oligomers or polymers of natural or synthetic origin, which bear a great number of positive charges at pH 7.4. Several of these polycations are nowadays used in clinic for human and veterinary purposes. New applications of polycations to the development of new drug delivery systems are investigated, in order to promote the drug absorption through the gastro-intestinal and blood brain barriers. However, up to now, there are no clear relationships between macromolecular features of polycations (molecular weight, mean charge density, charge repartition, etc.) and their interactions with blood elements (which bear superficial negative charges). The interaction on the red blood cell membrane with synthetic polycations having well-controlled macromolecular features and functionalized with pendent polyethylene glycol segments was investigated. The alterations over stationary and dynamic viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes were analyzed through laser diffractometry. Image digital analysis was used to study erythrocyte agglutination mediated by anti-glycophorin. Results show different reactivities of the polycations on the erythrocyte membrane. These findings could provide more information about the mechanisms of polycation interaction on erythrocyte membranes. We consider that this work could provide useful tools to understand and improve the haemocompatibility of polycations and enlarge their potential in clinic.

  5. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  6. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  7. The plasma membrane of erythrocytes plays a fundamental role in the transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and in the maintenance of the reduced state of the heme iron.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Galtieri, Antonio; Scatena, Roberto; Giardina, Bruno

    2007-08-15

    Here we review new insights into the role of the erythrocyte membrane and the implications of its architecture on the several functions accomplished by the red blood cells. The picture which emerges highlights the capability of Hb and band 3 to modulate erythrocyte metabolism and to meet the needs of the cell. PMID:17573207

  8. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  9. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Composition in Premenopausal Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Mehmet; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Ozcicek, Fatih; Yilmaz, Necmettin

    2016-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional disorders in the world. In the present study, we evaluated erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition in premenopausal patients with IDA. Blood samples of 102 premenopausal women and 88 healthy control subjects were collected. After the erythrocytes were separated from the blood samples, the membrane lipids were carefully extracted, and the various membrane fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software program. We used blood ferritin concentration <15 ng/mL as cut-off for the diagnosis of IDA. The five most abundant individual fatty acids obtained were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1, n-9c), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6c), stearic acid (18:0), and erucic acid (C22:1, n-9c). These compounds constituted about 87% of the total membrane fatty acids in patients with IDA, and 79% of the total membrane fatty acids in the control group. Compared with control subjects, case patients had higher percentages of palmitic acid (29.9% case versus 25.3% control), oleic acid (16.8% case versus 15.1% control), and stearic acid (13.5% case versus 10.5% control), and lower percentages of erucic acid (11.5% case versus 13.6% control) and linoleic acid (15.2% case versus 15.4% control) in their erythrocyte membranes. In conclusion, the total-erythrocyte-membrane saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be higher than that in the control group; however, the total-erythrocyte-membrane unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) composition in premenopausal women with IDA was found to be lower than that in the control group. The differences in these values were statistically significant. PMID:26876679

  10. Stoichiometry of compounds bound to human erythrocytes in relation to morphology.

    PubMed

    Lovrien, R; Tisel, W; Pesheck, P

    1975-04-25

    Most work on human erythrocyte interaction with drugs and other compounds has been reported on the basis of total concentrations. Total concentrations alone do not reveal numbers of molecules bound per cell, v. This paper emphasizes determination of v and of binding isotherms, in conjunction with changes in cell morphologies and in hypotonic shock behavior as v is varied. Four drugs and five other compounds were studied, with fresh erythrocytes. The principal findings are: (1) the intact erythrocyte engages in two kinds of binding mechanisms, statistical binding and cooperative binding, depending on the compound. In the case of a detergent, dodecylbenzene sulfonate, the binding is nearly quantitative. (2) The compounds often induce considerable protection against hypotonic hemolysis. However, the binding levels at which maximum protection occurs are rather close to the levels, vL, that occur upon complete conversion to the first distorted morphology. Therefore, the maximally protected erythrocyte may be a distorted erythrocyte. (3) The value n is the apparent total number of sites from Scatchard plotting for compounds which bind in a statistical manner. Levels vp and vw characterize maxima in cooperative binding behavior, also from Scatchard plotting of the data. Despite the wide diversity of over-all levels at which compounds exert their effects, the critical binding levels of and numbers of sites fall into a narrow range:n, vL, vP, and vw are all between 1 and 8 times 10-7 molecules or sites per cell. Most of our data, and that from some other laboratories, indicate that about 2 plus and minus 1 times 10-7 sites per erythrocyte are available for compound binding by the intact cell. Beyond that level, the cell in suspension almost always will be forced into the first obvious morphology change, as seen by phase contrast microscopy. (4) Once stoichiometries are established, the total binding capacity of erythrocytes for such compounds, in blood, can be estimated. An

  11. Drug-induced erythrocyte membrane internalization

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Bassat, Isaac; Bensch, Klaus G.; Schrier, Stanley L.

    1972-01-01

    In vitro erythrocyte membrane internalization, resulting in the formation of membrane-lined vacuoles, can be quantified by a radioisotopic method. A complex of 37Co-labeled vitamin B12 and its plasma protein binders is first adsorbed to the cell surface, and after vacuoles are formed, the noninternalized label is removed by washing and trypsin treatment. The residual radioactivity represents trapped label and can be used to measure the extent of membrane internalization. Using this method, it was found that in addition to primaquine, a group of membrane-active drugs, specifically hydrocortisone, vinblastine, and chlorpromazine can induce membrane internalization in erythrocytes. This is a metabolic process dependent on drug concentration, temperature, and pH. Vacuole formation by all agents tested can be blocked by prior depletion of endogenous substrates or by poisoning the erythrocytes with sodium fluoride and sulfhydryl blocking agents. This phenomenon resembles in some respects the previously reported membrane internalization of energized erythrocyte ghosts. It is suggest