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Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.
To help understand the haematological significance of the low concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and erythrocyte folate occurring in elderly patients, 17 acute admissions to a geriatric unit with a low concentration of serum vitamin B12 or erythrocyte folate but a normal bloodcount were treated with vitamin B12 and folic acid for 3 months. Bone marrow deoxyuridine supression was
An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from
Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity inc...
G. V. Taneyeva G. M. Potapovich N. A. Voloshko A. B. Uteshev
In differential bloodcounts of 200 herring, Clupea harengus harengus, the percentages of white cell types and immature erythrocytes in the blood were found to be different from those previously reported in the literature. Herring were sampled from Februa...
The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...
... chronic infections, allergies, and problems with blood clotting. Preparation No special preparations are needed. Having your child ... is removed and the area is covered with cotton or a bandage to stop the bleeding. Collecting ...
Normal blood consists of highly deformable particles (red blood cells, RBC, or erythrocytes) suspended in a Newtonian fluid (blood plasma). As a rough physical model of erythrocytes, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) are successfully used to probe their membrane properties. In shear flows vesicles and red blood cells show rich variety of dynamical behaviours influencing the rheological properties of their suspensions. Here, we focus on new experimental aspects of the problem in the case, when a combination of an oscillatory shear rate and a basic constant shear rate is applied to suspensions. Experimental examples with concentrated RBC suspensions are presented together with a discussion on the importance of the superposition of a constant shear flow to the pure oscillation, which is usually used to extract the viscoelastic properties of a complex fluid.
Vitkova, V.; Farutin, A.; Polack, B.; Misbah, C.; Podgorski, T.
Background: Physicians who work in small clinics, far away from medical centers, cannot obtain relevant information regarding the acute phase response at low cost and real time. Methods: We adopted a simple slide test and image analysis to determine the number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, their degree of adhesiveness\\/aggregation as well as that of the red
Rivka Rotstein; Renato Fusman; David Zeltser; Itzhak Shapira; Esther Shabtai; Dani Avitzour; Nicole Sadees; David Levartovsky; Nadir Arber; Amiram Eldor; Shlomo Berliner
Since the discovery of the first human blood groups, the terminology for erythrocyteblood group antigens has evolved and become inconsistent. In some cases, a single letter is used (eg, A/B, E/e), in some others a symbol with a superscript to denote allelic products is used (eg, Fya/Fyb, Jka/Jkb) while in still others, a numerical notation is used (eg, Fy3, Lu4, K11). Even within the same blood group system, antigens have been named by different terminology (eg, K/k, Kpa/Kpb, K11/K17) and the same antigen was given different names in different laboratories. Therefore a necessary alternative 'popular' terminology was suggested by the ISBT (International Society of Blood Transfusion) Working Party; In its last monograph, published in 1995 and reviewed in 1996, erythrocyteblood group antigens are classified into 23 systems, 5 collections and 2 series. The Working Party also suggested guidelines for establishing new blood group systems and including new specificities into the nomenclature. PMID:9836399
This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete bloodcount. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html and http://www.sun.com/. Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun (firstname.lastname@example.org).Annotated: false
Technicon's newly developed platelet AutoCounter utilizes an electro-optical system which detects and counts particles by sensing the scattering of light which occurs when blood cells flow through the illuminated sensing chamber of a micro-optical system. The system utilizes whole blood collected into EDTA. Blood samples, which can be handled at the rate of 40 per hour, are diluted with 2M urea which in addition causes lysis of the erythrocytes. The haemolysate thus obtained is delivered to the particle counter after a two-minute reaction time, the cell count finally being displayed on a continuous chart recorder. An evaluation of this machine has been carried out in the Department of Haematology, the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, on hospital specimens from patients suffering from a wide variety of diseases. The results of this evaluation are presented. Reproducibility studies indicate a coefficient of variation of 4% at any platelet level. The percentage drift per sample ranges from +0·4 to ?0·4% of the total count. Carry-over and departures from linearity are statistically significant; however, the magnitude of these deviations is not sufficient to cause concern in routine use. Acceptable agreement is noted between machine counts and the counts obtained by technicians using phase-contrast microscopy with the exception of two anomalous individuals. Discrepant counts were noted in patients with elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and also in patients with disturbance of immunoglobulins. A modification to the sampling probe which eliminates the former problem is described. The AutoCounter described in this paper provides a fast, reliable, and accurate service laboratory platelet counting system. Images
Human and chicken erythrocytes are readily coated in vitro by blood group active protein-lipopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides from E. coli O86 and E. coli O128. Serum albumin, ?2- and ?-lipoproteins inhibit this sensitization. Blood group B specific agglutination of erythrocytes with B or B-like antigens was obtained with antibodies purified by adsorption on and elution from B erythrocytes. Anti-blood group B and E. coli O86-specific antibodies could be eluted from E. coli O86-coated O erythrocytes. Eel anti-H(O) serum agglutinated O erythrocytes and only those A1B red cells which were coated with blood group H(O) active E. coli products. Blood group active substances specifically inhibited agglutination of lipopolysaccharide-coated erythrocytes by anti-B and anti-H(O) agglutinins. Demonstrable amounts of lipopolysaccharide could only be removed from coated erythrocytes by washing them at elevated temperatures (58°C) in physiological solutions. Red cell sensitization with B active E. coli O86 substances was achieved in vivo in a minority of severely diseased infants and in germ-free and ordinary chicks which were in tourniquet shock after treatment with cathartics. Therefore, a possible mode by which erythrocytes of patients with severe intestinal disorders acquire antigens is the fixation of bacterial substances to their surfaces, if there are not enough of the normally interfering plasma factors present.
The blood sedimentation process is studied by means of the imaging system. This method allows to investigate the blood sediment behavior in whole sample. The blood was taken from healthy donors. From the normal and glutaraldehyde hardened erythrocytes the blood samples of three haematocrits (5%, 40%, 60%) in autologous plasma and dextran were prepared. Phases of the blood sediment that appear in the course of the process were recognized. We have shown that this method permits the analysis of traces of settling aggregates. Especially it is shown that the method can be useful in the study of the influence of cellular as well as plasmatic factors on erythrocyte aggregation and blood sedimentation.
...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...
...counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). This device is exempt...
It is determined that physical exercises in sportsmen-runners at medium distances cause changes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and its fractions activity in peripheral blooderythrocytes. The maximal changes are observed after competitions. PMID:23951923
... hematocrit may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock ... blood Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema
Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)\\/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)\\/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts
N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; E Jenkins; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides
We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct
Human reticulocytes are one of the fundamental components needed to study the in vitro invasion processes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Additionally examinations of reticulocytes and their binding proteins are difficult in areas of the world that do not have access to advanced equipment or stem cell lines. These issues are particularly relevant to malaria vaccine candidate studies that are directed against surface proteins that the parasites use to gain entry into erythrocytes. Described here is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the reticulocyte count of cord blood samples. Exposure of cord blood to hypotonic saline (0.2%) for 5 min selectively lyses the non-reticulocytes resulting in an average 3.6-fold increase in reticulocyte count. Our studies show that this enrichment process does not damage the hemoglobin of the remaining erythrocytes which are still capable of supporting Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth. This economical and rapid method of enrichment could facilitate studies of in vitro laboratory culturing of other malaria parasite species which preferentially invade reticulocytes such as P. vivax. PMID:22841523
Grimberg, Brian T; Scheetz, Emily A; Erickson, John J; Bales, Jacquelyn M; David, Makindi; Daum-Woods, Kathleen; King, Christopher L; Zimmerman, Peter A
How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts
Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)
A particle-counting immunoassay system for ultrasensitive analysis of proteins in a capillary environment has been developed. The assay is based on the agglutination of antibody-coated particles in the presence of an antigen (usually a protein). The particles were electrophoretically migrated in a 20-[mu]m-i.d. capillary past a detection window where a laser beam irradiates continuously. The light scattering events generated by the agglutinated particles were counted while those produced by unreacted particles were electronically rejected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was chosen as a test compound for the off-column as well as for the on-column versions of this method. A limit of detection of 620 molecules of G6PDH (1 zmol) was found in the on-column assay. The standard deviation between runs was approximately 6%, which is comparable to that of standard immunoassay methods. The application to the determination of G6PDH levels in individual human erythrocytes is presented. A 14-fold cell-to-cell variation was found which can be explained by the age distribution in the red blood cells. 42 refs., 5 figs.
Rosenzweig, Z.; Yeung, E.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States) Ames Lab., IA (United States))
An increased concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin-IX in whole blood or erythrocytes is a valuable diagnostic indicator for acquired porphyrias, e.g., iron deficiency anemia and lead poisoning, and for inherited porphyrias. We developed a spectrophotometric micromethod for determining erythrocyte protoporphyrin-IX. In this method, exhaustive release of erythrocyte porphyrins is achieved using hydroquinone and formic acid. The clean-up procedure for 50 microL of whole blood or erythrocytes covers three steps of liquid/liquid solvent partition: two partitions using diethyl and diisopropyl ether and HCl 2.5 mol/L, and one buffered step using ammonium formate. Determinations of erythrocyte protoporphyrin-IX are possible by: (a) absorption using three wavelengths, Rimington's constant and a millimolar absorptivity coefficient m epsilon(408.8)=294.3 L x mmol(-1) x cm(-1) according to With; and (b) 2nd derivative, which is linked to m epsilon(408.8). Determination of erythrocyte protoporphyrin-IX using a 2nd derivative algorithm showed better spectral resolution and higher sensitivity at a five-fold lower detection limit compared to absorption. Within-run precision of medium and high levels was found for absorption and for 2nd derivative with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.4-1.9% (n=10). Total precision evaluated was CV=2.5-8.3% (n=20). Levels of reference intervals could only be measured using the 2nd derivative (CV 2.9%). Linearity was proved to E=1.0. Recoveries of protoporphyrin-IX ranged from 95.3% to 103.0%. Method comparison was carried out using a fluorimetric reference method (Piomelli). Reference intervals for gender groups are discussed. PMID:15843214
White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999. At each site and in each year...
A. J. Magill B. Permpanich F. E. McKenzie J. R. Forney W. A. Prudhomme
Elemental concentrations in whole blood samples from irradiated mice were found  to change uncorrelated with the depression of red blood cell count. The aim of the present work was to clear up whether or not similar effects appear in the case of human radiotherapeutic irradiations. Concentration ratios were taken for erythrocyte and plasma fractions with the proton induced X-ray emission method for the elements P, K, Ca, Fe, Zn in the case of patients undergoing postoperative gamma irradiation following mastectomy. None of the concentration ratios were found to be influenced under the present conditions of irradiation. PMID:7164130
Pintye, E; Dézsi, Z; Miltényi, L; Kiss, I; Koltay, E; Szabó, G; László, S
ABH(O) blood group polymorphisms are based on well-known intraspecies variations in structures of neutral blood cell surface glycans in humans and other primates. Whereas natural antibodies against these glycans can act as barriers to blood transfusion and transplantation, the normal functions of this long-standing evolutionary polymorphism remain largely unknown. Although microbial interactions have been suggested as a selective force, direct binding of lethal pathogens to ABH antigens has not been reported. We show in this study that ABH antigens found on human erythrocytes modulate the specific interactions of 3 sialic acid-recognizing proteins (human Siglec-2, 1918SC influenza hemagglutinin, and Sambucus nigra agglutinin) with sialylated glycans on the same cell surface. Using specific glycosidases that convert A and B glycans to the underlying H(O) structure, we show ABH antigens stabilize sialylated glycan clusters on erythrocyte membranes uniquely for each blood type, generating differential interactions of the 3 sialic acid-binding proteins with erythrocytes from each blood type. We further show that by stabilizing such structures ABH antigens can also modulate sialic acid-mediated interaction of pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasite. Thus, ABH antigens can noncovalently alter the presentation of other cell surface glycans to cognate-binding proteins, without themselves being a direct ligand.
Effects of brazilin on the blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic rats.\\u000a By the treatment of brazilin to alloxan induced diabetic rats, enhancement of erythrocyte deformability was observed. In thein vitro study on the erythrocyte deformability, brazilin showed statistically significant improving effects on the erythrocyte deformability.\\u000a At the concentrations of 10?3M of brazilin, erythrocyte deformability
Blood cell morphology and count are not uniform across species. Recently, between-species comparisons revealed that the size of red blood cells is associated with body size in some lizard taxa, and this finding was interpreted in the context of the metabolic theory. In the present study, we examined the numbers and the size of blood cells in 2 species of monitor lizards, the mangrove-dwelling monitor (Varanus indicus) and the savannah monitor (V. exanthematicus), and we compared these traits in individuals of different body size. The results revealed that during the course of ontogeny, the size of red blood cells increases with body mass. Because the mass-specific metabolic rate decreases with body size and the cell volume-to-surface ratio decreases with the cell size, changes in the erythrocyte size might be the result of oxygen transport adjustment. PMID:23621470
Simultaneous temporal analysis of whole human or rat blood luminescence and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) in same blood using special computerized optoelectronic devices for single photon counting and for high temporal resolution of the rate of sedimentation of red blood/plasma boundary revealed correlation between both time series. Correlation was observed in vitro in normal blood, after action of physical (height of blood column) and of chemical (hydrogen peroxide) factors, and in experimental cerebral ischemia. An ischemia was invoked in rats by occlusion of both common carotid arteries. ESR was studied with the device "ESR-scan" and the dynamics of respiratory burst (RB) by a luminol-dependent luminescence method on the same blood samples. There was a noticeable increase of intensity of RB in whole rat blood and significant acceleration of ESR in blood diluted on 50% in 90 minutes after applying a ligature on carotid arteries. The individual differences between animals attesting to different degree of RB and ESR activation in blood both in intact animals and after operational intervention was obtained. Revealed correlation points to considerable relation between blood energy and its mechanical properties.
Novikov, Cyril N.; Bouravleva, Ekaterina V.; Fadyukova, Olga E.; Voeikov, Vladimir V.; Koshelev, Vladimir B.
Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria.
Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.
Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A(1), A(2), and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435
Wolofsky, Kayla T; Ayi, Kodjo; Branch, Donald R; Hult, Annika K; Olsson, Martin L; Liles, W Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M; Kain, Kevin C
Summary Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete bloodcount, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete bloodcount with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.
Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. We used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TfR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations; 0.1-1 ng of fetal DNA was obtained in the 20-ml maternal samples. In 7/19 cases, a 222-bp band of amplified DNA was detected, consistent with the presence of male DNA in the isolated cells; 6/7 of these were confirmed as male pregnancies by karyotyping amniocytes. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, we were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations. Images
Bianchi, D W; Flint, A F; Pizzimenti, M F; Knoll, J H; Latt, S A
A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...
BackgroundElevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively associated with cardiovascular disease. However, its relationship to hypertension, independent of smoking and other established cardiovascular risk factors, is not clear, especially among women.
It has been suggested lately that erythrocytes contribute significantly to the oxidant scavenging capacity (OSC) of blood and that surface adsorption of polyphenols enhances the antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of erythrocytes to the OSC of whole blood measured with a substrate not penetrating into the cells. Comparison of reduction of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical (ABTS*) by whole blood and blood plasma indicates that erythrocytes do contribute to ABTS* reduction but their contribution is lower with respect to plasma. ABTS* reduction by erythrocytes and its enhancement by polyphenols were inhibited by thiol reagents (N-ethylmaleimide and iodacetate). These reagents inhibited also the reduction of extracellular ferricyanide by erythrocytes and its enhancement by polyphenols. On this basis we postulate that the contribution of erythrocytes to the blood OSC estimated by ABTS* decolorization is at least partly due to the transmembrane-reducing system, which activity is routinely assayed by ferricyanide reduction. PMID:23025487
Phospholipid composition has been studied in blooderythrocytes of tundra voles Microtus oeconomus inhabiting territories with normal and increased levels of natural radioactivity in different phases of the population cycle.\\u000a It has been shown that rearrangement in the lipid component of blooderythrocyte membranes of tundra voles from radioactively\\u000a polluted areas are associated with intensification of the lipid peroxidation (LPO)
We have studied experimentally how optical radiation affects the neutralization of the toxic action of heavy metals and harmful chemical compounds (ecotoxicants) on the oxygen-transport function of blooderythrocytes. It has been found that the optical radiation has a stabilizing effect and prevents lowering the erythrocyte concentration in the presence of phenol and heavy metals in blood. We have studied the neutralization efficiency of the toxic action of ecotoxicants in relation to the laser irradiation time. The obtained data on the effect of the laser radiation on the thermal denaturation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes yield the scientific substantiation to the development of the optical method for the use in medicine upon drawing and conserving donor blood. We have shown that the obtained data can be used in medicine for improving the reliability of conditions of conservation and storage of donor blood, as well as for preventing the toxic action of harmful chemical compounds in the environment.
Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Batyan, A. N.; Trusevich, M. O.; Rubinov, A. N.
Anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are frequent complications of anorexia nervosa. The complete bloodcount provides useful information to diagnose and characterize these findings. Anemia tends to be normocytic and normochromic. Leukopenia manifests as a deficiency of lymphocytes or neutrophils. Thrombocytopenia, if severe, may confer a bleeding risk. A careful history and physical examination should be performed to evaluate for other
Barbara S. Cleary; Jennifer L. Gaudiani; Philip S. Mehler
Three erythrocyte proteins, one identified as hemoglobin, bind thyroid hormones. Using a dextran/charcoal radioimmunoassay for thyroxin in dried blood spots, we demonstrate that such binding differs with the buffer used. Barbital, phosphate, and borate buffers significantly enhance the binding more than glycine and tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine buffers. Binding is not affected by agents commonly used to inhibit thyroxin binding to serum proteins. A highly significant nonlinear direct relationship between sample storage (temperature and duration) and increased thyroxin-erythrocyte binding is documented, together with an associated decrease in assayed concentrations of thyroxin. However, concomitant serial measurement of thyroxin with polyethylene glycol and combined double-antibody/polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassays produced no evidence of interference by erythrocyte proteins in the radioimmune reaction. We conclude that erythrocyte proteins act only as low-affinity secondary binders in radioimmunoassay for thyroxin.
Phospholipid composition has been studied in blooderythrocytes of tundra voles Microtus oeconomus inhabiting territories with normal and increased levels of natural radioactivity at different phases of the populational cycle. It has been shown that rearrangement in the lipid component of blooderythrocyte membranes in tundra voles from radioactively polluted areas are associated with intensification of the lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes and are similar to those observed at the organism natural aging. It has been noted that the capability for peroxide oxidation in erythrocyte lipids is one of the most sensitive stages of the LPO processes to action of the low-intensity radiation in the natural habitat of animals. The change of the populational cycle phases, which is accompanied by hormonal rearrangement in the animal organism, produces an essential effect on the degree of expression of the radiation-induced changes of the studied parameters. PMID:20297668
The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions.
Objectives: To compare bloodcounts between arterial and venous blood to and from visceral organs and indirectly look into the function of the organs.Methods: Splenic, renal and superior mesenteric arterial and venous blood samples were obtained from the arteries and veins in 38 post-pubertal rabbits and blood profile, including complete and differential bloodcounts, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit, were measured
Z.-W. Yang; J.-A. Li; M.-H. Yang; Y.-S. Feng; Z. Tang; X.-S. Dai; H.-Y. Wang; Q.-Q. Yin; Y. Gao; J. Li; X.-L. He; Y. Zhang; Q. An
Ten women (aged 31-61 years) and five men (aged 20-59 years) occupationally exposed to welding fumes of polyacetate containing diethylphthalate in a thermoplastic industry were studied. They had been employed 1-33 years (median: 11 years). Seven women (aged 35-55) and eight men (aged 26-73) acted as unexposed controls. The exposed persons showed increased isotransferrin ratio in blood serum and reduced volumes of erythrocytes and platelets in blood. PMID:2240993
Acrylonitrile is an intermediary with possible adverse health effects in the synthesis of organic products, such as acrylic fibres. This investigation was undertaken to determine the possible changes in the peripheral bloodcounts in workers of a polyacrylic fibres plant. The study involved 218 workers exposed to acrylonitrile at low doses and a control group of 200 unexposed workers. The chosen subjects underwent blood tests in order to check their haematological parameters. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the red blood cells, haemoglobin and total number of leukocytes. An increase in the neutrophils associated with a reduction of lymphocytes, both statistically significant, was observed. The authors hypothesized that the neutrophils are influenced by the exposure to acrylonitrile at low doses. PMID:24171413
Caciari, Tiziana; Casale, Teodorico; Loreti, Beatrice; Schifano, Maria P; Capozzella, Assunta; Scala, Barbara; De Sio, Simone; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosati, Maria V; Tomei, Francesco
The human blood optical parameters have been calculated based on Mie theory. The calculations have been done in the spectral range from 400 nm to 1000 nm, which is of great interest due to usage of many therapeutic and diagnostic technologies. The influence of an immersion agent, like glucose, on optical properties of blood, has been studied.
AIM: We aimed to investigate the change in the number of stem cells and white cells in the early period following blood donation. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 22 male (71%) and 9 female (29%), 31 volunteers in total were included in the study. 450ml of whole blood were collected from each of the volunteers for the donation. Complete bloodcounts were performed on the volunteers before and at 6 and 24h after the donation and CD34+ cell counts per ml of peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry technique. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood at 6h following blood donation (p<0.001). At 24h, however, there was a statistically significant decrease in the number of CD34+ cells, compared to 6h (p<0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood at 6h following blood donation (p<0.001). At 24h, there was a decrease in the number of leukocytes, which was statistically significant compared to 6h (p<0.001). When the difference in CD34+ cell and leukocytes counts before blood donation and at 24h after blood donation were compared, the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: As the result of this study, a transient increase in the number of CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood after blood donation was demonstrated, with a decline in CD34+ cell counts back to levels prior to donation at 24h. PMID:23683897
Blood and milk samples from Holstein cows were examined for total blood leucocyte count, differential blood leuco- cyte count, milk quality test, and somatic cell count in milk while the cows were stressed by corticotropin injection, con- finement in a heat-humidity chamber, or environmental-heat stress by exposure during the hot summer months of June through November in southern Arizona. All
T. N. Wegner; J. D. Schuh; F. E. Nelson; G. H. Stott
CO2 transport properties of blood were examined in the lamprey Petromyzon marinus and the hagfish Myxine glutinosa. In order to evaluate possible chloride/bicarbonate exchange limitations, experiments were conducted under control conditions and in the presence of an ionophore to permit equilibrium distribution of chloride, bicarbonate, and protons across the erythrocyte membrane. The ionophore, tri-n-propyl tin chloride, markedly altered the CO2 transport properties and apparent nonbicarbonate buffering characteristics of the blood of Petromyzon marinus. In addition, the distributions of protons, bicarbonate and chloride ions across the erythrocyte membrane were very different from each other under control conditions, but became very similar in the presence of the anionic ionophore. The CO2 transport properties of the blood of Myxine glutinosa were not significantly different in the presence of the ionophore. Small but significant changes were observed, however, in erythrocyte pH, chloride concentration and water content in the presence of tri-n-propyl tin chloride. These results demonstrate that chloride/bicarbonate exchange limitations and possibly active transport of protons contribute to the unique CO2 transport properties in the blood of the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. In the hagfish, Myxine glutinosa, the importance of anion exchange limitations or active proton transport with regard to the CO2 carrying properties of the blood are clearly much less than in the lamprey under the in vitro conditions of this study. PMID:2120756
Practice matching number objects to numerals To play a game counting fish in the sea, click Fishy Count. Count the fish and click the right number! To play a game counting shapes, click Counting Game. Count the number of shapes and click the right number! Practice numbers 1-10! Click How Many? (0-10). Count the objects and choose the ...
We present here a bird-eye view of time-dependent optical transmission of blood in red-near infrared spectral range. This issue is of the key importance both for fundamental understanding and for various applications connected with non-invasive optical blood analysis. A number of experiments measuring kinetics of blood transmission in the case of natural heart pulsations and of artificial kinetics following over-systolic occlusion is reviewed. The comprehensive theoretical approach has to consider scattering-associated mechanism rather than the widely accepted absorption-associated one. Light scattering occurs on RBC aggregates. The size of aggregates and their shape change in time due to blood flow variations. It results in the corresponding changes of optical transmission.
The red blood cell depends solely on the anaerobic conversion of glucose by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway for the generation and storage of high-energy phosphates, which is necessary for the maintenance of a number of vital functions. Many red blood cell enzymopathies have been described that disturb the erythrocyte's integrity, shorten its cellular survival, and result in hemolytic anemia. By far the majority of these enzymopathies are hereditary in nature. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the genetic, biochemical, and structural features of clinically relevant red blood cell enzymopathies involved in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway and the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. PMID:16051738
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) prophylaxis suppresses major adverse cardiovascular events, but its rapid turnover limits inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity and thrombosis. Despite its importance, the identity of the enzyme(s) that hydrolyzes the acetyl residue of circulating aspirin, which must be an existing enzyme, remains unknown. We find that circulating aspirin was extensively hydrolyzed within erythrocytes, and chromatography indicated these cells contained a single hydrolytic activity. Purification by over 1400-fold and sequencing identified the PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of type I platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase, a phospholipase A2 with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, as a candidate for aspirin acetylhydrolase. Western blotting showed that catalytic PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3 subunits of the type I enzyme co-migrated with purified erythrocyte aspirin hydrolytic activity. Recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzed aspirin, and PAF competitively inhibited aspirin hydrolysis by purified or recombinant erythrocyte enzymes. Aspirin was hydrolyzed by HEK cells transfected with PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3, and the competitive type I PAF acetylhydrolase inhibitor NaF reduced erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin. Exposing aspirin to erythrocytes blocked its ability to inhibit thromboxane A2 synthesis and platelet aggregation. Not all individuals or populations are equally protected by aspirin prophylaxis, the phenomenon of aspirin resistance, and erythrocyte hydrolysis of aspirin varied 3-fold among individuals, which correlated with PAFAH1B2 and not PAFAH1B3. We conclude that intracellular type I PAF acetylhydrolase is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood.
Zhou, Gang; Marathe, Gopal K.; Willard, Belinda; McIntyre, Thomas M.
In this study DC numbers, phenotype and DC responses to the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 ligand, poly I:C, were examined in new-onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (ND) and in established T1D patients (ED). Absolute blood myeloid DC (MDC) and plasmacytoid DC (PDC) numbers were decreased in ND and ED patients compared to age-matched controls. The decrease in MDC and PDC counts was less evident in patients with a combination of T1D and coeliac disease (CD) or CD alone. The age-dependent decline in blood DC numbers, found in control children, was not evident in ND patients, such that 2-10 years old ND children had similar MDC and PDC numbers to 15-17 years old controls. In ED patients the t-score of MDC and PDC numbers related to the age of diagnosis but not to disease duration. Blood DC in T1D patients were not distinguished from those of controls by the levels of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD86 expression or the percentage of DC expressing cytokines, IL-12, IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, in responses to poly I:C. If low DC numbers are shown to contribute to the autoimmunity in T1D, interventions aimed to increase DC numbers may mitigate against beta-cell loss. PMID:17462956
It is unclear whether developmental trends in total leukocyte (WBC) and differential lymphocyte (PropL) counts in peripheral blood of altricial birds typically mirror the known ontogenetic increase in immunocompetence. We documented the development of leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers in peripheral blood of wild, altricial Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena) nestlings. Nestlings had a mass-overshoot-recession growth profile. Hatchlings' mean WBC (7.94 x 10(9) cells/l) and PropL (0.65) were respectively 4x and approximately 1.7x the mean adult value. Both variables declined at a steady rate throughout nestling development and were 1.3x the mean adult value at fledging. Hatching WBC values that substantially exceeded those of adults could have reflected the parasite- and pathogen-rich nest environment of this species. The developmental declines in peripheral blood WBC and PropL were not inconsistent with an ontogenetic increase in specific immunocompetence; they are likely to have resulted mainly from an increase in the rate of leukocyte trafficking to vulnerable tissues and organs. PMID:19901398
A Technicon H6000(TM) automated blood cell analyzer was used to determine the effect of smoking on the differential white blood cell count and on platelet count. Approximately 3,000 apparently healthy individuals gave blood samples as part of an ongoing o...
Fetal nucleated erythrocytes (NRBC) in maternal blood are a non-invasive source of fetal DNA for prenatal genetic screening. We compared the effectiveness of three monoclonal antibodies for the separation of fetal cells from maternal blood by flow sorting. Mononuclear blood cells from 49 healthy pregnant women were incubated with antibody to CD 71, CD 36, and/or glycophorin A (GPA), employed singly or in combination with each other. These monoclonal antibodies recognize surface antigens on haematopoietic precursor cells. Successful isolation of fetal cells was defined as detection of Y chromosomal sequences in maternal blood from women carrying male fetuses, with absence of Y sequences when female fetuses were carried. Thus, gender prediction accuracy was used as a measure of fetal cell separation. Using anti-CD 71 to isolate fetal cells, gender prediction was 57 per cent correct; with anti-CD 36, it was 88 per cent correct. Anti-GPA, an erythrocyte-specific antigen, used alone or in combination with anti-CD 71 or 36, improved gender prediction to 100 per cent. We conclude that antibody to GPA improves the retrieval of fetal NRBC from maternal blood, permitting genetic analysis by the polymerase chain reaction. PMID:7685093
Bianchi, D W; Zickwolf, G K; Yih, M C; Flint, A F; Geifman, O H; Erikson, M S; Williams, J M
Traditionally, cytopenias are classified as deficiency mediated, immune mediated, BM failure induced, renal, or idiopathic, with the latter including the so-called idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance (ICUS). Clinical findings, symptoms, bloodcounts, BM findings, and other laboratory parameters are usually sufficient to reveal the type and cause of a marked cytopenia. However, in patients with chronic mild cytopenia, it may be a challenge for the physician to establish a correct diagnosis. In such patients, laboratory features and findings often reflect a diagnostic interface, so that criteria that are otherwise robust may hardly be applicable or are not helpful. Even if the BM is examined, the diagnosis often remains uncertain in these patients. In addition, more than one potential cause of cytopenia may be present, especially in the elderly. A myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or another BM disorder, but also an overt autoimmune or other inflammatory disease, may develop during follow-up in these patients. A key problem is that in an early phase of MDS, most laboratory and clinical signs are "nonspecific." One of the very few reliable peripheral blood parameters distinguishing between an early or "pre-phase" of MDS and most other causes of a mild cytopenia are the numbers of circulating colony-forming progenitor cells. In addition, flow cytometric and molecular investigations may sometimes assist in the delineation between clonal and reactive conditions underlying mild cytopenias. This review provides an overview of diagnostic approaches and algorithms for patients with mild unexplained cytopenia(s). PMID:23233623
Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225
Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca
Venous blood samples were taken from eight competitors in mid-evening after a racing day, and in the early morning before the next day's race, three times during the course of the Milk Race, 1992. These were used to gather information about the changes in circulating leucocyte levels in response to the exceptionally high sustained daily workload required during a major
P Keen; D A McCarthy; L Passfield; H A Shaker; A J Wade
Background Late-onset sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Diagnosis of late-onset sepsis can be challenging. The complete blood cell count and differential have been previously evaluated as diagnostic tools for late-onset sepsis in small, single-center reports. Objective We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the complete bloodcount and differential in late-onset sepsis in a large multicenter population. Study design Using a cohort of all infants with cultures and complete blood cell count data from a large administrative database, we calculated odds ratios for infection, as well as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios for various commonly used cut-off values. Results High and low white blood cell counts, high absolute neutrophil counts, high immature-to-total neutrophil ratios, and low platelet counts were associated with late-onset sepsis. Associations were weaker with increasing postnatal age at the time of the culture. Specificity was highest for white blood cell counts <1000/mm3 and >50,000/mm3 (>99%). Positive likelihood ratios were highest for white blood cell counts <1000/mm3 (4.1) and platelet counts <50,000/mm3 (3.5). Conclusion No complete bloodcount index possessed adequate sensitivity to reliably rule out late-onset sepsis in this population.
Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Becker, Kristian C.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Li, Jennifer; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian
The normal numbers of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) observed in peripheral blood samples differ among species. This depends on the effectiveness of the spleen (or the rest of the reticuloendothelial system) to withdraw them from circulation. In our previous report, we assessed the number of MNE in the peripheral blood of 35 mammalian species. Here we show the results observed in 54 species including mammals, reptiles and birds. We obtained 212 peripheral blood samples from different species. In 14 species, only one individual was studied. Slides were stained with acridine orange. The total number of MNE (normo and polychromatic) in 10,000 erythrocytes per animal are shown. The species that display the higher MNE were: ocelote, lynx, owl, gray squirrel, hedgehog, lion, orange fronted parakeet and common barn owl. For this reason, these species could be tested as monitors for genotoxic events. Another interesting observation was that in the gray squirrel, we found the highest values of MNE in the smaller (younger) animals when compared with the larger (older) of the same species. PMID:10771274
Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Luna-Aguirre, J; González-Rodríguez, A; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ventura-Aguilar, A J; Ramos-Ibarra, M L; Ramos-Mora, A; Ortíz, G G; Gallegos-Arreola, M P
Despite extensive efforts to elucidate the mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation, the understanding of this mechanism still remains obscure. In attempt to clarify this issue, we studied the effect of hematocrit (Hct) on the complex admittance of quiescent blood measured at different axial positions of the 2 mm x 2 mm cross-section chambers. It was found that after the aggregation process is completed, the admittance reveals delayed changes caused by the formation of cell-free zones within the settling dispersed phase. The delay time (tau(d)) correlates positively with Hct and the distance between the axial position where measurements were performed and the bottom and is unaffected by the gravitational load. These findings and literature reports for colloidal gels suggest that erythrocytes in aggregating media form a network followed by the formation of plasma channels within it. The cell-free zones form initially near the bottom and then propagate toward the top until they reach the plasma/blood interface. These channels increase the permeability of a network and, as a result, accelerate the sedimentation velocity. The energy of the flow field in channels is sufficiently strong to erode their walls. The upward movement of network fragments in channels is manifested by erratic fluctuations of the conductivity. The main conclusion, which may be drawn from the results of this study, is that the phase separation of blood is associated with the formation of plasma channels within the sedimenting dispersed phase. PMID:19766465
A human serum containing a monoclonal anti-(blood-group I) antibody was used to investigate the distribution of blood-group-I antigen on erythrocyte membrane components. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis profiles of immuneprecipitates by using 3H-labelled (by the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 method) and 125I-labelled solubilized stroma were compared. Different radioactive profiles were revealed by the two radiolabelling methods. In the immunoprecipitates the predominant 125I radioactivity within the gel had the electrophoretic mobility of Band-3 protein (apparent mol.wt. 90 000--100 000), whereas the 3H radioactivity revealed a diffusely migrating component(s) (apparent mol.wt. range 40 000--70 000) in addition to radioactivity compatible with glycolipids at the dye front. The diffusely migrating 3H-labelled component was shown to have a similar electrophoretic mobility to a subpopulation of erythrocyte poly(glycosyl)ceramides with blood-group-I activity.
... Bone marrow erythrocytes. Peripheral blooderythrocytes. Other: (specify). No. of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) scored per animal: No. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation
Interrelations between the lipid characteristics of the blooderythrocytes and 226Ra accumulation in the body of tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) inhabiting areas with different levels of the radiation background were investigated. It is shown that the ratio of the phospholipid (PL) fractions which cause the blooderythrocyte structure depends on the phase of the population cycle, as well as on the sex and age of tundra voles. The statistically significant interrelation between lysoforms and the sphingomielin content has been revealed in the blooderythrocyte PL of tundra voles; its scale somewhat differs for the animals from the reference and Ra areas. The peroxide concentration in the blooderythrocyte lipids of tundra voles from the Ra area exceeded the control values in all mature groups of the animals trapped at the depression phase of the population density. The 226Ra content in the bodies of the tundra voles which were trapped in the Ra area at the increased phase of the population cycle is for certain higher than that for the animals from the reference area. Interrelations between the lipid peroxidation parameters in the blooderythrocytes and the body 226Ra content for separate sex-age groups of tundra voles have been revealed. PMID:22279775
The relationship between blood lead and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) or zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) was evaluated prospectively for 50 weeks in a group of workers who were removed from occupational lead exposure for 10 weeks. FEP or ZPP continued to fall in spite of a rising blood lead upon re-exposure. Although statistically significant relationships between square root FEP or ZPP
Rationale Skeletal muscle blood flow is coupled with the oxygenation state of hemoglobin in young adults, whereby the erythrocyte functions as an oxygen sensor and releases ATP during deoxygenation to evoke vasodilation. Whether this function is impaired in humans of advanced age is unknown. Objective To test the hypothesis that older adults demonstrate impaired muscle blood flow and lower intravascular ATP during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation. Methods and Results We show impaired forearm blood flow (FBF) responses during two conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation (systemic hypoxia and graded handgrip exercise) with age, and this is due to reduced local vasodilation. In young adults, both hypoxia and exercise significantly increased venous [ATP] and ATP effluent (FBF × [ATP]) draining skeletal muscle. In contrast, hypoxia and exercise did not increase [ATP]v in older adults, and both [ATP]v and ATP effluent were substantially reduced compared with young despite similar levels of deoxygenation. Next, we demonstrate that this cannot be explained by augmented extracellular ATP hydrolysis in whole blood with age. Finally, we found that deoxygenation-mediated ATP release from isolated erythrocytes is essentially non-existent in older adults. Conclusions Skeletal muscle blood flow during conditions of erythrocyte deoxygenation is markedly reduced in aging humans, and reductions in plasma ATP and erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may be a novel mechanism underlying impaired vasodilation and oxygen delivery during hypoxemia with advancing age. Because aging is associated with elevated risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease and exercise intolerance, interventions targeting erythrocyte-mediated ATP release may offer therapeutic potential.
Kirby, Brett S.; Crecelius, Anne R.; Voyles, Wyatt F.; Dinenno, Frank A.
White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,
P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes
In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blooderythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895
Staroverov, Sergey A; Sidorkin, Vladimir A; Fomin, Alexander S; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu; Dykman, Lev A
In this study, the physiological parameters such as extracellular (SAGM+CPD+residual plasma) Na+, K+, Cl-, pH, 2,3-DPG and ATP together with the Cole-Cole parameters were measured using erythrocyte suspensions from 51 male donors (31 donors form the training set and 20 donors are used for testing), on the 0th, 10th, 21st, 35th and 42nd days of storage. Accordingly, electrical parameters were all correlated with Na+, K+, Cl-, pH and ATP, at varying levels. By applying the multi-regression analysis, it is concluded that Ri, Re and Cm are appropriate for modeling Na+, K+, Cl-, pH and ATP during blood bank storage and predicting blood quality. PMID:17946681
Increased RDW has been found to be a marker of adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Recently, several authors have found that higher RDW is associated with decreased erythrocyte deformability, which can impair blood flow through microcirculation, a fact which may explain the increased risk for CVD events associated with elevated RDW. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between RDW and erythrocyte deformability in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study group comprised 60 AMI patients and 72 gender- and age-matched controls, in whom erythrocyte deformability was determined by means of the elongation index (EI) in a Rheodyn SSD, along with haematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters. Patients showed higher RDW (p = 0.012) and lower EI (p < 0.05) than controls. When anaemic patients were removed from the study, AMI showed still lower EI than controls (p < 0.05), but no differences in RDW were observed (p = 0.141). RDW correlated inversely with haematimetric indices (p < 0.001), but not with inflammatory and biochemical parameters (p > 0.05). EI correlated inversely with Hb, MCHC (p < 0.001) and directly with MCV (p < 0.05). EI also correlated inversely with glucose (p < 0.05) and directly with HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). The multivariate regression model showed that only MCV and Hb were independent predictors of RDW (beta coefficients: -0.383, -0.208; p < 0.001, p = 0.050, respectively). In addition, MCV, MCHC and hyperlipidaemia were independent predictors of EI (beta coefficients: 0.366, -0.533, -0.192; p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.019 respectively). In AMI patients, increased RDW is not related with EI, so this mechanism does not seem to be responsible for an increased CDV risk in these patients. PMID:23752170
Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; de la Espriella, Rafael; Sanchez, Fernando; Suescun, Marta; Hernandez, José Luis; Fácila, Lorenzo
Background Early-onset sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, and its diagnosis remains challenging. The complete blood cell count and differential have been previously evaluated as diagnostic tools for early-onset sepsis in small, single-center reports. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the complete bloodcount and differential in early-onset sepsis in a large, multicenter population of neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods Using a cohort of 166,092 neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis with cultures admitted to 293 neonatal intensive care units, we calculated odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic curves for complete blood cell count indices and prediction of a positive culture. We determined sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for various commonly used cut-off values from the complete blood cell count. Results Low white blood cell counts, low absolute neutrophil counts, and high immature-to-total neutrophil ratios were associated with increasing odds of infection (highest odds ratios: 5.38, 6.84, and 7.97, respectively). Specificity and negative predictive values were high (73.799.9% and >99.8%). However, sensitivities were low (0.354.5%) for all complete blood cell count indices analyzed. Conclusion Low white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and high immature-to-total neutrophil ratio were associated with increasing odds of infection, but no complete blood cell count-derived index possesses the sensitivity to rule out reliably early-onset sepsis in neonates.
Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Becker, Kristian C.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Li, Jennifer; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian
Participation of mono-, di-, and tricyclic pyrimidine derivatives in free radical processes was investigated with the use of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in measurements performed in vitro in systems containing erythrocytes, erythrocyte lysate, erythrocyte membranes, mitochondria, mitoplasts or blood plasma. The free radical processes were induced in the investigated systems by tert -butyl hydroperoxide ( t -BuOOH) or 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Amongst the examined compounds, only derivatives containing the thiol substituent were found to modify the course of chemiluminescence. Effects of both amplification and inhibition of light emission were observed to depend on the structure of a derivative and on the type of a biological (experimental) system. The light emission-amplifying activity was found to be characteristic of the system containing erythrocytes. The results of the investigations point out that the pyrimidine thio-derivatives prolonged the oxidative stress through some interactions mainly with (oxy)hemoglobin, which was related with specific toxicity against erythrocytes. Model investigations in the proposed experimental systems can serve as a useful tool at early stages of the drug discovery process when compounds involved in the interactions connected with the oxidative stress are being selected. On the other hand, this method allows to study mechanisms of the toxic action of xenobiotics on cells (erythrocytes) and organelles (mitochondria), strongly implicated in the free radical generation, and to examine the role of the extracellular liquid (plasma). PMID:17556799
Introduction Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB) are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. Methods Subjects with and without CVD were included (N?=?398). Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ?0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was determined as a measure of (subclinical) atherosclerosis. Results Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80±0.09 mm, N?=?140) compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57±0.08 mm, N?=?258) (P?=?0.007, adjusted P<0.001). CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearmans r: 0.116, P?=?0.021). A total of 55 subjects (13.6%) were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.043.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.852.82). Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56±0.94 a.u.) when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89±1.15 a.u), blood group B (0.73±0.1.12 a.u.) or blood group AB (0.69±0.69 a.u.) (P-ANOVA?=?0.002). Conclusion Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant.
Klop, Boudewijn; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M.; Bovenberg, Sarah A.; van der Meulen, Noelle; Elte, Jan Willem F.; Birnie, Erwin; Njo, Tjin L.; Janssen, Hans W.; van Miltenburg, Addy; Jukema, J. Wouter; Cabezas, Manuel Castro
It is known that administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is followed by an increase of white blood cell count. There is evidence from other vascular beds that an increase in white blood cell count impairs blood flow regulation especially in the microcirculation. Whether this also holds true for the ocular circulation is unknown. In the following study we investigated whether an increase in white blood cell count alters the endothelin-1 induced vasoconstriction in humans. Neither granulocyte-colony stimulating factor nor endothelin-1 had any consistent effect on blood pressure, pulse rate or intraocular pressure. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor induced a pronounced increase in retinal white blood cell density (p < 0.01). Administration of endothelin-1 decreased choroidal (p < 0.01) and retinal blood flow (p < 0.01). The change in choroidal blood flow in response to endothelin-1 was not altered by pre-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. By contrast, the decrease in retinal blood flow was more pronounced during an increase in white blood cell count (p = 0.02) when compared to placebo. Our data indicates that during pronounced vasoconstriction, as induced by administration of endothelin-1, vascular regulation can be altered by the number of circulating white blood cells. Whether this effect is caused by an interaction of red and white blood cells in the microcirculation or a yet unknown mechanism needs further investigation. PMID:22309805
Told, Reinhard; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fetal heart rate patterns and fetal nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Data were collected prospectively from March through September 2000. Umbilical cord blood was used for nucleated red blood cell analysis. The fetal heart rate pattern was analyzed for reactivity; presence, duration, and type of decelerations;
Asaf Ferber; Armando Grassi; Didem Akyol; Christopher O'Reilly-Green; Michael Y. Divon
Aims: To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers.Methods: Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 200003. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment
K Karita; M Nakao; K Ohwaki; Y Yamanouchi; M Nishikitani; K Nomura; M Sato; E Yano
distinguished. The largest cells were virtu- ally eliminated after phagocytosis of iron particles. We confirmed that these cells were monocytes by three different criteria: the intracellular lysozyme activity, the number of phagocytes, and the percentage of cells with kidney-shaped nuclei. The highly significant correlations we found showed that monocytes could be recog- nized and counted by electronic sizing. For this
Hans Loos; Bep Blok-Schut; Bart Kipp; Rineke van Doom; Louis Meerhof
The relation of umbilical cord blood arterial pH, Apgar score, leucocyte count, and erythroblast count at delivery with the diagnosis of fetal distress in labour was studied prospectively in three groups of singleton pregnancies delivering at term vaginally (55 infants), by elective caesarean section (39 infants), or by emergency caesarean section for abnormal intrapartum fetal heart rate patterns (55 infants).
B Thilaganathan; S Athanasiou; S Ozmen; S Creighton; N R Watson; K H Nicolaides
Neural networks (NNs) that are trained to perform classification may not perform as well when used as a module in a larger system. We introduce a novel, system-level method for training NNs with application to counting white blood cells. The idea is to phrase the objective function in terms of total count error rather than the traditional class-coding approach because
BackgroundElevated inflammatory markers are associated with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary artery interventions (PCI). An elevation in the white blood cell (WBC) count is a nonspecific response to inflammation. We hypothesized that an elevated WBC count would be a predictor of death in patients undergoing PCI.
Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; Ritesh Gupta; Stephen G Ellis; Eric J Topol; Michael S Lauer
Inhaled radioactive CO is currently the tracer of choice for blood volume quantification by positron emission tomography (PET). This measurement is of great interest for several clinical and research applications. However, owing to the short half-life of the radiolabeled CO, it can only be used in centers equipped with a cyclotron. In the present work, we propose an alternative method to label the red blood cells with [(18) F] in order to obtain blood volume measurements by PET. The use of the radioactive synthon [(18) F] N-succinimidyl 4-[(18) F]fluorobenzoate ([(18) F]SFB) was evaluated for erythrocyte labeling and PET blood volume imaging. The images provided by [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were compared with those obtained with inhaled [(11) C]CO. Blood volumes obtained with [(18) F]SFB labeled erythrocytes were similar to those obtained with [(11) C]CO in all of the evaluated organs with the exception of spleen, which presented lower uptake with this method. Since the [(18) F]-SFB binds irreversibly to red blood cells, in vivo stability of the radiolabel was higher compared with the [(11) C]CO method. Additionally, owing to the longer half-life and the shorter positron range of [(18) F], the image quality was also higher with the [(18) F]SFB radiolabeled erythrocytes. The labeling of red blood with [(18) F]SFB represents an advantageous alternative to radioactive CO for blood volume measurement by PET and cardiovascular isotopic imaging. PMID:23613441
Herance, José Raúl; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Abad, Sergio; Victor, Victor M; Pareto, Deborah; Torrent, Èlia; Rojas, Santiago
The authors studied the parameters of osmotic resistance and deformability of erythrocytes in patients with Duchenne's, Bekker's, Erb-Roth's and Landouzy-Déjérine's progressive muscular dystrophies, with Charcot-Marie's spinal amyotrophy, Kugelberg-Welander neural amyotrophy and with Thomsen's myotonia. Along with an increase in the erythrocytic osmotic resistance and deformability patients with different forms of hereditary neuromuscular diseases showed decreased plasma chemiluminescence (PCL) as well as an elevated ability of the blood plasma to inhibit PCL in the model chemiluminescence system in patients with Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy and in their close relatives. PMID:3577527
Background/objectives:A low folate or low thiamine status may be associated with the risk of preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) offspring and adverse pregnancy outcomes.Subjects/methods:5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP) were measured directly in cord-blooderythrocytes (CBEs) of early preterm (n=26; <32 weeks gestational age; including 50% multiple births), late preterm (n=38; 32 to <37 weeks; including 24% multiple births) and term newborns (n=60, 37-42 weeks) via high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Associations between 5MTHF and TDP with gestational age, newborn anthropometrics (birth weight, newborn's length and head circumference) and risk of being SGA were explored.Results:Group comparison as well as multivariate linear regression analysis of cord-blood vitamins revealed that 5MTHF was significantly lower in late preterms compared with terms but did not differ between singletons and multiples. TDP tended to be higher in preterms than in terms and lower in multiples than in singletons in both early and late preterms. Multivariate analysis on birth outcomes showed that 5MTHF was significantly positively associated with gestational age, birth weight and newborn's length. 5MTHF, increasing gestational age and parity were associated with a significantly reduced risk for being SGA, while TDP, multiple births and gender were not associated with the risk for being SGA.Conclusions:Higher CBE concentrations of 5MTHF were associated with improved birth outcomes. Lower TDP concentrations were observed in multiple births. Future studies evaluating cord-blood vitamin concentrations and their associations with birth outcomes should additionally include dietary intakes and maternal blood concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. PMID:24002042
Weber, D; Stuetz, W; Bernhard, W; Franz, A; Raith, M; Grune, T; Breusing, N
The aim of this paper was search for possible relationship between cholesterol and phospholipids in erythrocyte++ membrane and pathological entities i.e. hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both are the main risk factors of atherosclerosis and in both condition disturbances at the cell membrane level were detected. 124 persons (both men and women in a age group 20-59), employees of industrial enterprise were included into study. Standard questionnaire was performed as well as body weight and height, blood pressure, biochemical tests-lipids, cell membrane lipids serum and intracellular electrocytes as well as 24 h electrolyte urine excretion. The following findings were reported: cell membrane cholesterol concentration correlates with sex, age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerydes HDL-cholesterol and serum phospholipids. The biggest influence on cholesterol concentration in cell membrane have the following factors: sex, age and serum triglycerides. The most important finding was that the lipid metabolism disturbances has impact on triglyceride elevation in serum and that arterial hypertension is connected with decreased cholesterol concentration in erytrocyte membrane. PMID:2098842
Erythrocytes containing haemoglobin C do not lyse normally in the peroxidase channel of the Technicon H6000 automated cell counter. This interferes with the normal function of the channel and results in a characteristic abnormal pattern. This correlates with a reduced osmotic fragility of the red cells.
The concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum haptoglobin and the white blood cell count (WBC) were assessed in 17 thoroughbreds. All horses were trained for 80 days, six days a week, with one day of rest per week. Blood samples were collected from each animal by jugular venepuncture, at 06.00, every 20 days for a period of 80 days, and
F. Fazio; A. Assenza; F. Tosto; S. Casella; G. Piccione; G. Caola
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is commonly used to treat patients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and lung transplant rejection (LTR) in our institution. The quantitative relationship between the number of white blood cells treated during ECP and the cell count in peripheral blood is unclear. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with GVHD and LTR receiving ECP with either UVAR?XTS or CELLEX (Therakos) were prospectively recruited for this study. A complete cell count with differential was performed on preprocedural peripheral blood and samples from the collected buffy coats. Correlation analysis and linear regression were performed between cell counts in peripheral blood and buffy coat. Collection efficiency was compared between UVAR?XTS and CELLEX. RESULTS: In all 52 patients, lymphocyte counts in buffy coat and peripheral blood showed strong correlation (r values were 0.85 and 0.983 for UVAR?XTS and CELLEX, respectively; p?0.001) with slopes of 2 and 5.1 for UVAR?XTS and CELLEX, respectively (p?0.001). The quantitative relationship remained robust in patients stratified by diagnoses. Monocytes also showed consistent correlation and linearity, but not neutrophils or combined white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. CELLEX enriched approximately twice as many lymphocytes and monocytes than UVAR?XTS per procedure (p?0.001). CONCLUSION: The preprocedural peripheral lymphocyte count can predict the number of lymphocytes within the buffy coat collected during ECP, which may justify the use of peripheral lymphocyte count as a surrogate for the cell dose treated per procedure. Peripheral monocyte counts may serve as an alternative. CELLEX is more efficient in collecting lymphocytes and monocytes than UVAR?XTS under conditions tested. PMID:23414109
Liu, Chang; Shah, Kalpna; Dynis, Marian; Eby, Charles S; Grossman, Brenda J
Purified monocytes and lymphocytes from peripheral blood of healthy human donors were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity against blood group A erythrocytes (RBC) treated with a human hyperimmune anti-A serum. Haemolysis was quantitated by the release of radioactivity from RBC pre-labelled with 51Cr-chromate. The antiserum contained high titre antibodies which agglutinated A-RBC. After separation of serum on a Sephadex G-200 column the IgG containing fraction agglutinated A-RBC and precipitated blood group A substance. No or only weak antibody activity was detected in the IgA- and IgM-containing fractions. Purified monocytes added to a 100-fold excess of RBC in the presence of 0·1% antiserum induced some haemolysis. It was calculated that one monocyte was able to lyse 23 RBC within 18 hr incubation. In contrast, lymphocyte suspensions containing more than 97% small lymphocytes had no or only weak haemolytic activity at a lymphocyte-RBC ratio of 25: 1. The effector cells of the monocyte fraction adhered to glass and were eliminated by incubation with carbonyl iron. Phagocytosis by monocytes of antibody-treated RBC was frequently observed. Loading of monocytes by treatment with heat-killed Candida albicans or carbonyl iron particles suppressed their haemolytic action. Cytotoxicity was impaired after treatment of monocytes with 10?4 M sodium iodo acetate. After separation of serum on Sephadex G-200 column all monocyte induced haemolytic activity was found in the IgG containing fraction. It is assumed that haemolysis is induced by the interaction of monocytes with an IgG anti-A antibody of the antiserum. ImagesFig. 1
Ten mg hydrocortisone (HC) was administered intravenously to a healthy volunteer after a dexamethasone suppresion test and HC concentrations were determined from 1-270 min in plasma, plasma water and on erythrocytes. HC was extracted front erythrocyte concentrates with high efficiency by HC-poor plasma or by human or bovine albyum solutions. Determination of HC in the plasma of the volunteer mainly
O. Driessen; L. Treuren; A. Moolenaar; J. W. A. Meijer; P. Verheijen
Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities.
Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.
Summary We screened for increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in 1464 healthy German blood donors. The osmotic fragility was determined by an acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT) using glycerol-sodium phosphate-buffered NaCl solution. Since the original test described by Zanella et al.  showed only low specificity for hereditary spherocytosis, we used a modification with 0.0093M sodium phosphate-buffered glycerol-saline solution, pH
Background and PurposeElevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. MethodsFor this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)
Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco
Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes. PMID:21675192
Brazhe, N A; Ba?zhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V
This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for countingblood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.
Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values
Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner
We prospectively compared the diagnostic value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell counts for detection of neonatal septicaemia. Sensitivity and specifity in receiver operating characteristics, and positive and negative predictive value of CRP and white blood cell count were compared in 195 critically ill preterm and term newborns clinically suspected of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 33
Christoph Berger; Judith Uehlinger; Daniela Ghelfi; N. Blau; Sergio Fanconi
A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.
Background Components of the metabolic syndrome are associated with low-grade inflammation. This can be accompanied by the synthesis of sticky proteins and erythrocyte aggregation. Methods The degree of erythrocyte aggregation was evaluated by a simple slide test and image analysis along with other markers of the acute- phase response, including the white blood cell count (WBCC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),
Sharon Toker; Ori Rogowski; Samuel Melamed; Arie Shirom; Itzhak Shapira; Shlomo Berliner; David Zeltser
Objectives We investigated the secular trend in white blood cell (WBC) count and the relationship between WBC count and mortality between 1958 and 2002. Background The WBC count is a clinical marker of inflammation and a strong predictor of mortality. Limited data exist on the WBC count secular trend and the relationship between WBC and mortality. Methods One thousand eighty-three women and 1,720 men were evaluated longitudinally in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Blood samples and medical information were collected at the study entry and every 2 years during follow-up visits. The WBC count and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were assessed. Results A downward trend in WBC count was observed from 1958 to 2002. The secular downward trend was independent of age, gender, race, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. The WBC count was nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality and almost linearly associated with cardiovascular mortality. Participants with baseline WBC <3,500 cells/mm3 and WBC >6,000 cells/mm3 had higher mortality than those with 3,500 to 6,000 WBC/mm3. Within each WBC group, age-adjusted mortality rates declined in successive cohorts from the 1960s to the 1990s. Participants who died had higher WBC than those who survived, and the difference was statistically significant within 5 years before death. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a secular downward trend in WBC count over the period from 1958 to 2002. Higher WBC counts are associated with higher mortality in successive cohorts. We found no evidence that the decline of age-specific mortality rates that occurred from 1960 to 2000 was attributable to a secular downward trend in WBC.
Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Cherubini, Antonio; Maggio, Marcello; Sen, Ranjan; Najjar, Samer S.; Windham, Gwen B.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Ferrucci, Luigi
Background: Full bloodcount has been shown to predict disease severity and mortality risk in cancer patients. This study aimed to highlight the degree of derangements of full bloodcount parameters and provide mean values in pre-chemotherapy breast cancer patients compared with apparently normal control subjects. Methods:This was an unmatched case-control study among breast cancer patients attending Oncology clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja and the nurses of the institution as control. A total of 4.5 mls of blood was collected from each participant into EDTA bottle for full bloodcount analysis, done on the same day of collection. Results: A total of 100 histologically diagnosed, consenting, pre-chemotherapy patients of the clinic (cases) and 50 nurses of the institution as controls were studied. Anemia was found in 58%, 43% and 20% of cases compared with 38%, 36% and 2% of controls using PCV< 36%, 30-36% and 30%, respectively. The mean MCV, MCH, MCHC (82.62±7.48 fl, 26.01±2.78 pg, 30.73±4.06 g/l respectively) of cases were lower than the controls (85.36±5.74 fl, 27.24±1.90 pg, 31.81±0.8 g/l, respectively and RDW of cases (15.61±3.53) was higher than the control (14.24±0.75). The mean WBC counts, neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages of cases (6.96±7.22, 54.75±13.1% and 38.19±12.70%, respectively) were higher than the controls (5.47±1.57, 44.39±8.78% and 8.82±15.97%, respectively). The mean platelet count of cases 291.51±103.38 was also higher than the controls (222.82±57.62). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients presented with deranged full bloodcount pattern, consequent to the disease compared with the controls.
The clinical implications of variation in erythrocyte oxygen affinity include those associated with the acute potentially deleterious effects of increased affinity, the acute presumably beneficial effects of decreased affinity. In response to hypoxia, and...
Objective. The purpose of this study was to develop a new prognostic scoring system for critically ill patients using the simple complete blood cell count (CBC). Methods. CBC measurements in samples from 306 patients in an intensive care unit were conducted with automated analyzers, including levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets. The time of sampling and the time of death were recorded. Z values were calculated according to the measured values, reference mean values, and standard deviations. The prognostic score was equivalent to the median of the Z value of each of the measured parameters. Results. There was a significant correlation between survival time and neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet levels (P < 0.05). Prognostic scores were calculated from the Z value of these three parameters. Survival times decreased as the prognostic score increased. Conclusions. This study suggests that a model that uses levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets is potentially useful in the objective evaluation of survival time or disease severity in unselected critically ill patients.
Chongliang, Fang; Yuzhong, Li; Qian, Shi; Xiliang, Liu; Hui, Liu
: Results on more than 1000 complete bloodcounts (CBC) performed on hot-blooded horses, including Thoroughbred, Standardbred,\\u000a and Arabian, have been reviewed. All the data were processed and stored at the Laboratory of Haematology, Department Veterinary\\u000a Clinic, University of Pisa, over the last 2 years, and involved samples withdrawn from both inpatients and outpatients of\\u000a the clinic.\\u000a \\u000a ?The CBC is
A. GAVAZZA; A. J. DELGADILLO; B. GUGLIUCCI; A. PASQUINI; G. LUBAS
Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber- manufacturing plant, who responded to
Hemostasis and blood cell counts were studied during pregnancy, during labor, and after delivery in 76 women. Results were compared with data from a control group of 24 women. Previously published data are reviewed and the variations of studied factors are discussed. No reliable biologic test is available at present for assessing the risk of puerperal thromboembolism. PMID:6275526
Georges, A J; Georges, M C; Servantie, B; Le Brozec, M; Limouzin-Lamothe, M A
Myocardial bridging (MB) is a congenital anomaly of coronary arteries and its functional significance remains controversial. Using the TIMI frame count (TFC) method, the authors investigated whether the coronary blood flow velocity is decreased in MB. The study included 18 patients (group 1; 12 men and 6 women; mean age 50 ±6 years) who had angiographically proven MB and otherwise
Context: The most prevalent side effect associated with warfarin therapy is bleeding. Routine monitoring of laboratory tests, such as complete bloodcounts (CBC), may provide theoretical benefit in this patient population as a means of detecting occult bleeding through hemoglobin values that decrease compared to baseline.
Kandace V. Anich; Daniel M. Witt; Thomas Delate; Roberta L. Shanahan; Rachana J. Patel
A novel system has been developed to evaluate biochemically induced blood platelet aggregation by means of a particle counting technique that uses light scattering. Variations in the particle size and concentration were measured by detecting the scattered light intensity and the number of particles, respectively, passing through a laser beam. The system is capable of performing sensitive, in situ continuous
T. Yamamoto; Y. Egawa; Y. Shirasawa; Y. Ozaki; K. Sato; Y. Yatomi; H. Kume
Approximately 1 in 5 patients undergoing cardiac surgery are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Among the primary causes of readmission are infection and disease states susceptible to the inflammatory cascade, such as diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastrointestinal complications. Currently, it is not known if a patient's baseline inflammatory state measured by crude white blood cell (WBC) counts could predict 30-day readmission. We collected data from 2,176 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery at seven hospitals. Patient readmission data was abstracted from each hospital. The independent association with preoperative WBC count was determined using logistic regression. There were 259 patients readmitted within 30 days, with a median time of readmission of 9 days (IQR 416). Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline (10,00012,000 and >12,000?mm3) had higher 30-day readmission than those with lower levels of WBC count prior to surgery (15% and 18% compared to 10%12%, P = 0.037). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.42 (0.86, 2.34) for WBC counts 10,00012,000 and 1.81 (1.03, 3.17) for WBC count?>?12,000. We conclude that WBC count measured prior to cardiac surgery as a measure of the patient's inflammatory state could aid clinicians and continuity of care management teams in identifying patients at heightened risk of 30-day readmission after discharge from cardiac surgery.
Brown, Jeremiah R.; Landis, R. Clive; Chaisson, Kristine; Ross, Cathy S.; Dacey, Lawrence J.; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Malenka, David J.; DiScipio, Anthony W.
Background Higher white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. However, the influence of higher WBC count on endothelin (ET)-1 vasoconstrictor activity is currently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that adults with elevated WBC count demonstrate enhanced ET-1 system activity. Methods Thirty-four healthy adults were studied: 17 with WBC count < 5.0 × 109 cells/L (lower WBC; 9M/8F; age: 53 ± 2 yr) and 17 with WBC count > 5.0 × 109 cells/L (higher WBC; 10M/7F; 54 ± 3 yr). Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to intra-brachial infusion of ET-1 (5 pmol/min for 20 min) and selective ETA receptor blockade (BQ-123; 100 nmol/min for 60 min) were measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. Results The vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 was significantly blunted (?60%) in the higher WBC group versus the lower WBC group. The FBF responses to selective ETA receptor blockade were also significantly different (P < 0.05) between the groups. In the lower WBC group, resting FBF increased marginally (?5%) to BQ-123, whereas the increase in FBF to BQ-123 was significantly greater (?15%) in higher WBC group. Furthermore, there was a significant relation between WBC count and FBF response to ET-1 (r = ?0.43) and BQ-123 (r = 0.41). Conclusions Relative elevations in WBC count in middle-aged and older adults, independent of adiposity and other cardiometabolic risk factors, are associated with enhanced ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. Elevated ET-1 system activity may be a mechanism linking higher WBC count with increased cardiovascular risk.
Diehl, Kyle J.; Weil, Brian R.; Greiner, Jared J.; Stauffer, Brian L.; DeSouza, Christopher A.
A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.101.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state.
Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio
A new human erythrocyte glycoprotein has been identified by immunoblotting with murine monoclonal antibodies under non-reducing conditions. The glycoprotein has a MW of 70,000 and carries Cromer-related blood group antigens. The monoclonal antibodies also react with normal peripheral blood leucocytes and platelets and several haemopoietic cell lines. The glycoprotein has a reduced MW after sialidase treatment. The MW is markedly reduced in Tn erythrocyte membranes and slightly increased in Cad erythrocyte membranes. These results suggest that the glycoprotein has a substantial content of O-glycans. The glycoprotein appears to be absent from, or grossly altered in, the erythrocytes of two individuals with the rare Inab phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3
Spring, F A; Judson, P A; Daniels, G L; Parsons, S F; Mallinson, G; Anstee, D J
We study how the degree of violation of osmotic equilibrium affects the spectral characteristics of radiation scattered by erythrocyte suspensions in media of various osmolarity. The transmission spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 450-860 nm for blood samples diluted with NaCl water solutions of various concentration. From an analysis of numerical simulation results and experimental data, we show that measuring the light scattering characteristics constitutes the basis of a new optical method for determining erythrocyte osmotic resistance. The method excludes the necessity of strong action on erythrocytes, differs in its simplicity and expressivity, and can be implemented using standard spectrometers.
A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells.
BACKGROUNDThe influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.?METHODSThe study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six months after quitting smoking in 160 ex-smokers (quitters) and 138 persons with smoking relapse. Blood samples were obtained from all participants at baseline and from 160 quitters and 30continuing smokers two, six, 12, and 26 weeks after smoking cessation and from 92 quitters one year after the cessation of smoking.?RESULTSBlood leucocyte counts and leucocyte subsets were all higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In cigarette smokers total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte bloodcounts showed a dose dependent relationship with the daily cigarette consumption and pack years consumption. In smokers the neutrophil bloodcount was independently associated negatively with FEV1 residuals. After quitting smoking total leucocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte bloodcounts decreased during the first 26 weeks and after one year lymphocyte bloodcounts were higher than in non-smokers. In quitters substituted with nicotine chewing gum (2 mg) the accumulated number of pieces of chewing gum used in the 12 weeks had an inverse relationship with the decrease in the total lymphocyte bloodcount at 12 weeks after smoking cessation.?CONCLUSIONSLeucocyte bloodcounts are raised in smokers and decrease after smoking cessation. Neutrophil bloodcounts had an inverse relationship with lung function and nicotine may increase lymphocyte bloodcounts in smokers.??
Jensen, E. J.; Pedersen, B.; Frederiksen, R.; Dahl, R.
Introduction There seems to be increasing evidence that inflammation leads to cancer. For several cancers, an association with white blood cell (WBC) count has been reported. So far, no studies have been performed for cancer of the oral cavity and WBC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to look at whether WBC count can be used as a prognostic marker for recurrence or metastases for oral cancer. Material and methods For 278 patients with oral cancer, the preoperative WBC count was compared with the clinicopathological information: age, gender, T-status, N-status, recurrence, metastases, follow-up time, and time till recurrence or metastases appeared. Results Out of 278 patients, 48 developed recurrence, 24 second tumors, 46 cervical metastases, and 14 distant metastases. The mean follow-up time was 35.97 months (range: 12-107 months). Significant Pearson correlation at the 0.05 level could be found for the T-status (0.046), but not for the N status (0.121). No significant correlation could be found between WBC count and the development of recurrence or metastases. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that elevated WBC count does not seem to be a predictor for recurrence or for further metastases. Further research is recommended to investigate the WBC count in precancerous lesions and in HPV positive patients with oral SCC.
Background: The analysis of red cell folate (RCF) de- pends on complete hemolysis of erythrocytes, and it is assumed that complete hemolysis is achieved by 10-fold dilution of whole blood with hypotonic solutions of 10 g\\/L ascorbic acid\\/ascorbate. This report challenges this assumption. Methods: The conventional method of erythrocyte lysis was modified to include saponin, a known effective hemolyzing agent.
Anthony J. A. Wright; Paul M. Finglas; Susan Southon
The frequencies and DNA distributions of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice after four different treatments were determined by flow cytometry. Polychromatic erthrocytes were detected using the fluorescent RNA stain thiazole orange, while micronuclei were detected with the DNA stain Hoechst 33342. The treatments were X-irradiation (1 Gy), cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg), vincristine sulfphate (0.08 mg/kg), and cochicine (1 mg/kg). All treatments showed increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at 30h after treatment in the bone marrow (colchicine 50h) and at 50h in the peripheral blood. The clostogenic agents X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide and the spindle poisons vincristine sulphate and cochicine could be grouped according to the fluorescent characteristics of the induced micronuclei as well as the relative frequency of small (0.5-2% if the diploid G1 DNA content) and large (2-10%) micronuclei. In the peripheral blood the relative frequency of large micronuclei was lower than in the bone marrow, indicating that they were partly eliminated before entrance into the peripheral circulation. The nature of presumed micronuclei was verified by sorting. The potential of this approach to give information on the mechanism of induction of micronuclei is discussed.
Grawe, J.; Amneus, H. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Zetterberg, G. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))
In analogy with histo-blood group A antigen, Forssman (Fs) antigen terminates with ?3-N-acetylgalactosamine and can be used by pathogens as a host receptor in many mammals. However, primates including humans lack Fs synthase activity and have naturally occurring Fs antibodies in plasma. We investigated individuals with the enigmatic ABO subgroup A(pae) and found them to be homozygous for common O alleles. Their erythrocytes had no A antigens but instead expressed Fs glycolipids. The unexpected Fs antigen was confirmed in structural, serologic, and flow-cytometric studies. The Fs synthase gene, GBGT1, in A(pae) individuals encoded an arginine to glutamine change at residue 296. Gln296 is present in lower mammals, whereas Arg296 was found in 6 other primates, > 250 blood donors and A(pae) family relatives without the A(pae) phenotype. Transfection experiments and molecular modeling showed that Agr296Gln reactivates the human Fs synthase. Uropathogenic E coli containing prsG-adhesin-encoding plasmids agglutinated A(pae) but not group O cells, suggesting biologic implications. Predictive tests for intravascular hemolysis with crossmatch-incompatible sera indicated complement-mediated destruction of Fs-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, we provide the first conclusive description of Fs expression in normal human hematopoietic tissue and the basis of a new histo-blood group system in man, FORS. PMID:23255552
Svensson, Lola; Hult, Annika K; Stamps, Robert; Ångström, Jonas; Teneberg, Susann; Storry, Jill R; Jørgensen, René; Rydberg, Lennart; Henry, Stephen M; Olsson, Martin L
1. Probucol treatment of mice (0.6 g/kg) induced a decrease of cholesterol (CH) and total phospholipids (PLs) in blood plasma, erythrocyte ghosts, liver plasma and microsomal membranes. 2. The incorporation of [14C]acetate in the microsomal lipids of probucol-treated mice was lowered by 23% compared to controls. 3. Probucol administration induced a reduced specific activity of PLs, CH and CH esters, whereas in triacylglycerols it was augmented. 4. Phospholipase A2 and neutral sphingomyelinase activities were not enhanced, indicating that the catabolism of the membrane PL was not elevated. PMID:2282959
Markovska, T T; Neicheva, T N; Momchilova-Pankova, A B; Koumanov, K S; Infante, R
In some species, in which the human is included, the influence of age in the variation in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) is known. In the present work we show how the process of aging influences the number of spontaneous MNE in the gray squirrel (Sciurus aureogaster). Because of the difficulty of knowing the age of each animal, 69 animals were weighed at their arrival to the laboratory and at the start of sample taking, with the supposition that the heaviest animals were the oldest and those with the lightest weight were the youngest. The major number of MNE was found in the younger animals, whereas the adults displayed less MNE (P < 0.0001). A group of 11 animals were sampled every 15 days over a period of 6 months, and the number of MNE were found to decrease with an increment in the weight in conformity with the time elapsed. These results showed that in the gray squirrel, the number of spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood depend on age. An additional interesting datum about the increment of MNE after the administration of colchicine is shown. PMID:11246224
Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Ramos-Ibarra, M L; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ventura-Aguilar, A J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ortíz, G G; Alvarez-Moya, C; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Gallegos-Arreola, M P
Among the reptile species examined, only loggerhead turtle RBC with their high capacity of anaerobic metabolism and low oxygen uptake possess all the suitable metabolic characteristics as a model for transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism of mammalian erythrocytes (RBC). Neither the alligator RBC, which lack a significant level of anaerobic metabolism, nor the savannah monitor lizard RBC with their
In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology.
Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis
Background and aim Many risk factors that might contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and infection. Furthermore, systemic inflammatory responses to periodontal bacteria have been suggested as a pathogenetic link between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and methods Fifty patients with chronic periodontitis and 50 patients with healthy periodontium were included in this study. Oral hygiene status, pocket probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured. During clinical evaluation, venous blood samples were taken to analyze the WBC and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was utilized to compare differences across groups. Results Periodontitis patients demonstrated a significantly higher WBC count (7.22 ± 1.42 × 109 cells/L) than that of control patients (5.64 ± 1.56 × 109 cells/L; P < 0.001). The platelet count of patients with chronic periodontitis (290.73 ± 56.56 × 109 cells/L) was also significantly higher compared to the healthy group (223.37 ± 50.27 × 109 cells/L; P < 0.001). Conclusion Levels of WBCs and platelets are elevated in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls.
In this paper, we utilized two different test systems to compare the haemolysis of tentacle-only extract (TOE) devoid of nematocysts from jellyfish Cyanea capillata, the 1% whole blood and 0.45% erythrocyte suspension approximately with the same erythrocyte concentration from the blood samples of sheep, rabbit, mouse, rat and human, respectively. Without exception, the haemolytic activity of TOE was dose-dependent in both test systems from all the five kinds of blood samples, while it was generally stronger in erythrocyte suspension than that in diluted whole blood at the relatively high concentration of TOE. When various aliquots of plasma were added into the erythrocyte suspension test system, the haemolytic activity of TOE was declined with the plasma quantity increasing, and dropped to about 20% at the presence of two aliquots of plasma. If serum albumin of 0.5 mg/ml, approximately the same albumin content in 1% whole blood, was added into the erythrocyte suspension test system instead, the haemolysis of TOE was similarly inhibited. The effects of GSH, ascorbic acid and protease inhibitor on the haemolytic activity of TOE were detected in the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood simultaneously, and the test results were coincident between the two systems. These results suggested that the inconsistency of TOE haemolysis between the erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood is a universal occurrence in the mammals, and blood plasma plays a dose-dependent protective role against haemolysis which may be due to serum albumin. Diluted whole blood is a valid and convenient test system for haemolysis study in vitro. PMID:21474292
Ten multiparous crossbred goats, five each of alpine×beetal (AB) and saanen×beetal (SB) were selected from the National Dairy Research Institute goat herd immediately after parturition. These were managed as per the practices followed in the institutes goatherd. Blood and milk samples were collected at biweekly intervals from day 14 post-kidding for 22 weeks (154 days). Somatic cell count, electrical conductivity,
Purpose: To assess the level of fatigue during the course of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer patients and its relation to anxiety, depression, serum cytokines, and bloodcount levels.Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients who received adjuvant RT after breast-conserving surgery were prospectively studied. All patients underwent RT without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients rated their fatigue with two standardized self-assessment instruments,
Hans Geinitz; Frank B Zimmermann; Peter Stoll; Reinhard Thamm; Walter Kaffenberger; Kai Ansorg; Monika Keller; Raymonde Busch; Dirk van Beuningen; Michael Molls
A white blood cell count (WBC) of >50,000 cell\\/mm3 from a knee aspirate with ?80% polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs) is suggestive of infection. This study sought to determine if these same criteria were applicable when interpreting aspirates from a total knee. Of 440 revision total knee arthroplasties, 86 patients had preoperative aspirations of the knee before revision. Fifty-five aspirates were from
J. Bohannon Mason; Thomas K Fehring; Susan M Odum; William L Griffin; Donna S Nussman
Objective: The presence of elevated nucleated red blood cell counts in neonatal blood has been associated with fetal hypoxia. We sought to determine whether small-for-gestational-age fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity waveforms have elevated nucleated red blood cell counts. Study Design: Hospital charts of neonates with the discharge diagnosis of small for gestational age (birth weight <10th percentile) who
Peter S. Bernstein; Victoria K. Minior; Michael Y. Divon
Adducin is an ?, ? heterotetramer that performs multiple important functions in the human erythrocyte membrane. First, adducin forms a bridge that connects the spectrinactin junctional complex to band 3, the major membrane-spanning protein in the bilayer. Rupture of this bridge leads to membrane instability and spontaneous fragmentation. Second, adducin caps the fast growing (barbed) end of actin filaments, preventing the tetradecameric protofilaments from elongating into macroscopic F-actin microfilaments. Third, adducin stabilizes the association between actin and spectrin, assuring that the junctional complex remains intact during the mechanical distortions experienced by the circulating cell. And finally, adducin responds to stimuli that may be important in regulating the global properties of the cell, possibly including cation transport, cell morphology and membrane deformability. The text below summarizes the structural properties of adducin, its multiple functions in erythrocytes, and the consequences of engineered deletions of each of adducin subunits in transgenic mice.
In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode\\u000a whose charge density ranges from 15 to +27 µC\\/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode.\\u000a Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by
Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition.
Background During blood bank storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo a number of biological and biochemical alterations collectively referred to as storage lesions. These injuries include loss and oxidative cross-linking of band 3, the major integral protein of RBC membranes. Denaturation of hemoglobin (Hb) and damage to the amino-terminal of band 3 are recognised as the starting events for immunological recognition mechanisms and phagocytic removal of senescent or impaired RBCs from circulation. Consequently, studies focusing on the Hb-association and oxidative status of the cytoskeleton of stored RBCs intended for transfusion are of extreme interest. In this work, two storage-related fragments of band 3 were documented and biochemically characterised. Methods Four RBC units were collected from normal volunteers and stored for 21 days under (i) standard blood bank conditions, (ii) anaerobic conditions, or (iii) in the presence of caspase 3-inhibitor. Degradation products of band 3 were followed by sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with western blot and mass spectrometry analyses. Results Two different degradation products of the cytoplasmic domain of the erythrocyte band 3 (CDB3) were detected in RBC membranes during storage in saline-adenine-glucosemannitol (SAGM) preservation medium. One of these fragments showed an apparent molecular weight of 34 kDa and was demonstrated to be the product of a free-radical attack on the protein main chain, whereas another fragment of 24 kDa was the result of a caspase 3-mediated cleavage. Discussion Although to different extent, anaerobic conditions reduced the formation of both truncated products indicating an enhanced activity of the pro-apoptotic caspase 3 enzyme following oxidative stress. Interestingly, both CDB3 fragments were tightly associated to the erythrocyte membrane supporting the involvement of Cys-201 and/or Cys-317 in clustering different band 3 monomers.
Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism.
Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat
White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and
Michael A. Nalls; James G. Wilson; Nick J. Patterson; Arti Tandon; Joseph M. Zmuda; Scott Huntsman; Melissa Garcia; Donglei Hu; Rongling Li; Brock A. Beamer; Kushang V. Patel; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Herman A. Taylor; David Reich; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv
Concentrated erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell) suspensions flowing in microchannels have been simulated with an immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann algorithm, to examine the cell layer development process and the effects of cell deformability and aggregation on hemodynamic and hemorheological behaviors. The cells are modeled as two-dimensional deformable biconcave capsules and experimentally measured cell properties have been utilized. The aggregation among cells is modeled by a Morse potential. The flow development process demonstrates how red blood cells migrate away from the boundary toward the channel center, while the suspending plasma fluid is displaced to the cell free layer regions left by the migrating cells. Several important characteristics of microscopic blood flows observed experimentally have been well reproduced in our model, including the cell free layer, blunt velocity profile, changes in apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus effect. We found that the cell free layer thickness increases with both cell deformability and aggregation strength. Due to the opposing effects of the cell free layer lubrication and the high viscosity of cell-concentrated core, the influence of aggregation is complex but. The lubrication effect appears to dominate, causing the relative apparent viscosity to decrease with aggregation. It appears therefore that the immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann numerical model may be useful in providing valuable information on microscopic blood flows in various microcirculation situations.
Zhang, Junfeng; Johnson, Paul C.; Popel, Aleksander S.
The Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, conducted an NWC-wide surveillance program to determine the prevalence in the NWC work force of low white blood cell (WBC) counts during 1982-83. A complete WBC count was performed on 3,012 NWC employees. If a person ...
Objectives: The total white blood cell (WBC) count and temperature are often expected to be elevated in patients with appendicitis. Clinicians often use the results of these parameters in making a judgment about the presence or absence of disease. The objective of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of the total WBC count and presenting body temperature in
Inflammation is increasingly recognized as having an important role in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count would predict subsequent mortality and whether revascularization would have a protective effect. We analyzed data from 10,480 patients with acute coronary syndromes enrolled in the PURSUIT trial who had a WBC count measured
Deepak L Bhatt; Derek P Chew; A. Michael Lincoff; Maarten L Simoons; Robert A Harrington; Steve R Ommen; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol
Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans.
Flow cytometry using fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies has been proposed as a possible new reference method to evaluate the monocyte counting performance of automated hematology analyzers. Since in previous studies only one such technique was applied, we investigated how different flow cytometric techniques compared to the manual differential and a hematology analyzer. Relative monocyte counts of 60 samples of the daily routine were determined on a Coulter Profile II flow cytometer after incubation with two different CD45-FITC/CD 14-PE antibody combinations and subsequent preparation with two whole-blood lysis techniques, including one no-wash technique. Results were compared to those of a 600-cell manual differential and to those of the Coulter STKS hematology analyzer. All flow cytometric methods correlated very well with the manual differential (r > or = 0.925) and none showed a significant bias. The Coulter STKS relative monocyte counts were slightly higher than those of the manual differential (8.76% vs. 8.18%). The correlations between the methods employing monoclonal antibodies were excellent (r > or = 0.995) and the mean monocyte counts identical although a small, non-systematic influence of sample preparation techniques was noted. An influence of the antibody clones was not observed. The precision of the Profile II results was far superior to that of the manual differential and the STKS. Our data show that flow cytometry employing fluorescence-labelled monoclonal antibodies is a potentially ideal new reference method for monocyte counting. However, they also show that establishing a new reference method will require extensive investigation and exact definition of the sample preparation procedure to be used. PMID:8809484
Hübl, W; Tlustos, L; Erath, A; Andert, S; Bayer, P M
We evaluated the optimal conditions for blood sampling for hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) as estimated by the immature information program of the SE-9000 automated hematology analyzer. The HPC count was most stable when the blood samples were incubated at room temperature with ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium (EDTA-2K) as an anticoagulant. The HPC count should, however, be measured within 4 h after
Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.
Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.
Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436
Summary Previously sedentary men (n=23) and women (n =18) were trained to run a half marathon contest after 40 weeks. Total blood glutathione had increased by 20 weeks of training and had returned to normal after 40 weeks. Erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity had increased by 20 weeks and remained elevated after 40 weeks. This effect was accompanied by decreases in glutathione
C. T. A. Evelo; N. G. M. Palmen; Y. Artur; G. M. E. Janssen
Diminished erythrocytecount and erythropoiesis have been reported during hypothermia in some ectothermic animals. In this study, the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, was used to investigate the cause of hypothermia-induced anemia. We developed a new model of hypothermia at 5°C and monitored blood cell count and erythropoiesis on several days. Erythrocytecount declined by 30% on the first day following cold exposure (5°C) and mRNA expression of hemeoxygenase-1 was enhanced 10-fold; accumulation of iron as a result of heme degradation was observed in the liver. One day after low-temperature exposure, erythropoietin mRNA expression was elevated in the liver and lung compared with that at normal temperature (22°C) by qRT-PCR analysis. Examination of liver sections (i.e. the erythropoietic organ) showed an increase in o-dianisidine-positive erythrocytes in the hepatic sinusoid 5 days after the onset of low-temperature exposure compared with normal liver. Peripheral erythrocytecount remained low, indicating that newly produced erythrocytes did not migrate from the liver to the circulation during hypothermia. In conclusion, this study reveals hypothermic anemia as being associated with hepatic erythrocyte destruction; prolonged anemia during low-temperature exposure is concomitant with newly produced erythrocytes being confined to the liver and may lead to new insights into vertebrate hematopoiesis. PMID:22875773
We evaluated a method for performing absolute cell counts of lymphocyte populations with a flow cytometer. In this method, TruCount, test tubes that contain a known number of brightly fluorescent polystyrene beads are provided by the manufacturer. Whole anticoagulated blood is accurately pipetted into the tubes and mixed with fluorochrome-labeled monoclonal antibodies, the erythrocytes are lysed, and this mixture is
JANET K. A. NICHOLSON; DANA STEIN; TAMMY MUI; RICHARD MACK; MARJORIE HUBBARD; THOMAS DENNY
Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate. PMID:24002067
Background Evidence about whether white blood cell (WBC) or its subtypes can act as a biomarker to predict the ischemic stroke events in the general population is scanty, particularly in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to establish the predictive ability of total WBC count or subtypes for long-term ischemic stroke events in the cohort population in Taiwan. Methods The Chin-Shan Community Cohort Study began from 1990 to 2007 by recruiting 1782 men and 1814 women of Chinese ethnicity. Following a total of 3416 participants free from ischemic stroke events at baseline for a median of 15.9?years; we documented 187 new incident cases. Results The multivariate relative risk for the comparison of the participants in the fifth and first WBC count quintiles was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022.73; P for trend=0.03), and the corresponding relative risk for neutrophil count was 1.93 (95% CI, 1.133.29; P for trend=0.02). The discriminative ability by WBC and neutrophil counts were similar (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.600 for adding WBC, 0.610 for adding neutrophils, 0.595 for traditional risk factor model). In addition, the net reclassification improvement (NRI) values between the neutrophil and white blood cell count models were not significant (NRI, =-2.60%, P=0.35), indicating the similar discrimination performance for both WBC and neutrophil counts. Conclusions WBC and neutrophil count had a similar ability to predict the long-term ischemic stroke events among Taiwanese.
Erythrocyte concentrates for transfusion purposes represent a life-saving therapeutics of primary relevance in the clinical setting. However, efforts have been continuously proposed to improve safety and efficacy of long-term stored red blood cells. By means of liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry, we were able to perform an untargeted metabolomics analysis in order to highlight metabolic species (i.e. low molecular biochemicals including sugars, lipids, nucleotides, aminoacids, etc.), both in red blood cells and supernatants, which showed fluctuations against day 0 controls over storage duration on a weekly basis. We could confirm and expand existing literature about the rapid fall of glycolytic rate and accumulation of glycolysis end products. A shift was observed towards the oxidative phase of pentose phosphate pathway, in response to an exacerbation of oxidative stress (altered glutathione homeostasis and accumulation of peroxidation/inflammatory products in the supernatant). The present study provides the first evidence that over storage duration metabolic fluxes in red blood cells proceed from pentose phosphate pathway towards purine salvage pathway, instead of massively re-entering glycolysis via the nonoxidative phase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22465715
Biochemical and histological alterations in erythrocytes, liver, kidney and brain of rats fed 30% level of D. juxtaposita fern powder were studied. Significant increase in GSH and decrease in lipid peroxidation, acetyl choline estrase and catalase of RBCs was observed. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation, ATPases and decrease in GST on 80 days post feeding in liver, kidneys and brain and acetyl choline estrase in brain was observed as compared to control. Histopathological studies indicated mild vascular changes in lungs, degenerative changes in testes, focal necrosis in liver and villous atrophy or hyperplasia of lining epithelial cells and hypersecretory activity in intestinal glands. Toxic effect of Dryopteris on rats was due to membrane alterations and oxidative stress and degenerative and vascular microscopic pathological changes. PMID:9717467
The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete bloodcount (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. PMID:22858449
Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis
The effects of red blood cell aggregation on blood flow in small vessels is of primary interest to understand the resistance changes in venular microcirculation. Recent studies on rat spinotrapezius muscle have shown that venular velocity profiles are significantly affected by red blood cell aggregation at pseudoshear rates up to 40s-1. The purpose of this study is to analyze the validiy of non-linear rheological models, Casson model and Power-Law model for in-vivo blood flow conditions. These models have been widely used in blood flow studies and their applicability has been validated using in-vitro blood flow experiments. Levenberg-Marquardt method is used to obtain the fitting parameters from the data sets using the above nonlinear models. Clearly, both the Casson fluid model and Power-Law fluid model give excellent velocity fittings with experimental profiles.
Das, Bigyani; Bishop, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, Paul C.; Popel, Aleksander S.
Objectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men. Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years) were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years) were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group. Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC) (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/?l, p = 0.03), and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/?l, p = 0.01) was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group. Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.
The coagulability of heparinized blood is shown to be a function of platelet and red cell concentrations. Thrombelastrographic tests were conducted on celite-activated fabricated whole blood samples with heparin concentrations ranging from zero to 1.46 units per ml of plasma, hematocrits from zero to 50% and platelet counts from zero to 300,000/mm3. The thrombelastograph provides three useful parameters of coagulability in native and heparinized blood: clot time, rate of clot stiffening and final clot stiffness. Of these, only the clot time is determined with the common clotting tests, while the rate and final clot stiffness are measures of clot quality that are found to be particularly sensitive to thrombocytopenia. The test results indicate (i) increases of platelet concentration produce the expected decrease in clot time, increase in rate of stiffening, and increase in final stiffness; (ii) increases of the red cell concentration from zero to 20% hematocrit, produce nonlinear increases in clotability, while further increases beyond 20% hematocrit produce no additional effects if the heparin concentration is less than 1.2 units/ml. Quantative relations are derived between the thrombelastographic variables, heparin concentration, and platelet concentration for those samples with hematocrits greater than 20%. These data indicate further experiments for the study of possible interaction between cellular blood elements and heparin. PMID:694229
Ramstack, J M; Zuckerman, L; Mockros, L F; Caprini, J A; Vagher, J P
Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median
JOHN WAIN; VO ANH HO; AMANDA M. WALSH; NGUYEN THI; TUYET HOA; CHRISTOPHER M. PARRY; NICHOLAS J. WHITE
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPK?1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPK?1 (AMPK?1?/?), but not in those lacking AMPK?2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPK?1?/? mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPK?1?/? mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPK?1?/? erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPK?1?/? mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPK?1?/? mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPK?1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes.
The authors studied the metabolism of purine compounds in the skeletal muscle of 129 Re mice with hereditary muscular dystrophy (MD). The study showed impairment of purine metabolism which was expressed in a sharp decrease in ATP levels and an increase in the content of AMP, IMP and uric acid. No changes were revealed in the pool of purine nucleotides in murine red blood cells. A study of some physical properties of the red blood cells in mice with myopathy showed no alterations in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, yet there was a reduction in their pliability as compared to control. Examination of the temperature resistance revealed anomalies of red blood cells in myodystrophic mice at 50 degrees C. The detected changes of some physical properties of erythrocytes seem to be related to abnormalities of the sumbembranous contractile apparatus of these cells. PMID:4082833
Sitnikov, V F; Toguzov, R T; Tikhonov, Iu V; Prokudin, V Iu; Khrennikov, V Iu
The terms "neuroacanthocytosis" (NA) and "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation" (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390
Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C M; Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J; Verhaag, Esther M; Vonk, Jan J; Margolis, Russell L; Walker, Ruth H
The terms neuroacanthocytosis (NA) and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration.
Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C.M.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J.; Verhaag, Esther M.; Jan J, Vonk; Margolis, Russell L.; Walker, Ruth H.
This study reports differential blood cells counts and their correlations with creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients and normal subjects. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from all 39 AMI patients and 35 controls for blood cell counts and CK and CRP analyses. Total WBC, WBC fractions, RBC and platelets were measured with an automated hematology analyzer. The results showed a significant increase in total WBC (8.688 × 109/L versus 6.148 × 109/L), monocytes (1.271 versus 0.497 × 109/L), and neutrophils (8.367 versus 3.223 × 109/L) counts in AMI patients than controls. The RBC count was significantly less in AMI patients (4.638 × 1012/L) as compared to controls (5.105 × 1012/L). However, there was no significant difference in lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelet counts between AMI patients and controls. Both, serum CK (215.38 ± 43.15 versus 100.82 ± 8.86 U/L) and CRP (29.49 ± 7.61 versus 3.48 ± 0.60 mg/L) were significantly higher in AMI patients as compared to controls. Age of the subjects was neither correlated with blood cell counts nor CK indicating the validity of these markers irrespective of patient age. A significant correlation was observed between WBC counts and CK (R = 0.242, P = 0.041) as well as CRP (R = 0.416, P = 0.000). In conclusion, this study clearly showed significant increase in total and differential leukocyte counts indicating a pro-inflammatory cascade in AMI patients. A significant correlation between WBC counts and CK or CRP levels suggest a possible biomarker value of WBC for a quick prediction of both myocardial necrosis and inflammation in AMI patients.
Khan, Haseeb A; Alhomida, Abdullah S; Sobki, Samia H; Moghairi, Abdulrahman Al; Koronki, Hatim EL
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors decrease mevalonate and subsequently cholesterol synthesis competitively. Mevalonate is also the precursor of ubiquinone. Ubiquinone is an important component of electron transport chain. We therefore investigated the effect of simvastatin on rat blood and tissue ATP concentrations and the lipid composition of red blood cell membranes after 4 weeks of therapy. Significant reductions in
The filterability of equine RBC and whole blood was evaluated to better understanding the effects of exercise-associated haemoconcentration and increased cardiac output on the flow properties of blood in the microvasculature. When RBC were filtered through filters with 3 µm pores (3 µm filters), the initial increase in filtration pressure (Pi) increased 4.6-fold between packed cell volumes (PCV) of 5%
Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocytecount (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p?0.05 or p?0.01), and EOF was higher (p?0.05 or p?0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p?0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p?0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens. PMID:23955484
Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements.
... Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks ...
To develop a miniature complete bloodcount (CBC) analyzer for point-of-care testing (POCT), a MEMS CBC sensor based on the impedance method is discussed. A novel MEMS CBC sensor that is fabricated through a simple photolithography process using SU-8 is realized. However, the fabricated sensor exhibits a noisy output signal due to electrolysis gas. The relationship between the noise and the gas is revealed through microscopic observation and finite element method (FEM) simulation. To solve the problem of electrolysis gas, an improved MEMS CBC sensor with vanes is developed. The improved sensor is unaffected by electrolysis gas. Moreover, the signal stability of the sensor and the signals detected for latex particles are successfully evaluated.
Raman spectroscopy was performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) from blood samples of healthy volunteers (h-RBCs) and from patients suffering from P. vivax infection (m-RBCs). A significant fraction of m-RBCs produced Raman spectra with altered characteristics relative to h-RBCs. The observed spectral changes suggest a reduced oxygen-affinity or right shifting of the oxygen-dissociation curve for the intracellular hemoglobin in a significant fraction of m-RBCs with respect to its normal functional state.
Short?term changes in the blood leucocyte count after exercise are known to be dependent on the intensity of exercise performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the duration of high?intensity exercise on changes in the leucocyte and platelet count during the early recovery period. On separate occasions following a standard warm?up, eight healthy subjects
Michael Gleeson; Andrew K. Blannin; Dean A. Sewell; Robert Cave
Background: At present, there is really no satisfactory treatment of severe haemolytic transfusion reactions involving the ABO system other than the use of steroids that at best are palliative in their effects. In contrast, the use of micromolar concentrations of A or B blood group active trisaccharides that are inexpensive and readily available may prevent lysis by generating soluble immune
Tibor Bakács; Miklós Szabó; László Varga; Rosey Mushens; Jitendra N. Mehrishi; Hans U. Lutz; Tony H. Merry; Gábor Tusnády
We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.
Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, H.; Mueller, Gerhard J.
Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...
The objectives of this study were to describe and relate perioperative changes in blood leukocyte counts to the outcome of surgical colic horses, determine a cut-off value in the early postoperative period to obtain an indicator of the outcome, and compare the obtained value to a validation population of horses. Fifty-three horses undergoing colic surgery were included in the descriptive part of the study. Total leukocyte counts were performed before, during and serially after surgery. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed on the leukocyte counts of 45 of these horses to determine a cut-off value for the outcome. The results obtained were validated on a second set of 50 horses that underwent colic surgery in similar conditions. The kinetics of blood leukocytes in survivors was higher than in non-survivors during the first days. Non-survivor horses were more likely to have at least one blood leukocyte count ?3.9×10(3)/mm(3) between 28 and 60 hours after surgery than survivor horses. This cut-off value was confirmed in the validation population. These results suggest that routine values of blood leukocyte counts can be used as an additional prognostic indicator after colic surgery alongside other predictors previously associated with the outcome. PMID:23939753
Salciccia, A; Sandersen, C; Grulke, S; de la Rebière de Pouyade, G; Caudron, I; Serteyn, D; Detilleux, J
BACKGROUNDThe influence of smoking and of nicotine substitution on the counts of total blood leucocytes and leucocyte subsets and the relations between the counts and lung function was investigated.METHODSThe study was a combined cross sectional and prospective study of 298 smokers and 136 non-smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured in all participants at baseline and six
Erik Juel Jensen; Bente Pedersen; Ruben Frederiksen; Ronald Dahl
BackgroundElevation of the white blood cell (WBC) count during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with adverse outcomes. We examined the relationship between the WBC count and angiographic findings to gain insight into this relationship. Results and MethodsWe evaluated data from 975 patients in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 10A and 10B trials. Patients with a closed artery at
Hal V. Barron; Christopher P. Cannon; Sabina A. Murphy; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson
Aims: To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers. Methods: Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 200003. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment of smoking and four measures of personal hygienic behaviour (glove and mask use, hand and face washing before meals during working hours). Results: Statistically significant decreases in mean BPb and FEP occurred during the three years. The proportion of BPb reduction in the non-smoking workers was significantly higher (mean 24.3%) than in the smoking workers (15.3%). When the workers were classified into three groups (excellent, good, and poor) based on the four personal hygienic behavioural indicators, the greatest decreases of BPb and FEP were observed in the non-smoking workers of the excellent group. Conclusions: The consistent use of protection devices and cleanliness at work appeared to contribute to the lowering of BPb and FEP. Cessation of smoking in the workplace was also of importance.
Karita, K; Nakao, M; Ohwaki, K; Yamanouchi, Y; Nishikitani, M; Nomura, K; Sato, M; Yano, E
The selenium levels and the glutathione peroxidase activity GSH-PX of whole blood and of erythrocytes, respectively, were\\u000a determined in 139 normal Danes and related to sex and smoking habits. No differences were found in relation to sex apart from\\u000a a higher GSH-PX activity of females when assayed with tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. Smokers showed significantly lower selenium\\u000a values than non-smokers (p<0.05),
The aim of this study was to investigate in a placebo-controlled field study the effect of a (n?3)-vitamin supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF), oxidant\\/antioxidant markers and plasmatic ?3\\/?6 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in 12 eventing horses. Venous blood was sampled at rest before (PRE) and after (POST) a three week treatment period with either the supplement (group S, n=6)
B. De Moffarts; K. Portier; N. Kirschvink; J. Coudert; N. Fellmann; E. van Erck; C. Letellier; C. Motta; J. Pincemail; T. Art; P. Lekeux
Background Sepsis is a serious disease condition and a major cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Its diagnosis in critically ill patients is complicated. To diagnose an infection rapidly, and to accurately differentiate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from sepsis, is challenging yet early diagnosis is vital for early induction of an appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the immature granulocyte (IG) count is a useful early diagnostic marker of sepsis compared to other markers. Therefore, a total of 70 consecutive surgical intensive care patients were assessed. IGs were measured from whole blood samples using an automated analyzer. C-reactive protein (CRP), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations were also determined. The observation period was a maximum of 21?days and ended with the patients discharge from ICU or death. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to determine sensitivities and specificities for the parameters. Results We found that the IG count significantly discriminates between infected and non-infected patients (P?0.0001) with a sensitivity of 89.2% and a specificity of 76.4%, particularly within the first 48?hours after SIRS onset. Regarding the discriminative power for infection, the IG count was more indicative than other clinical parameters such as CRP, LBP and IL-6, which had a sensitivity of less than 68%. Additionally, the highest diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with 26.7 was calculated for the IG count within the first 48?hours. During the course of the disease ROC curve analyses showed a superior positive predictive value of the IG count compared to the other measured parameters during the first five days following the fulfillment of SIRS criteria. However, the number of IGs was not correlated with ICU mortality. Conclusions The total number of IG in peripheral blood from ICU patients is a good marker to discriminate infected and non-infected patients very early during SIRS. However, the IG count is not suitable as a prognostic marker for mortality. Routine and serial measurement of IGs may provide new possibilities for rapid screening of SIRS patients on ICU with suspected infections.
Introduction: Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and TIMI risk score on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. Materials and Methods: WBC count and TIMI risk score were measured at the time of hospital admission in 70 patients with AMI. Echocardiogram was done on prior to discharge by a cardiologist and ejection fraction (EF) was determined according to the Simpson formula. Patients were stratified into tertiles (low and high) based on WBC count and TIMI risk score. Results: Patients with a high WBC count had a 5.0-fold increase in-hospital congestive heart failure and 2.2 increases in mortality compared with those with a low WBC count. Patients with a high TIMI risk score had a 10-fold increase in congestive heart failure presentation and mortality compared with those with a low TIMI risk score. When a combination of different strata for each variable was analyzed, a stepwise increase in mortality was seen. There were a few number of patients with a high WBC count and low TIMI risk score or with a low WBC count and high TIMI risk score. These patients had an intermediate risk, whereas those with a high WBC count and TIMI risk score had the highest risk. Conclusion: These findings suggested that a simple combination of WBC count and TIMI risk score might provide further information for predicting outcomes in patients with AMI.
BACKGROUND: In many animal models that investigate the pathology of various diseases, there is a need to monitor leukocyte counts and differentials. However, various researchers use a range of different techniques in male and female laboratory animals to collect such blood variable information. These studies are then compared to one another without consideration of the possibility that different bleeding sites
Diana C Doeing; Jessica L Borowicz; Elahé T Crockett
Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and hypertensive management particularly in the nonpharmacological technique is ambiguous and unclear. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of interval training program on WBC count and cardiovascular parameters in male hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 mmHg and 179 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 mmHg and 109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental (n=140; 58.90±7.35 years) group involved in an 8-week interval training (60-79% HR max reserve) program of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, while the age-matched controls hypertensive (n=105; 58.27±6.24 years) group remain sedentary during this period. Cardiovascular parameters (SBP, DBP, and VO2 max) and WBC count were assessed. Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed a significant effect of the interval training program on VO2max, SBP, and DBP and WBC count at P<0.05 and VO2max is negatively related to the WBC count (r=0.339) at P<0.01. Conclusions: It was concluded that the interval training program is an effective adjunct nonpharmacological management of hypertension and the therapeutic effect of exercise programs may be mediated through suppression of inflammatory (WBC count) reaction.
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the severity of appendicitis as depicted on CT and blood inflammatory markers of serum white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods CT images in 128 patients (109 surgically proven and 19 with clinically excluded appendicitis) were retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists by consensus evaluated and scored (using a 0, 1 or 2 point scale) severities based on CT-determined appendiceal diameters, appendiceal wall changes, caecal changes, periappendiceal inflammatory stranding and phlegmon or abscess formation. We investigated whether CT findings were significantly related to elevated WBC counts or CRP levels and performed the correlations of WBC counts and CRP levels with CT severity scores. Patients were also subjectively classified using four grades from normal (Grade I) to perforated appendicitis (Grade IV) on the basis of CT findings to evaluate differences in WBC counts and CRP levels between grades. Results Only appendiceal wall changes and the phlegmon or abscess formation were related to elevated WBC counts and CRP levels, respectively (p<0.05). CT severity scores were found to be more strongly correlated with CRP levels (r = 0.669) than with WBC counts (r = 0.222). On the basis of CT grades, the WBC counts in Grade I were significantly lower than in other grades (p<0.001), whereas CRP levels in Grade IV were significantly higher than in other grades (p<0.001). Conclusion CRP levels were found to correlate with CT-determined acute appendicitis severity and could be a useful predictor for perforated appendicitis, whereas WBC counts might be useful to detect early acute appendicitis.
Kim, H C; Yang, D M; Lee, C M; Jin, W; Nam, D H; Song, J Y; Kim, J Y
A point-of-care device (POCD) for measuring total white blood cell count was evaluated for feline, canine, equine and bovine blood samples collected into EDTA. Mean biases were -9.2% (range, -12% to -6.3%) for feline samples, 20.2% (range, 15.3-25.1%) for canine samples, -7.1% (range, -8.3% to -5.9%) for equine samples, and 0.7% (range, -1.1% to 2.5%) for bovine samples. The results were influenced by the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The POCD provided precise, reliable data for feline, equine and bovine samples but the values obtained for the canine counts were overestimations. PMID:22503717
Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell bloodcount among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. Methods: This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell bloodcounts were measured and compared between the two areas. Results: The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.
Numerous rheological and microvascular alterations characterize the vascular pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated effects of vildagliptin in comparison to glimepiride on retinal microvascular blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in T2DM.Fourty-four patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy were included in this randomized, exploratory study over 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or glimepiride individually titrated up to 4 mg in addition to ongoing metformin treatment. Retinal microvascular blood flow (RBF) and the arteriolar wall to lumen ratio (WLR) were assessed using a laser doppler scanner. In addition, the erythrocyte elongation index (EI) was measured at different shear stresses using laserdiffractoscopy.Both treatments improved glycaemic control (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; respectively). While only slight changes in RBF and the WLR could be observed during treatment with glimepiride, vildagliptin significantly increased retinal blood flow and decreased the arterial WLR (p < 0.05 vs. baseline respectively). The EI increased during both treatments over a wide range of applied shear stresses (p < 0.05 vs. baseline). An inverse correlation could be observed between improved glycaemic control (HbA1c) and EI (r = -0.524; p < 0.0001) but not with the changes in retinal microvascular measurements.Our results suggest that vildagliptin might exert beneficial effects on retinal microvascular blood flow beyond glucose control. In contrast, the improvement in erythrocyte deformability observed in both treatment groups, seems to be a correlate of improved glycaemic control. PMID:23565740
Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen that has many beneficial actions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on the complete bloodcount (CBC) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of lymphocytes of ovariectomized rats experimentally demyelinated by ethidium bromide (EB). Forty adult female Wistar rats (60 days, 200-220 g) were divided randomly into five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the demyelination phase and five groups (n = 4) to evaluate the remyelination phase. In each phase, the groups consisted of sham rats-G1; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated only with vehicle (ethanol 25%)-G2; demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated only with vehicle-G3; ovariectomized rats, not demyelinated, treated with resveratrol-G4; and demyelinated ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol-G5. Only during the remyelination phase, CBC showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the number of monocytes between G2 and G5 groups. In the demyelination phase, there was a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the AChE activity in the G4 group, while the G5 group was statistically similar to the G1, G2 and G4 groups. In the remyelination phase, there were no significant differences in the AChE activity among the groups. The treatment for 7 days with resveratrol with or without the experimental demyelization with EB appears to influence the AChE activity of lymphocytes, without changing the number of these cells in the circulation. However, in the remyelination phase, there seems to be stabilization in its effect on the lymphocyte AChE activity. PMID:22554002
Martins, Danieli B; Mazzanti, Cinthia M; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli; Pagnoncelli, Marcielen; Maciel, Roberto M; Schmatz, Roberta; Oliveira, Lizielle; Morsch, Vera; Facco, Grasiela; Visentini, Diandra; Mann, Thais; Mazzanti, Alexandre; Lopes, Sonia T A
Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median S. typhi count in blood was 1 CFU/ml (range, <0.3 to 387 CFU/ml), of which a mean of 63% (95% CI, 58 to 67%) were intracellular. The mean number of bacteria per infected leukocyte was 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7 to 2.4) CFU/cell (n = 81). Children (<15 years old; n = 115) had higher median blood bacterial counts than adults (n = 262): 1.5 (range, <0.3 to 387) versus 0.6 (range, <0.3 to 17.7) CFU/ml (P = 0.008), and patients who excreted S. typhi in feces had higher bacteremias than those who did not: a median of 3 (range, <0.3 to 32) versus 1 (range, <0.3 to 68) CFU/ml (P = 0.02). Blood bacterial counts declined with increasing duration of illness (P = 0.002) and were higher in infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. typhi (1.3 [range, <0.3 to 387] CFU/ml; n = 313) than in infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive S. typhi (0.5 [range, <0.3 to 32] CFU/ml; n = 62) (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis this proved to be an independent association, suggesting a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in S. typhi.
Wain, John; Diep, To Song; Ho, Vo Anh; Walsh, Amanda M.; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Parry, Christopher M.; White, Nicholas J.
The architectural transcription factor HMGA2 is highly expressed during embryogenesis but scarcely detectable in non-dividing adult cells. Previously, HMGA2 re-expression was detected in blood from CML patients by conventional RT-PCR, while blood samples from healthy volunteers were HMGA2 negative. Using the sensitive method of real-time quantitative RT-PCR, herein HMGA2 expression was detectable not only in peripheral blood from leukaemia patients but also in blood from healthy donors. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant correlation between white blood cell count and HMGA2 transcript levels. The results indicate that up-regulation of HMGA2 expression is correlated to the undifferentiated phenotype of leukaemic cells accumulating during progression of chronic phase to blast crisis. PMID:17917968
Serum white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil differential are frequently ordered during preoperative workup of suspected cases of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, their roles in diagnosis of PJI have remained unclear despite previous studies. In this study, preoperative serum WBC and neutrophil percentages were retrieved from hospital charts. The diagnostic cutoff point determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 7800 cells/?L with 55% sensitivity and 66% specificity for WBC count, whereas the cutoff value for neutrophil percentage was 68% with 52% sensitivity and 75% specificity. Our study confirms the long-held belief that serum WBC count and differential has minimal role in routine workup of patients with suspected PJI. PMID:22608690
The phospholipid classes of erythrocyte membranes and plasma from several domestic animals and marsupials were quantified by 31P NMR using detergents. Washed erythrocyte samples were thoroughly haemolysed by tip-sonication and dissolved in sodium cholate; plasma samples were dissolved in Triton X-100. The species studied were: common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), black-striped wallaby (Macropus dorsalis), bandicoot (Isoodon macrocarpus), Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), Tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), dog (Canus familiaris) and rabbit (Orytolagus caniculus). There were considerable species variations in the relative abundance of erythrocyte and plasma phospholipid classes. The variations may be attributed to the habitats and diets of the animals as well as to their phylogenetic differences. PMID:8653579
Nouri-Sorkhabi, M H; Agar, N S; Sullivan, D R; Gallagher, C; Kuchel, P W
The erythrocytes ability of sensing the local oxygen gradient through the hemoglobin conformation, along with changes in nitric oxide mobilization and vasomotor repercussions at the microcirculation, were reviewed in detail in this article. Different approachs trying to explain the erythrocyte death were additionally documented. Also, the influence of several types of molecules (vasoactive, oxidant/reductor) on the erythrocyte roles as sensor of (i) oxygen tissue needs, (ii) blood viscosity and myogenic environment, (iii) and inflammatory conditions were mentioned in order to highlight its physiologycal function and substitute the erroneous idea of the erythrocyte being simply a hemoglobin sac content. PMID:22240380
Blood donors were examined for C3b receptor (CR1) levels on erythrocytes by a microtiter plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens, C3 phenotypes and blood groups. The CR1 levels among 150 donors varied in the range from 24 to 130% (mean +/- 1 SD = 69.9 +/- 22.9) of an erythrocyte standard, and in accordance with a polygenic model of inheritance the distribution of CR1 was well approximated by a normal curve (chi-square goodness-of-fit test nonsignificant, p = 0.66). Low CR1 levels were associated with HLA-B27 (n = 11, p = 0.05), which was confirmed by investigation of further 20 HLA-B27-positive donors (p = 0.05). The CR1 levels were not associated with a certain C3 phenotype. Possibly, the blood group phenotype M-M + S-s+ is associated with high and the S antigen with low CR1 numbers. The relation between low CR1 numbers and HLA-B27 might be important for the understanding of the association between HLA-B27 and certain inflammatory rheumatological diseases. PMID:2945696
Thomsen, B S; Jacobsen, S E; Nielsen, H; Jakobsen, B K; Sørensen, H
In this experimental study, carp erythrocytes were used as nucleated cell models to test the hypothesis that ultrasound (US) exposure can cause the change in plasma membranes and hemoglobin. To identify target cell damage, we studied hemolysis, osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation of red blood cells and oxidation of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were exposed to 1 MHz continuous-wave
Katarzyna Milowska; Teresa Gabryelak; Grazyna Lypacewicz; Ryszard Tymkiewicz; Andrzej Nowicki
Background Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. Methods Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (<40th, 40-80th, and >80th percentile) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years) and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years). In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80th percentile (?8.6x109 cells/L) was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87) of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40th percentile (<6.4x109 cells/L). No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36). Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. Comment Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer.
The oxidative injury to erythrocytes, red blood cell (RBC) rigidity and splenic hemolysis was assayed in 17 chronically hemodialyzed patients before and during recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) treatment. When a stable hematocrit between 30 and 35% had been established for at least 4 months, a statistically significant increase in RBC volume, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, reticulocyte count, and several RBC enzymes (2,3-diphosphoglycerate,
P. Z. Zachée; A. Ferrant; R. Daelemans; L. Coolen; W. Goossens; R. L. Lins; M. Couttenye; M. E. De Broe; M. A. Boogaerts
Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.032.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.
Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Nuria; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Warnberg, Julia; Salaverria, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Salas-Salvado, Jordi
White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and the Jackson Heart Study. Participants of both studies were genotyped across ? 1322 single nucleotide polymorphisms that were pre-selected to be informative for African versus European ancestry and span the entire genome. We used these markers to estimate genetic ancestry in each chromosomal region and then tested the association between WBC and genetic ancestry at each locus. We found a locus on chromosome 1q strongly associated with WBC (p < 10?12). The strongest association was with a marker known to affect the expression of the Duffy blood group antigen. Participants who had both copies of the common West African allele had a mean WBC of 4.9 (SD 1.3); participants who had both common European alleles had a mean WBC of 7.1 (SD 1.3). This variant explained ?20% of population variation in WBC. We used admixture mapping, a novel method for conducting genetic-association studies, to find a region that was significantly associated with WBC on chromosome 1q. Additional studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism for this effect and its clinical implications.
Nalls, Michael A.; Wilson, James G.; Patterson, Nick J.; Tandon, Arti; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Huntsman, Scott; Garcia, Melissa; Hu, Donglei; Li, Rongling; Beamer, Brock A.; Patel, Kushang V.; Akylbekova, Ermeg L.; Files, Joe C.; Hardy, Cheryl L.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Reich, David; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad
The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of finger-prick blood samples for CD4 counting. We estimated agreement between CD4 counts in paired finger-prick and venous samples from 110 HIV-infected Malawian adults. Bias was 6.6 cells/ul (limits of agreement ?50.7 and 63.7 cells/ul) for absolute counts and 0.71% (limits of agreement ?2.07% and 3.48%) for %CD4/lymphocyte suggesting that finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 counting.
MacLennan, Calman A.; van Oosterhout, Joep J. G.; White, Sarah A.; Drayson, Mark T.; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Molyneux, Malcolm E.
Blood specimens from 89 human embryos and fetuses were analyzed by immunological methods during gestation weeks 440. All\\u000a formed elements circulate in fetal blood starting from week 13 of gestation. Lymphocytes predominate among blood leukocytes,\\u000a because normally lymphocytosis is an inherent, feature of blood. T cells and their subpopulations: active T lymphocytes, T?\\u000a lymphocytes, and theophylline-sensitive and risistant, cells are
An abnormal filterability of whole blood through micropore membranes in vitro has been reported in peripheral vascular disease and has been thought to indicate abnormal red cell deformability. Blood from 68 patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease of varying severity and from 32 age-matched controls without a history of peripheral vascular disease was studied by the technique of whole blood
M J Alderman; A Ridge; A A Morley; R G Ryall; J A Walsh
Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin. In iron deficiency and lead poisoning, the enzyme ferrochelatase catalyzes the incorporation of zinc, instead of iron, into protoporphyrin IX, resulting in the formation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). In healthy blood donors, there is a good inverse correlation between serum ferritin and ZPP levels. In renal failure patients and in patients with anemia caused by a variety
Background: Leucopenia has been reported after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. However, the incidence and characterisitics are not well described. Aims: We performed a retrospective review to describe the incidence and characteristics of leucopenia after induction of thiopentone barbiturate therapy. Setting and Design: Our centre is a national referral centre for neurotrauma and surgery in a tertiary medical institution. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients who received thiopentone barbiturate therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension during an 18 month period from January 2004 to June 2005 in our neurosurgical intensive care unit. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15.0. All data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range). The Chi square test was used to analyze categorical data and student t test done for comparison of means. For paired data, the paired t-test was used. Results: Thirty eight (80.9%) out of 47 patients developed a decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count after induction of thiopentone barbiturate coma. The mean decrease in WBC from baseline to the nadir was 6.4 × 109/L (P < 0.001) and occurred 57 (3-147) h after induction. The mean nadir WBC was 8.6 ± 3.6 × 109/L. Three (6.4%) patients were leucopenic, with a WBC count of 2.8, 3.1, and 3.6 × 109/L. None of them were neutropenic. We did not find an association between decrease in WBC count and clinical diagnosis of infection. We did not find any association between possible risk factors such as admission GCS, maximum ICP prior to induction of barbiturate coma, APACHE II score, total duration and dose of thiopentone given, and decrease in WBC count. Conclusions: Decrease in WBC count is common, while development of leucopenia is rare after thiopentone barbiturate coma. Regular monitoring of WBC counts is recommended.
|This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete bloodcounts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood
This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete bloodcounts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood
To date, all major clinical trials for anemia correction using erythrocyte stimulating agents (ESAs) failed to show improved\\u000a outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and vascular thrombosis. Even moderate elevations in hemoglobin (e.g.,\\u000a to 13 g\\/dL) using erythropoietin have been associated with significantly increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events\\u000a and heart failure. This review presents a biophysical rationale for increased risk
Seul-Ki Jeong; Young I. Cho; Marc Duey; Robert S. Rosenson
While abundant data exist documenting variables associated with early platelet engraftment after autologous PBPC transplantation, data concerning later sustained platelet engraftment is sparse. We retrospectively examined a series of 80 patients undergoing autologous PBPC transplantation with respect to their platelet count 6 weeks after transplant. Underlying diagnoses included breast cancer (n = 33), non-Hodgkins lymphoma (n = 32), Hodgkins disease
B Bolwell; M Goormastic; S Andresen; A Koo; K Wise; B Overmoyer; B Pohlman; M Kalaycio
Background Anaemia is a common health problem in the developing world. This condition is characterized by a reduction in erythrocyte density, primarily from malnutrition and/or infectious diseases such as malaria. As red blood cells are the primary source of protein for haematophagous mosquitoes, any reduction could impede the ability of mosquito vectors to transmit malaria by influencing their fitness or that of the parasites they transmit. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of differences in the density of red blood cells in human blood on malaria vector (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) fitness. The hypotheses tested are that mosquito vector energetic reserves and fitness are negatively influenced by reductions in the red cell density of host human blood meals commensurate with those expected from severe anaemia. Methods Mosquitoes (An. gambiae s.s.) were offered blood meals of different packed cell volume (PCV) of human blood consistent with those arising from severe anaemia (15%) and normal PCV (50%). Associations between mosquito energetic reserves (lipid, glucose and glycogen) and fitness measures (reproduction and survival) and blood meal PCV were investigated. Results The amount of protein that malaria vectors acquired from blood feeding (indexed by haematin excretion) was significantly reduced at low blood PCV. However, mosquitoes feeding on blood of low PCV had the same oviposition rates as those feeding on blood of normal PCV, and showed an increase in egg production of around 15%. The long-term survival of An. gambiae s.s was reduced after feeding on low PCV blood, but PCV had no significant impact on the proportion of mosquitoes surviving through the minimal period required to develop and transmit malaria parasites (estimated as 14 days post-blood feeding). The impact of blood PCV on the energetic reserves of mosquitoes was relatively minor. Conclusions These results suggest that feeding on human hosts whose PCV has been depleted due to severe anaemia does not significantly reduce the fitness or transmission potential of malaria vectors, and indicates that mosquitoes may be able exploit resources for reproduction more efficiently from blood of low rather than normal PCV.
OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count on admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDElevations in WBC count have been associated with the development of AMI and with long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between WBC count and prognosis following AMI is
Hal V. Barron; Steven D. Harr; Martha J. Radford; Yongfei Wang; Harlan M. Krumholz
Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study Moli-sani. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein and D-dimers in a general population underline the relation between platelets and inflammation.
Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia
The objective of the study was to determine changeableness of blood cells count, hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) within the peripheral blood of patients who received betamethasone during treatment of threatened preterm delivery. 65 patients at increased risk of preterm delivery received intramuscular injections of betamethasone 3 x 4 mg/day for fetal lung maturity and to decrease the risk of CNS trauma in newborns. RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, neutrophils count and CRP level were measured before treatment and on the 1th, 2nd and 7th days after first dose of betamethasone. The steroid administration caused a significant decrease in RBC, HGB and HCT: The lowest levels were noticed on 2nd day. Statistically significant changes were observed between before and 1st day (p < 0.0001), before and 2nd day (p < 0.0001), before and Ist week (p < 0.05), 1st day and 1st week (p < 0.006), 2nd day and Ist week (p < 0.005). The level of WBC and neutrophils were increased. Their peak levels were noticed on 1st day. Statistically significant changes were observed between before and 1st day (p < 0.0001), before and 1st week (p < 0.0003), 1st day and 1st week (p < 0.0001), 2nd day and 1st week (p< 0.001). After 3 days there was a significant decrease of WBC and neutrophils count. Conclusions: Intramuscular administration of 12 mg betamethasone per day caused decrease of the RBC, HGB and HCT account and elevation of the WBC and neutrophil count. All these parameters normalized after about 7 days. PMID:15537271
Nieweg?owska, Nikola; Niewiadomska-Kowalczyk, Ma?gorzata; Roszkowski, Piotr; Czajkowski, Krzysztof
Both iron status and body burden of lead influence heme biosynthesis. Measurement of protophorphyrin IX in the circulating erythrocyte (EP) has been used to index the extent of lead exposure and iron deficiency. The association of iron status and blood lead level with the level of EP in whole blood for persons ages 6 months through 74 years in the general US population has been investigated by using data obtained in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Iron status was defined as a function of percentage transferrin saturation (%TS) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). Both low iron status (%TS less than or equal to 16.0 or TIBC greater than or equal to 450 ..mu..g/dl serum) and elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 30 ..mu..g/dl) were associated with increased EP concentrations. The analysis of the proportions of persons in the US population with EP levels above the 95th percentile (30 ..mu..g EP/dl of whole blood in the NHANES II data) support the concern that iron status has considerable influence on interpretation of EP levels recommended for use in screening programs aimed at identifying children with lead toxicity. With screening techniques based on EP only, currently used in various public health programs, a considerable number of children with blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 30 and less than or equal to 50 ..mu..g/dl are not referred for further diagnostic evaluation.
A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons
Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl
ObjectivesThis study was designed to determine the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with unstable angina (UA)\\/nonST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to see if WBC count was a significant predictor of outcomes independent of other biomarkers.
Marc S Sabatine; David A Morrow; Christopher P Cannon; Sabina A Murphy; Laura A Demopoulos; Peter M DiBattiste; Carolyn H McCabe; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson
Fragmented erythrocytes (schistocytes) were counted in blood subjects and from 50 patients who underwent various surgical procedures. The results showed to be as follows: 1. The average number of schistocytes in healthy controls of both sexes was 1-20/00 (medium in Thoma chamber 1.4%0/00, in blood smears 2.030/00, with a range from 0-50/00 and 0-60/00, respectively). 2. There was an increase in the number of schistocytes two hours after a surgical procedure (average 60/00), the degree of which correlated with the extent of the operation. Higher values of fragmented erythrocytes were counted after intraoperative blood transfusion (average 100/00). In most cases schistocyte values returned to normal at about 24 hours after surgery. 3. The highest schistocyte counts (18-350/00) were observed in two patients undergoing splenectomy with persistence of elevated counts for a longer period. 4. The average schistocyte number in stored blood of various age was 2.50/00. 5. Both counting of schistocytes in Thoma chambers and in blood smears are applicable, though the values obtained with the latter technique are slightly higher. Quantitative estimtion of schistocytes proves a useful method for evaluating disturbances in microcirculation. PMID:1165626
Klein, P J; Pullman, H; de Lacroix, W F; Pahnke, V; Imig, H; Fischer, R
The effect of biofeedback-assisted relaxation on cell-mediated immunity, cortisol, and white blood cell count was investigated in healthy adults under low-stress conditions. Fourteen subjects were trained with biofeedback-assisted relaxation for 4 weeks, while 17 subjects were controls. The group trained in relaxation techniques showed increased blastogenesis, decreased white blood cell count, due to decreased neutrophils, and no change in cortisol
Angele McGrady; Philip Conran; Douglas Dickey; Daniel Garman; Edmund Farris; Cathleen Schumann-Brzezinski
The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205
The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.
Purpose Computations of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) ejection fraction (EF) have been well\\u000a validated against other imaging modalities. As GBPS images depict the entire extent of both blood pools, it is possible to\\u000a compute not only global but also regional biventricular function parameters, which have the prospect of being clinically useful\\u000a for
Kenneth J. Nichols; Andrew Van Tosh; Pieter De Bondt; Steven R. Bergmann; Christopher J. Palestro; Nathaniel Reichek
1. The human spleen sequesters 200-250 mL densely packed red blood cells. Up to 50% of this viscous blood is actively expelled into the systemic circulation during strenuous exercise or simulated apnoea (breath-hold) diving. The contribution of splenic contraction to changes in the circulating volume of red blood cells (RBCV), as well as the venous concentration of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT), was investigated following repeated breath-hold apnoeas. 2. Eighteen trained apnoea divers and 18 intact and six splenectomized subjects without diving experience repeated five maximal apnoeas with face immersion in cold water, with 2 min intervals between successive attempts. Venous blood samples were taken before and between consecutive apnoeas, as well as at 0, 10 and 20 min after the last breath hold. Arterial pressure, heart rate and transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide were monitored continuously. 3. Plasma protein concentration decreased by 5.8, 2.2 and 9% in apnoea divers, untrained and splenectomized subjects, respectively, indicating an expansion of plasma volume. The RBCV and venous concentration of WBC, corrected for changes in plasma volume, increased in both trained apnoea divers (4.9+/-1.0 and 14.9+/-3.1%, respectively) and intact subjects (1.7+/-0.8 and 7.2+/-1.8%, respectively), whereas in splenectomized subjects there was no change in RBCV and a delayed increase in WBC concentration. Furthermore, an initial lymphocytosis detected during repeated breath holds in divers and intact subjects was completely absent in splenectomized subjects. None of the groups showed significant changes in PLT concentrations. The well-recognized diving response to apnoea (bradycardia and increased blood pressure) was seen during all breath-hold attempts in all subjects. 4. Repeated breath-holds (apnoeas) contribute to increased RBCV and venous blood concentrations of WBC through splenic contraction. PMID:16405451
The cryopreservation of blood cells can be regarded as a classical field of development and application of low temperature biology. Cryopreservation methods have been developed for erythrocytes, which are commonly frozen with glycerol as the cryoprotective additive although hydroxyethyl starch (HES) shows considerable promise. Cryopreserved erythrocytes for transfusion are of advantage in the case of patients with rare blood groups,
In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks.
We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.
Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))
Lychee (Litchi chinensis?Sonn.) flower is a major nectar source in Taiwan. Antioxidant activities of acetone, ethanol, and hot-water extracts of the flower were estimated through three biochemical models: inhibition of Cu(2+) -induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein, scavenging ability of oxygen radicals in human blood, and inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis induced by peroxyl radicals. Composition and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids in these extracts were also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that antioxidant effects of all test models as well as contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids for the lychee flower extracts were in the order: acetone extract > ethanol extract > hot-water extract. Gentistic acid and epicatechin were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid in the extracts, respectively. PMID:22417418
Background\\/PurposeFew studies have addressed the predictive value of white blood cells (WBCs) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cutoff values in appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine the cutoff values for WBC and CRP at different periods during clinical evolution of appendicitis and to establish their use for the diagnosis of appendicitis and differentiation of simple from perforated appendicitis.
Marcelo A. Beltrán; Jorge Almonacid; Alfonso Vicencio; Jorge Gutiérrez; Karina S. Cruces; Miguel A. Cumsille
Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by
L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve
During the last two decades the search for alternatives to whole blood transfusions has led to promising developments in the field of erythrocyte substitutes. Hemoglobin solutions free of fragments of erythrocyte stroma and fluorocarbon emulsions are not blood-type-specific and appear likely to satisfy some proportion of our blood requirements. Both must be modified before becoming clinically useful. The oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin solution must be reduced and its intravascular persistence improved. Fluorocarbons cannot yet contribute significantly to the oxygen supply unless the patient breathes hyperbaric oxygen. Recent advances are leading to solutions for these problems.
Background Testing for canine blood types other than dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 (DEA 1.1) is controversial and complicated by reagent availability and methodology. Objectives The objectives of this study were to use available gel column technology to develop an extended blood-typing method using polyclonal reagents for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal and to assess the use of gel columns for cross-matching. Methods Dogs (4375) were typed for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Methods included tube agglutination (Tube) using polyclonal reagents, a commercially available DEA 1.1 gel column test kit (Standard-Gel) using monoclonal reagent, and multiple gel columns (Extended-Gel) using polyclonal reagents. Blood from 10 recipient and 15 donor dogs was typed as described above and cross-matched using the gel column technique. Results Of 43 dogs typed for DEA 1.1, 23, 25, and 20 dogs were positive using Standard-Gel, Extended-Gel, and Tube, respectively. Typing for DEA 1.2 was not achievable with Extended-Gel. For 75 dogs typed for DEA 3, 4, and 7, concordance of Extended-Gel with Tube was 94.7%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Dal, determined only by Extended-Gel, was positive for all dogs. Post-transfusion major cross-matches were incompatible in 10 of 14 pairings, but none were associated with demonstrable blood type incompatibilities. Conclusions Gel column methodology can be adapted for use with polyclonal reagents for detecting DEA 1.1, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Agglutination reactions are similar between Extended-Gel and Tube, but are more easily interpreted with Extended-Gel. When using gel columns for cross-matching, incompatible blood cross-matches can be detected following sensitization by transfusion, although in this study incompatibilities associated with any tested DEA or Dal antigens were not found.
The dielectric properties of human erythrocytes (red blood cells) suspended in whole blood and in isotonic media at various volume fractions (haematocrits) have been studied in the frequency range 0.2-10 MHz, in which the so-called beta-dispersion due to the Maxwell-Wagner effect is known to occur. The capacitance and conductance at 25 degrees C were measured by an instrument interfaced to a computer. The rectangular sample cavity (1 ml volume) contained four pure gold electrode pins, and the sample could be circulated by a roller pump. The frequency-dependence of the permittivity and conductivity were fitted by non-linear least squares regression. Corrections were applied for non-linearity in the dielectric increment at high haematocrit, and for electrode polarisation when diluting the blood in saline. Data were interpreted in terms of a simple equivalent resistor-capacitor circuit. From the measured haematological values the specific membrane capacitance (Cm) and the conductivities internal and external to the cells (sigma i' and sigma o' respectively) were estimated. The conductivities behaved in a predictable manner with a mean of 0.458 S.m-1 (s.d. +/- 0.044) for sigma i', whereas the value of Cm (and indeed the actual capacitance of the suspension) was dependent on the amount of plasma present. Hence, in stationary normal (anticoagulated) whole blood samples, Cm was as high as 2.98 mu F.cm-2 (s.d. +/- 0.40), in contrast to about 0.9 mu F.cm-2 in blood diluted more than two-fold (to less than 20% hct) in isotonic media. The high value remained when the diluent was plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7956980
Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest versus highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/?l versus 281,000/?l, respectively (adjusted model, P < 0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 2007-2008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components. PMID:23999863
Fessler, Michael B; Rose, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanmei; Jaramillo, Renee; Zeldin, Darryl C
Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638
Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A
Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116
Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W
We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials to assess the predictive value of the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count on mortality. Mortality was higher in participants with a baseline WBC count >7,000 compared to those with a baseline WBC ?7,000 (27% vs 21%, p <0.0001). After controlling for important covariates, each increase
Howard A Cooper; Derek V Exner; Myron A Waclawiw; Michael J Domanski
We present an automated algorithm for the detection of blood vessels in 2-D choroidal scan images followed by a measurement of the area of the vessels. The objective is to identify vessel parameters in the choroidal stroma that are affected by various abnormalities. The algorithm is divided into five stages. In the first stage, the image is denoised to remove sensor noise and facilitate further processing. In the second stage, the image is segmented in order to find the region of interest. In the third stage, three different contour detection methods are applied to address different challenges in vessel contour. In the fourth stage, the outputs of the three contour detection methods are combined to achieve refined vessel contour detection. In the fifth and final stage, the area of these contours are measured. The results have been evaluated by a practicing opthalmologist and performance of the algorithm relative to expert detection is reported. PMID:24110447
Mahajan, Nagaraj R; Donapati, Ravi Chandra Reddy; Channappayya, Sumohana S; Vanjari, Sivaramakrishna; Richhariya, Ashutosh; Chhablani, Jay
Dose-effect and dose-response relationships were analyzed for blood lead concentration (PbB) vs blood protoporphyrin concentration using multiple data points from 165 children, ages 3-36 months. Protoporphyrin concentrations were measured using a front-face flurometer designed to measure zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and an extraction method designed to measure total protoporphyrin as the free base (FEP). Estimations were made of the thresholds for
The temperature dependence of the apparent water diffusional exchange through erythrocyte membranes in cases of policitemia vera, chronic granulocytic leukemia and primary myelofibrosis was measured by using a nuclear magnetic resonance method in the presence of Mn2+. The thermal transition shifted to lower temperatures in all cases, regardless of the stage of the disease, suggesting a structural alteration of the membrane. The shift of transition indirectly suggests a lower penetration of the erythrocytes by Mn2+. The water exchange time at 37 degrees C also increased, mainly in the blast crisis; it seems to have a prognostic value of some clinical interest. No simple correlation of the water exchange and the following clinical investigations was observed: the white count, the percentage of promyelocites and myeloblasts, the sedimentation rate of blood, the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, the total concentration of proteins, albumin and immunoglobulins, respectively, in plasma. PMID:3742482
A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551
The thermal induction of chemiluminescence of luminol-horseradish peroxidase-labeled erythrocytes from pigs, rats, and man was studied. The luminescent responses of rat, porcine, and human erythrocytes to heating were linear in respect to logs of counts p...
Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocytecounts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178
Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocytecounts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress.
SUMMARY The theory of the coagulation of particles in laminar shear flow was applied in a study of the aggregation of red blood cells. The theory predicts that in a system of initially dispersed particles the total particle concentration would decay (because of aggregation) logarithmically with time with the decay rate, depending on the adhesiveness of the particles. The applicability
The mammalian erythrocyte is an interesting model for studies of membrane aging. Experimental approaches to this problem involve, first of all, comparison of properties of erythrocytes separated by density because red blood cell age correlates with density in principle. Other approaches to study red cell membrane aging, such as hypertransfusion, are also discussed. A number of physical and chemical changes
Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full bloodcounts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.
Hanscheid, Thomas; Langin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Potschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P
Changes in the peripheral blood leucocyte count, lymphocyte subpopulations, and in in vitro responses of lymphocytes to phytohaemagglutinin and tuberculin after induced labour were investigated in 10 normal parturients and their newborns. Every other parturient was given segmental epidural analgesia at level T1012 for pain relief during the first stage of labour. The remaining mothers served as controls. The results
Pauli Ryhänen; Riitta Jouppila; Marjatta Lanning; Pentti Jouppila; Arno Hollmén; Kauko Kouvalainen
Following an intramuscular injection of human leukocyte interferon blood leukocyte counts decreased in most patients as tested 24 h after the injection. This decrease comprised lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. 24 h after interferon injection, the proportion of lymphocytes forming E rosettes was increased in most patients, whereas the proportion of lymphocytes forming EA and EAC rosettes was not significantly changed.Copyright
The aim of this study was to investigate in a placebo-controlled field study the effect of a (n-3)-vitamin supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF), oxidant/antioxidant markers and plasmatic omega3/omega6 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in 12 eventing horses. Venous blood was sampled at rest before (PRE) and after (POST) a three week treatment period with either the supplement (group S, n=6) or a placebo (group P, n=6) as well as after 15min (POST E15') and 24h (POST E24h) after a standardised exercise test. The following markers were analysed: EMF, plasma antioxidant capacity of water and lipid soluble components, ascorbic acid, uric acid (UA), glutathione (reduced: GSH, oxidised: GSSG), vitamin E (Vit E), beta-carotene, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, selenium, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), oxidised proteins (Protox), lipid peroxides (Pool) and FAR. EMF did not differ between group S and P after treatment, but GPx remained unchanged in group S whereas it decreased in group P and plasma Cu/Zn ratio remained unchanged whereas it increased in group P. FAR were significantly increased in group S. Exercise induced a significant decrease of EMF (POST vs. E24h) in both groups, but which was significantly lower at E15' in group S than in group P. Exercise induced a significant increase of UA and ACW (POST vs. E15') and Protox (POST vs. E24h) in both groups. An exercise-related decrease in GSH and Pool (POST vs. E15') was found in group P, whereas Vit E and FAR (POST vs. E24h) significantly decreased in both groups. The study showed that exercise induced a decrease in EMF in horses associated with changes of blood oxidative balance. The (omega-3)-vitamin supplementation tested improved the oxidative balance poorly but delayed the exercise-induced decrease of EMF and increased the FAR. PMID:17110141
De Moffarts, B; Portier, K; Kirschvink, N; Coudert, J; Fellmann, N; van Erck, E; Letellier, C; Motta, C; Pincemail, J; Art, T; Lekeux, P
The interaction of verotoxins (VTs) with human erythrocytes (RBCs) in vitro was investigated, with particular reference to the role of P blood group glycolipids that are structurally related to the known VT receptors. RBC binding of purified VT1, VT2, VT2c, and VT2e was detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Glycolipids were extracted from defined RBCs, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and assessed for VT binding in an overlay assay by adding toxin and specific antibodies. All VTs bound to P1 phenotype (Pk, P, and P1 antigens) and P2 phenotype (Pk and P antigens) RBCs but not to p phenotype (lacking the Pk, P, and P1 antigens) RBCs. Binding of VT1 and VT2 was approximately 10-fold greater to P1 and the rare Pk2 (Pk antigen but no P1 or P antigen) phenotype cells than to P2 phenotype RBCs, whereas VT2e bound equally well to P1 and P2 phenotype cells. The VT1 and VT2 immunofluorescence results correlated with the detection of P1 and/or increased amounts of Pk (globotriaosylceramide) antigen; VT2e immunofluorescence correlated with the detection of P (globotetraosylceramide) antigen. The Pk band pattern and VT binding observed in the thin-layer chromatogram of human P1 and P phenotype RBC extracts varied from that of human kidney and Pk1 phenotype (Pk and P1 antigens) RBCs. We conclude that each VT binds to human RBCs in vitro by utilizing specific P blood group glycolipids as receptors. On P1 and P phenotype RBCs, the accessibility of the Pk antigen for VTs appeared to be restricted. The occurrence of VT-RBC binding in natural VT-producing Escherichia coli disease and its relevance for the pathophysiology of hemolytic uremic syndrome remain to be established. Images
Bitzan, M; Richardson, S; Huang, C; Boyd, B; Petric, M; Karmali, M A
A Portuguese shark, Centroscymnus coelolepis, 620 mm (24.4 inches) in total length captured in a lobster trap 700 fm deep at Hudson Canyon in February 1971 had a mean erythrocyte size of 33.4 x 23.6 micron, which is larger than any previously recorded for...
1. Carp, when subjected to air stress in vivo, developed a hypoxaemia associated with an acidosis due to elevation of PCO2 and arterial lactate content. Adrenaline and noradrenaline levels rose markedly, and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in mmol Hb l-1 red blood cells) decreased, indicating swelling of the erythrocytes. 2. No effect of adrenaline could be observed in vitro after equilibration at normal pH and oxygenation level. 3. Simulation of air stress in vitro, by using hypercapnic hypoxia together with adrenaline, caused appreciable swelling of the red cells. The effect of adrenaline could be blocked by propranolol and was reversible when the blood gases were readjusted to normal values. Swelling due to hypercapnic hypoxia was not affected by propranolol. 4. At normal PO2, lowering pH by increasing PCO2 or adding HCl to the blood at PCO2 = 3.5 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa) both led to swelling of red cells; further swelling occurred when adrenaline was added. 5. At normal or even elevated intracellular pH, hypoxia led to red cell swelling; further swelling occurred when adrenaline was added. 6. The swelling of red cells under hypoxic and/or acidotic conditions (induced by either added HCl or increased PCO2) was associated with an increase in the intracellular K+, Na+ and Cl- levels, together with an increase in the Donnan distribution ratio of Cl-, rCl. delta K+:delta Na+ was 4:1. The swelling associated with the addition of adrenaline was also accompanied by an increase in K+, Na+, Cl- and rCl. In this case the ratio delta K+:delta Na+ was 1:2.4. 7. There was a correlation between the Donnan ratio, rCl, and the change in MCHC, even in those cases where extracellular and intracellular pH were above normal. In addition to pH and oxygen saturation, rCl should therefore be considered as a possible triggering factor for the action of adrenaline. 8. In addition to the increased catecholamine levels, stress during sampling may be inferred if low values of MCHC and high values of intraerythrocytic chloride and a high chloride distribution ratio, rCl, are found in whole blood. PMID:3145321
Dose-effect and dose-response relationships were analyzed for blood lead concentration (PbB) vs blood protoporphyrin concentration using multiple data points from 165 children, ages 3-36 months. Protoporphyrin concentrations were measured using a front-face flurometer designed to measure zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and an extraction method designed to measure total protoporphyrin as the free base (FEP). Estimations were made of the thresholds for PbB effects on FEP and ZPP, as well as the slopes of the PbB-FEP and PbB-ZPP interactions. There was essentially no difference in thresholds estimated using ZPP vs FEP as the effect parameter. There was no apparent effect of age on threshold. However, the slope for PbB vs ZPP was less steep than the slope for PbB vs FEP. Moreover, the average ratio FEP:ZPP was markedly elevated at 3 months (1.84:1) and decreased slowly, attaining unity at 33 months. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, as well as the implications for interpretation of lead screening program data.
... normal (microcytic); caused by iron deficiency anemia or thalassemias , for example. Indicates RBCs are larger than normal ( ... in conditions such as iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia. Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions ...
BACKGROUND: A total lymphocyte count (TLC) of 1200 cells\\/mL has been used as a surrogate for a CD4 count of 200 cells\\/microL in resource-limited settings with varying results. We developed a more effective method based on a decision tree algorithm to classify subjects.\\u000aMETHODS: A decision tree was used to develop models with the variables TLC, hemoglobin, platelet count, gender,
Ray Y. Chen; Andrew O. Westfall; J. Michael Hardin; Cassandra Miller-Hardwick; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer; James L. Raper; Sten H. Vermund; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Jeroan J. Allison; Michael S. Saag
Physical as well as psychological stress increases the number of circulating peripheral blood NK cells. Whereas some studies found a positive correlation between exercise and NK cell counts and cytotoxic activity, others showed that, for example, heavy training leads to a decrease in per cell NK cytotoxicity. Thus, the impact of exercise on NK cell function and eventually on altered immunocompetence remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether a single bout of brief exercise, consisting in running up and down 150 stair-steps, affects the number and function of circulating NK cells. NK cells, obtained from 29 healthy donors, before and immediately after brief exercise, were assessed for numbers, phenotype, IFN? production, degranulation, cytotoxicity, and in vitro response to stimulation with IL-2, IL-2/IL-12, or TLR2 agonists. Running resulted in a sixfold increase in the number of CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK cells, but decreased the frequency of CD56(bright) NK cells about twofold. Brief exercise did not significantly interfere with baseline IFN? secretion or NK cell cytotoxicity. In vitro stimulation with IL-2 and TLR2 agonists (lipoteichoic acid, and synthetic triacylated lipopeptide Pam3CSK4) enhanced IFN?-secretion, degranulation, and cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells isolated pre-exercise, but had less effect on NK cells isolated following exercise. There were no differences in response to combined IL-2/IL-12 stimulation. In conclusion, having no obvious impact on baseline NK functions, brief exercise might be used as a simple method to significantly increase the number of CD56(dim) NK cell available for in vitro experiments. Nevertheless, the observed impaired responses to stimulation suggest an alteration of NK cell-mediated immunity by brief exercise which is at least in part explained by a concomitant decrease of the circulating CD56(bright) NK cell fraction. PMID:23755049
Millard, Anne-Laure; Valli, Piero V; Stussi, Georg; Mueller, Nicolas J; Yung, Gisella Puga; Seebach, Jörg D
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in 30% patients on the second or third day post operation; therefore, it is the most prevalent and complicated arrhythmia after open heart surgery. White blood cell (WBC) count seems to be most significantly associated with cardiovascular disorders. This study was designed to evaluate the exact relationship between preoperative WBC count and post-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) AF in patients with severe left ventricle (LV) dysfunction who underwent elective off-pump coronary artery bypass. Methods: This study was conducted on 104 patients from among 400 patients with severe LV dysfunction undergoing elective off-pump CABG surgery from February 2011 to February 2012, in Afshar Cardiovascular Center, Yazd, Iran. Patients with emergency surgery, unstable angina creatinine higher than 2.0 mg/dL, malignancy, or immunosuppressive disease were excluded. Preoperative serological tests of the participants, such as WBC counts, were saved in their medical dossiers. Of the 400 patients undergoing CABG, AF was found in 54 cases; these 54 male patients formed the experimental group and 60 other patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay without postoperative AF were part of the control group. Results: The average age of the patients was 68.5±12.8 years. WBC counts in patients with and without AF three days before surgery were 12,340±155 and 8,950±170, respectively. On surgical day, WBC counts in the patients with and without AF were 13,188±140 and 9,145±255, respectively (P value three days before surgery: 0.04; P value on surgical day: 0.01). Of the 54 male patients with postoperative AF (POAF), duration of AF was more in cases with elevated WBC count (12,000-14,000) than in those with lower elevated WBC count (10,000-12,000) (]P=0.025), but there was no relationship between frequency of recurrence of AF and grading of elevation of WBC count (]P=0.81). Conclusion: These findings show that three days before surgery and on surgery day, there was a difference in WBC count between both groups. So, preoperative WBC count may predict the incidence and duration of AF; however, it cannot be a predictor of the frequency of recurrence of AF. Finally, WBC count is an independent marker for POAF and duration of AF.
An increased percentage of erythrocytes with crater-like indentations (pits) when viewed under interference contrast microscopy is accepted as indicative of splenic hypofunction. The percentage of pitted erythrocytes was above the upper limit of the normal range (0.0-3.2%) in 6 patients with megaloblastic anemia (4.6-22.6%), 8 patients with iron deficient anemia (5.6-21.0%) and 6 patients with HbC diseases (12.5-45.0%). However, the spleen function was normal or hyperactive when evaluated by the rate of removal from the circulation of heat-damaged 99mTc-labeled autologous erythrocytes. Thus, in these diseases, there is a discrepancy between pit counting in the peripheral blood and other spleen tests. PMID:2426655
Zago, M A; Costa, F F; Covas, D T; Figueiredo, M S; Bottura, C
The aim of this paper is to analyze merits and demerits of methodological approaches designed for investigations of erythrocyte aggregation--a process, which plays a crucial role in rheological and transport properties of blood. Ideally, erythrocyte aggregation should be characterized in terms of the time-dependent gyration radius of the aggregates and their fractal dimension. Among various experimental techniques suggested so far, only imaging analysis meets this requirement. However, because this technique is designed for investigations of the aggregation process in thin layers of dilute erythrocyte suspensions, aggregation data are affected by cell-wall interactions and, in addition, problems arise when attempts are made to extend these data to whole blood. Interpretation of results obtained by light scattering techniques faces problems associated with effects of multiple scattering, a design of experimental setups and the wavelength on the kinetics of recorded signals. A method based on electric and dielectric properties of blood is advantageous over other methodological approaches, because it provides reliable information about time-dependent and steady-state size and morphology of the aggregates at physiological hematocrits. A common drawback of most methodological approaches is that interpretation of experimental results is based on simplified theoretical models of blood. To avoid complicated physical problems posed by optical, ultrasound, electrical and dielectrical properties of blood, it is suggested to use the adhesion energy as a measure of RBC aggregability. PMID:18221067
Summary Erythrocyte (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were found to be higher in Nigerian domestic fowls than those in Hubbard fowls. PCV and Hb values were higher in males than in females in both breeds. Erythrocytes of the Nigerian fowl were observed to be more susceptible to osmotic haemolysis than were erythrocytes of the Hubbard
Let's count shapes and animals! Let's go to the farm to do some Apple Counting. Then let's have some Counting Fun with shapes and animals. Afterward let's grab a fishing pole and do some Fishy Counting! ...
... Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Carb Counting Carbohydrate Counting Listen Carbohydrate counting, or " carb counting ," is ... the portion size to match. What Foods Have Carbohydrate? Foods that contain carbohydrate are: starchy foods like ...
Although exposure to ambient hypoxia is known to cause proinflammatory vascular responses, the mechanisms initiating these responses are not understood. We tested the hypothesis that in systemic hypoxia, erythrocyte-derived H(2)O(2) induces proinflammatory gene transcription in vascular endothelium. We exposed mice or isolated, perfused murine lungs to 4 hours of hypoxia (8% O(2)). Leukocyte counts increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors, reactive oxygen species, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in freshly recovered lung endothelial cells (FLECs). These effects were inhibited by extracellular catalase and by the removal of erythrocytes, indicating that the responses were attributable to erythrocyte-derived H(2)O(2). Concomitant nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? stabilization in FLECs occurred only in the presence of erythrocytes. Hemoglobin binding to the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3, induced the release of H(2)O(2) from erythrocytes and the p65 translocation in FLECs. These data indicate for the first time, to our knowledge, that erythrocytes are responsible for endothelial transcriptional responses in hypoxia. PMID:23043086
Huertas, Alice; Das, Shonit R; Emin, Memet; Sun, Li; Rifkind, Joseph M; Bhattacharya, Jahar; Bhattacharya, Sunita
Secretagogin is a six EF-hand calcium-binding protein that can identify granule cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus. The aim of this study was to determine if secretagogin can be detected in human blood cells. Eight adult males were recruited for blood analysis. Whole blood was separated into plasma, peripheral mononuclear cells and erythrocytes with Ficoll-Paque and probed for secretagogin using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. While secretagogin mRNA was detected in both peripheral mononuclear cells and erythrocytes using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, SCGN protein was only detected in erythrocytes. Interestingly, peripheral mononuclear cells secretagogin mRNA expression levels showed significant negative correlation with age. This begets the question on the function of secretagogin in blood cells and if it is correlated to neurodegeneration associated with ageing. This remains our impetus for further research. PMID:22921511
Tan, Wan Shun Daniel; Lee, Jun Jie; Satish, Ramapatna L; Ang, Eng-Tat
Objective and design: The effect of blood sampling site on the hemogram and neutrophil adhesion molecules was examined in BALB\\/c mice.¶Materials and methods: Blood samples were drawn from the tail, eye, and heart during anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine. Cell numbers were quantified with an automated counter and flow cytometry was used to quantify CD11b and CD18.¶Results: Total white blood
J. A. Nemzek; G. L. Bolgos; B. A. Williams; D. G. Remick
Erythrocyte deformability, known as ability of red blood cell (RBC) to change shape during flow in the microcirculation, is the basic rheological property of erythrocyte. Many techniques have been proposed to measure RBC\\
Background and Objectives: Retransfusion of shed blood collected after operation has become popular, but recent reports of side effects led to a search for possible causes. Materials and Methods: In a randomized study of 28 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, shed blood was collected in Solcotrans, Orth-Evac, and ordinary Redon drainage. Osmotic fragility was measured and electron-microscopic pictures of erythrocytes
S. Mottl-Link; M. Russlies; M. Klinger; M. Seyfarth; R. Ascherl; R. Gradinger
We have carried out analysis of the number of blooderythrocytes and lymphocytes with micronuclei in the inhabitants of four settlements located near the place of the accident which happened at the atomic power station of the Siberian Chemical plant (Tomsk-7) on April 6, 1993. In all cases, the people examined showed a considerable increase in the number of cells with micronuclei as compared with the control. We observed the same people for two years and found a gradual decrease in the number of cells with micronuclei. It has been shown in this work that people born in 1963-1970 have a much higher level of cells with micronuclei which we tend to regard as a result of the radiation accident at the Siberian chemical plant in 1963. The data we have obtained allow us to conclude that penetration of radionuclides into the human organism in the prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to the formation of stable clones of erythroid cells with micronuclei and a higher level of erythrocytes with micronuclei which can remain in the blood for a long time.
White blood cell (WBC) count is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Data are sparse regarding its association in young adults with future coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our study was conducted among coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) participants (n = 3,094). We examined the association between baseline (Y0) WBC counts and CHD risk factors using linear regression models. We further assessed prospective associations between Y0 WBC and inflammatory biomarkers during the follow-up, and the presence of CAC 15 and 20 years later. In total, 272 and 566 subjects had CAC scores >0 at year (Y) 15 and Y20, respectively. Baseline total WBC counts were cross-sectionally associated with SBP, BMI, and smoking, or HDL-cholesterol (p ? 0.01) at Y0, and prospectively associated with C-reactive protein at Y7, Y15, and Y20, and fibrinogen at Y5 and Y20 (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, baseline neutrophil count was borderline associated with CAC presence 15 years later (OR = 1.18 per unit, 95 % CI 1.00-1.44) and total WBC (OR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.96-1.19) or eosinophil (OR = 1.12, 95 %CI 1.00-1.25) was borderline associated with CAC presence at Y20. Baseline total WBC counts in young adults was associated prospectively with CAC presence 20 years later after adjusting for age, sex, and race. Results are attenuated when other risk factors are accounted for. Our results suggest the possible early involvement of WBC, particularly eosinophils, in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:24030512
Hou, Lifang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Ning, Hongyan; Huffman, Mark D; Fornage, Myriam; He, Ka; Zhang, Xiao; Jacobs, David R; Goff, David C; Sidney, Steve; Carr, Jeffrey J; Liu, Kiang
.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis: To investigate the association between white blood-cell (WBC) count and the development of diabetes, independent of cigarette\\u000a smoking. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We examined 2953 Japanese men who were office workers and between 35 and 59 years of age and who did not have impaired fasting\\u000a glucose (IFG) (a fasting glucose concentration of 6.16.9 mmol\\/l), Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (a
N. Nakanishi; H. Yoshida; Y. Matsuo; K. Suzuki; K. Tatara
In this activity, learners practice counting objects found on patterned wrapping paper or fabric. Repeated experiences with counting will help young learners understand that the last number they say when counting objects tells them "how many" objects in all.
A number of free-radical-generating carcinogens catalyze the oxidative modification of macromolecules. Malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl content, alanine formation, and hemolysis were used as biomarkers of oxidative stress, and were determined in rabbit erythrocytes treated in vitro with benzolalpyrene or adriamycin. MDA and carbonyl content were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner by carcinogens. Alanine formation was also increased in a concentration-dependent
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete bloodcount, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and normoblast count were higher in the newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group, and total leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and thrombocyte counts were lower. The number of neutropenic and thrombocytopenic subjects in newborns of hypertensive mothers was higher compared to the control group. On peripheral smears, dysplastic changes in neutrophils and erythrocytes were observed with a higher rate in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. HbF levels were found to be higher in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of infections in newborns of hypertensive mothers was found to be higher than the control group. Conclusion: Newborns of hypertensive mothers should be carefully evaluated and monitored in terms of hematologic abnormalities. Complete bloodcounts and peripheral blood smears can be used as significant parameters for early diagnosis of possible complications. PMID:23812509
A flow cytometric method was evaluated for performing total leucocyte counts on bovine blood. Fifty blood samples from 19\\u000a healthy Holstein cows were analysed on a flow cytometer. The method involved diluting blood with either hypotonic or isotonic\\u000a saline solution, lysing the red blood cells, and performing a 2-parameter analysis on the basis of cell size and cellular\\u000a granularity. Leucocyte
Sodium buffer capacity of vascular endothelium depends on an endothelial glycocalyx rich in negatively charged heparan sulfate. It has been shown recently that after the mechanical interaction of blood with heparan sulfate-depleted endothelium, erythrocytes also lose this glycocalyx constituent. This observation led to the conclusion that the vascular sodium buffer capacity of an individual could be derived from a blood sample. A test system (salt blood test (SBT)) was developed based upon the sodium-dependent erythrocyte zeta potential. Erythrocyte sedimentation velocity was measured in isosmotic, biopolymer-supplemented electrolyte solutions of different sodium concentrations. Erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS), inversely related to erythrocyte sodium buffer capacity, was expressed as the ratio of the erythrocyte sedimentation velocities of 150 mM over 125 mM Na(+) solutions (ESS = Na(+) 150/Na(+) 125). In 61 healthy individuals (mean age, 23?±?0.5 years), ESS ranged between 2 and 8. The mean value was 4.3?±?0.19. The frequency distribution shows two peaks, one at about 3 and another one at about 5. To test whether ESS reflects changes of the endothelial glycocalyx, a cultured endothelial monolayer was exposed for 3 hours to a rhythmically moving blood layer (drag force experiment). When applying this procedure, we found that ESS was reduced by about 21 % when the endothelium was pretreated for 4 days with the glycocalyx protective agent WS 1442. In conclusion, the SBT could possibly serve as an in vitro test system for the evaluation of erythrocyte/vascular salt sensitivity allowing follow-up measurements in the prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunctions. PMID:23686295
Clinicians are in need of better diagnostic markers for rapid diagnosis of severe infections. Therefore, we studied the diagnostic significance of mean cell volume of neutrophils (MNV) and monocytes (MMV) compared with Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count for predicting systemic clinical infection (sepsis). MNV and MMV were obtained by volume conductivity scatter (VCS) technique of the Coulter LH 750 hematology analyzer during automated differential counts, and blood samples from patients with sepsis (n = 37), nonsystemic bacterial infections (n = 39) and controls (n = 48) were studied. We observed a significant increase in MNV and MMV in the sepsis group compared with limited infections and controls. However, at a designated cut-off point of 250 pg/ml, IL-6 seemed to be the best predictor for sepsis with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 76%. Compared with CRP (cut-off point 60 mg/dl), MNV at a cut-off of 150 had a comparable sensitivity and specificity and was the most predictive VCS parameter. Taken together, MNV and MMV seemed to be potential parameters to discriminate between sepsis and nonsystemic infections. PMID:19919621
Some liquid perfluoro compounds dissolve relatively large amounts of oxygen and can be used in dispersed form as substitutes for erythrocytes. The commonly used perfluoro compounds contain about the same amount of oxygen as do equal volumes of erythrocytes when equilibrated with 100% oxygen. However, when equilibrated with alveolar air, the perfluoro compounds contain much less oxygen than erythrocytes. The dispersed fluorochemicals are adequate substitutes for perfusion of isolated preparations of mammalian brain, heart kidney, lung and liver. However, when put into the circulation of the intact animal, the dispersed fluorochemicals tends to produce lesions of the lungs, dilation of the right heart, and ultimately fatal hypoxia. It is suggested that the course of events following intravenous injection of dispersed fluorochemical is initiated by an interaction of the perfluoro particles with blood platelets or blood clotting factors. The ensuing intravascular clotting could then cause the changes in the lungs which lead to a marked increase in pulmonary artery pressure and dilation of the right heart. These events would terminate in fatal hypoxia due to pulmonary pathology and heart failure. PMID:123863
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of concordance in the number of leucocytes and their cytokine secretion after ex vivo stimulation in a twin population discordant for the amount of periodontal breakdown. Material and Methods: Venous blood was collected from 18 adult twin pairs (10 monozygotic and eight dizygotic twins). Each twin pair consisted of
G. L. Torres-de Heens; B. G. Loos; Velden van der U
The aim of this study is to investigate changes of CBC values after plateletpheresis in healthy and volunteer donors by using three different cell separator systems. The platelets were collected from 95 donors using the COBE Spectra, from 87 donors using the Fenwal CS-3000 Plus, and from 83 donors using the Fresenius AS-204. After plateletpheresis, white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin
In semen, granulocytes are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage sperm. The diagnosis of leukocytospermia is usually based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of 1 106 white blood cells per milliliter, but contro- versy remains over the minimum leukocyte level that impairs fertility. The goals of this study were to clarify the relationship between
RAKESH K. SHARMA; FABIO F. PASQUALOTTO; DAVID R. NELSON; ANTHONY J. THOMAS JR; ASHOK AGARWAL
In investigating the genetic marker for population genetics of Japanese macaques by electrophoresis, the author found the erythrocyte lacate dehydrogenase (LDH) polymorphism existing in some troops. There were four kinds of variations which seemed to be controlled by two loci, controlling A and B subunits of this enzyme. The variant phenotypes were named LDH-Amac2-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac3-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac 1-1 LDH-Bmac2-1,
Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and plasma ionic composition were studied in rats subjected to acute hypothermia. A decrease in osmotic fragility and a significant increase in plasma magnesium and total phosphorus were observed in blood from hypothermic rats in relation to control. A decrease in erythrocyte osmotic fragility from hypothermic animals was observed when the test was performed at 37°C, whereas
V. I. Peinado; V. Alfaro; J. Palomeque; L. Palacios; G. Viscor
This study aimed to investigate a possible connection between removal of dental amalgam restorations supported by antioxidant therapy and indicative changes of clinical chemistry parameters. A group of 24 patients, referred for complaints related to amalgam restorations, underwent a removal of their amalgams. All patients were treated with antioxidants (vitamin B-complex, vitamin C, vitamin E, and sodium selenite). An age- and sex-matched control group of 22 individuals was also included. The mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentration in plasma, Hg concentration in erythrocytes, and 17 clinical chemistry variables were examined in three groups: patients before amalgam removal (Before), patients after amalgam removal (After), and control individuals (Control). The Hg and Se values decreased (p < 0.05) in plasma, and the Hg concentration decreased (p < 0.05) in erythrocytes after amalgam removal. The variables serum lactate dehydrogenase (serum LDH) and serum sodium differed significantly both when comparing Control with Before (p < 0.01) and Before with After (p < 0.01). The variables white blood cell count (WBC), blood neutrophil count, blood eosinophil count, blood basophil count, blood lymphocyte count, blood monocyte count, serum potassium, and serum creatinine differed in the Before/After test (p < 0.05). Multivariate statistics (discriminant function analysis) could separate the groups Before and After with only one misclassification. PMID:17916968
An attempt was made to determine the receptor for the hemolysin of Fusobacterium necrophorum using horse erythrocyte or its membranes as target. The spectrum of erythrocyte sensitivity has indicated that horse, dog and mouse erythrocytes are highly sensitive whereas cattle, sheep, goat and chicken red blood cells are insensitive to this hemolysin. A high correlation between sensitivity and phosphatidylcholine content
Kingsley Kwaku Amoako; Yoshitaka Goto; Naoaki Misawa; De Long Xu; Toshiharu Shinjo
An automatic device for high-temporal resolution of the process of red blood sedimentation was designed. The position of the boundary between red blood and plasma may be registered each 30 sec in several pipettes simultaneously with +/- 10 mkm precision. Fractional rates of the boundary movement are deduced with high accuracy. Data are processed by a PC and presented as velocity-time curves (ESR-grams) and the curves describing time evolution of the boundary position. Several unexpected phenomena in the process of red blood sedimentation have been revealed. Upward fast movements of the boundary up to 1 mm were noted. In patients' blood sets of 5 - 10 milliHz oscillations of sedimentation rate were usually developing at early stages of blood sedimentation. In non-diluted healthy donors' blood high amplitude periodic oscillations were either absent, or were emerging only after blood resided in pipettes for several hours. When blood was diluted to a certain degree with physiological saline or with own plasma long-term low frequency (1 - 3 milliHz) rate oscillations regularly appeared. Non-trivial dependence of patterns of ESR-grams on diluting of blood with own plasma or saline was observed. Thus, non-linear dynamic behavior of living blood has been revealed due to application of the principles of the system of technical vision for the detailed analysis of red blood sedimentation kinetics.
In this work, we hypothesized that the concentration of erythrocytes in a provisional scaffold would have a significant effect on three of the major biological processes occurring in early wound healing. ACL fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and scaffold contraction were measured in collagen gels containing fibroblasts and erythrocytes in subphysiologic (1 × 108 erythrocytes/ml), physiologic (1 × 109 erythrocytes/ml), and supraphysiologic (1 × 1010 erythrocytes/ml) concentrations. Fibroblast-seeded gels containing only platelet-poor plasma were used as a control group. All gels were cultured for 1, 14, and 21 days. DNA, ELISA for procollagen and scaffold size measurements were used to quantify the three above parameters of wound healing. Samples with concentrations of erythryocytes lower than that in whole blood stimulated greater fibroblast proliferation and scaffold contraction than those with erythrocyte concentrations similar to that in whole blood (p <0.027; p <0.03). Increasing the erythrocyte concentration over that in the whole blood stimulated fibroblast collagen production (p <0.009) and limited scaffold contraction (p <0.031). Further work examining the role of the erythrocyte in the early provisional scaffold is warranted.
Harrison, Sophia L.; Vavken, Patrick; Murray, Martha M.
Erythrocyte survival studies of complement-coated radiolabeled erythrocytes have shown rapid removal of these cells from the peripheral blood with a return of these cells into the circulation within a few hours. We studied complement-coated human erythrocytes and measured surface charge and deformability, two parameters believed to be important in erythrocyte survival. Erythrocytes were coated with complement by two in vitro techniques: the addition of (a) low ionic strength sucrose, and (b) IgM cold agglutinins. Erythrocytes obtained from three patients with cold agglutinin disease were used as a source of in vivo complement-coated cells. No difference was found in surface charge as measured by electrophoretic mobility between erythrocytes from normal subjects and complement-coated erythrocytes from any of the three sources. When deformability was measured by filtration through 3-mum polycarbonate sieves, marked decreases in deformability were found in complement-coated erythrocytes. The filtration returned toward control levels by incubating the complement-coated erythrocytes in serum for 1 h and correlated with decreases in immune adherence. Using screen filtration pressure as a measure of deformability, a positive correlation between number of C3 molecules per erythrocyte and decreased deformability was found. C3b appeared responsible for the decreased deformability of the erythrocytes, since conversion of C3b to C3d resulted in a return of deformability toward normal. The data suggested that the sequestration of complement-coated human erythrocytes in the microvasculature can be explained in part by decreased deformability and changes in immune adherence.
|This article explores how counting collections of objects helps elementary-age children develop number sense and number relations. The authors provide evidence that counting collections offers multiple entry points for children at different places on the counting trajectory. It is suggested that the teacher's role is one of noticing, questioning,
Cytoplasmic inclusions, associated with erythrocytic degeneration, were found in the circulating blood of herring from Boothbay Harbor, Maine, and from Passamaquoddy Bay at Deer Island, N.B., Canada, in 1969. Except in one instance, when inclusions occurr...
In all 5 acute (AVHs) and chronic viral hepatites (CVHs) there was the increase of erythrocyte activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and the decrerase in GSH concentration. In blood plasma there was accumulation of GPx, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and y-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT). GSH and GR increased in plasma only in AVHs. In CVH C erythrocyte GST increased. Evidently changes in the erythrocyte glutathione system are reactions to oxidative stress and in blood plasma they are consequences of inflammation and hepatocyte cytolysis. Changes were more pronounced in middle-heavy course than in the heavy one. These changes have pathogenic importance and can be used in addition to complex diagnostics. They are significantly differed from changes in chronic gall-bladder diseases. Necessity of separate investigation of glutathione system in erythrocytes and blood plasma but not in whole blood is argued. PMID:17436689
Kulinski?, V I; Leonova, Z A; Kolesnichenko, L S; Malov, I V; Danilov, Iu A
Malaria male gametocytes within a newly ingested infected blood meal in the mosquito midgut emerge from erythrocytes and extrude approximately eight flagellar microgametes in a process termed exflagellation. In culture, and in blood removed from infected patients, emerging microgametes avidly adhere to neighboring uninfected and infected erythrocytes, as well as to emerged female macrogametes, creating exflagellation centers. The mechanism of erythrocyte adherence is not known nor has it been determined for what purpose microgametes may bind to erythrocytes. The proposition of a function underlying erythrocyte adherence is supported by the observation of species-specificity in adhesion: microgametes of the human malaria Plasmodium falciparum can bind human erythrocytes but not chicken erythrocytes, whereas avian host Plasmodium gallinaceum microgametes bind chicken but not human erythrocytes. In this study we developed a binding assay in which normal, enzyme-treated, variant or null erythrocytes are identified by a cell surface fluorescent label and assayed for adherence to exflagellating microgametes. Neuraminidase, trypsin or ficin treatment of human erythrocytes eliminated their ability to adhere to Plasmodium falciparum microgametes, suggesting a role of sialic acid and one or more glycophorins in the binding to a putative gamete receptor. Using nulls lacking glycophorin A [En(a?)], glycophorin B (S?s?U?) or a combination of glycophorin A and B (Mk/Mk) we showed that erythrocytes lacking glycophorin B retain the ability to bind but a lack of glycophorin A reduced adherence by exflagellating microgametes. We propose that either the sialic acid moiety of glycophorins, predominantly glycophorin A, or a more complex interaction involving the glycophorin peptide backbone, is the erythrocyte receptor for adhesion to microgametes.
Templeton, Thomas J.; Keister, David B.; Muratova, Olga; Procter, Jo Lynn; Kaslow, David C.
Eleven reports of platelet counts were found in the literature which reported a progressive increase, no change, or a progressive fall during pregnancy. The counts had been made using venous or capillary blood, with either simple dilution or red cell lysis prior to enumeration in a haemocytometer, with or without phase-contrast microscopy. It was therefore decided to examine whole blood
One hundred and nine patients suffering from various malignancies underwent 285 apheresis procedures for PBPC collection. A median of two leukaphereses (range: 25) resulted in median numbers of 4.6×108 MNC\\/kg, 14.1×104 CFU-GM\\/kg, and 6.0×106 CD34+ cells\\/kg. Preleukapheresis peripheral blood CD34+ cells correlated significantly with collected CD34+ cells\\/kg (r=0.94;pr=0.52;p4×104 CD34+ cells\\/ml was highly predictive for a collection yield >2.5×106 CD34+ cells\\/kg
N. Schwella; W. Siegert; J. Beyer; O. Rick; J. Zingsem; R. Eckstein; S. Serke; D. Huhn
Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.
Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived null variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22) associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10?8). The lead SNP (rs9131) on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN) gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter-chromosomal duplications can result in false positive associations in GWAS.
Arepalli, Sampath; Britton, Angela; Chen, Zhao; Couper, David; Curb, J. David; Eaton, Charles B.; Fornage, Myriam; Grant, Struan F. A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hernandez, Dena; Kamatini, Naoyuki; Keating, Brendan J.; Kubo, Michiaki; LaCroix, Andrea; Lange, Leslie A.; Liu, Simin; Lohman, Kurt; Meng, Yan; Mohler, Emile R.; Musani, Solomon; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Okada, Yukinori; Palmer, Cameron D.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Patel, Kushang V.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Herman A.; Taylor, Kent; Thomson, Cynthia; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Lingyao; Ziv, Elad; Zonderman, Alan B.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Evans, Michele K.; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M.; Snively, Beverly M.; Wilson, James G.
Hematological parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC, WBC, PLT), erythrocyte size, and osmotic fragility, differential leukocyte count, ROS production in common carp blood collected on three anticoagulants: heparin (10 IU\\/mL, Na2EDTA (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg\\/mL), and sodium citrate (0.3 mg\\/mL) were compared. Na2EDTA caused partial blood hemolysis in Ht tubes which made Ht measurement impossible, and resulted in high variability of the results. Both,
... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...
Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of road transportation for 12 hr on erythrocytes of goats during the hot-dry season and the modulatory role of ascorbic acid. Forty 2.5-3-year-old Red Sokoto goats weighing 23-25 kg and belonging to both sexes served as the subjects of the study. Twenty of the goats served as the experimental group and were administered ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight; the other 20 served as controls and were given 10 ml each of sterile water. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 hr. EDTA blood samples collected before loading, after loading, immediately after transportation and subsequently on the 3rd and 7th days of post-transportation were used to determine the red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), hematimetric (intrinsic) indices and hemoglobin index levels. The obtained results showed that handling, loading and transportation of the control goats induced significant (P<0.05) increases in RBC, Hb, EOF and hypochromic erythrocytes and a decrease (P<0.05) in the volume and average Hb content in RBCs. AA administration ameliorated all these changes. The present results suggest that road transportation for 12 hr during the hot-dry season could induce serious stress, resulting in hemolysis of erythrocytes, which was ameliorated by AA administration. In addition, the results demonstrated that EOF could be used as a diagnostic tool in road transportation stress. PMID:20203435
This paper evaluates the response of trout exposed to acute hypoxia between 8.7 mgO2\\/l (controls) and 1.4 mgO2\\/l. Temperature, pH, NH4, oxygen consumption rate and spleen-somatic index (SSI) were evaluated. Blood cell counts, oxidative\\u000a radicals (ORs) production and immature erythrocytes were assessed to evaluate their relationship with the degree of hypoxia.\\u000a Acute hypoxia induced a decrease in water pH (p
Objective To explore effects of ultraviolet irradiation on storage of red blood cell and the safety and feasibility of ultraviolet irradiation on banked blood. Metho ds Paired blood samples were used for contrast . Changes in erythrocyte fragility , blood ion , erythrocyte A TP enzyme activity and erythrocyte immune functions were tested 72 h and 120 h before and
Wang Baoyan; Zhang Jiangeng; Song Ximei; Yuan Ailian; Zhang Wenli; Zhao Jiefang
Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 1850 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP. A FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intake. Endothelial function was evaluated by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by the peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) method, using Endo-PAT 2000®. Participants were allocated into two groups according to Ca intake: low-Ca group (LCG; n 32; < 600 mg/d) and high-Ca group (HCG; n 44; ? 600 mg/d). Women in the LCG compared with those in the HCG exhibited, after adjustments for potential confounders, higher values of BMI, waist circumference, waist:height ratio, percentage of body fat, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, diastolic and mean BP; and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Endothelial function assessed by PAT and [Ca2+]i was similar in both groups. Subjects in the HCG had lower OR for prevalent overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, HDL-cholesterol < 600 mg/l and systolic BP >120 mmHg. The findings of the present study suggest that high Ca intake is inversely associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23411109
da Silva Ferreira, Thaís; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe
Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologics have revolutionized therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared the effects of infliximab on numbers of circulating leucocyte subsets in early RA (disease/symptom duration of ?1 year) and late RA patients (>1 year). A control group consisted of early RA patients treated with a combination of methotrexate (MTX) and methylprednisolone. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (pre-therapy) from all RA patients, divided into three groups: (i) late RA receiving infliximab/MTX, (ii) early RAinfliximab/MTX, (iii) early RAsteroid/MTX, and also from follow-up patients at 2 and 14 weeks. Significant differences in absolute counts of monocytes and granulocytes were observed between healthy controls and RA patients. At baseline CD14bright monocytes and CD16+ granulocytes were increased in both early RA and late RA patients. CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells were all increased at baseline in early RA, but not in late RA. At 2 weeks following infliximab treatment decreased granulocytes were observed in both early and late RA and decreased natural killer (NK) cells in late RA. CD16+ granulocytes and NK cells were also decreased at 14 weeks post-infliximab in early RA. Biotinylated infliximab was used to detect membrane-associated TNF (mTNF)-expressing leucocytes in RA patients. CD16+ granulocytes, NK cells and CD14dim monocytes all expressed higher levels of mTNF in RA patients. In summary infliximab is associated with decreased CD16+ granulocyte and NK cell counts, possibly through binding of mTNF. Differential effects of infliximab between early and late RA suggest that pathogenic mechanisms change as disease progresses.
Coulthard, L R; Geiler, J; Mathews, R J; Church, L D; Dickie, L J; Cooper, D L; Wong, C; Savic, S; Bryer, D; Buch, M H; Emery, P; Morgan, A W; McDermott, M F
Erythrocyte filterability and its relation to erythrocyte volume, hemoglobin level and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio were studied in anginal patients. A 25% decrease in filterability and elevated erythrocyte cholesterol/phospholipid ratios were found in anginal patients, as compared to normal subjects. A close inverse correlation (r = -0.623) was demonstrated between erythrocyte filterability and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. Mean erythrocyte volume and Hb levels were similar in anginal patients to those of normal subjects. PMID:3586485
Razumov, V B; Redchits, E G; Vinogradova, I V; Deev, A I; Khrennikov, V P
Physiological erythrocyte removal is associated with a selective increase in expression of neoantigens on erythrocytes and their vesicles, and subsequent autologous antibody binding and phagocytosis. Chronic erythrocyte transfusion often leads to immunization and the formation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies. We investigated whether erythrocyte storage leads to the increased expression of non-physiological antigens. Immunoprecipitations were performed with erythrocytes and vesicles from blood bank erythrocyte concentrates of increasing storage periods, using patient plasma containing erythrocyte autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitate composition was identified using proteomics. Patient plasma antibody binding increased with erythrocyte storage time, while the opposite was observed for healthy volunteer plasma, showing that pathology-associated antigenicity changes during erythrocyte storage. Several membrane proteins were identified as candidate antigens. The protein complexes that were precipitated by the patient antibodies in erythrocytes were different from the ones in the vesicles formed during erythrocyte storage, indicating that the storage-associated vesicles have a different immunization potential. Soluble immune mediators including complement factors were present in the patient plasma immunoprecipitates, but not in the allogeneic control immunoprecipitates. The results support the theory that disturbed erythrocyte aging during storage of erythrocyte concentrates contributes to transfusion-induced alloantibody and autoantibody formation.
Dinkla, Sip; Novotny, Vera M. J.; Joosten, Irma; Bosman, Giel J. C. G. M.
Students will reinforce the idea of counting coins as well as adding different amounts of coins. First, play Shoot your fruit! to identify your numbers! Then, dive into Underwater Counting!! Ms. Eppes Class: First, visit farm stand to figure out how much it will cost to buy eggs and apples. Once you have completed the farm stand go on a spending spree! ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of vitamin E and/or curcumin against diazinon (DZN) (an organophosphorus insecticide)-induced toxicity of blood, liver and erythrocyte markers of male Wistar rats. The exposure of rats to DZN for 21 days provoked significant changes in red blood cell counts and hemoglobin. Results showed that lipid peroxidation increased significantly in DZN-treated rats, as evidenced by high liver and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. Alteration of the antioxidant system in DZN-treated rats was confirmed by the significant decrease in the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by a decline in reduced glutathione content in both tissues. On the other hand, a significant increase in the activities of plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase was observed in the rats treated with DZN. However, the administration of vitamin E and curcumin has ameliorated the previous markers. In conclusion, our results indicate that the natural antioxidants like vitamin E and curcumin can effectively lower the erythrocytes and hepatic injuries induced by DZN as monitored by lipid peroxides, antioxidant enzyme activities and sensitive serum enzyme levels. PMID:22609857
Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM.
Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34? stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34? stem cell count (PBCD34) ?8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34? targets in ?3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34? target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies. PMID:23426644
Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J
A theoretical model examining the effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic (OA) signals is presented. Each erythrocyte is considered as a fluid sphere and its optical absorption is defined by its oxygen saturation state. The OA field generated by a cell is computed by solving the wave equation in the frequency domain with appropriate boundary conditions. The resultant field from many cells is simulated by summing the pressure waves emitted by individual cells. A Monte Carlo algorithm generates 2-D spatially random distributions of oxygenated and deoxygenated erythrocytes. Oxygen saturation levels of oxygenated cells a assumed to be 100% and 0% for deoxygenated cells. The OA signal amplitude decreases monotonically for the 700-nm laser source and increases monotonically for 1000 nm optical radiation when blood oxygen saturation varies from 0 to 100%. An approximately sixfold decrease and fivefold increase of the OA signal amplitude were computed at those wavelengths, respectively. The OA spectral power in the low-frequency range (<10 MHz) and in the very high-frequency range (>100 MHz) decreases for 700 nm and increases for 1000 nm with increasing blood oxygen saturation. This model provides a theoretical framework to study the erythrocyte oxygenation-dependent OA signals.
Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is a highly promising malaria blood-stage vaccine candidate that has induced protection in rodent and nonhuman primate models of malaria. Authentic conformation of the protein appears to be essential for the induction of parasite-inhibitory antibody responses. Here we have developed a synthetic gene with adapted codon usage to allow expression of Plasmodium falciparum FVO strain
Clemens H. M. Kocken; Chrislaine Withers-Martinez; Martin A. Dubbeld; Annemarie van der Wel; Fiona Hackett; A. Valderrama; M. J. Blackman; A. W. Thomas
Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...
Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p?=?1.5*10?18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2?=?83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p?=?1.5*10?4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p?=?0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p?=?0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p?=?7.7*10?13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p?=?7.7*10?5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.
Carrier erythrocytes administered subcutaneously in mice release encapsulated molecules at the injection site and through cells that escape the injection site. One day postinjection, the efflux of encapsulated (/sup 14/C)sucrose, (/sup 3/H)inulin, and /sup 51/Cr-hemoglobin from the injection site was 45, 55, and 65%, respectively. Intact carrier erythrocytes escaped the injection site and entered the blood circulation carrying with them the encapsulated molecules. Most of the encapsulated (/sup 3/H)inulin that reached whole blood circulated within erythrocytes. Small but measurable numbers of encapsulated molecules were trapped within lymph nodes. Subcutaneous injection of carrier erythrocytes may allow for limited extravascular tissue targeting of drugs.
Erythrocyte enzymes participate in the main interactions promoting utilization of glucose-glycolytic, pentosophosphate cycles and glutation system. In this report we study on erythrocyte G6PD deficiency which is the impairment related to the gender and expressed with development of acute drug-associated hemolytic anemia. Out of 13187 studied subjects 122 showed carrying of deficiency of erythrocyte G6PD activity, from them 98 (80.3%) subjects were male, and 24 (19.7%) female. As a whole, among the revealed in the population studies, and also verified in clinic of the persons with deficiency of erythrocyte G6PD there were marked different pathological phenotypes: hereditary nonspherecytary hemolytic anemia, acute drug-induced hemolytic anemia, asymptomatic gene carrying and, selected by us disease with few symptoms. As a whole, among the revealed in the population studies, and also verified in clinic of the persons with deficiency of erythrocyte G6PD there were marked different pathological phenotypes: hereditary nonspherecytary hemolytic anemia, acute drug-induced hemolytic anemia, asymptomatic gene carrying and, selected by us disease with few symptoms. PMID:22768742
Blood and erythrocyte suspensions have non-linear pressure-flow curves and so do not possess a unique Newtonian coefficient of viscosity (or its reciprocal, the fluidity) except in the physically unrealizable limits of infinite flow rate and tube radius. However, three coefficients can be defined which are related mathematically to one another and which converge in these infinite limits. They are first, the apparent fluidity, which is proportional to the slope of the line joining any given point on the pressure-flow curve with the origin; second, the differential fluidity, which is proportional to the slope of the pressureflow curve itself at any given point; and third, the generalized fluidity which is proportional to the ratio of the shear rate to the applied stress across any given cylindrical lamina (taken here at the tube wall) within the tube. These three coefficients, which are related mathematically to one another, have been calculated from measured pressure-flow curves for erythrocyte suspensions in glass tubes, and the differential viscosity has been used to develop a simple flow model in which the shear-dependent viscosity is assumed to arise from structural changes in the fluid as the flow rate increases. Although the physical basis of such structural changes is uncertain, it is likely that some sort of axial redistribution of the red cells is of greatest importance at normal, physiological hematocrit values.
Volume distribution curves of erythrocytes, obtained by automatic cell counting, are skew, the right side being flatter than the left one, indicating a greater than normal population of larger cells. This is in contrast to the familiar Price-Jones curves which show a more symmetrically bell-shaped distribution, as expected from a normal homogenous population. So far the skewness has been attributed
To investigate possible abnormalities in erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities in the pharmacogenetic disorder MH, membrane ATPase activities have been examined in erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells of MHS and normal swine. While no differences were noted in Mg2+-ATPase activities, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity of MHS erythrocyte ghosts was less than that of normal ghosts. Ca2+-ATPase activity exhibited low- and high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites in both types of erythrocyte ghost. While the Km for Ca2+ was greater for normal than for MHS erythrocyte ghosts at the high-affinity Ca2+-binding site, the reverse was true at the low-affinity Ca2+-binding site. Irrespective of the type of calcium binding site occupied, the Vmax for normal erythrocyte ghost Ca2+-ATPase activity was greater than that for MHS ghosts. In the presence of calmodulin, there was now no difference between MHS and normal erythrocyte ghosts in either the Km for Ca2+ or the Vmax of the Ca2+-ATPase activity. To determine if the calcium pumping activity of intact MHS and normal pig erythrocytes differed, calcium efflux from the /sup 45/Ca-loaded erythrocytes was determined; this activity was significantly greater for MHS than for normal erythrocytes. Thus, the present study confirms that there are abnormalities in the membranes of MHS pig red blood cells. However, we conclude that these abnormalities are unlikely to result in an impaired ability of MHS erythrocytes to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration.
This review summarises the considerable body of information now available on the molecular bases of human blood group-antigen expression. The elucidation of this information has only been possible since the identification, purification, and subsequent cDNA cloning of the mRNAs which encode the blood group active proteins. The surface components which are responsible for antigen expression are divided into two types: carbohydrate and protein. All carbohydrate structures are attached covalently to either glycolipids or glycoproteins, and are synthesised in the Golgi apparatus of erythropoietic cells (or in other cell lines in secreted fluids). As a consequence, the molecular bases of carbohydrate antigens lie in polymorphic variation seen in the genes which synthesise these carbohydrate structures (i.e. glycosyltransferase enzymes). The structural differences in the ABO, Hh and Lewis transferase genes, which alter the substrate specificities of these glycosyltransferases and hence generate the different antigens, have been defined. The molecular bases underlying the P blood glycosyltransferases are unknown. Polymorphism in the remaining 19 blood group systems is defined by amino acid sequence changes in erythrocyte membrane proteins, which are generated by sequence variation at the DNA level (largely by point mutation). Blood group active erythrocyte membrane proteins can be categorised broadly into six functional groups: (1) membrane transporters or channels: Rh, Diego, Colton, Kidd, KX; (2) Membrane bound enzymes: Kell and Cartwright; (3) Structural or assembly proteins: Gerbich and MNSs; (4) Chemokine receptors: Duffy; (5) Cell adhesion molecules: Lutheran, LW, Xg, Indian; (6) Complement regulatory proteins: Cromer, Knops. The Chido/Rodgers blood group system is defined by polymorphic variation in C4 of the complement cascade, and is adsorbed passively onto the surface of erythrocytes. This system is not considered here. Only two remaining blood group systems defy molecular identity: Dombrock and Scianna. The potential clinical applications of such a rapid accumulation of data on the molecular bases of blood group antigens is discussed. PMID:9167305
... rate; Sedimentation rate; Westergren sedimentation rate Formal name: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Related tests: C-reactive protein (CRP) ; ... None The Test Sample What is being tested? Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is an indirect measure of ...
The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.
Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057
Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity. PMID:23090122
Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C
In NIDDM diabetic subjects, the microcirculatory damage shows a double aspect: an alteration of the vascular wall, particularly of the arteriolar capillary, and a hemorheological alteration at the level of the capillary district. In the microcirculation, because of the low velocity of the flow and the inverse relationship between capillary size and RBC diameter, the viscosity has an important role with its components: RBC viscosity and deformability. Even the erythrocyte aggregation has a key role as resultant of the attracting and repulsing forces, among which the plasma-RBC viscosity and the deformability play opposite role. Our method allows to evaluate the erythrocyte, the whole blood, the plasma and the plasma-RBC viscosity, and the deformability. Studies from this laboratory in NIDDM subjects show an increase in the blood viscosity, a decrease in the erythrocyte deformability and plasma-RBC viscosity. It is suggested that in microcirculatory district the flow reductions are particularly of hemorheological type and that the sludged blood is an "optical" phenomenon with poor meaning. We consider some hematological parameters, namely the Hgb A1c %, Hgb concentration, RBC count, MCV, etcetera. PMID:1470397
Cortinovis, A; Crippa, A; Crippa, M; Bosoni, T; Moratti, R
Count On is an educational mathematics Web site based in the United Kingdom. Mainly intended for elementary school students, Count On offers a variety of online multimedia games and modules that serve as a fun way to practice math concepts or learn new ones. The Explorer section is a good place to start when first visiting the site; it has everything from basic numbers to fractions to mathematical art. The Matrix is a virtual museum of mathematics, where users can learn about historical figures and innovations by exploring each room. The games section has many instructive resources, but it is difficult to see the connection to mathematics for a couple of them.
(See the editorial commentary by Conlan, on pages 68.) Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is classified as a category A biodefense agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of its highly infectious nature. F. tularensis infects leukocytes and exhibits an extracellular phase in the blood of the host. It is unknown, however, whether F. tularensis can infect erythrocytes; thus, we examined this possibility in vivo and in vitro. In the murine model of pulmonary type A tularemia, we showed the presence of intraerythrocytic bacteria by double-immunofluorescence microscopy and ex vivo gentamicin protection of the purified erythrocyte fraction. In vitro, F. tularensis invaded human erythrocytes, as shown in the gentamicin protection assays, double-immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy with immunogold labeling of the bacteria. Additional in vitro tests indicated that serum complement-dependent and complement-independent mechanisms contribute to erythrocyte invasion. Our results reveal a novel intraerythrocytic phase during F. tularensis infection.
Horzempa, Joseph; O'Dee, Dawn M.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Franks, Jonathan M.; Clay, Doris
The interactions between membrane, peripheral and cytoskeleton proteins are responsible for the maintenance of erythrocyte deformability (EEI) and some of these interactions are modulated by PKC activity. Protein band 3 of the erythrocyte membrane is phosphorylated by phosphotyrosine kinases (PTK) and dephosphorylated by phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It was previously described by us a signal transduction mechanism that describes a possible pathway connecting an erythrocyte external membrane protein, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with protein band 3. So how does PKC activity modulate EEI when protein band 3 is phosphorylated or dephosphorylated in absence or presence of AChE effectors?To answer this we used phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as an activator and chelerythrine chloride as inhibitor of PKC and also band 3 modulators of band 3 phosphorylation degree, in presence and absence of AChE effectors in order to measure in whole blood samples EEI. Our results showed that erythrocyte deformability was significantly (i) decreased by inhibition of PKC, in absence and presence of AChE inhibitor velnacrine (ii) increased with PMA in absence and presence of ACh and (iii) decreased in presence of calpeptin in absence and presence of either chelerythrine or PMA. These results establish dependence between cytoskeleton proteins, PKC activity, band 3 phosphorylation degrees and EEI. Better understanding of those proteins interactions on transduction mechanisms might trigger possible targets for drug action that would modulate EEI. PMID:18503146
de Oliveira, Sofia; Silva-Herdade, Ana S; Saldanha, Carlota
|This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.|
Intracellular polymerization and sickling depend markedly on the cellular concentration of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S). A possible therapeutic strategy for sickle cell disease is based on reducing the cellular concentration of Hb S through prevention of erythrocyte dehydration. The K-Cl cotransporter is a major determinant of sickle cell dehydration and is inhibited by increasing erythrocyte Mg content. We studied 10 patients with sickle cell disease before treatment and after 2 and 4 wk of treatment with oral Mg supplements (0.6 meq/kg/d Mg pidolate). Hematological parameters, erythrocyte Na, K, and Mg content, erythrocyte density, membrane transport of Na and K, and osmotic gradient ektacytometry were measured. We found significant increases in sickle erythrocyte Mg and K content and reduction in the number of dense sickle erythrocytes. Erythrocyte K-Cl cotransport was reduced significantly. We also observed a significant reduction in the absolute reticulocyte count and in the number of immature reticulocytes. Ektacytometric analysis showed changes indicative of improved hydration of the erythrocytes. There were no laboratory or clinical signs of hypermagnesemia. Mild, transient diarrhea was the only reported side effect. We conclude that oral Mg supplementation reduces the number of dense erythrocytes and improves the erythrocyte membrane transport abnormalities of patients with sickle cell disease.
De Franceschi, L; Bachir, D; Galacteros, F; Tchernia, G; Cynober, T; Alper, S; Platt, O; Beuzard, Y; Brugnara, C
|Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)|
In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.
|Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of
In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.
Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, email@example.com
Eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes, is characterised by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes are recognised by macrophages, which engulf and degrade the affected cells. Reported triggers of eryptosis include osmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion, ceramide, prostaglandin E(2), platelet activating factor, hemolysin, listeriolysin, paclitaxel, chlorpromazine, cyclosporine, methylglyoxal, amyloid peptides, anandamide, Bay-5884, curcumin, valinomycin, aluminium, mercury, lead and copper. Diseases associated with accelerated eryptosis include sepsis, malaria, sickle-cell anemia, beta-thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficiency, phosphate depletion, iron deficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome and Wilsons disease. Eryptosis may be inhibited by erythropoietin, adenosine, catecholamines, nitric oxide (NO) and activation of G-kinase. Most triggers of eryptosis except oxidative stress are effective without activation of caspases. Their signalling involves formation of prostaglandin E(2) with subsequent activation of cation channels and Ca2+ entry and/or release of platelet activating factor (PAF) with subsequent activation of sphingomyelinase and formation of ceramide. Ca2+ and ceramide stimulate scrambling of the cell membrane. Ca2+ further activates Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels leading to cellular KCl loss and cell shrinkage and stimulates the protease calpain resulting in degradation of the cytoskeleton. Eryptosis allows defective erythrocytes to escape hemolysis. On the other hand, excessive eryptosis favours the development of anemia. Thus, a delicate balance between proeryptotic and antieryptotic mechanisms is required to maintain an adequate number of circulating erythrocytes and yet avoid noneryptotic death of injured erythrocytes. PMID:18720418
Flow cytometry (FCM) is used with haematology analyzers (HAs) to count cells and differentiate leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To evaluate the FCM techniques of HAs, 10 external DGKL trials with CSF controls were carried out in 2004 to 2008. Eight single platform HAs with and without CSF equipment were evaluated with living blood leukocytes and erythrocytes in CSF like DGKL controls: Coulter (LH750,755), Abbott CD3200, CD3500, CD3700, CD4000, Sapphire, ADVIA 120(R) CSF assay, and Sysmex XE-2100(R). Results were compared with visual counting of native cells in Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber, unstained, and absolute values of leukocyte differentiation, assayed by dual platform analysis with immune-FCM (FACSCalibur, CD45, CD14) and the chamber counts. Reference values X were compared with HA values Y by statistical evaluation with Passing/Bablock (P/B) linear regression analysis to reveal conformity of both methods. The HAs, studied, produced no valid results with DGKL CSF controls, because P/B regression revealed no conformity with the reference values due to:-blank problems with impedance analysis,-leukocyte loss with preanalytical erythrocyte lysis procedures, especially of monocytes,-inaccurate results with ADVIA cell sphering and cell differentiation with algorithms and enzyme activities (e.g., peroxidase). HA techniques have to be improved, e.g., using no erythrocyte lysis and CSF adequate techniques, to examine CSF samples precise and accurate. PMID:19526484
Kleine, Tilmann O; Nebe, C Thomas; Löwer, Christa; Lehmitz, Reinhard; Kruse, Rolf; Geilenkeuser, Wolf-Jochen; Dorn-Beineke, Alexandra
The scattering characteristics of erythrocytes (the coefficients of extinction, scattering, absorption and indicatrixes) were calculated with using the theory Mie for spherical homogeneous spherical particles and the theory for two-layered spherical concentric particles. Transmission spectrums were measured with the spectrophotometer Cary500 in the wavelength range 460-860 n m. Specimens of liquid for imbedding of erythrocytes were preparing by mixing blood plasma a nd 50-% glucose solution with the different concentrations. The volume concentrations (hematocrit) of red blood cells (RBC) were maintained to have the same values in all specimens by adding equal volume of whole blood to immersion liquid of equal volumes. It has been shown that, contrary to theretical prediction, transmission is decreasing for all wavelengths with the addition of glucose solution in interval glucose volume concentrations 0.05 - 0.35-0.4. The subsequent increase of the glucose concentration leads to increasing of spectral transmission as a result of erythrocyte hemolysis.
The excessive production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with the pathology of blood-stage malaria and phosphatidylinositol-containing phospholipid antigens from parasitized erythrocytes stimulate its secretion by macrophages, thus acting as toxins. This brief report describes some properties of an inhibitor present in lysates from erythrocytes infected with malarial parasites that blocked the detection of recombinant TNF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and diminished or abolished the cytotoxicity of TNF. It was not found in control lysates of normal erythrocytes. Its addition to macrophage cultures stimulated by toxic malarial preparations or by bacterial lipopolysaccharide also blocked the detection of TNF. These findings may explain the contradictory results obtained from different assays for TNF, and emphasize the need for caution when interpreting the results of a single assay system. If released when parasitized erythrocytes rupture in vivo, the inhibitor could help protect both parasite and host from the damaging effects of TNF.
Sheikh, N A; Caro, H N; Taverne, J; Playfair, J H; Rademacher, T W
The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety of long-term dietary curcumin at doses 0.5 and 1 % in Anabas testudineus employing hematological and cytological techniques. The fish were fed with curcumin-supplemented feed for 6 months. Fine blood smears were prepared and subjected to three different staining techniques. The erythrocyte micronucleus frequency (MN) and the cytometric measurements of erythrocytes were determined. Blood from the control and treated fish was subjected to the assessment of several hematological parameters. Also, DNA fragmentation assay on hepatocytes was conducted. The results showed that hemoglobin content, RBC count and hematocrit increased in the curcumin-fed fish compared to control, whereas WBC count, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were unaffected. WBC/RBC ratio was lower in the case of curcumin-treated fish. The cytometric measurements revealed no change in the erythrocytes and their nuclei after curcumin treatment. DNA fragmentation assay revealed intact DNA in curcumin-fed group, ruling out the possibility of curcumin-induced DNA damage. The positive control group showed a significant increase in MN frequency compared to negative control and curcumin-fed groups. In fact, the MN frequency decreased in 1 % curcumin-fed group compared to the negative control and 0.5 % curcumin groups. All these indicated a state of well-being of the curcumin-treated fish. Therefore, it is concluded that curcumin could be used as a safe feed ingredient to improve the growth of finfish in aquaculture. PMID:23515757
The results of sending specimens through a computerized pneumatic airtransport system and manually delivering specimens were compared for 15 chemical tests and six hematologic procedures. All specimens were collected from inpatients and outpatients into evacuated glass containers. The specimens traversed a maximum of 829 feet (253 meters) involving 16 bends and eight transfer units at 25 feet/second (7.6 meters/second). Only the activity of lactate dehydrogenase exceeded the precision of the test in pneumatically transported specimens. Ruptured erythrocytes in incompletely filled vacuum tubes were the likely source of the increased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Neither the serum sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, total protein, albumin, calcium, glucose, creatinine, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, acid phosphatase, uric acid, leukocyte count, erythrocytecount, hemoglobin, hematocrit, nor the prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were affected by pneumatic transport. It is concluded that the pneumatic system tested provides a safe, efficient method of transporting the blood specimens tested. PMID:707406
Weaver, D K; Miller, D; Leventhal, E A; Tropeano, V
Young adult chimpanzees immunized with human blood products produced circulating antibodies which reacted with human red cells of a certain proportion of chimpanzees. In addition, agglutinins were formed which reacted with the animals' own erythrocytes. That these agglutinins were true autoantibodies was demonstrated by: (a) their ability to sensitize the animals' own erythrocytes at 37°C both in vivo and in intro; (b) the iso-specificity which they displayed toward other chimpanzee red cells; and (c) the fact that they belonged to the ?G-class of immunoglobulins. Complement appeared to be bound to the in vivo sensitized cells but no evidence of increased cell destruction was observed. It seemed most likely that these autoagglutinins were produced as a result of active immunization with closely related antigens.
Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.
ALTHOUGH Loehr et al.1 described in 1959 that adenosine triphosphate content (ATP) in erythrocytes decreased gradually during their life-span of 120 days on the average in blood vessels and suggested that the drop of the ATP-level caused destruction of erythrocytes in vivo, no concrete evidence for this theory has yet been presented.
Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...
Erythrocyte types were studied in portal and femoral veins blood in intact dog and in the experimental portal hypertension under scanning electron microscope. Three basic types (discoid, polygonal and spherocyte) were distinguished. Analysis of the material obtained confirmed the suggestion on the existence of stable erythrocyte types both in normal conditions and pathology. Content of these types in blood of vessels named is different. Inferior caval vein system is inaccessible for erythrocytes with significantly altered shape because they are unable to penetrate liver sinusoids. In portal hypertension essential increase of these erythrocytes number occurs and they are encountered in femoral vein blood. These forms obviously pass into the general blood flow through multiple collaterals. One of the criteria for portal hypertension diagnostics is suggested so as the method of evaluating portal vein shunts in conditions of the formed collateral blood stream. PMID:9244552
Ga?voronski?, I V; Chepur, S V; Nichiporuk, G I; Tikhonova, L P
As erythrocyte-derived extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) gains recognition as a key vasodilator, its accurate determination is critical. Erythrocytes' high hemoglobin content can act as an inner filter when measuring ATP concentrations by chemiluminescence. We evaluated two approaches to correct for this matrix effect: addition of cell-free hemoglobin to the ATP standards and standard addition of ATP to erythrocyte suspensions. In addition, we reduced sample hematocrit to minimize the absorbance. We conclude that extracellular ATP should be determined in erythrocyte suspensions at 0.06 to 0.004% hematocrit. This gives robust signals without matrix effects and requires only microliters of blood. PMID:23376575
The article considers the noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes and formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic-thrombocytic aggregates and some particular indicators of hemostasis system. The speckle-analysis of characteristics of coherent light dispersion from surface of erythrocytes moving in artificially isolated vessel section. The study established high correlation ratio between light dispersion index and spontaneous ADP-, adrenalin- and collagen-induced aggregation of thrombocytes, formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic and thrombocytic-erythrocytic aggregations. The established facts permits to consider that analysis noninvasive technique makes it possible to estimate approximately the aggregation activity of blood corpuscles. PMID:23984549
Kuznik, B I; Fa?n, I A; Kaminski?, A V; Maksimova, O G; Kustovskaia, E M; Bogdanova, Iu V; Zhdanovich, N G; Rodnina, O S; Khasanova, N V
Exchangeable erythrocytic zinc is measured by65Zn uptake in and release from erythrocytes under standarized and near, physiological conditions: 7.6 ?M zinc and 580 ?M albumin in the medium. The intracellular exchangeable erythrocytic zinc pool in healthy volunteers amounts to 5 ?mol zinc\\/L\\u000a packed cells. The half-time of the exchange is 7 h, its activation energy 84 kJ\\/mol. The effects of
JACOBUS P. VAIl WOUWE; Marcel Veldhuizen; Jeroen J. M. De Goeij; Cornelis J. A. Van den Hamer
Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs) and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Bloodcounts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure.
AIM: This study aims to evaluate the relation of erythrocyte indices and serum iron level with clinical and histopathological progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: Eighty newly diagnosed OSCC patients recruited for the study were divided according to tumor size int three groups. Erythrocyte indices (e.g., hemoglobin [Hb], red blood cell [RBC] count, packed cell volume [PCV]) and serum iron level (S.Fe) were evaluated with normal reference values, control subject, primary tumor size and histopathological grading. Correlation of Hb to S.Fe was also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that 56.36, 61.81, and 83.63% of males and 76, 32, and 88% of female patients were anemic in terms of Hb%, RBC count and PCV respectively, whereas the remainding indices and S.Fe were within normal range (P < 0.05). Percent Hb, RBC count and PCV gradually decreased with increasing tumor size and histopathological grading (P > 0.05). Moderate to weak correlation was observed between Hb and S.Fe (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor-induced hemolysis appeared to be responsible for anemia in OSCC and its severity increased with the progression of tumor. Moderate to weak correlation exists between Hb and S.Fe probably owing to the dual requirement of iron for bone marrow and the tumor. PMID:23255422
Anees Ahmed, Riyaz Ahmed; Ganvir, Sindhu M; Hazarey, Vinay K
Background: In hemodialysis patients, plasma levels of total homocysteine are influenced by nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease .To investigate the association between serum homocysteine (Hcy) level as a marker of nutritional status and WBC counts as a marker of inflammation, a cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis
Fructans are dietary fibers with beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal physiology and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some metabolic disorders associated with obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies were developed to test the safety of fructans obtained from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Additionally, an in vivo experiment using a diet-induced obesity model was performed to compare the effect of agave fructans with different degree of polymerization (DP) profiles: agave fructans with DP > 10 (LcF), agave FOS with DP < 10 (ScF), and agave fructans with and without demineralization (dTF, TF) versus commercial chicory fructans (OraftiSynergy1) on the body weight change, fat, total cholesterol, triglycerides and count of fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. Results showed that A. tequilana fructans were not mutagenic and were safe even at a dose of 5 g per kg b.w. Obese mice that received ScF showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, fat tissue and total cholesterol without increasing the count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Whereas, obese mice that received LcF and TF showed decreased triglycerides and an increased count of fecal Bifidobacteria. Interestingly, although obese mice that received dTF did not show changes in body weight gain, fat tissue, total cholesterol or triglycerides, they showed an increase in the count of Bifidobacteria. These results demonstrate that both the degree of polymerization and the demineralization process can influence the biological activity of agave fructans. PMID:23759883
Márquez-Aguirre, Ana Laura; Camacho-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Blasco, José Luis; González-Avila, Marisela
Background Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought. They have been detected by molecular detection methods in various countries in Southeast Asia, where they were initially diagnosed by microscopy mainly as Plasmodium malariae and at times, as Plasmodium falciparum. There is a paucity of information on the morphology of P. knowlesi parasites and proportion of each erythrocytic stage in naturally acquired human infections. Therefore, detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics and differential counts of the erythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi parasites in human infections were made, photographs were taken, and morphological features were compared with those of P. malariae and P. falciparum. Methods Thick and thin blood films were made prior to administration of anti-malarial treatment in patients who were subsequently confirmed as having single species knowlesi infections by PCR assays. Giemsa-stained blood films, prepared from 10 randomly selected patients with a parasitaemia ranging from 610 to 236,000 parasites per ?l blood, were examined. Results The P. knowlesi infection was highly synchronous in only one patient, where 97% of the parasites were at the late trophozoite stage. Early, late and mature trophozoites and schizonts were observed in films from all patients except three; where schizonts and early trophozoites were absent in two and one patient, respectively. Gametocytes were observed in four patients, comprising only between 1.2 to 2.8% of infected erythrocytes. The early trophozoites of P. knowlesi morphologically resemble those of P. falciparum. The late and mature trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes appear very similar to those of P. malariae. Careful examinations revealed that some minor morphological differences existed between P. knowlesi and P. malariae. These include trophozoites of knowlesi with double chromatin dots and at times with two or three parasites per erythrocyte and mature schizonts of P. knowlesi having 16 merozoites, compared with 12 for P. malariae. Conclusion Plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans are not highly synchronous. The morphological resemblance of early trophozoites of P. knowlesi to P. falciparum and later erythrocytic stages to P. malariae makes it extremely difficult to identify P. knowlesi infections by microscopy alone.
Infectious processes often modulate the intrinsic properties of vertebrate cells. We studied the modulation of human erythrocyte flicker during the intra-erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using video microscopy imaging and a data analysis system of our design to extract flicker spectra and lateral cell edge undulations of individual erythrocytes at various stages of infection. The total flicker power, the power weighted mean flicker frequency, the mode amplitudes of lateral undulations, and the time correlation of translation mode was quantified by infectious stage and modeled theoretically. Our results suggest that malaria-infected erythrocytes become increasingly more rigid following infection and provide an insight into the modulation of erythrocyte cytoplasmic viscosity by the parasites. These studies of malaria-infected erythrocytes elucidate the kinetics of both membrane and cellular changes that are relevant to blood microcirculation and improve our understanding of the malaria disease process.
Until few years ago, many studies of Alzheimer's disease investigated the effects of this syndrome in the central nervous system. Only recently, the detection of amyloid beta peptide (A?) in the blood has evidenced the necessity to extend studies on extraneuronal cells, particularly on erythrocytes. A? is also present in brain capillaries, where it interacts with the erythrocytes, inducing several metabolic and functional alterations. Recently, functionally active endothelial type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was discovered in human erythrocytes. The goal of the present study was to evidence the effect of A? on erythrocyte eNOS. We found that A? following to 24-h exposure causes a decrease in the immune staining of erythrocyte eNOS. Concurrently, A? alters erythrocyte cell morphology, decreases nitrites and nitrates levels, and affects membrane acetylcholinesterase activity. Propidium, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was able to reverse the effects elicited by A?. These events could contribute to the vascular alterations associated with Alzheimer's disease disease. PMID:22431227
Misiti, Francesco; Carelli-Alinovi, Cristiana; Sampaolese, Beatrice; Giardina, Bruno
The percentage of T1 lymphocytes in the presence of the unchanged content of T2 cells were shown to be decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as compared with apparently healthy donors. In addition, the patients were found to have a significantly reduced quantity of CD80-expressing monocytes, the relative quantities of Th1 and Tc1 cells were directly related to the count of CD80+ monocytes. It is suggested that decreased CD80+ cells is a cause of ineffective antigen presentation that results in a systemic reduction in the count of CD4+ and CD8+ cells producing T1 cytokines and in impairment of an effective specific T1 response. PMID:17419331
Temchura, O V; Seniukov, V V; Pronkina, N V; Romanov, V V; Petrenko, T I; Kozhevnikov, V S
Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that plays a critical role in disorders of erythrocyte function. Sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and banked blood preservation are three conditions where nitric oxide is intimately related to dysfunctional erythrocytes. These conditions are accompanied by hemolysis, thrombosis and vasoocclusion. Our understanding of the interaction between nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and the vasculature is constantly evolving, and by defining this role we can better direct trials aimed at improving the treatments of disorders of erythrocyte function. Here we briefly discuss nitric oxides interaction with hemoglobin through the hypothesis regarding S-nitrosohemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and myoglobin as nitrite reductases. We then review the current understanding of the role of nitric oxide in sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and banked blood, and discuss therapeutics in development to target nitric oxide in the treatment of some of these disorders.
Kahn, Marc J.; Maley, Jason H.; Lasker, George F.; Kadowitz, Philip J.
The aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro the effect of autologous plasma lipoprotein subfractions on erythrocyte tendency to aggregate. Aliquots of human blood samples were enriched or not (control) with their own HDL-C, LDL-C, or VLDL-C fractions obtained from the same batch by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Plasma osmolality and erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI) were determined. Blood aliquots enriched with LDL-C and HDL-C showed significant higher EAI than untreated aliquots, whereas enrichment with VLDL-C does not induce significant EAI changes. For the same range of lipoprotein concentrations expressed as percentage of osmolality variation, the EAI variation was positive and higher in presence of HDL-C than upon enrichment with LDL-C (P < 0.01). Particle size, up to LDL diameter values, seems to reinforce erythrocyte tendency to aggregate at the same plasma osmolality (particle number) range of values.
Saldanha, C.; Loureiro, J.; Moreira, C.; Silva, J. Martins e
Concentrations of magnesium (Mg), total calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) were investigated in plasma (Pl) and erythrocytes (Erc) of venous cord blood of 44 infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs). These same concentrations plus total glycohemoglobin and fructosamine were determined at delivery in a subset of 15 mothers of these infants. Mineral results for IDMs were compared with those for 66 apparently healthy newborns. The duration of gestation in the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.001). After adjustment for gestational age, the mean (+/- SD) differences between groups were significant for birth weight, head circumference, Erc-Mg (1.71 +/- 0.17 for IDMs vs 1.76 +/- 0.15 mmol/L for control subjects), Pl-Ca (1.96 +/- 0.32 vs 2.48 +/- 0.22 mmol/L), Pl-P (1.99 +/- 0.40 vs 1.57 +/- 0.25 mmol/L), and Erc-Cu (10.9 +/- 2.41 vs 12.9 +/- 3.00 mumol/L), but not for Erc-Zn (33.0 +/- 18.3 vs 40.4 +/- 13.6 mumol/L). The variable that best discriminated between the two infant groups after adjustment for gestational age was Pl-Ca. In the 15 mothers, Pl-Mg (0.67 +/- 0.07 mmol/L) and Pl-Ca (1.66 +/- 0.21 mmol/L) concentrations were low, Pl-Zn (9.81 +/- 3.40 mumol/L) was normal, and Pl-Cu (33.5 +/- 10.7 mumol/L) was above normal. Correlations between total glycohemoglobin and mineral values of the mothers or paired IDM mineral values were not significant. The concentration of Pl-Ca was positively correlated with Erc-Cu (P < 0.001) and Pl-Cu (P < 0.05) in the comparison group newborns but not in the IDMs. PMID:1394984
Speich, M; Murat, A; Auget, J L; Bousquet, B; Arnaud, P
The paper presents a technique to automatically detect the working area of peripheral blood smears stained with May-Grünwuald Giemsa. The optimal area is defined as the well spread part of the smear. This zone starts when the erythrocytes stop overlapping (on the body film side) and finishes when the erythrocytes start losing their clear central zone (on the feather edge side). The approach yields a quick detection of this area in images scanned under low magnifying power (immersion objective x 25 or x 16). The algorithm consists of two stages. First, an image analysis procedure using mathematical morphology is applied for extracting the erythrocytes, the centers of erythrocytes and the erythrocytes with center. Second, the number of connected components from the three kinds of particles is counted and the coefficient of spreading rho(s) and the coefficient of overlapping rho(o) are calculated. The data from fourteen smears illustrate how the technique is used and its performance. Colour figures can be viewed on http://www.esacp.org/acp/2003/25-1/angulo.htm. PMID:12590176
The intracellular accumulation of a variety of photosensitizers in human (non-nucleated) and chicken (nucleated) erythrocytes, as well as the photodynamically induced hemolysis were studied using 488 nm laser microirradiation (15 (mu) W, 100X) and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Cells incubated with the negatively charged hydrophilic compounds TPPS4 and Pd-TPPS4 exhibited no significant fluorescence before irradiation, but developed strong fluorescence in the cellular and nuclear membranes following photoinduced membrane damage. In contrast, microirradiation of Photofrin-incubated erythrocytes showed instantaneous fluorescence which decreased due to photodegradation. For the cationic, hydrophilic dye Methylene Blue, significant fluorescence was detected in the nucleus only. Following ALA incubation, large intercellular differences were observed in fluorescence in the red spectral region. These differences are probably due to the differential ability of individual erythrocytes to biosynthesize protoporphyrin IX. Photofrin was the most efficient photosensitizer to induce hemolysis. Higher radiant exposures were required for lysis of nucleated than of human red blood cells, except in the case of Methylene Blue. Irradiation was more efficient for unwashed cell suspensions than for washed suspensions, indicating the non-negligible role of extracellular photosensitizing molecules.
In this experimental study, carp erythrocytes were used as nucleated cell models to test the hypothesis that ultrasound (US) exposure can cause the change in plasma membranes and hemoglobin. To identify target cell damage, we studied hemolysis, osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation of red blood cells and oxidation of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were exposed to 1 MHz continuous-wave US at the intensities of 0.61 to 2.44 W/cm2 for 5 min. These results showed that US sonication at the intensities of 1.90 and 2.44 W/cm2 led to an increase in the degree of hemolysis and, at the highest used intensity (2.44 W/cm2), an increase in osmotic fragility. Ultrasound in all the used intensities induced an increase in lipid peroxidation. The results obtained showed that the level of methemoglobin has a tendency to increase after US exposure. Our results suggest that the changes in biomembranes can be due to inertial cavitation induced by US, but we cannot say which stage of the inertial event causes the damage. PMID:15653240
Milowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa; Lypacewicz, Grazyna; Tymkiewicz, Ryszard; Nowicki, Andrzej
Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator in blood, attenuates acute microvascular permeability increases via receptor S1P1 to stabilize the endothelium. To evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes as an endogenous source of S1P to the regulation of basal permeability, we measured permeability coefficients in intact individually perfused venular microvessels of rat mesentery. This strategy also enabled the contributions of other endogenous S1P sources to be evaluated. Apparent permeability coefficients (PS) to albumin and ?-lactalbumin and the hydraulic conductivity of mesenteric microvessels were measured in the presence or absence of rat erythrocytes or rat erythrocyte-conditioned perfusate. Rat erythrocytes added to the perfusate were the principal source of S1P in these microvessels. Basal PS to albumin was stable and typical of blood-perfused microvessels (mean 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s) when erythrocytes or erythrocyte-conditioned perfusates were present. When they were absent, PS to albumin or ?-lactalbumin increased up to 40-fold (over 10 min). When exogenous S1P was added to perfusates, permeability returned to levels comparable with those seen in the presence of erythrocytes. Addition of SEW 2871, an agonist specific for S1P1, in the absence of red blood cells reduced PSBSA (40-fold reduction) toward basal. The specific S1P1 receptor antagonist (W-146) reversed the stabilizing action of erythrocytes and increased permeability (27-fold increase) in a manner similar to that seen in the absence of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are a primary source of S1P that maintains normal venular microvessel permeability. Absence of erythrocytes or conditioned perfusate in in vivo and in vitro models of endothelial barriers elevates basal permeability.
This study investigated the haematological and blood biochemical characteristics of Glyptosternum maculatum. The haematological and biochemical parameters were measured in 30 adult fish collected from Nyingchi Reach of Yarlung Zangbo River in Tibet. The red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (maxEof and minEof), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin content (MCH), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined. Compared with other Siluriformes fishes, G. maculatum showed similar mean values for Hct, Hb, MCH, and MCHC and had slightly lower RBC and higher MCV. The biochemical parameters were assayed including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride. The result showed that the value of AST in G. maculatum was obviously higher than that in Rhamdia quelen as well as in Silurus merdionalis. PMID:19757131
Following compression to 500 m in a simulated chamber dive, the blood samples of the six divers were all found to contain several types of non-discoid erythrocytes. Compression to this depth induced a pressure stress and sensitisation in a proportion of each divers' erythrocyte population. Long in vitro decompression procedures further stressed these red cells and resulted in additional morphological changes. The formation of stomatocytes was increased by an acidic-buffered fixative, conversely, an alkaline medium caused echinocytosis. Cell counts of each morphological cell type showed that as echinocyte stage III & IV numbers were reduced a simultaneous decrease in mean haemoglobin concentration occurred. Decompressions of blood samples for routine haematology should be at a rate of 3 m/min so as to be completed within four hours from venesection. Hyperbaric exposure time explicitly influence these red cell anomalies and development of a subclinical anaemia. PMID:3105264
The susceptibility of human red blood cells to invasion by Plasmodium falciparum was investigated in microtissue cultures with different populations of erythrocytes containing fetal haemoglobin (HbF). Preferential invasion of HbF-containing erythrocytes was observed with umbilical cord blood. The parasites showed no preference for HbF cells in blood from a subject with hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH). By contrast, a significant preference for HbA-containing erythrocytes was found with blood from young infants. Further experiments demonstrated that falciparum parasites preferentially invade young erythrocytes. This could explain the distribution of parasites found in blood containing HbF, because HbF-containing erythrocytes are younger on average in cord blood, older in the blood of infants, and of the same average age as HbA-containing cells in HPFH. We concluded that the susceptibility of human erythrocytes to invasion by P. falciparum is not correlated with the presence of HbF, but that aging of red cells in vivo decreases their susceptibility to invasion. Semi-quantitative measurements were made of parasite growth in cells containing HbA or HbF. The growth of individual parasites in cells containing HbF was significantly retarded. This might confer a selective advantage on individuals with thalassaemia and sickle cell trait, in which HbF levels are raised in early life.
Erythrocytes can occur in many different shapes. Most of them are pathological and can be involved in diseases such a hemolytic anemia's and sickle cell anemia. Only three kinds of red blood cells are no pathological. Echinocytes, stomatocytes and discocytes can occure in blood stream of healthy organism. The echinocyte-dyscocyte-stomatocyte transformation protects red blood cells from lysis caused by echinocytogenic agents (hypertonic saline, basic pH, vanadate, anionic amphiphiles, ATP depletion etc.) or stomatocytogenic agents (hypotonic saline, acidic pH, cationic amphiphiles etc.). Mechanisms of these transformations can be classified in three group: redistribution of bilayer's lipid, modification Donnan's equilibrium and interaction of band 3 protein with different type of external factors. PMID:20201356
There is evidence that oxidative insult plays a role in the development of acute myocardial infarction. Significance has also been attributed to changes in viscosity of the blood and in the deformability and aggregation of erythrocytes affecting their rheological behavior. In a group of patients with myocardial infarction we found a decreased erythrocyte filtration and an increased blood viscosity with no significant change in plasma viscosity. These changes were accompanied by alterations in the microviscosity of the erythrocyte membrane assessed by measuring the polarization of specific fluorescent molecules. From our data it is evident that there is an increase in the rigidity of the membrane at the lipid/protein boundary, with an associated increase in the fluidity of the deep lipid core of the membrane, while no changes were observed in the dynamic behavior of the membrane proteins. These physico-chemical perturbations in the membrane could be the basis for the decreased filtration of erythrocytes. We found, however, no evidence of lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:8298063
Tozzi-Ciancarelli, M G; Di Massimo, C; Mascioli, A; Tozzi, E; Gallo, P; Fedele, F; Dagianti, A
Oxidative damage induced by free globin chains has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the membrane abnormali- ties observed in a and B thalassemia. We have evaluated transport of Na+ and K+ in erythrocytes of patients with thalassemias as well as in two experimental models that use normal human red blood cells, one for a thalassemia (methylhydrazine treatment, a thalassemia
Oliviero Olivieri; Lucia De Franceschi; Maria D. Capellini; Domenico Girelli; Roberto Corrocher; Carlo Brugnara
...Identification. An erythrocyte sedimentation rate test is a device that measures the length of time required for the red cells in a blood sample to fall a specified distance or a device that measures the degree of sedimentation taking place in a...
The microviscosity and fluidity of erythrocyte ghost membranes from lead workers and control subjects was measured by fluorescence polarisation using the fluorophore, 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Increased lead was associated with a significant decrease in the average microviscosity of resealed and unsealed erythrocyte membranes. Since DPH fluorescence reflects the organisation of lipids in the central core of the membrane, two aspects of phospholipid metabolism were investigated. Phospholipids were extracted from red blood cell ghost membranes and identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The ratio of phosphatidyl choline to phosphatidyl ethanolamine, an established correlate of membrane fluidity, was significantly increased in lead workers. This is attributed to the known increases in red blood cell cholesterol in lead workers and the structural incompatibility of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and cholesterol, which result in a compensatory increase of phosphatidyl choline. Erythrocyte ghost membranes from control subjects were resealed with the intermediates in phospholipid synthesis that increase with a lead inhibited decrease in red blood cell pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase. Membrane fluidity was not modified by incubation with cytidine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, cytidine diphosphate choline, or cytidine diphosphate ethanolamine. Alterations in the microviscosity of the lipid regions of the hydrophobic core of the erythrocyte membrane bilayer and in the phospholipid composition of the membrane may be defects which contribute to the clinical and biochemical instability of the red blood cell on exposure to lead.
Cook, L R; Stohs, S J; Angle, C R; Hickman, T I; Maxell, R C
Microcirculatory disturbances are observed frequently after restoration of the circulation in transplanted organ. The exact mechanisms responsible for impaired microcirculation during reperfusion are unknown. Erythrocyte deformability is an important factor maintaining the microcirculation. Red blood cells (RBC) (diameter 8 ?m) passing through narrow capillaries (diameter 35 ?m) undergo deformation due to shear stress present in the microcirculation. RBC with impaired
The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis.
Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. PMID:20540994
Erythrocyte Nai, Nai\\/Ki and ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive â¸â¶Rb uptake (K transport) were measured in whole blood of 16 normotensive and 19 hypertensive white male subjects, within seconds or minutes after withdrawal of blood. Erythrocyte Nai and Nai\\/Ki were reduced (p less than 0.05), and ouabain-sensitive â¸â¶Rb uptake was increased (p less than 0.01) in hypertensive subjects. In a separate group
Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis. PMID:21301875
Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E
A technique that uses hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes was optimized for the purification of leukocytes from the peripheral blood and anterior kidney (pronephros) of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comparisons of initial blood dilution (1:2, 1:4, and 1:6) and the time of exposure to hypotonic conditions (10, 20, and 40 s) revealed that a dilution of 1:2 provided the most complete
Tawni L. Crippen; Linda M. Bootland; Jo-Ann C. Leong; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Carl B. Schreck; Anthony T. Vella
This study was designed to test the effects of progesterone or GnRH treatment on day 5 post-AI on fertility and luteal function in dairy cows and heifers. Five days after AI, 32 animals were randomly assigned to a control, intravaginal progesterone for 14 days progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) or GnRH treatment group. On days 5, 7, 12, 14, 17 and 19 post-AI, each animal underwent colour Doppler ultrasonography of the corpus luteum and blood samples were collected for cell counts and plasma progesterone determination. Through general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance, significant effects were observed of treatment, parity, inseminating bull, reduced vascularization of the CL and pregnancy on plasma progesterone concentrations, whereas mean plasma progesterone and time luteal phase day, and treatment and plasma progesterone concentration on day 5 post-AI were found to, respectively, affect neutrophil and lymphocyte counts throughout the luteal phase. Moreover, two binary logistic regression analyses were performed. Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of pregnancy by days 26-32 post-AI was 23.4 times higher in animals with high mean progesterone levels throughout the study period, compared with animals with low mean progesterone. The likelihood of reduced CL vascularization was 14 times higher in animals treated with PRID, compared with control and GnRH-treated animals. In conclusion, our results indicate that treatment on day 5 post-AI with PRID reduced subsequent CL vascularization, whereas GnRH treatment increased plasma progesterone concentrations on day 12 post-AI, although an effect was identified of the inseminating bull on plasma progesterone levels. Pregnant animals showed higher mean plasma progesterone concentrations than in nonpregnant ones and heifers higher than in lactating cows, whereas blood cell counts differed depending on the treatment and on the mean plasma progesterone concentration on day 5 post-AI. PMID:21729177
Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients increase erythrocyte susceptibility to hemolysis and impair cell survival. We explored whether electrolyte-reduced water (ERW) could palliate HD-evoked erythrocyte impairment and anemia. Forty-three patients undergoing chronic HD were enrolled and received ERW administration for 6 month. We evaluated oxidative stress in blood and plasma, erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHb)\\/ferricyanide reductase activity, plasma metHb, and proinflammatory cytokines in the
K-C Huang; C-C Yang; S-P Hsu; K-T Lee; H-W Liu; S Morisawa; K Otsubo; C-T Chien
Incubation of blood from deoxycorticosterone-treated, adrenalectomized dogs with glucose, 22NaCl, and cortisol, added in vitro, revealed log dose-related acceleration of sodium influx, of glucose utilization, and of lactate formation by cortisol in concentrations between 150 and 1000 µg/liter. Addition of 2-deoxyglucose, or preincubation of the blood until blood glucose concentration had fallen below 2.0 mg per 100 ml, reduced or abolished the acceleratory action of added cortisol on sodium influx but had no effect on sodium influx in the absence of added cortisol. Cortisol did not change the ATP or ATPase content of erythrocytes, or the metabolism of glucose via the pentose phosphate pathway, or the rate of efflux of 22Na from the erythrocytes. The acceleratory actions of cortisol on sodium, influx, glucose utilization, and lactate formation were significantly correlated. Cortisol (1000 µg/liter) enhanced sodium influx by approximately 8.7 mmole per liter erythrocytes per hour for each 1 mmole cortisol-induced increment in ATP production. It is concluded that sodium influx in canine erythrocytes comprises a passive component, unchanged by cellular metabolism, and a second component which is accelerated and inhibited in proportion to prevailing plasma concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone, and which (for cortisol) depends upon accelerated ATP production via glycolysis. These steroid actions probably result from effects on enzyme activity rather than on new enzyme induction.
Microcirculatory disturbances are observed frequently after restoration of the circulation in transplanted organ. The exact mechanisms responsible for impaired microcirculation during reperfusion are unknown. Erythrocyte deformability is an important factor maintaining the microcirculation. Red blood cells (RBC) (diameter 8 microm) passing through narrow capillaries (diameter 3-5 microm) undergo deformation due to shear stress present in the microcirculation. RBC with impaired deformability may even plug the capillaries. Immediately after completion a vascular anastomosis and restoration of blood circulation in the transplanted organ, RBC may be intimately exposed to the preservation solution. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the preservation solution on deformability of RBC. Blood from five healthy volunteers was withdrawn by venipuncture from an antecubital vein. EDTA was used as an anticoagulant. RBC were isolated by 10-minute centrifugation (2500 rpm) to separate serum and buffy coat. RBC washed in normal saline were resuspended in autologous plasma, Bretschneider's histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) or University of Wisconsin solution (UW) at an hematocrit of 20% for incubation at room temperature. After 30 minutes RBC deformability was measured using the shear stress diffractometer Rheodyn SSD to calculate the elongation indexes of RBC at various shear stresses. HTK caused a decrease in the deformability indices of erythrocytes at shear stresses from 0.3 to 1.2 Pa. Erythrocytes incubated with UW solution revealed a decrease in deformability index at all investigated shear stresses. HTK causes less deterioration of erythrocyte deformability compared to UW solution. PMID:14529876
A technique for estimating the total viable count of microorganisms in the infected dental pulp is described. The count obtainable using blood agar, tomato juice agar, or Sabouraud's agar solid media is about 106 per tooth. Anaerobes are more numerous than aerobes counted on the blood agar plates. It may be possible to apply this technique for evaluating the efficacy
Carbohydrate counting is a practical meal planning strategy that provides opportunity for variety in meals and snacks for people with diabetes.This method of meal planning allows teenagers to participate in the daily activities that are an important part of life without sacrificing blood glucose control. The teaching tool is designed to be used in follow-up medical nutrition sessions as opposed
The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy? individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocyticstage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy? donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria.
Molina, Douglas M.; Finney, Olivia C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing
Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Erthyrocytes can form cytoplasmatic bridged connecting with each other individual cells or a great number of cells into a conglomerate. The cytoplasmatic bridges--is a peculiar form of existance of erythrocytes which differ from the forms described earlier: thorm-like (spheroechinocytes) and myelino-like forms having nothing in common with the mechanism of agglutination. The cytoplasmatic bridges of erythrocytes were found in man, dogs and guinea-pigs irrespective of a disease or conditions of an experiment, i.e. they may be referred to as a common biological system. The cytoplasmatic bridges may desintegrate, i.e. to be subjected to reverse development, which in a overwhelming majority of cases, as well as their formation, does not effect materiality the size and form of red corpuscles. Erythrocytes are united by means of cytoplasmatic bridges only with erthrocytes (predominantly with young ones) and never with any other cells of the blood. PMID:1131068
Krymdki?, L D; Nesta?ko, G V; Rybalov, A G; Shanoian, S A
In the paper we studied effects of osmotic modification of red blood cells on bioimpedance parameters of erythrocyte suspension. The Cole parameters: the extracellular (Re) and intracellular (Ri) fluid resistance, the Alpha parameter, the characteristic frequency (Fchar) and the cell membranes capacitance (Cm) of concentrated erythrocyte suspensions were measured by bioimpedance analyser in the frequency range 5 - 500 kHz. Erythrocytes were incubated in hypo-, hyper- and isoosmotic solutions to achieve changes in cell volume. It was found that Re and Alpha increased in the suspensions with low osmolarity and decreased in the hypertonic suspensions. Ri, Fchar and Cm were higher in the hyperosmotic and were lower in the hypoosmotic suspensions. Correlations of all BIS parameters with MCV were obtained, but multiple regression analysis showed that only Alpha parameter was independently related to MCV (?=0.77, p=0.01). Thus Alpha parameter may be related the mean corpuscular volume of cells.
Melnikov, A. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.
The nucleotide content (ATP, ADP, AMP) of deglycerolized and resuspended erythrocytes, previously frozen with glycerol and the slow freeze technic and processed by the centrifuguation and agglomeration methods, was measured for a three-week post-thaw inte...
F. J. Lionetti C. R. Valeri J. C. Bond C. Kivowitz E. Weinman
Summary Background The prevalence of hypertension is growing at an alarming rate. Increasing attention is being focussed on the oxidative stress accompanying this disease. In this study we examined the impact of this disease on some parameters of erythrocytes and human blood plasma. Material/Methods We examined the impact of hypertension on some parameters of erythrocytes and human plasma. The study involved 13 patients with hypertension and 19 healthy subjects. We determined lipid peroxidation, SH groups concentration, antioxidants enzymes activity, ATPase activity, total antioxidant capacity, total cholesterol level and erythrocyte membrane fluidity. Results We found an increased level of lipid peroxidation and the concentration of SH groups in membrane proteins in patients with hypertension, and a decrease in the activity of catalase and superoxide dysmutase. No changes were observed in glutathione peroxidase and ATPase activity, level of total antioxidant capacity, total cholesterol level and fluidity of erythrocyte membranes. Conclusions These results suggest the existence of an impaired oxidative balance in hypertensive human erythrocytes.
The aim of the study was to estimate the changes caused by oxidative stress in structure and function of membrane of erythrocytes from patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study involved 85 patients with MS before pharmacological treatment and 75 healthy volunteers as a control group. Cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, glutathione level (GSH), and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes were investigated. The damage to erythrocyte proteins was also indicated by means of activity of ATPase (total and Na(+),K(+) ATPase) and thiol group level. The membrane fluidity of erythrocytes was estimated by the fluorescent method. The cholesterol concentration and the level of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher, whereas the concentration of proteins thiol groups decreased in the patient group. ATPase and GSH peroxidase activities diminished compared to those in the control group. There were no differences in either catalase or superoxide dismutase activities. The membrane fluidity was lower in erythrocytes from patients with MS than in the ones from control group. These results show changes in red blood cells of patients with MS as a consequence of a higher concentration of cholesterol in the membrane and an increased oxidative stress. PMID:23516039
Ziobro, A; Duchnowicz, P; Mulik, A; Koter-Michalak, M; Broncel, M
Background. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory biomediator, and age-related increases in IL-6 levels are associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, disability, and mortality in older adults. Although white blood cells (WBC), or leukocytes, are known to produce IL-6 in vitro, their in vivo relationship with circulating IL-6 levels is not well established. Methods. In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Women's
Sean Leng; Qian-Li Xue; Yi Huang; Richard Semba; Paulo Chaves; Karen Bandeen-Roche; Linda Fried; Jeremy Walston
Reference counting is a pervasive resource management idiom where each resource contains a count of the number of clients that hold a reference to it, and each client increments (resp., de cre- ments) the count on acquiring (resp., releasing) the resour ce. If the reference count falls to zero, the system can reclaim the res ource. Reference counting is often
Reference counting is a widely-used resource management idiom which maintains a count of references to each resource by incrementing the count upon an acquisition, and decrementing upon a release; resources whose counts fall to zero may be recycled. We present an algorithm to verify the correctness of reference counting with minimal user interaction. Our algorithm performs com- positional verification through
Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Eddie Kohler; Rupak Majumdar
Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...
Recent studies of acute erythroleukemias have reaffirmed DiGuglielmo's syndrome (M6a, myeloblast-predominant) and disease (M6b, pronormoblast-predominant). M6c (mixed myeloblast/pronormoblast) has also been described. However, MDS is still defined according to the percentage of myeloblasts (% myeloblasts) without including the pronormoblast count. A 20-year retrospective study was performed to identify cases demonstrating >or=50% erythrocytic component and <30% calculated blasts (FAB exclusion criteria) without underlying cause (96 cases). Pronormoblast and myeloblast counts and other variables were analyzed as possible explanatory variables of the variations in survival. Considered alone, increasing % myeloblasts and/or percentage of pronormoblasts (% pronormoblasts) were significant predictors of decreasing survival. When all variables were considered as a multivariate group, the best fitting statistical model for predicting survival was a function of age, % pronormoblasts, IPSS cytopenias, platelet count, and percentage erythrocytic component. Of these, % pronormoblasts was by far the most significant. Nonappearance of % myeloblasts in this model is indicative of high correlations of this count with other variables. PMID:16755568
Mazzella, Fermina M; Smith, David; Horn, Paul; Cotelingam, James D; Rector, James T; Shrit, M Atef; Pesce, Amadeo; Schumacher, Harold R
The biomechanics of erythrocytes, determined by the membrane integrity and cytoskeletal structure, provides critical information on diseases such as diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and sickle cell anemia. Here we demonstrate a simple microfluidic tool for examining erythrocyte fragility based on characterizing osmotic lysis kinetics. Hydrodynamic focusing is used for generating rapid dilution of the buffer and producing lysis of erythrocytes during their flow. The lysis kinetics are tracked by monitoring the release of intracellular contents from cells via recording the light intensity of erythrocytes at various locations in the channel. Such release profile reflects sensitively the changes in erythrocyte fragility induced by chemical, heating, and glucose treatment. Our tool provides a simple approach for probing red blood cell fragility in both basic research and clinical settings. PMID:23047457
...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...
...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...
...platelet counting is a device that resembles platelets in plasma or whole blood and that is used to set a platelet counting instrument. It is a suspension of particles or cells whose size, shape concentration, and other...
The effects of free fatty acids in the blood on osmotic fragility and water content of erythrocytes when combined with hyperthermia were investigated. The isotonic buffer, containing the fatty acid, was added to the erythrocyte suspension to a final concentration of 200?M\\/L. The samples were kept for one hour in an incubator at 37 °C or 42 °C. The osmotic
...circulating blood volume. Blood volume measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of shock, hemorrhage, and polycythemia vera (a disease characterized by an absolute increase in erythrocyte mass and total blood volume). (b)...
The effect of fetal anaemia on the total and differential leucocyte counts was studied by examining blood samples obtained by cordocentesis from 177 previously untransfused rhesus affected fetuses at 17-36 weeks' gestation. The mean fetal total leucocyte, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts were significantly lower than the corresponding values in normal controls and there were significant associations between the decrease in
N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; P N Noble; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides
Complement-containing immune complexes can be presented to phagocytes by human erythrocytes bearing complement receptor 1 (CR1). Although this has long been assumed to be a mechanism by which humans are able to protect themselves from extracellular bacteria such as pneumococci, there is little direct evidence. In these studies we have investigated this question by comparing results for erythrocytes from transgenic mice expressing human CR1 on their erythrocytes to the results for wild-type mouse erythrocytes that do not express CR1. We demonstrate that human CR1 expression on murine erythrocytes allows immune adherence to beads opsonized with either mouse or human serum as a source of complement. The role of CR1 in immune adherence was supported by studies showing that it was blocked by the addition of antibody to human CR1. Furthermore, human CR1 expression enhances the immune adherence of opsonized pneumococci to erythrocytes in vitro, and the pneumococci attached to erythrocytes via CR1 can be transferred in vitro to live macrophages. Even more importantly, we observed that if complement-opsonized pneumococci are injected intravenously with CR1+ mouse erythrocytes into wild-type mice (after a short in vitro incubation), they are cleared faster than opsonized pneumococci similarly injected with wild-type mouse erythrocytes. Finally, we have shown that the intravenous (i.v.) injection of pneumococci into CR1+ mice also results in more rapid blood clearance than in wild-type mice. These data support that immune adherence via CR1 on erythrocytes likely plays an important role in the clearance of opsonized bacteria from human blood.
Li, Jie; Wang, Jennifer P.; Ghiran, Ionita; Cerny, Anna; Szalai, Alexander J.; Briles, David E.; Finberg, Robert W.
Plasmodium falciparum is a highly lethal malaria parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is dedicated to invading and multiplying inside erythrocytes. The molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion are incompletely understood. P. falciparum depends heavily on sialic acid present on glycophorins to invade erythrocytes. However, a significant proportion of laboratory and field isolates are also able to invade erythrocytes in a sialic acid-independent manner. The identity of the erythrocyte sialic acid-independent receptor has been a mystery for decades. We report here that the complement receptor 1 (CR1) is a sialic acid-independent receptor for the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum. We show that soluble CR1 (sCR1) as well as polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against CR1 inhibit sialic acid-independent invasion in a variety of laboratory strains and wild isolates, and that merozoites interact directly with CR1 on the erythrocyte surface and with sCR1-coated microspheres. Also, the invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes correlates with the level of CR1 expression. Finally, both sialic acid-independent and dependent strains invade CR1 transgenic mouse erythrocytes preferentially over wild-type erythrocytes but invasion by the latter is more sensitive to neuraminidase. These results suggest that both sialic acid-dependent and independent strains interact with CR1 in the normal red cell during the invasion process. However, only sialic acid-independent strains can do so without the presence of glycophorin sialic acid. Our results close a longstanding and important gap in the understanding of the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum that will eventually make possible the development of an effective blood stage vaccine.
Spadafora, Carmenza; Czege, Jozsef; Moch, J. Kathleen; Finberg, Robert W.; Tsokos, George C.; Stoute, Jose A.
In human erythrocytes, the turnover rate of phosphatidic acid phosphorus is between .00005 and .003 m moles per hour per L of red blood cells. Incorporation of orthophosphate P32 into erythrocyte phosphatidic acid varies with the intracellular concentrati...
Sequestration, the adherence of infected erythrocytes containing late developmental stages of the parasite (trophozoites and schizonts) to the endothelium of capillaries and venules, is characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections. We have studied two host factors, the spleen and antibody, that influence sequestration of P. falciparum in the squirrel monkey. Sequestration of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes that occurs in intact animals is reduced in splenectomized animals; in vitro, when infected blood is incubated with monolayers of human melanoma cells, trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes from intact animals but not from splenectomized animals bind to the melanoma cells. The switch in cytoadherence characteristics of the infected erythrocytes from nonbinding to binding occurs with a cloned parasite. Immune serum can inhibit and reverse in vitro binding to melanoma cells of infected erythrocytes from intact animals. Similarly, antibody can reverse in vivo sequestration as shown by the appearance of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of an intact animal after inoculation with immune serum. These results indicate that the spleen modulates the expression of parasite alterations of the infected erythrocyte membrane responsible for sequestration and suggest that the prevention and reversal of sequestration could be one of the effector mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated protection against P. falciparum malaria.
David, Peter H.; Hommel, Marcel; Miller, Louis H.; Udeinya, Iroka J.; Oligino, Lynette D.
In this article magnetic measurements were made on human erythrocytes at different hemoglobin states (normal and reduced hemoglobin). Different blood samples: normal, beta thalassemia major, and sickle were studied. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples were taken from patients receiving lifelong blood transfusion treatment. All samples examined exhibited diamagnetic behavior. Beta thalassemia major and sickle samples showed higher diamagnetic susceptibilities than that for the normal, which was attributed to the increase of membrane to hemoglobin volume ratio of the abnormal cells. Magnetic measurements showed that the erythrocytes in the reduced state showed less diamagnetic response in comparison with erythrocytes in the normal state. Analysis of the paramagnetic component of magnetization curves gave an effective magnetic moment of ?eff=7.6 ?B per reduced hemoglobin molecule. The same procedure was applied to sickle and beta thalassemia major samples and values for ?eff were found to be comparable to that of the normal erythrocytes.
Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum Rlow were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum Rlow was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies.
Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P.
Study of the clinical hemograms of 73 sooty mangabeys and 18 baboons was carried out. The baboon erythrocyte was slightly larger and had more hemoglobin/cell. The hematocrit and MCHC were nearly identical. The WBC counts of the mangabeys were 3,000 cells/...
In this competitive binding assay to measure endogenous binding capacity for cyclosporine (CsA) in erythrocyte lysates, a fixed amount of (/sup 3/H)CsA plus various concentrations of unlabeled CsA is incubated with aliquots of a test hemolysate. Free CsA is then adsorbed onto charcoal and removed by centrifugation; CsA complexed with a cyclosporine-binding protein (CsBP) remains in the supernate. We confirmed the validity of this charcoal-separation mode of binding analysis by comparison with equilibrium dialysis. Scatchard plot analysis of the results at 4 degrees C yielded a straight line with slope corresponding to a binding constant of 1.9 X 10(7) L/mol and a saturation capacity of approximately 4 mumol per liter of packed erythrocytes. Similar analysis of binding data at 24 degrees C and 37 degrees C showed that the binding constant decreased with increasing temperature, but the saturation capacity did not change. CsBP was not membrane bound but appeared to be freely distributed within erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-labeled CsA did not complex with the erythrocyte CsBP. Several antibiotics and other drugs did not inhibit binding between CsA and CsBP. These findings may explain the temperature-dependent uptake of CsA by erythrocytes in whole blood and suggest that measurement of CsBP in erythrocytes or lymphocytes may help predict therapeutic response or toxicity after administration of CsA.
: The erythrocyte size and osmotic fragility were studied in blood samples from adult (n= 40) and juvenile (n= 40) specimens of Iguana iguana. In fresh preparations the erythrocytes were large, oval cells. The largest diameters were 17.06 ± 2.5 mm (juvenile) and 16.20\\u000a ± 1.25 mm (adults), and the smallest diameters were 8.23 ± 1.87 mm (juvenile) and 9.00
J. C. Troiano; J. C. Vidal; E. Uriarte; E. F. Gould; J. A. Gould; J. Heker; C. Simoncini; G. Tapia
Clinical and biochemical data are presented on an Italian patient with adenylosuccinase deficiency of both erythrocytes and mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes. The erythrocyte enzyme showed normal substrate affinity, but decreased thermal stability. The patient displayed an anomalous response to an intravenous fructose tolerance test with a rise in plasma [Mg2+] and [K+] and a drop in plasma levels of inorganic phosphate, glucose, urate and succinylnucleosides upon fructose injection. PMID:8598641
The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and total erythrocyte protoporphyrin, measured as free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), was determined in 194 adult subjects with different occupational and non-occupational lead exposures. Furthermore, the ZPP-FEP comparison was considered with respect to the dose-effect relationship of ZPP and FEP with blood lead (PbB) for males and females, respectively. Bilirubin (Bil.) interferences in ZPP analysis
A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.
Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))
The relationship between the malaria parasite and the host erythrocyte, and the fine structure of the malaria parasite and the host erythrocyte were studied by various microscopic techniques. The techniques used included freeze etching, carbon replication...
Some cases with cerebral infarction were treated by He-Ne laser irradiation on blood. In the treatment before and after, membrane-cholesterol(C)/membrane-phosphatide(P), membrane fluidity(F) and deformability of erythrocyte were determined. The results showed that low level laser irradiation on blood (LLLIB) can sure reduce the ratio of (C)/(P), can heighten fluidity and improve deformability of erythrocyte .Thus the metabolism ability of erythrocyte membrane-lipid ,the blood circulation and the properties of hemorheology can be improved. In this paper, the microscopic mechanism of those aforesaid action effects by low level laser irradiation on blood were analyzed by means of Quantum theory and some corresponding models.
Pyridoxal kinase has been purified 50, 000-fold from human erythrocytes. The purification procedure included dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells, ammonium sulphate fractionation of the haemolysate, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, hydroxyapatite chromatography, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and u-aminooctyl agarose chromatography. The enzyme preparation migrated as a single protein and activity band on analytical gel electrophoresis. Determination of the Michaelis constants for pyridoxal,
Whole blood was heated for twenty minutes at 40°C., 45°C., 50°C., and 55°C. Changes in the osmotic resistance of the heat-exposed cells were then determined. The values obtained were plotted as lysis increments. This treatment revealed groups of cells of varying heat sensitivity. After heating to 50°C., cell groups were therefore prepared by partitioning cells between layers of a mixture of methyl- and butyl-phthalates of known densities. Three cell groups enriched in either oldest cells, cell fragments, or cell fragments and youngest cells were obtained. These groups subjected to serialosmotic lysis tests revealed that the densest, i.e., oldest fraction, had least thermal resistance. Fractionation and osmotic resistance studies provided clear evidence of some thermal damage to erythrocytes of median age, i.e., cells which would normally be expected to remain in the circulation for another two months. Some of the possible implications are discussed.