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Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstom, M.A. (New England Medical Center, Boston, MA); Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.



Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.



[Effect of thymus extract TFX (Polfa) on hemoglobin level and peripheral blood erythrocyte count].  


Calf thymus preparation (TFX-Polfa) was administered + to 25 patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis in the II and III phase of the disease. Only patients not tolerating gold or D-penicillamine because of allergy or other complications, were included into the study. TFX was administered in a daily dose of 10 mg TFX protein i.m. for 60 consecutive days, followed by the treatment in outpatient clinic for successive++ 10 months. Statistically significant increase in the hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte counts was produced by both a 2-month intensive treatment and a 12-month of therapy with TFX. PMID:2277791

Lewandowicz, J


Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.



Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 ± 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 ± 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 ± 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 ± 0.5 and 15.8 ± 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial–venous (a–v) O2 difference (r2 = 0.89–0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules.

Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus



Erythrocyte and blood antibacterial defense  

PubMed Central

It is an axiom that blood cellular immunity is provided by leukocytes. As to erythrocytes, it is generally accepted that their main function is respiration. Our research provides objective video and photo evidence regarding erythrocyte bactericidal function. Phase-contrast immersion vital microscopy of the blood of patients with bacteremia was performed, and the process of bacteria entrapping and killing by erythrocytes was shot by means of video camera. Video evidence demonstrates that human erythrocytes take active part in blood bactericidal action and can repeatedly engulf and kill bacteria of different species and size. Erythrocytes are extremely important integral part of human blood cellular immunity. Compared with phagocytic leukocytes, the erythrocytes: a) are more numerous; b) are able to entrap and kill microorganisms repeatedly without being injured; c) are more resistant to infection and better withstand the attacks of pathogens; d) have longer life span and are produced faster; e) are inauspicious media for proliferation of microbes and do not support replication of chlamidiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, viruses, etc.; and f) are more effective and uncompromised bacterial killers. Blood cellular immunity theory and traditional view regarding the function of erythrocytes in human blood should be revised.



White blood cell count  

Microsoft Academic Search

An association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has been previously observed. However, the relationship between WBC count and CHD mortality independent of cigarette smoking and the possible interaction between WBC count and smoking remains unclear. We examined the association between WBC count and CHD mortality with Cox regression analyses of data from

David W Brown; Wayne H Giles; Janet B Croft



Peripheral blood leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in tularemia caused by the type B strain of francisella tularensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The behavior of leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in tularemia caused by Type B ofFrancisella tularensis was analyzed in different clinical forms and severities of disease in 101 adult tularemia patients. The mean leukocyte count was 8.3×109\\/l and the leukocyte differential count was also usually normal. The behavior of leukocytes was similar in different clinical

H. Syrjälä



Complete blood count - series (image)  


... of blood cells. It can reflect acute or chronic infection, allergies, and problems with clotting. The CBC test isolates and counts the 7 types of cells found in the blood: neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, red blood cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet.


White Blood Cell Counting System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter...



Complete Blood Count  


... the three major types of cells in the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Why It's ... an infection, or has unexplained bruising or bleeding. Red blood cells: The CBC's measurements of red blood cell ( ...


Low white blood cell count and cancer  


... kill them. It is called a low white blood cell count, or neutropenia, when a person has too few ... a microliter of blood has a low white blood cell count. If the white blood cell count is very ...


Influence of styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was studied the influence of F, Sbt, Sil, Sbo monomer and homodimer Dst-5, Dst-10, Dbt-5, Dbt-10, Dil-10, Dbo-10 styryl dyes on blood erythrocytes of white rats. It was shown that the homodimer styryl dyes Dst-5, Dbt-5 and Dbo-10 decrease the erythrocytes quantity by 1.5-2 times more as compared with monomer dyes Sbt and Sbo. The main cause of dyes different action is the different oxidation degree of intracellular hemoglobin evoked by these dyes. It was established that the observed effects was connected with different penetration of these dyes through membrane of erythrocytes and with interaction of these dyes with albumin localized in membranes of cells.

Nizomov, Negmat; Barakaeva, Mubaro; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Rahimov, Sherzod I.; Khakimova, Dilorom P.; Khodjayev, Gayrat; Yashchuk, Valeriy N.



The Picture of Inflammation: A New Concept That Combines the White Blood Cell Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate into a New Hematologic Diagnostic Modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians who work in small clinics, far away from medical centers, cannot obtain relevant information regarding the acute phase response at low cost and real time. Methods: We adopted a simple slide test and image analysis to determine the number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, their degree of adhesiveness\\/aggregation as well as that of the red

Rivka Rotstein; Renato Fusman; David Zeltser; Itzhak Shapira; Esther Shabtai; Dani Avitzour; Nicole Sadees; David Levartovsky; Nadir Arber; Amiram Eldor; Shlomo Berliner



White blood cell counting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.



Influence of counting methodology on erythrocyte ratios in the mouse micronucleus test.  


The mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test is widely used to investigate the potential interaction of a test substance with chromosomes or mitotic apparatus of replicating erythroblasts. In addition to the primary endpoint, micronucleated erythrocyte frequency, the proportion of immature erythrocytes is measured to assess the influence of treatment on erythropoiesis. The guideline recommendation for an acceptable limit of the immature erythrocyte fraction of not < 20% of the controls was based on traditional scoring methods that consider RNA content. Flow-based sample analysis (e.g., MicroFlow®) characterizes a subpopulation of RNA-containing reticulocytes (RETs) based on CD71 (transferrin receptor) expression. As CD71+ cells represent a younger cohort of RETs, we hypothesized that this subpopulation may be more responsive than the RNA+ fraction for acute exposures. This study evaluated RET population in the peripheral blood of two strains of mice treated by oral gavage with three clastogens (cyclophosphamide, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, and methyl methanesulfonate). Although CD71+ frequencies correlated with RNA-based counts, the relative treatment-related reductions were substantially greater. Accordingly, when using the flow cytometry-based CD71+ values for scoring RETs in an acute treatment design, it is suggested that a target value ? 5% CD71+ reticulocytes (i.e., 95% depression in reticulocytes proportion) be considered as acceptable for a valid assay. PMID:23224994

LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Torous, Dorothea K; Dertinger, Stephen D; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar



Investigation of erythrocyte aggregation and blood sedimentation by optical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blood sedimentation process is studied by means of the imaging system. This method allows to investigate the blood sediment behavior in whole sample. The blood was taken from healthy donors. From the normal and glutaraldehyde hardened erythrocytes the blood samples of three haematocrits (5%, 40%, 60%) in autologous plasma and dextran were prepared. Phases of the blood sediment that appear in the course of the process were recognized. We have shown that this method permits the analysis of traces of settling aggregates. Especially it is shown that the method can be useful in the study of the influence of cellular as well as plasmatic factors on erythrocyte aggregation and blood sedimentation.

Kempczy?ski, A.; Grzegorzewski, B.



Evaluation of an automatic platelet counting system utilizing whole blood  

PubMed Central

Technicon's newly developed platelet AutoCounter utilizes an electro-optical system which detects and counts particles by sensing the scattering of light which occurs when blood cells flow through the illuminated sensing chamber of a micro-optical system. The system utilizes whole blood collected into EDTA. Blood samples, which can be handled at the rate of 40 per hour, are diluted with 2M urea which in addition causes lysis of the erythrocytes. The haemolysate thus obtained is delivered to the particle counter after a two-minute reaction time, the cell count finally being displayed on a continuous chart recorder. An evaluation of this machine has been carried out in the Department of Haematology, the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, on hospital specimens from patients suffering from a wide variety of diseases. The results of this evaluation are presented. Reproducibility studies indicate a coefficient of variation of 4% at any platelet level. The percentage drift per sample ranges from +0·4 to ?0·4% of the total count. Carry-over and departures from linearity are statistically significant; however, the magnitude of these deviations is not sufficient to cause concern in routine use. Acceptable agreement is noted between machine counts and the counts obtained by technicians using phase-contrast microscopy with the exception of two anomalous individuals. Discrepant counts were noted in patients with elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and also in patients with disturbance of immunoglobulins. A modification to the sampling probe which eliminates the former problem is described. The AutoCounter described in this paper provides a fast, reliable, and accurate service laboratory platelet counting system. Images

Rowan, R. M.; Allan, W.; Prescott, R. J.



Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers  

PubMed Central

Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n?=?3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at baseline examination, 1992–4. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured from digitized retinal photographs using a validated semi-automated computer program. Results All analyses adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and fellow vessel caliber. Higher hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were associated with narrower arteriolar caliber (p?=?0.02, 0.03 and 0.001 respectively), while higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count, white cell count and platelet count were associated with wider venular caliber (p<0.0001 for all). Each quintile increase in hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count was associated with approximately 0.5 µm narrower arteriolar caliber; whereas each quintile increase in all of the complete blood count components was associated with approximately 1–2 µm wider venular caliber. Conclusions These associations show that elevated levels of hematological indices can have adverse effects on the microcirculation.

Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul



Sequence Variants in Three Loci Influence Monocyte Counts and Erythrocyte Volume  

PubMed Central

Blood cells participate in vital physiological processes, and their numbers are tightly regulated so that homeostasis is maintained. Disruption of key regulatory mechanisms underlies many blood-related Mendelian diseases but also contributes to more common disorders, including atherosclerosis. We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for hematology traits through a whole-genome association study, because these could provide new insights into both hemopoeitic and disease mechanisms. We tested 1.8 million variants for association with 13 hematology traits measured in 6015 individuals from the Australian and Dutch populations. These traits included hemoglobin composition, platelet counts, and red blood cell and white blood cell indices. We identified three regions of strong association that, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in the literature. The first was located in an intergenic region of chromosome 9q31 near LPAR1, explaining 1.5% of the variation in monocyte counts (best SNP rs7023923, p = 8.9 × 10?14). The second locus was located on chromosome 6p21 and associated with mean cell erythrocyte volume (rs12661667, p = 1.2 × 10?9, 0.7% variance explained) in a region that spanned five genes, including CCND3, a member of the D-cyclin gene family that is involved in hematopoietic stem cell expansion. The third region was also associated with erythrocyte volume and was located in an intergenic region on chromosome 6q24 (rs592423, p = 5.3 × 10?9, 0.6% variance explained). All three loci replicated in an independent panel of 1543 individuals (p values = 0.001, 9.9 × 10?5, and 7 × 10?5, respectively). The identification of these QTL provides new opportunities for furthering our understanding of the mechanisms regulating hemopoietic cell fate.

Ferreira, Manuel A.R.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Warrington, Nicole M.; Medland, Sarah E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Lawrence, Robert W.; Gordon, Scott; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Megan J.; Wallace, Leanne; Evans, David M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; James, Alan L.; Beilby, John P.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Frazer, Ian H.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.



Counting white blood cells using morphological granulometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modification of the mixture proportion estimation algorithm based on the granulometric mixing theorem. The modified algorithm is applied to the problem of counting different types of white blood cells in bone marrow images. In principle, the algorithm can be used to count the proportion of cells in each class without explicitly segmenting and classifying them. The direct

Nipon Theera-Umpon; Paul D. Gader



Increased reticulocyte count from cord blood samples using hypotonic lysis.  


Human reticulocytes are one of the fundamental components needed to study the in vitro invasion processes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Additionally examinations of reticulocytes and their binding proteins are difficult in areas of the world that do not have access to advanced equipment or stem cell lines. These issues are particularly relevant to malaria vaccine candidate studies that are directed against surface proteins that the parasites use to gain entry into erythrocytes. Described here is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the reticulocyte count of cord blood samples. Exposure of cord blood to hypotonic saline (0.2%) for 5 min selectively lyses the non-reticulocytes resulting in an average 3.6-fold increase in reticulocyte count. Our studies show that this enrichment process does not damage the hemoglobin of the remaining erythrocytes which are still capable of supporting Plasmodium falciparum invasion and growth. This economical and rapid method of enrichment could facilitate studies of in vitro laboratory culturing of other malaria parasite species which preferentially invade reticulocytes such as P. vivax. PMID:22841523

Grimberg, Brian T; Scheetz, Emily A; Erickson, John J; Bales, Jacquelyn M; David, Makindi; Daum-Woods, Kathleen; King, Christopher L; Zimmerman, Peter A



Effect of Telfairia occidentalis on erythrocyte indices of rats following acute blood loss.  


Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is popularly used in soup and folk medicine preparation in the management of various diseases such as diabetics, anaemia, and gastrointestinal disorders in Nigeria. This study sought to investigate the effect of orally administered aqueous extract of T. occidentalis leaf on some erythrocyte indices in albino rats of the Wistar strain following acute blood loss. Thirty rats were divided into 6 equal groups. Blood loss (haemorrhagic anaemia) was induced by bleeding 30% of the blood volume of rats through the retro-orbital venus plexus in 3 groups (IV-VI). Group I served as the normal control. 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract were administered orally, once daily to Groups II and III respectively, for 28 days. Group IV served as the bled control. Groups V and VI were bled animals to which 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract was administered orally, once daily respectively, for 28 days. On the 29th day, the rats (fasted overnight) were sacrificed by decapitation and blood was collected through the retro-orbital venus plexus and used for assessment of some erythrocyte indices: red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, white blood cell count, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and erythrocyte osmofragility. Telfairia occidentalis noticeable increased the red blood cell count of the treated bled rats with 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract to give 11.90 x 10(12)/L and 11.91 x 10(12)/L respectively when compared to the bled control (10.85 x 10(12)/L), P<0.05). The 20mg/day T. occidentalis treated group showed increase in MCV (43.98fl) when compared to the bled control (39.56fl). Erythrocyte osmofragility which was decreased in the bled control was further decreased noticeably by the 20mg T. occidentalis treated group. The improved erythrocyte indices, at 20mg/day of extract, and reduced erythrocyte osmofragility are indications oferythropoietic potential of T. occidentalis. PMID:22416653

Odede, T A; Ikusagba, B; Odetola, A A



Isolation of Fetal DNA from Nucleated Erythrocytes in Maternal Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. We used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TfR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 121\\/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a

Diana W. Bianchi; Alan F. Flint; Mary Frances Pizzimenti; Joan H. M. Knoll; Samuel A. Latt



The influence of different erythrocyte lysing procedures on flow cytometric determination of CD34+ cells in umbilical cord blood transplants.  


Since the correct determination of CD34+ cells is of great clinical importance for successful transplantation with haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from cord blood, we investigated the influence of different erythrocyte lysing techniques on the quantification of CD34+ cells in umbilical cord blood. Flow cytometric determinations of CD34+ cells were performed from 20 cord blood samples, using three different erythrocyte lysing procedures and two monoclonal CD34 antibodies (n = 360). Flow cytometric analysis showed characteristic patterns of the forward (FSC) and side (SSC) scatter light properties for the leucocyte subsets for each of the investigated erythrocyte lysing procedures, indicating that these reagents cause different morphological changes on leucocytes. Furthermore, significant differences of CD34+ cell counts were obtained for identical samples using different lysing techniques (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002). In some cases, a more than 100% difference was found comparing different erythrocyte lysing procedures. In contrast, the determination of CD34+ cells by two CD34 antibodies showed a good reproducibility without significant differences between both antibodies for each of the erythrocyte lysing techniques. We conclude that the erythrocyte lysing procedure represents a very critical and important step for accurate determination of CD34+ cells in whole blood samples. Especially for the quantification of HPCs in cord blood transplants, this influence may be of high clinical relevance. PMID:9675787

Cassens, U; Gutensohn, K; Garritsen, H; Kelsch, R; Kuehnl, P; Sibrowski, W



Elemental concentrations in human erythrocytes and blood plasma following radiotherapeutic irradiation.  


Elemental concentrations in whole blood samples from irradiated mice were found [1] to change uncorrelated with the depression of red blood cell count. The aim of the present work was to clear up whether or not similar effects appear in the case of human radiotherapeutic irradiations. Concentration ratios were taken for erythrocyte and plasma fractions with the proton induced X-ray emission method for the elements P, K, Ca, Fe, Zn in the case of patients undergoing postoperative gamma irradiation following mastectomy. None of the concentration ratios were found to be influenced under the present conditions of irradiation. PMID:7164130

Pintye, E; Dézsi, Z; Miltényi, L; Kiss, I; Koltay, E; Szabó, G; László, S



Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed Central

More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DEAE-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I-activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to -dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the -i determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides.

Feizi, T; Childs, R A; Hakomori, S I; Powell, M E



Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality.

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus



A rapid high-precision flow cytometry based technique for total white blood cell counting in chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automated analysis of total white blood cell count and white blood cell differentials is routine in research and clinical diagnosis in mammalian species. In contrast, in avian haematology these parameters are still estimated by conventional microscopic procedures due to technical difficulties associated with the morphological peculiarities of avian erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Both cell types are nucleated and fairly resistant

Christian Seliger; Beatrice Schaerer; Marina Kohn; Helene Pendl; Steffen Weigend; Bernd Kaspers; Sonja Härtle


Erythrocyte depletion of human umbilical cord blood using dextran sedimentation.  


We report on the results of a study using high molecular weight dextran for depletion of red blood cells (RBCs) from cord blood. Our technique achieved efficient RBC depletion by sedimentation without a significant loss in haemopoietic stem cells. Cord blood units were fractionated for erythrocyte depletion by unit gravity sedimentation in 3 per cent high molecular weight dextran. Dextran sedimentation enabled recovery of more than 80 per cent of the total nucleated cells present and 100 per cent mononuclear cell (MNC) recovery as compared to unfractionated cord blood. A four-fold increase in the colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) number per 2 x 10(5) cells was observed after dextran treatment suggesting that this step also resulted in the enrichment of stem cells. PMID:9248210

Tanavde, V M; Desai, S S; Rao, S G



Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.



Correlation of leucocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate with the day of illness in presumed bacterial pneumonia of childhood.  


We investigated the effect of the duration of illness on the white blood cell (WBC) and total neutrophil counts and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in untreated children with clinical and roentgenographic findings compatible with bacterial pneumonia. According to the duration of illness before admission, the patients were divided into: Group I, 48 patients ill for < 24 h; Group II, 39 patients ill for 24-48 h; Group III, 21 patients ill for 48-72 h; and Group IV, eight patients ill for 72-96 h. In children with presumably bacterial pneumonia the number of the WBC was greater during the first 2 days of illness. Thereafter, the leucocyte count declined, reaching the lowest levels on the fourth day. A similar course was followed by the absolute number of total neutrophils. During the second day of illness, 92% and 72% of the patients had leucocyte counts > 10,000 and > 15,000/mm3, respectively, whereas on the fourth day of illness only half of the patients had > 10,000 and one-quarter > 15,000 WBC/mm3. The ESR followed an opposite course to that of the WBC. During the first day of illness it was normal or mildly elevated, increasing steadily thereafter. The validity of the WBC and total neutrophil counts in conjunction with the ESR in the evaluation of bacterial pneumonia is augmented when the day of illness is taken into consideration. PMID:9515671

Triga, M G; Syrogiannopoulos, G A; Thoma, K D; Fezoulidis, I B; Pastromas, V G; Beratis, N G



Elimination of Young Erythrocytes from Blood Circulation and Altered Erythropoietic Patterns during Paraquat Induced Anemic Phase in Mice  

PubMed Central

Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice.

Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K.



Elimination of Young Erythrocytes from Blood Circulation and Altered Erythropoietic Patterns during Paraquat Induced Anemic Phase in Mice.  


Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice. PMID:24945144

Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K



A mathematical model for concentration of blood affecting erythrocyte sedimentation.  


The rate at which red blood cells fall in vitro is used as a common clinical test for a number of pathological conditions. But this test becomes unreliable when one finds flaws in the model under consideration and these doubts raise the issue of aggregation of the red blood cells in concentration whose mathematical analysis is relatively unknown. However Huang et al. (Biorheology 8, 157-163, 1971) made some efforts and their model resembles certain moving boundary problems. In the present work the modifications to this model have been suggested so far as the concentration of the blood is concerned, it being one of the important factors to decide ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate). In the equation for nutrient concentration, to be more realistic, we have taken account of transfer of nutrient to the tissue from the blood. The exact solution has been obtained using Laplace transform. A finite element technique has been suggested which provides results closer to that of the exact solution. Our results for the blood concentration may be useful for conducting the ESR tests. A special case for an emergent patient when nutrient concentration falls down considerably and glucose is provided to improve the condition, has been shown graphically. PMID:8654050

Sharma, G C; Jain, M; Saral, R N



Isolation of fetal DNA from nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood  

SciTech Connect

Fetal nucleated cells within maternal blood represent a potential source of fetal genes obtainable by venipuncture. The authors used monoclonal antibody against the transferrin receptor (TIR) to identify nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Candidate fetal cells from 19 pregnancies were isolated by flow sorting at 12 1/2-17 weeks gestation. The DNA in these cells was amplified for a 222-base-pair (bp) sequence present on the short arm of the Y chromosome as proof that the cells were derived from the fetus. The amplified DNA was compared with standardized DNA concentrations. In the case of the female fetus, DNA prepared from samples at 32 weeks of gestation and cord blood at delivery also showed the presence of the Y chromosomal sequence, suggesting Y sequence mosaicism or translocation. In 10/12 cases where the 222-bp band was absent, the fetuses were female. Thus, they were successful in detecting the Y chromosomal sequence in 75% of the male-bearing pregnancies, demonstrating that it is possible to isolate fetal gene sequences from cells in maternal blood. Further refinement in methodology should increase sensitivity and facilitate noninvasive screening for fetal gene mutations.

Bianchi, D.W.; Knoll, J.H.M. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Flint, A.F. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (USA)); Pizzimenti, M.F. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Latt, S.A. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))



Components of the Complete Blood Count as Risk Predictors for Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid



Are Placental Chorionic Capillary Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts Useful Compared to Umbilical Cord Blood Tests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare measurement of fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in paired histologic samples of the placenta and umbilical cord bloods. Method: Forty-five randomly selected pregnancies had two determinations of the NRBC count. A sample of umbilical venous blood had a NRBC count measured and sections of the placenta were examined for their villous capillary NRBC counts. Results:

Joan M. McCarthy; Enid Gilbert-Barness; John C. M. Tsibris; William N. Spellacy



Blood count in new onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction - A hypothesis generating study.  


Background & objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies identified high white and red blood cell count as potential risk factors for new onset AF. The objective of this retrospective, nested case-control study was to examine the association of different parameters of the blood count with the development of new onset of AF after AMI. Methods: A total of 66 consecutive patients with new onset AF after AMI and 132 sex and age matched controls were enrolled into the study and analyzed whether parameters of the blood count, including leukocytes, platelets, haemoglobin, haematocrit or erythrocyte count, are associated with the occurrence of AF after AMI. All AMI patients had undergone coronary angiography. Results: Patients with post-AMI AF displayed significantly higher levels of haemoglobin (14.2 g/dl, IQR 12.4-15 vs. 12.9 g/dl, IQR 11.7-13.8; P< 0.001), haematocrit (41.7 %, IQR 36.6-44.3 vs. 38.7 %, IQR 34.7-41.5; P 0.0015), and erythrocyte count (4.6 T/l, IQR 4.1-5 vs. 4.2 T/l, IQR 3.9-4.65; P< 0.001). In the unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis, the blood parameters most strongly associated with the outcome were serum haemoglobin (crude OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40- 3.47, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.71- 8.54, P 0.001) and erythrocyte count (crude OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36-3.22, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.73- 8.33, P 0.001), whereas haematocrit did not reach statistical significance. Interpretation & conclusions: This study shows a significant independent association between serum haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count and occurrence of AF after AMI. However, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these associations and its potential clinical applicability need to be further elucidated. PMID:24927345

Distelmaier, Klaus; Maurer, Gerald; Goliasch, Georg



Blood count in new onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction - A hypothesis generating study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies identified high white and red blood cell count as potential risk factors for new onset AF. The objective of this retrospective, nested case-control study was to examine the association of different parameters of the blood count with the development of new onset of AF after AMI. Methods: A total of 66 consecutive patients with new onset AF after AMI and 132 sex and age matched controls were enrolled into the study and analyzed whether parameters of the blood count, including leukocytes, platelets, haemoglobin, haematocrit or erythrocyte count, are associated with the occurrence of AF after AMI. All AMI patients had undergone coronary angiography. Results: Patients with post-AMI AF displayed significantly higher levels of haemoglobin (14.2 g/dl, IQR 12.4-15 vs. 12.9 g/dl, IQR 11.7-13.8; P< 0.001), haematocrit (41.7 %, IQR 36.6-44.3 vs. 38.7 %, IQR 34.7-41.5; P 0.0015), and erythrocyte count (4.6 T/l, IQR 4.1-5 vs. 4.2 T/l, IQR 3.9-4.65; P< 0.001). In the unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis, the blood parameters most strongly associated with the outcome were serum haemoglobin (crude OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40- 3.47, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.71- 8.54, P 0.001) and erythrocyte count (crude OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.36-3.22, P 0.001; adjusted OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.73- 8.33, P 0.001), whereas haematocrit did not reach statistical significance. Interpretation & conclusions: This study shows a significant independent association between serum haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count and occurrence of AF after AMI. However, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying these associations and its potential clinical applicability need to be further elucidated.

Distelmaier, Klaus; Maurer, Gerald; Goliasch, Georg



Automated counting of nucleated red blood cells in blood samples of newborns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) in blood samples interfere with the white blood cell (WBC) count on many types of automated haematology analysers. This makes it necessary to correct the WBC count by counting NRBC microscopically. This report describes the evaluation of two analysers, the Cell-Dyn 4000 and the Sysmex XE-2100, which use new techniques to recognize and enumerate

M. H. De Keijzer; W. Van Der Meer



Erythrocyte, Plasma and Blood Volume of Healthy Young Men. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insufficient data are readily available concerning the vascular fluid volumes of healthy young men. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a normative database for the erythrocyte volume, plasma volume, and blood volume of healthy young men. The...

M. N. Sawka A. J. Young K. B. Pandolf R. C. Dennis C. R. Valeri



Significance of Maternal and Cord Blood Nucleated Red Blood Cell Count in Pregnancies Complicated by Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preeclampsia on the cord blood and maternal NRBC count and to correlate NRBC count and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia and control groups. Study Design. This is a prospective case control observational study. Patients and Methods. Maternal and cord blood NRBC counts were studied in 50 preeclamptic women and 50 healthy pregnant women. Using automated cell counter total leucocyte count was obtained and peripheral smear was prepared to obtain NRBC count. Corrected WBC count and NRBC count/100 leucocytes in maternal venous blood and in cord blood were compared between the 2 groups. Results. No significant differences were found in corrected WBC count in maternal and cord blood in cases and controls. Significant differences were found in mean cord blood NRBC count in preeclampsia and control groups (40.0 ± 85.1 and 5.9 ± 6.3, P = 0.006). The mean maternal NRBC count in two groups was 2.4 ± 9.0 and 0.8 ± 1.5, respectively (P = 0.214). Cord blood NRBC count cut off value ?13 could rule out adverse neonatal outcome with a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 89%. Conclusion. Cord blood NRBC are significantly raised in preeclampsia. Neonates with elevated cord blood NRBC counts are more likely to have IUGR, low birth weight, neonatal ICU admission, respiratory distress syndrome, and assisted ventilation. Below the count of 13/100 leucocytes, adverse neonatal outcome is quite less likely.

Misha, Mehak; Rai, Lavanya



[The activity of adenosinetriphosphatase of erythrocytes in peripheral blood of patients with colorectal cancer].  


We studied the activity of whole ATPase, Mg2+ -ATPase and Na+, K+ -ATPase of peripheral blood erythrocytes in 68 patients with colorectal cancer before surgery and immediately after it and found such activity to be reduced. The low activity of Na+, K+ -ATPase of peripheral blood erythrocyte was shown as possible for use in prognosticating acute postoperative erosive-ulcerous lesions of the gastric tunic. Ozone therapy, if undertaken preoperatively, restores the ATPase activity. PMID:15986793

Terekhina, N A; Zitta, D V; Subbotin, V M



Method and Apparatus for Measuring White Blood Cell Count.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for quantitatively measuring white blood cell count involves capture of white blood cells from a fluid sample by a retainer, removal of the red blood cells and other interfering substances by a wash solution, and reading the result of a color rea...

I. Nikolyukin W. T. Law Y. Nikolyukin



High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ribavirin in whole blood to assess disposition in erythrocytes.  


Ribavirin is an antiviral agent used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. One of the limitations associated with the use of ribavirin is a reversible anemia caused by its accumulation in erythrocytes. Therefore, it is of interest to determine ribavirin levels in erythrocytes, as well as in plasma, as these measurements may be predictive of hematotoxicity. In the present study, we describe a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for ribavirin in whole blood to estimate concentrations of free ribavirin and phosphorylated anabolites in erythrocytes. Since ribavirin exists primarily as phosphorylated anabolites (mono-, di-, and triphosphates) in erythrocytes, whole-blood extracts were initially dephosphorylated with acid phosphatase. The enzyme-treated samples were subjected to phenyl boronic acid column extraction for cleanup. The purified fraction was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, which was optimized for determination of ribavirin levels in whole blood. The recoveries of ribavirin from whole blood ranged from 63.1 to 90.7% at concentrations ranging from 1.67 to 40.0 microM. Intra- and interassay variations estimated at these concentrations were 3.2 to 10.4 and 4.7 to 11.7%, respectively. This method was used to quantitate ribavirin in samples both treated and untreated with acid phosphatase to estimate the extent of intracellular phosphorylation in erythrocytes. The method was also used to evaluate the effects of dipyridamole, a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, on ribavirin disposition in erythrocytes in in vitro experiments. PMID:10543752

Homma, M; Jayewardene, A L; Gambertoglio, J; Aweeka, F



Leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as diagnostic factors in febrile convulsion.  


Febrile convulsion (FC) is the most common seizure disorder in childhood. white blood cell (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are commonly measured in FC. Trauma, vomiting and bleeding can also lead to WBC and ESR so the blood tests must carefully be interpreted by the clinician. In this cross sectional study 410 children(163 with FC), aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to Bahrami Children hospital in the first 48 hours of their febrile disease, either with or without seizure, were evaluated over an 18 months period. Age, sex, temperature; history of vomiting, bleeding or trauma; WBC, ESR and hemoglobin were recorded in all children. There was a significant increase of WBC (P<0.001) in children with FC so we can deduct that leukocytosis encountered in children with FC can be due to convulsion in itself. There was no significant difference regarding ESR (P=0.113) between the two groups. In fact, elevated ESR is a result of underlying pathology. In stable patients who don't have any indication of lumbar puncture, there's no need to assess WBC and ESR as an indicator of underlying infection. If the patient is transferred to pediatric ward and still there's no reason to suspect a bacterial infection, there is no need for WBC test. PMID:21960077

Rahbarimanesh, Ali Akbar; Salamati, Peyman; Ashrafi, Mohammadreza; Sadeghi, Manelie; Tavakoli, Javad



Blood flow velocity, erythrocyte deformability and hepatic enzymes in heavy alcohol drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significantly decreased blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries, as well as decreased erythrocyte deformability, was found in heavy alcohol drinkers (Gdovinová 2002). The aim of this study was to determine if there is any correlation between the two. At the same time, the correlation between blood flow velocity and hepatic enzymes was also studied. The study group comprised 30 male

Zuzana Gdovinová



Umbilical cord blood as a replacement source for admission complete blood count in premature infants  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesize that a complete blood count (CBC) with manual differential from umbilical cord blood is equivalent to a CBC with manual differential obtained from the neonate on admission. Study Design A CBC and manual differential was performed on 174 paired umbilical cord blood and admission blood samples from infants <35 weeks gestation. Paired t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were the primary statistical tools used for data analysis. Result Cord and admission blood white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin and platelet count all significantly (P<0.0001) correlated with paired neonatal samples (R = 0.82, 0.72, 0.76). Admission blood WBC count fell within the variation of WBC count values from currently accepted neonatal admission blood sources. Cord blood hemoglobin was not clinically different than admission hemoglobin (1.0 g dl?1). Cord blood platelet counts were not different from admission blood platelet counts (5800 cells per ?l, P = 0.23). The immature to total granulocyte ratio was not different between samples (P = 0.34). Conclusion Umbilical cord blood can be used for admission CBC and differential in premature infants.

Carroll, PD; Nankervis, CA; Iams, J; Kelleher, K



Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  


The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrčre, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N



[Relationships between hemopoiesis and peripheral blood counts in untreated and 32P-treated patients with polycythaemia vera (author's transl)].  


The composition of the hemopoiesis was determined in iliac crest biopsies of 51 patients with polycythaemia vera. There was a good correlation between thrombopoiesis and thrombocytes and, to a minor degree also between erythropoiesis and erythrocytes in untreated patients as well as between granulopoiesis and granulocytes in 32P-treated patients. In patients with normal blood counts there existed no correlation between the bone marrow and the blood counts within smaller limits of the cell count. Histomorphometric analysis shows no difference either between untreated and 32P-treated patients or between patients with and without splenomegaly. This is an argument against a significant intrasplenic hemopoiesis or an intrasplenic cell pooling, or destruction (hypersplenism), respectively. The blood sinusoids are hyperplastic and distended. With increasing hyperplasia of the hemopoiesis the sinusoids become relatively smaller. So changes in vascularisation may be of importance in the infrequent transitions into myelofibrosis and/or leukemia. PMID:966631

Hauswaldt, C; Schröter, C



Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The holographic methods of phase micro-objects visualization (the holographic phase contrast method and the method of holographic interferometry) are considered. Comparative analysis of classical and holographic methods in microscopy of phase micro-objects is carried out. An arrangement of the holographic interference microscope realizing the holographic methods and experimental results of 3-D imaging of native blood erythrocytes are presented. It is shown that 3-D morphology of blood erythrocytes reflects and determines the state of a human organism and those different physical and chemical factors and internal pathologies influence erythrocytes morphology. The holographic interference microscope was used for investigation of ozone therapy influence on human blood erythrocytes. Blood samples of 60 patients of different age with neurosensoric hardness of hearing before and after ozone therapy were investigated. It was shown that all patients have changed erythrocytes mrophology. Ozone therapy treatment results in normalization of erythrocytes morphology of patients.

Tishko, Tatyana V.; Titar, V. P.; Barchotkina, T. M.; Tishko, D. N.



Hematologic variables and venous thrombosis: red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count are associated with an increased risk  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that leukocytes and erythrocytes play a role in coagulation. However, whether leukocytes, erythrocytes and other hematologic variables are associated with risk of venous thrombosis is not well known. To study this, we used data from 2473 patients with venous thrombosis and 2935 controls. The variables assessed were: total leukocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes and red cell indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and red cell distribution width). We found a strong dose-response relation for higher red cell distribution width and monocyte count with risk of venous thrombosis, with odds ratios of 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.0–4.8) and 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–5.8), respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, C-reactive protein level, malignancy and co-morbidities. Monocyte count and red cell distribution width were associated with venous thrombosis even within reference ranges. A low monocyte count (<0.12×109/L) was associated with a lower risk of venous thrombosis after full adjustment (odds ratios 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4–0.8). In summary, high red cell distribution width and blood monocyte count, two parameters that are inexpensive and easily obtainable, were clearly associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Future studies should evaluate the underlying mechanism and the use of these variables in prediction models for first and recurrent thrombosis.

Rezende, Suely Meireles; Lijfering, Willem M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.



The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.



Erythrocyte ghost-mediated gene delivery for prolonged and blood-targeted expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the use of erythrocyte ghosts (EG) as a biocompatible nonviral delivery system for extended circulation and prolonged expression of plasmid DNA in the blood. Murine interleukin-2-expressing plasmid DNA was efficiently loaded to EG by electroporation in hypotonic condition. The presence of plasmid DNA in EG was confirmed by fluorescence-labeled plasmid DNA. At 21 min after intravenous administration

H-M Byun; D Suh; H Yoon; JM Kim; H-G Choi; W-K Kim; JJ Ko; Y-K Oh



An Evaluation of Erythrocytes as Plasma Glutamate Scavengers for Enhanced Brain-to-Blood Glutamate Efflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several acute brain pathological conditions are characterized by the presence of excess glutamate in brain interstitial fluid. We have previously shown that decreasing blood glutamate levels increases the driving force for an enhanced brain-to-blood efflux of glutamate. The present study investigated the glutamate pumping ability of glutamate-depleted erythrocytes both in vitro and in vivo to determine whether the latter could

Yin Wang; Miroslav Gottlieb; Vivian I. Teichberg



An ultrastructural analysis of platelets, erythrocytes, white blood cells, and fibrin network in systemic lupus erythematosus.  


The study suggests that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) present with distinct inflammatory ultrastructural changes such as platelets blebbing, generation of platelet-derived microparticles, spontaneous formation of massive fibrin network and fusion of the erythrocytes membranes. Lupoid platelets actively interact with other inflammatory cells, particularly with white blood cells (WBCs), and the massive fibrin network facilitates such an interaction. It is possible that the concerted actions of platelets, erythrocytes and WBC, caught in the inflammatory fibrin network, predispose to pro-thrombotic states in patients with SLE. PMID:23832292

Pretorius, Etheresia; du Plooy, Jenny; Soma, Prashilla; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri



Blood lead and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase levels in Manchester taxi drivers.  

PubMed Central

Among 40 Manchester taxi drivers the mean blood lead was 1.10 mumol/1 (22.8 mug per 100 ml). The mean erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity among 34 of them was 30.1 units. No significant association was found between the blood lead levels and erythrocyte ALAD activity in these 34 men. No significant association was found between either blood lead elvels or erythrocyte ALAD activity and duration of service or weekly mileage as a taxi driver or with drinking or smoking habits, or age. The mean blood lead of those with homes in the north east quadrant of the city was higher than of those living elsewhere but the difference was not statistically significant. Although there was no correlation between blood lead levels and the source of domestic water, the mean blood lead of those with lead domestic plumbing was appreciably higher than the level of those with copper plumbing. There was no indication that, by virtue of their occupation, the taxi drivers were liable to greater lead absorption than their fellow-citizens.

Flindt, M L; King, E; Walsh, D B



Multiple loci influence erythrocyte phenotypes in the CHARGE Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of erythrocytes within the blood are important clinical traits and can indicate various hematological disorders. We report here genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for six erythrocyte traits, including hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and red blood cell count (RBC). We performed an initial GWAS in cohorts of

Neil A Zakai; Frank J A van Rooij; Nicole Soranzo; Albert V Smith; Michael A Nalls; Ming-Huei Chen; Anna Kottgen; Nicole L Glazer; Abbas Dehghan; Brigitte Kuhnel; Thor Aspelund; Qiong Yang; Toshiko Tanaka; Andrew Jaffe; Joshua C M Bis; Germaine C Verwoert; Alexander Teumer; Caroline S Fox; Jack M Guralnik; Georg B Ehret; Kenneth Rice; Janine F Felix; Augusto Rendon; Gudny Eiriksdottir; Daniel Levy; Kushang V Patel; Eric Boerwinkle; Jerome I Rotter; Albert Hofman; Jennifer G Sambrook; Dena G Hernandez; Gang Zheng; Stefania Bandinelli; Andrew B Singleton; Josef Coresh; Thomas Lumley; André G Uitterlinden; Janine M vanGils; Lenore J Launer; L Adrienne Cupples; Ben A Oostra; Jaap-Jan Zwaginga; Willem H Ouwehand; Swee-Lay Thein; Christa Meisinger; Panos Deloukas; Matthias Nauck; Tim D Spector; Christian Gieger; Vilmundur Gudnason; Cornelia M van Duijn; Bruce M Psaty; Luigi Ferrucci; Aravinda Chakravarti; Andreas Greinacher; Jacqueline C M Witteman; Susan Furth; Mary Cushman; Tamara B Harris; Jing-Ping Lin; Santhi K Ganesh; Christopher J O'Donnell



Determination of topotecan in human whole blood and unwashed erythrocytes by high-performance liquid chromatography.  


A reversed-phase HPLC method for the quantitative determination of total topotecan in human whole blood and unwashed erythrocytes has been developed and validated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy. Linear calibration curves were constructed in the range of 0.20 to 50.0 ng/ml. The sample pre-treatment for whole blood involved a two-step extraction with methanol and perchloric acid. Prior to extraction, erythrocytes were separated from other blood components by centrifugation in MESED instruments. Separations were achieved on an Inertsil ODS-80A analytical column (150x4.6 mm, 5 microm particle size), eluted at 50 degrees C and a flow-rate of 1.00 ml/min, with a mixture of 100 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0)-tetrahydrofuran (94.6:5.4, v/v). Fluorescence detection was performed using excitation and emission wavelengths of 381 and 525 nm, respectively. With the applied method, 80% of topotecan was extracted out of whole blood. The lower limit of quantitation in whole blood was established at 0.20 ng/ml with within-run and between-run precisions, respectively, ranging from 1.7 to 9.3% and 1.5-6.1%, while the accuracy ranged from 100 to 113%. The described method will be used in clinical studies to explore the role of erythrocytes in the overall kinetic behavior of topotecan. PMID:11820300

Loos, Walter J; van Zomeren, Desirée M; Gelderblom, Hans; Verweij, Jaap; Nooter, Kees; Stoter, Gerrit; Sparreboom, Alex



Erythrocyte fraction affects red blood cell thiopurine methyltransferase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red blood cell (RBC) thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) metabolizes the cytotoxic drugs 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine. RBC TPMT activity has been reported to predict clinical outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and in kidney transplant patients.

B. Klemetsdal; R. Lysaa; T. Giverhaug; J. Aarbakke; B. Straume



Blood pressure and erythrocyte Na+ transport systems in a French urban male population.  


This paper reports an investigation of blood pressure (taken as a continuous variable) as a function of: erythrocyte Na+ content; Na+,K+ pump; Na+,K+ cotransport and Na+,Li+ countertransport fluxes, and passive cation permeabilities in fresh erythrocytes from 129 French males who were living in an urban area and were not under treatment for any medical condition (after allowing for the effects of age, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco consumption). In contrast with previous findings in a North American population, we were unable to confirm that blood pressure was correlated with erythrocyte Na+ content and Na+,K+-AT-Pase activity. Conversely, the only transport parameter correlated (negatively) with blood pressure was outward Na+,K+ cotransport [r = -0.20, P less than 0.05 and r = -0.19, P less than 0.05, for systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), respectively; n = 114]. When allowing for age, body mass index and alcohol consumption, the correlation coefficient between the Na+,K+ cotransport system and blood pressure increased from -0.20 to -0.28 (P less than 0.01) for SAP and from -0.19 to -0.28 (P less than 0.01) for DAP (n = 105). We conclude that the correlations between blood pressure and erythrocyte Na+ transport function could differ between North American and French (or Mediterranean) populations. In any case, a decreased pump or outward Na+,K+ cotransport activity may lead hypertensive subjects to a similar increase in cell Na+ (and Ca2+) content in the vascular wall. PMID:3235837

Hannaert, P A; Moreau, T; Huel, G; Orssaud, G; Lellouch, J; Claude, J R; Sahuquillo, J; Garay, R P



Erythrocyte rheology.  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte deformability was formerly measured by its contribution to whole blood viscosity. It is now more commonly measured by filtration of erythrocytes through, or aspiration into, pores of 3-5 microns diameter and by the measurement of shear induced erythrocyte elongation using laser diffractometry. Recent improvements in the technology for erythrocyte filtration have included the removal of acute phase reactants from test erythrocyte suspensions, ultrasonic cleaning and reuse of filter membranes, awareness of the importance of mean cell volume as a determinant of flow through 3 microns diameter pores, and the ability to detect subpopulations of less deformable erythrocytes. Measurements of erythrocyte elongation by laser diffractometry, using the Ektacytometer, are also influenced by cell size and need to be corrected for mean cell volume. These advances have greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity of rheological methods for measuring the deformability of erythrocytes and for investigating the mode of action of rheologically active drugs. Images

Stuart, J



Erythrocyte Lipid Peroxides and Blood Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Acute Undifferentiated Diarrhoea in Calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undifferentiated acute calf diarrhoea is a major concern for the dairy industry and its aetiopathogenesis remains diverse.\\u000a The present study aimed to examine the role of oxidative stress through estimation of erythrocyte lipid peroxide levels and\\u000a blood zinc and copper concentrations using natural cases of diarrhoea in calves aged 15–30 days old. The calves were kept\\u000a under identical managemental conditions

R. Ranjan; R. Naresh; R. C. Patra; D. Swarup



[Standardization of regional cerebral count corrected by equilibrium blood count with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT].  


To standardize the regional cerebral count with 99mTc-HMPAO, equilibrium blood count of which trapping mechanism is the same as the brain was used in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease. We injected 99mTc-HMPAO 740 MBq in 10-15 sec and got sequential arterial sampling in patients who were undertaken with PET. Four hours later 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT was taken and a venous sampling was drawn for determining the equilibrium blood count. Correlation between the area of arterial time activity curve and equilibrium venous blood count was 0.93. After 44 regions (36 in cortical area, 8 in deep area) with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT were placed, SPECT counts were corrected by standardization of equilibrium venous blood count. The correlation between rCBF determined from C15O2 PET and corrected SPECT counts was 0.80 and 0.67, cortical area and deep area, respectively. We concluded that 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT count can be corrected by equilibrium blood count to standardize the regional cerebral counts. PMID:7967196

Tanaka, R; Hayashida, K; Hirose, Y; Ishida, Y; Miyashita, K; Kaminaga, T; Nishimura, T



White blood cells, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in pneumococcal pneumonia in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the applicability of C-reactive protein (CRP), ery- throcyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cell count (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC), in the screening of pneumococcal (PNC) pneumonia in children. In 1981-1982, 161 children were treated for radiologically verified community- acquired pneumonia in the hospital during a period of 12 months. The Streptococcus pneumoniae aetiology of infection was

M. Korppi; T. Heiskanen-Kosma; M. Leinonen



Increased Lipid Peroxidation of Erythrocytes in Blood Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Blood Storage Bags Plasticized with Di[2Ethyl Hexyl] Phthalate and Effect of Antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Previous work in this laboratory has shown significant decrease in vitamin E in erythrocytes in blood stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags plasticized with di-[2-ethyl hexyl] phthalate (DEHP), and in erythrocytes incubated in vitro with DEHP. Since vitamin E is a major antioxidant, a study was carried out to find out whether this decrease observed in vitamin

K. V. Deepa Devi; V. Manoj Kumar; P. Arun; Anitha Santhosh; K. G. Padmakumaran Nair; L. R. Lakshmi; P. A. Kurup




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practicing Counting Count the number of bunnies and match it to the correct number of characters on the right. Click on the correct one. Bunny Count Practice counting by 1 Countin by 1 Practice counting Sea Horses! Counting Sea Horses ...

Person, Ms.



Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns  

SciTech Connect

The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha (USA))



Effect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Blood Cell Count and Red Blood Cell Indice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction induces different effects on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alter RBC indices include MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Thus this study attempted to evaluate effect of hypo & hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods This study performed on 102 patients with hypothyroid (14.1 years), 84 with hyperthyroid (15.6 years) and 118 healthy individuals (15.2 years) as control group. Initially patients TSH level of patients was determined by ELISA method, and then according to TSH ranges (0.3-5.5µIU/mL) patients were divided into two Hyperthyroidism (TSH<0.3µIU/mL) and hypothyroidism (TSH>5.5µIU/mL) groups. Then, complete blood count was measured by cell counter. Finally, obtained results were analyzed by SPSS software. Results Analyzes of obtained data revealed statistically significant difference between two groups of patients in RBC count, MCH, MCHC, RDW, HB and HCT(P-value<0.05), but the difference was not significant for WBC and PLT counts and MCV (P-value>0.05). Conclusion In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones.

Dorgalaleh, A; Mahmoodi, M; Varmaghani, B; Kiani node, F; Saeeidi Kia, O; Alizadeh, Sh; Tabibian, Sh; Bamedi, T; Momeni, M; Abbasian, S; Kashani Khatib, Z



The effect of lead-induced oxidative stress on blood viscosity and rheological properties of erythrocytes in lead exposed humans.  


Lead-induced oxidative stress has been identified as the essential factor in lead poisoning pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the association between occupational lead exposure and blood rheological parameters with respect to malondialdehyde (a lipid peroxidation product), lipofuscin, and glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of lead-zinc works. In brief, 129 workers were classified as the low-exposure group, while the high-exposure group was composed of 154 workers. The mean blood levels of lead and zinc-protoporphyrin and the mean urine concentrations of delta-aminolevulinic acid were used as exposure markers. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male administrative workers. Whole blood viscosity was elevated in both exposure subgroups compared with the control group. Erythrocyte aggregability increased significantly; although the increase was greater in the low exposure group. Erythrocyte deformability decreased in both subgroups. The levels of malondialdehyde and lipofuscin were significantly elevated, whereas the glutathione content decreased. In conclusion, occupational exposure to lead may induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes. This stress elevates whole blood viscosity and disturbs erythrocyte aggregability and deformability. There is a dose-effect relationship between lead levels and blood rheological parameters. PMID:23370159

Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; S?owi?ska-?o?y?ska, Ludmi?a; Dobrakowski, Micha?; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, S?awomir



Development and evaluation of a novel in-clinic automated hematology analyzer, ProCyte Dx, for canine erythrocyte indices, leukogram, platelet counts and reticulocyte counts.  


A novel hematology analyzer for small animal medicine, ProCyte Dx, was developed from combination of the fluorescence laser flow cytometry and laminar flow impedance technologies, and its accuracy was evaluated by comparing with the conventional impedance-based hematology analyzer, pocH-100iV Diff, or microscopic manual cell counting methods with staining blood smears in the canine blood. Blood samples of 59 dogs were hematologically analyzed and compared by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Analyses between the two analyzers showed excellent correlation in RBC (r=0.998), HGB (r=0.999), HCT (r=0.998), MCV (r=0.994), MCH (r=0.974), MCHC (r=0.906), WBC (r=0.998) and PLT (r=0.993). Analyses between ProCyte Dx and microscopic manual counting results showed excellent correlation in neutrophils (r=0.920), lymphocytes (r=0.913) and reticulocyte percentages (r=0.924), good correlation in eosinophils (r=0.815) and reticulocyte numbers (r=0.850) and fair correlation in monocytes (r=0.770). The present study indicates that ProCyte Dx is acceptably accurate and can be a powerful tool for canine clinical medicine. PMID:23811854

Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime



White blood count in patients on regular haemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were compared in patients with chronic renal failure treated successively by conservative means (low-protein diet), regular haemodialysis, and renal allotransplantation. The lowest total white cell and neutrophil counts and the highest lymphocyte counts were found in patients on regular haemodialysis. A rapid fall in neutrophil count during the first half-hour of dialysis and

M. Papadimitriou; L. R. I. Baker; B. Seitanidis; L. H. Sevitt; A. E. Kulatilake



Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in twins.  


We counted nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) per 100 white blood cells (WBC) in the umbilical cord blood from 98 twins born to 49 women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies at > or = 34 weeks of gestation to better characterize NRBC in twins. Twelve women with monochorionic (MC) placentas and 37 with dichorionic (DC) placentas gave birth at 36.7 +/- .9 and 36.5 +/- 2 weeks of gestation, respectively. All twins were born with an Apgar score of > or = 7 at 1 min. Log10 (NRBC/100 BC) in 98 twins exhibited a nearly normal distribution, and was significantly associated with gestational age for both MC (r = -0.457, p = 0.025) and DC twins (r = - 0.275, p = 0.018), and with birth weight for both MC (r = -0.682, p < 0.001) and DC twins (r = -0.336, p = 0.003). Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) tended to be larger in smaller twins than in larger twins in the MC group, and significantly larger in smaller twins than in larger twins in the DC group (p < 0.05). Intertwin difference in Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) was defined as the value of Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) of the smaller twin minus Log10 (NRBC/100 WBC) of the larger twin, and became greater with increasing intertwin difference in birth weight (r = 0.411, p = 0.003). These findings suggest that neonatal NRBC reflected gestational age and birth weight in twins. This preliminary observation using a small number of twins suggests that the smaller twin may have experienced a relative lack of oxygen compared with the larger twin in utero. PMID:11344673

Mori, H; Mori, K; Kojima, Y; Ohkuchi, A; Funamoto, H; Minakami, H; Sato, I; Nakano, T



Racial diversity with high nucleated cell counts and CD34 counts achieved in a national network of cord blood banks.  


Banked, unrelated, partially HLA-matched, umbilical cord blood is an alternative stem cell source for patients in need of transplantation therapy who lack traditionally matched donors. A presumed advantage of cord blood is the ability to increase recruitment of donors of minority ethnic backgrounds. The American Red Cross Cord Blood Program was established in 1999 with 6 banks and 10 collection sites throughout the country. Cord blood donors self-report racial designations on questionnaires, and donor race was collected from each site. Postprocessing nucleated cell counts and CD34(+) counts were obtained on the cord blood units, and results from each racial group (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American) were compared in the natural logarithmic scale by using analysis of variance. A total of 18878 donors consented: 64% white, 16% black, 12% Hispanic, 4% Asian, 1% Native American, and 3% other. The Detroit area consented the highest percentage of black donors (87%), San Diego consented the highest percentage of Hispanic donors (59%), and Oakland consented the highest percentage of Asian donors (15%). Seven thousand eight hundred sixty-six cord blood units have been banked for transplantation. The mean preprocessing nucleated cell count was 1220 x 10(6) (range, 327-7300 x 10(6)). There was no difference among racial groups when controlled for site (P =.395). The mean CD34(+) count was 3.28 x 10(6). Blacks had a significantly lower CD34(+) count than the other racial/ethnic groups in the Midwest, Northwest, and North Carolina collection sites. A racially diverse cord blood bank can be achieved. Nucleated cell counts were similar among the different racial/ethnic groups. CD34(+) counts were lower for blacks in some collection sites. PMID:15077225

Ballen, Karen K; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lane, Thomas A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Miller, John P; Nagan, Denis; Newman, Bruce; Rupp, Neil; Haley, N Rebecca



Biodynamic parameters of micellar diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and blood plasma.  


In this work, we used a preparation of diminazene, which belongs to the group of aromatic diamidines. This compound acts on the causative agents of blood protozoan diseases produced by both flagellated protozoa (Trypanosoma) and members of the class Piroplasmida (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) in various domestic and wild animals, and it is widely used in veterinary medicine. We examined the behavior of water-disperse diminazene (immobilized in Tween 80 micelles) at the cellular and organismal levels. We assessed the interaction of an aqueous and a water-disperse preparation with cells of the reticuloendothelial system. We compared the kinetic parameters of aqueous and water-disperse diminazene in sheep erythrocytes and plasma. The therapeutic properties of these two preparations were also compared. We found that the surface-active substances improved intracellular penetration of the active substance through interaction with the cell membrane. In sheep blood erythrocytes, micellar diminazene accumulated more than its aqueous analog. This form was also more effective therapeutically than the aqueous analog. Our findings demonstrate that use of micellar diminazene allows the injection dose to be reduced by 30%. PMID:22122895

Staroverov, Sergey A; Sidorkin, Vladimir A; Fomin, Alexander S; Shchyogolev, Sergey Yu; Dykman, Lev A




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Beck, Mrs.



Hematologic, Blood Electrolyte and Blood Biochemical Values of Egyptian Domesticated Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin estimations, packed cell volumes, and total and differential leukocyte counts were made on blood samples from 50 donkeys, 50 mules, 50 camels and 50 cattle from Cairo. These same samples were assayed for serum glutamic pyruv...

B. A. M. Bostros A. Y. Awad A. R. Kozman P. K. Hildebrandt R. R. Maronpot



Red blood cell distribution width and erythrocyte deformability in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  


Increased RDW has been found to be a marker of adverse outcomes in cardiovascular disease (CVD), although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Recently, several authors have found that higher RDW is associated with decreased erythrocyte deformability, which can impair blood flow through microcirculation, a fact which may explain the increased risk for CVD events associated with elevated RDW. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between RDW and erythrocyte deformability in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study group comprised 60 AMI patients and 72 gender- and age-matched controls, in whom erythrocyte deformability was determined by means of the elongation index (EI) in a Rheodyn SSD, along with haematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters. Patients showed higher RDW (p = 0.012) and lower EI (p < 0.05) than controls. When anaemic patients were removed from the study, AMI showed still lower EI than controls (p < 0.05), but no differences in RDW were observed (p = 0.141). RDW correlated inversely with haematimetric indices (p < 0.001), but not with inflammatory and biochemical parameters (p > 0.05). EI correlated inversely with Hb, MCHC (p < 0.001) and directly with MCV (p < 0.05). EI also correlated inversely with glucose (p < 0.05) and directly with HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). The multivariate regression model showed that only MCV and Hb were independent predictors of RDW (beta coefficients: -0.383, -0.208; p < 0.001, p = 0.050, respectively). In addition, MCV, MCHC and hyperlipidaemia were independent predictors of EI (beta coefficients: 0.366, -0.533, -0.192; p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.019 respectively). In AMI patients, increased RDW is not related with EI, so this mechanism does not seem to be responsible for an increased CDV risk in these patients. PMID:23752170

Vayá, Amparo; Rivera, Leonor; de la Espriella, Rafael; Sanchez, Fernando; Suescun, Marta; Hernandez, José Luis; Fácila, Lorenzo



Automated Assessment of Erythrocyte Disorders Using Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we employ artificial neural network (ANN) together with image analysis techniques to automate the assessment of erythrocyte disorders using blood parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hgb) level, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). The neural network is trained using 800 blood sample images collected from the Prince George-EC, Hospital. The images are captured using

Saif Zahir; Rejaul Chowdhury; Geoffrey W. Payne



Nucleated red blood cell count in term and preterm newborns: reference values at birth.  


The prognostic value of nucleated red blood cell count at birth in relation to neonatal outcome has been established. However, reference values were needed to usefully interpret this variable. The normal range of reference values for absolute nucleated red blood cell count in 695 preterm and term newborns is reported. PMID:15724047

Perrone, S; Vezzosi, P; Longini, M; Marzocchi, B; Tanganelli, D; Testa, M; Santilli, T; Buonocore, G



Genetic polymorphism of blood groups and erythrocytes enzymes in population groups of the Republic of Macedonia.  


This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje, 95 Aromanians from Krusevo, 102 Aromanians from Stip) were included in the study. A comparison of the obtained results with data from literature on other Balkan populations has been made. The results of the comparison of the studied alleles indicate relatively small genetic distances among the studied populations. The obtained dendrograms indicate a larger homogeneity in the large Balkan populations, and a manifest trend of separating the Aromanian population of the Stip region. A larger separation is characteristic in the Greek population of Thrace. PMID:18356778

Efremovska, Lj; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Gjorgjevic, D; Nikoloska Dadic, E



Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. The WBC count of the DIFF channel was highly correlated with the WBC count of the microscopic reference method (r Ľ 0.99; WBC analyser Ľ 0.870 ? WBC reference method ţ 0.413). In contrast, no agreement existed between WBC counts generated by the WBC\\/BASO channel of the analyser and the reference method (r Ľ 0.52; WBC analyser Ľ 0.008

R. de Jonge; R. Brouwer; M. Smit; R. J. E. M. Dolhain; J. M. W. Hazes; A. W. van Toorenenbergen; J. Lindemans



Quantitative assessment of dielectrophoresis as a micro fluidic retention and separation technique for beads and human blood erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide important quantitative information on particle retention by dielectrophoresis (DEP), we performed systematic quantitative experiments with both, polystyrene beads (with diameters of 500 nm, 2 ?m and 6 ?m) and erythrocytes (red blood cells, diameter approximately 6 ?m) in buffers with various conductivities. We determined the cross-over frequencies for these systems. We demonstrated the retention of beads

Janko Auerswald; Helmut F. Knapp



Prenatal diagnosis from maternal blood: simultaneous immunophenotyping and FISH of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated by negative magnetic cell sorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal nucleated cells in the maternal circulation constitute a potential source of cells for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic abnormalities. We have investigated the use of the Magnetic Activated Cell Sorter (MACS) for enriching fetal nucleated erythrocytes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for CD45 and CD32 were used to deplete leucocytes from maternal blood using MACS sorting, thus enriching

Y L Zheng; N P Carter; C M Price; S M Colman; P J Milton; G A Hackett; M F Greaves; M A Ferguson-Smith



Blood plasma: the inner filter for erythrocytes during UV irradiation of the blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks at paramagnetic centers formed under UV-illumination at 77 K in cells, plasma, and serum of human blood. ESR signals of these centers were separated from complex spectra-superposition with the use of stage heating method and computer analysis of spectra. The differentiation of summary spectra of UV-illuminated blood components in composite signals and study of their features give a ground for understanding of the nature of UV-induced PC that in its turn is necessary for investigation of molecular mechanism of blood photomodification.

Baranova, L. N.; Kholmogorov, V. E.



Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.  


The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%. PMID:21917687

de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L



Umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell counts: normal values and the effect of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To determine the umbilical cord blood nucleated red blood cell (UC-nRBC) count in uncomplicated pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section or delivered vaginally.Methods:A total of 57-term singleton pregnancies were studied: 33 with elective cesarean sections and 24 with vaginal deliveries. UC-nRBC was analyzed for its nucleated red blood cell counts. A logarithmic transformation of the data was used for statistical

J M McCarthy; T Capullari; Z Thompson; Y Zhu; W N Spellacy; Joan McCarthy



DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts.  


Following the bite of an infective mosquito, malaria parasites first invade the liver where they develop and replicate for a number of days before being released into the bloodstream where they invade red blood cells and cause disease. The biology of the liver stages of malaria parasites is relatively poorly understood due to the inaccessibility of the parasites to sampling during this phase of their life cycle. Here we report the detection in blood and faecal samples of malaria parasite DNA throughout their development in the livers of mice and before the parasites begin their growth in the blood circulation. It is shown that parasite DNA derived from pre-erythrocytic stage parasites reaches the faeces via the bile. We then show that different primate malaria species can be detected by PCR in blood and faecal samples from naturally infected captive macaque monkeys. These results demonstrate that pre-erythrocytic parasites can be detected and quantified in experimentally infected animals. Furthermore, these results have important implications for both molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of malaria parasites. In the former case, individuals who are malaria parasite negative by microscopy, but PCR positive for parasite DNA in their blood, are considered to be "sub-microscopic" blood stage parasite carriers. We now propose that PCR positivity is not necessarily an indicator of the presence of blood stage parasites, as the DNA could derive from pre-erythrocytic parasites. Similarly, in the case of molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences alone, we argue that DNA amplified from blood or faeces does not necessarily come from a parasite species that infects the red blood cells of that particular host. PMID:24704779

Abkallo, Hussein M; Liu, Weimin; Hokama, Sarina; Ferreira, Pedro E; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Quang, Nguyen T; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Osamu; Huffman, Michael A; Kawai, Satoru; Marchand, Ron P; Carter, Richard; Hahn, Beatrice H; Culleton, Richard



Preprocedural white blood cell count and death after percutaneous coronary intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElevated inflammatory markers are associated with worse outcome after percutaneous coronary artery interventions (PCI). An elevation in the white blood cell (WBC) count is a nonspecific response to inflammation. We hypothesized that an elevated WBC count would be a predictor of death in patients undergoing PCI.

Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; Ritesh Gupta; Stephen G Ellis; Eric J Topol; Michael S Lauer



System-level training of neural networks for counting white blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural networks (NNs) that are trained to perform classification may not perform as well when used as a module in a larger system. We introduce a novel, system-level method for training NNs with application to counting white blood cells. The idea is to phrase the objective function in terms of total count error rather than the traditional class-coding approach because

Nipon Theera-umpon; Paul D. Gader



Traumatic Lumbar Punctures in Neonates: Test Performance of the Cerebrospinal Fluid White Blood Cell Count  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings are often used to diagnose meningitis in neonates given antibiotics before the lumbar puncture is performed. Traumatic lumbar punctures are common and complicate interpretation of CSF white blood cell counts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of adjusting CSF white blood cell counts based on CSF and peripheral red blood cell counts. Methods Cohort study of lumbar punctures performed between 1997 and 2004 at 150 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical group. Traumatic lumbar punctures were defined as CSF specimens with ?500 red blood cells/mm3. CSF white blood cell counts were adjusted downward for traumatic lumbar punctures using several commonly used methods. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of unadjusted and adjusted CSF white blood cell counts for predicting meningitis in neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures. Results Of 6,374 lumbar punctures, 2,519 (39.5%) were traumatic. 114/6,374 (1.8%) were positive for meningitis; 50 neonates with traumatic lumbar punctures had meningitis. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for white blood cell count unadjusted and adjusted by all methods were similar. Conclusions Adjustment of CSF white blood cell counts to account for increased red cells does not improve diagnostic utility. Adjustment can result in loss of sensitivity with marginal gain in specificity. Adjustment of WBC counts in the setting of a traumatic lumbar puncture does not aid in the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal meningitis in neonates.

Greenberg, Rachel G.; Smith, P. Brian; Cotton, C. Michael; Moody, M. Anthony; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.



Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities.

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.



[Studies of the blood antioxidant system and oxygen-transporting properties of human erythrocytes during 105-day isolation].  


Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes. PMID:21675192

Brazhe, N A; Ba?zhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V



Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in Pregnancies with Idiopathic Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR. Materials and methods Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups. Results NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001). pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusion Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention.

Kaveh, Mahbod; Nemati, Somayeh; Javadian, Pouya; Salmanian, Bahram



Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced

M. Habibzadeh; A. Krzyzak; T. Fevens; A. Sadr



Analysis of weekly complete blood counts in patients receiving standard fractionated partial body radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Hematopoiesis is among the most sensitive systems in the body to radiation. Routine complete blood counts (CBCs) are common in clinical radiotherapy practice. Only a few studies have attempted to characterize the behavior of peripheral blood levels during partial body radiation therapy with field sizes smaller than those used in hemibody or total nodal irradiation. Such information is needed

Farley E. Yang; Florin Vaida; Lani Ignacio; Alan Houghton; Jaishanker Nautiyal; Howard Halpern; Harold Sutton; Srinivasan Vijayakumar



Clinical Implications of Variation in Erythrocyte Oxygen Affinity: A. Blood Storage and B. Arteriosclerosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The clinical implications of variation in erythrocyte oxygen affinity include those associated with the acute potentially deleterious effects of increased affinity, the acute presumably beneficial effects of decreased affinity. In response to hypoxia, and...

G. J. Brewer



Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Methods Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. Results The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P <0.001). The MLCR discriminated best between malaria cases and controls (AUC =?0.691; AUC =?0.741 in non-immune travellers), whereas the NLCR better predicted severe malaria, especially in semi-immune patients (AUC =?0.788). Conclusion Malaria causes typical but non-specific alterations of the differential blood count. The predictive value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.



The relationship of urinary albumin excretion rate to ambulatory blood pressure and erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport in NIDDM.  


Increased erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport rate is found in non-diabetic subjects with essential hypertension, and in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with nephropathy. However, relationships between these variables in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects are ill-defined. In order to characterise the relationships between blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, and erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport, 66 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes were studied. Urinary albumin excretion rate correlated with mean 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure (r = 0.57; p < 0.001), but not with sodium-lithium countertransport (r = 0.06; p = 0.31). No significant relationship was observed between 24-h systolic blood pressure and erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport (r = 0.16; p = 0.17). The principal differences between microalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric subjects (albumin excretion rate > 15 micrograms.min-1 [n = 20], and < 15 micrograms.min-1, [n = 46]) were: higher 24-h systolic blood pressure (145.9 [16.8] mmHg vs 131.9 [16.8] mmHg; p = 0.006), nocturnal heart rate (72.4 [8.9] vs 67.4 [8.9] beats.min-1; p = 0.042), and HbA1 (11.3 [1.5]% vs 10.1 [2.0]%; p = 0.028), and a longer median duration of diabetes (10.0 vs 5.0 years; p = 0.02). In contrast, there was no significant difference in sodium-lithium countertransport rate between microalbuminuric (0.41 [0.18] mmol.l-1.h-1) and normoalbuminuric subjects (0.39 [0.15] mmol.l-1.h-1; p = 0.687).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7758884

Pinkney, J H; Foyle, W J; Denver, A E; Mohamed-Ali, V; McKinlay, S; Yudkin, J S



Single-step preparation and image-based counting of minute volumes of human blood.  


Current flow-based blood counting devices require significant medical infrastructure and are not appropriate for field use. In this article we report on the development of a sample preparation, measurement, and analysis method that permits automated and accurate counting of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets, as well as allowing a 3-part differential of the WBCs to be performed on extremely small volumes of whole blood. This method is compatible with portable instrumentation that can be deployed in the field. The method consists of serially diluting blood samples first with sodium dodecyl sulfate dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, then in acridine orange dissolved in phosphate buffered saline, followed by fluorescence and dark field imaging with low magnification objectives. Image analysis is performed to extract cell counts and differentials. We performed a paired analysis of 20 volunteers with complete blood count values both within and beyond the normal reference range using a commercial automated hematology analyzer and the image-based method, with the new method achieving accuracies comparable to that of the commercial system. Because the sample preparation and imaging are simple and inexpensive to implement, this method has applications for pediatrics, clinician offices, and global health in regions that do not have access to central hematology laboratories. PMID:24955810

Smith, Zachary J; Gao, Tingjuan; Chu, Kaiqin; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Dwyre, Denis M; Hood, James; Tatsukawa, Keith; Heifetz, Laurence; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian



Elevated White Blood Cell Count and Carotid Plaque Thickness The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Elevated leukocyte count has been associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in several epidemiological studies. We sought to determine whether white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with carotid plaque thickness in a stroke-free, multiethnic cohort. Methods—For this cross-sectional analysis, WBC was measured in stroke-free community subjects undergoing carotid duplex Doppler ultrasound. Maximal internal carotid plaque thickness (MICPT)

Mitchell S. Elkind; Jianfeng Cheng; Bernadette Boden-Albala; Myunghee C. Paik; Ralph L. Sacco


Blood sample stability at room temperature for counting red and white blood cells and platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood handling required for different cellular variables is different. In a practical setting of blood sampling approximately 4 h separated from the first analysis, we compared the analysis of blood cell variables at this 4-h point with analysis of blood stored for ?48 h (over the weekend) at room temperature.Blood was collected from 304 apparently healthy individuals aged between 17

S. A. Vogelaar; D. Posthuma; D. I. Boomsma; C. Kluft



Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in growth-restricted fetuses: Relationship to arterial and venous Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values

Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner



A human cell-surface glycoprotein that carries Cromer-related blood group antigens on erythrocytes and is also expressed on leucocytes and platelets.  

PubMed Central

A new human erythrocyte glycoprotein has been identified by immunoblotting with murine monoclonal antibodies under non-reducing conditions. The glycoprotein has a MW of 70,000 and carries Cromer-related blood group antigens. The monoclonal antibodies also react with normal peripheral blood leucocytes and platelets and several haemopoietic cell lines. The glycoprotein has a reduced MW after sialidase treatment. The MW is markedly reduced in Tn erythrocyte membranes and slightly increased in Cad erythrocyte membranes. These results suggest that the glycoprotein has a substantial content of O-glycans. The glycoprotein appears to be absent from, or grossly altered in, the erythrocytes of two individuals with the rare Inab phenotype. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Spring, F A; Judson, P A; Daniels, G L; Parsons, S F; Mallinson, G; Anstee, D J



Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.  


In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko



Forssman expression on human erythrocytes: biochemical and genetic evidence of a new histo-blood group system.  


In analogy with histo-blood group A antigen, Forssman (Fs) antigen terminates with ?3-N-acetylgalactosamine and can be used by pathogens as a host receptor in many mammals. However, primates including humans lack Fs synthase activity and have naturally occurring Fs antibodies in plasma. We investigated individuals with the enigmatic ABO subgroup A(pae) and found them to be homozygous for common O alleles. Their erythrocytes had no A antigens but instead expressed Fs glycolipids. The unexpected Fs antigen was confirmed in structural, serologic, and flow-cytometric studies. The Fs synthase gene, GBGT1, in A(pae) individuals encoded an arginine to glutamine change at residue 296. Gln296 is present in lower mammals, whereas Arg296 was found in 6 other primates, > 250 blood donors and A(pae) family relatives without the A(pae) phenotype. Transfection experiments and molecular modeling showed that Agr296Gln reactivates the human Fs synthase. Uropathogenic E coli containing prsG-adhesin-encoding plasmids agglutinated A(pae) but not group O cells, suggesting biologic implications. Predictive tests for intravascular hemolysis with crossmatch-incompatible sera indicated complement-mediated destruction of Fs-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, we provide the first conclusive description of Fs expression in normal human hematopoietic tissue and the basis of a new histo-blood group system in man, FORS. PMID:23255552

Svensson, Lola; Hult, Annika K; Stamps, Robert; Ĺngström, Jonas; Teneberg, Susann; Storry, Jill R; Jřrgensen, René; Rydberg, Lennart; Henry, Stephen M; Olsson, Martin L



DNA content determination of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by clastogens and spindle poisons in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood  

SciTech Connect

The frequencies and DNA distributions of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice after four different treatments were determined by flow cytometry. Polychromatic erthrocytes were detected using the fluorescent RNA stain thiazole orange, while micronuclei were detected with the DNA stain Hoechst 33342. The treatments were X-irradiation (1 Gy), cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg), vincristine sulfphate (0.08 mg/kg), and cochicine (1 mg/kg). All treatments showed increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at 30h after treatment in the bone marrow (colchicine 50h) and at 50h in the peripheral blood. The clostogenic agents X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide and the spindle poisons vincristine sulphate and cochicine could be grouped according to the fluorescent characteristics of the induced micronuclei as well as the relative frequency of small (0.5-2% if the diploid G1 DNA content) and large (2-10%) micronuclei. In the peripheral blood the relative frequency of large micronuclei was lower than in the bone marrow, indicating that they were partly eliminated before entrance into the peripheral circulation. The nature of presumed micronuclei was verified by sorting. The potential of this approach to give information on the mechanism of induction of micronuclei is discussed.

Grawe, J.; Amneus, H. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Zetterberg, G. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))



Distribution of Ethylene Oxide in Human Blood and its Implications for Biomonitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of radioactivity following the incubation of human blood with radiolabelled ethylene oxide was investigated in vitro. After incubation, the individual blood samples were separated into lymphocytes and high (Mr > 10,000) and low (Mr < 10,000) molecular fractions of erythrocyte cytoplasm and blood plasma. The radioactivity was determined in each sample by liquid scintillation counting.In erythrocyte cytoplasm, the

U. Föst; E. Hallier; H. Ottenwälder; H. M. Bolt; H. Peter



Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high (6-8 ppm) and moderate (1.5 ppm) amounts of ozone (O3) for various time periods. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone was monitored with red blood cell potassium (rubidium) influx studies, with storage stress combined with ultrastructural studies and with levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Erythrocytes of rats exposed to O3 showed no significant changes either in their potassium influx or in their glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to controls. Erythrocyte differential counts on O3-exposed animals showed significant changes initially as well as following storage stress compared to controls. Rats exposed to 8 ppm O3 for 4 h showed a marked increase in echinocytes. These consistent transformations from discocytes to echinocytes following O3 exposure suggest latent erythrocyte damage has occurred.

Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.



Complete blood count parameters for healthy, small-for-gestational-age, full-term newborns.  


No previous study has investigated the full range of complete blood count (CBC) parameters in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns. The main aim of this study was to compare CBC and peripheral smear parameters in term, healthy SGA neonates and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates, and to establish CBC reference values for full-term SGA newborns. One hundred thirty-two healthy, term newborns (73 SGA and 59 AGA) were included. On day 1, we obtained 109 samples and on day 7 we obtained 77 samples. A CBC and peripheral smear were analyzed for each sample collected and group data were compared. We observed higher mean values for normoblast count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell (RBC) count in the SGA babies than in the AGA babies on day 1. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration values for the SGA babies were decreased because of the relatively high RBC count and relatively high mean corpuscular volume we observed in this group. Of the SGA newborns, 21.9% had neutropenia and 4.7% had absolute neutrophil counts lower than 1500/microl on day 1. On both day 1 and day 7, the SGA newborns had higher mean absolute metamyelocyte counts and higher mean I : T (immature : total neutrophil ratio) values than the AGA group. The SGA babies had a lower mean absolute lymphocyte count on day 7 than the AGA group. We detected thrombocytopenia in almost one-third of the 64 SGA newborns tested on day 1. In summary, our study clearly demonstrates that CBC parameters for healthy, full-term, SGA newborns are different from those of healthy, term AGA newborns. This is the first study that has documented different mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, metamyelocyte counts, lymphocyte counts, and I : T in SGA babies compared with AGA babies. PMID:16630213

Ozyürek, E; Cetinta?, S; Ceylan, T; O?ü?, E; Haberal, A; Gürakan, B; Ozbek, N



Haematological Alterations Observed in Equine Routine Complete Blood Counts. A Retrospective Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Results on more than 1000 complete blood counts (CBC) performed on hot-blooded horses, including Thoroughbred, Standardbred,\\u000a and Arabian, have been reviewed. All the data were processed and stored at the Laboratory of Haematology, Department Veterinary\\u000a Clinic, University of Pisa, over the last 2 years, and involved samples withdrawn from both inpatients and outpatients of\\u000a the clinic.\\u000a \\u000a ?The CBC is




Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level  

PubMed Central

Background The erythrocyte membrane lesion is a serious diabetic complication. A number of studies suggested that n-3 fatty acid could reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate ?- or ?-tocopherol contents in membrane of erythrocytes. However, evidence regarding the protective effects of flaxseed oil, a natural product rich in n-3 fatty acid, on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity and membrane deformation of erythrocytes exposed to high glucose is limited. Methods Human peripheral blood erythrocytes were isolated and treated with 50?mM glucose to mimic hyperglycemia in the absence or presence of three different doses of flaxseed oil (50, 100 or 200??M) in the culture medium for 24?h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and L-glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC and LC/MS respectively. The phospholipids symmetry and membrane fatty acid composition of human erythrocytes were detected by flow cytometry and gas chromatograph (GC). The morphology of human erythrocyte was illuminated by ultra scanning electron microscopy. Results Flaxseed oil attenuated hyperglycemia-induced increase of MDA and decrease of GSH in human erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes treated with flaxseed oil contained higher C22:5 and C22:6 than those in the 50?mM glucose control group, indicating that flaxseed oil could reduce lipid asymmetric distribution and membrane perturbation. The ultra scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometer have also indicated that flaxseed oil could protect the membrane of human erythrocytes from deformation at high glucose level. Conclusion The flaxseed oil supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia.



High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Ribavirin in Whole Blood To Assess Disposition in Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribavirin is an antiviral agent used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. One of the limitations associated with the use of ribavirin is a reversible anemia caused by its accumulation in erythro- cytes. Therefore, it is of interest to determine ribavirin levels in erythrocytes, as well as in plasma, as these measurements may be predictive of hematotoxicity.




Subjective Poor Sleep and White Blood Cell Count in Male Japanese Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber- manufacturing plant, who responded to




Higher Erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs Are Associated with Decreased Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Adults.  


Previous studies suggested that blood fatty acids (FAs) might affect blood pressure (BP), but the findings have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of erythrocyte FAs with BP in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Between 2008 and 2010, 1834 participants (1364 women and 470 men) aged 57 ± 5 y had baseline measurements taken of their erythrocyte FAs and BP. A total of 1477 participants (1103 women and 374 men) had their BP measured again after 3.09 ± 0.32 y (range: 2.91-3.26 y). In the cross-sectional analyses (n = 1834), the erythrocyte saturated FA (SFA) content was positively associated with BP, whereas total cis polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), their subtypes cis n-3 (?-3) PUFAs and cis n-6 (?-6) PUFAs, and the PUFA-to-SFA ratio were inversely associated with BP (all P-trends < 0.05). The longitudinal results (n = 1477) showed marginally inverse associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and BP. For individual cis n-3 PUFAs, higher contents of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were significantly associated with reduced increases in SBP over time (the mean change range between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.917 to -0.749 mm Hg for SBP; all P-trends < 0.01), and 20:5n-3 was inversely associated with DBP change (the mean change between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.631; P-trend < 0.001). Path analyses suggested that the associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and BP might be mediated by decreasing serum triglycerides (TGs) and body mass index (BMI). Our findings revealed that a higher content of cis n-3 PUFAs (mainly very long-chain cis n-3 PUFAs) may benefit BP progress, probably mediated by decreasing serum TGs and BMI. PMID:24966412

Zeng, Fang-Fang; Sun, Li-Li; Liu, Yan-Hua; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming




Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid scintillation counting of carbon-14 and tritium in blood, heart, ; kidney, liver, spleen, lung, and muscle tissue was investigated. The dissolution ; of tissues into two different solvent systems and their counting are discussed. ; The effect of dilution of such solvent and color quenched solutions is shown. ; Some counting efficiencies obtained for carbon-14, tritium, and suIfur-35 in

R. J. Herberg



White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow.

Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo



A model of oscillatory blood cell counts in chronic myelogenous leukaemia.  


In certain blood diseases, oscillations are found in blood cell counts. Particularly, such oscillations are sometimes found in chronic myelogenous leukaemia, and then occur in all the derived blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It has been suggested that such oscillations arise because of an instability in the pluri-potential stem cell population, associated with its regulatory control system. In this paper, we consider how such oscillations can arise in a model of competition between normal (S) and genetically altered abnormal (A) stem cells, as the latter population grows at the expense of the former. We use an analytic model of long period oscillations to describe regions of oscillatory behaviour in the S-A phase plane, and give parametric criteria to describe when such oscillations will occur. We also describe a mechanism which can explain dynamically how the transformation from chronic phase to acute phase and blast crisis can occur. PMID:21512833

Drobnjak, Ivana; Fowler, A C



[The relationship of the acid-base status of the blood to the electrophoretic mobility of the erythrocytes in liver pathology].  


With cholestatic hepatite, the relationship between acid-alkaline condition of blood and electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes was studied. It is shown that changes in parameters of the individual mobility distribution are translated into reality independently, and are directed to maintain the steadiness of the index middle level. Dependence of this sign on the pH value, hemoglobin content and bicarbonate-ion concentrating in blood, an on partial pressure of oxygen and carbonic gas was discovered. The intravenous infusion of patients with hemodese restored the middle level of cell electrophoretic mobility previously reduced due to liver pathology. Membrane mechanisms controlling stability of erythrocyte electrokinetic characteristics are discussed. PMID:8658973

Matiushichev, V B; Shamratova, C G; Gutsaeva, D R



Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts: relationship to abnormal fetoplacental circulation detected by Doppler studies.  


Increased neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts are thought to be related to intrauterine hypoxemia. We sought to determine the effect of increasing circulatory impairment in fetuses on the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. One hundred thirty-four singleton pregnancies were included in the study and were allocated to 4 study groups according to Doppler findings. The systolic-to-diastolic ratios of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, middle cerebral artery, and uterine arteries were recorded. Fetuses were assigned to the following groups on the basis of the last Doppler examination before delivery: group 1, normal systolic-to-diastolic ratios in the examined vessels; group 2, a systolic-to-diastolic ratio greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and no abnormal Doppler findings in the uterine arteries; group 3, systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in all examined vessels; and group 4, absence of end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the uterine arteries. A blood sample from the umbilical artery was obtained within 1 minute after birth, and nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were counted by light microscopy. Nucleated red blood cell counts were higher in fetuses in group 4 (median, 72.0; range, 9-720; P < .001) and group 3 (median, 38.4; range, 7-201; P < .001) than in fetuses in group 1 (median, 5.1; range, 0-20). Neonates in group 4 had significantly lower birth weights (P < .001), lower arterial and venous pH values (P < .05), and lower Apgar scores after 5 minutes (P < .01) as well as an increased likelihood of cesarean delivery because of fetal distress (P < .001). The number of fetuses in group 4 with a cord blood base deficit of less than -8 mmol/L was increased. Nucleated red blood cell counts were comparable in fetuses in group 2 (median, 5.4; range, 0-37) and group 1. In groups 1 to 3 no brain-sparing effect occurred, whereas in 15 of 21 cases in group 4 a brain-sparing effect was present. Multivariate analysis revealed that Doppler results of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, and uterine arteries were independent determinants of neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. Increasing abnormalities seen on fetoplacental Doppler studies are associated with increasing numbers of nucleated red blood cells at birth. Given the known relationship between abnormal Doppler flow and intrauterine hypoxemia, the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count might become an additional valuable tool in the surveillance of growth-restricted fetuses. PMID:11270521

Axt-Fliedner, R; Ertan, K; Hendrik, H J; Schmidt, W



Evaluation of different sized blood sampling tubes for thromboelastometry, platelet function, and platelet count.  


Abstract Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses and compared three blood sampling tubes of different size: 1.8, 2.7, and 3.6 mL. All tubes were made of plastic and contained 3.2% sodium-citrate as anticoagulant. Platelet aggregation was investigated in 12 healthy individuals employing the Multiplate® Analyser comparing tubes of 3.6 mL and 1.8 mL. Platelet count was determined for each of the sampling tubes after 10, 60, and 120 min. Results: No significant differences were found in any of the RoTEM® measurements between the three sizes of tubes (p=0.07-0.53). Platelet aggregation was significantly lower when using smaller tubes (p=0.0004). The platelet count remained stable using a 3.6 mL tube during the entire observation period of 120 min (p=0.74), but decreased significantly after 60 min when using tubes smaller than 3.6 mL (p<0.0001). Conclusions: RoTEM® analyses were not affected by the size of blood sampling tubes. Therefore, 1.8 mL tubes should be preferred for RoTEM® analyses in order to minimise the volume of blood drawn. With regard to platelet aggregation analysed by impedance aggregometry tubes of different size cannot be used interchangeably. If platelet count is determined later than 10 min after blood sampling using tubes containing citrate as anticoagulant, a 3.6 mL tube should be preferred to avoid false low values. PMID:24310772

Andreasen, Jo Břnding; Pistor-Riebold, Thea Unger; Knudsen, Ingrid Hell; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Hvas, Anne-Mette



The value of white blood cell counts before revision total knee arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white blood cell count (WBC) of >50,000 cell\\/mm3 from a knee aspirate with ?80% polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs) is suggestive of infection. This study sought to determine if these same criteria were applicable when interpreting aspirates from a total knee. Of 440 revision total knee arthroplasties, 86 patients had preoperative aspirations of the knee before revision. Fifty-five aspirates were from

J. Bohannon Mason; Thomas K Fehring; Susan M Odum; William L Griffin; Donna S Nussman



New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m  


Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.



Perinatal asphyxia is associated with the umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell count in pre-eclamptic pregnancies.  


Nucleated red blood cells are commonly present in the blood of newborns. Our objective was to investigate the value of umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count in predicting fetal asphyxia in pre-eclamptic women. NRBCs were counted in umbilical cord blood samples of neonates born to 43 pre-eclamptic and 25 healthy pregnant women. Pre-eclamptic women were further subgrouped based on the presence or absence of intrauterine growth restriction. The NRBC count differed significantly between pre-eclamptic women with and without intrauterine growth restriction, and controls (26.3 +/- 7.5; 17.1 +/- 6.8; and 9.9 +/- 2.7; p < 0.001). A NRBC count of 18.5 or above could predict fetal asphyxia with a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 80.0%. The umbilical cord NRBC count is effective in predicting fetal asphyxia in pre-eclamptic women. PMID:20455723

Bayram, F; Ozerkan, K; Cengiz, C; Develio?lu, O; Cetinkaya, M



Increased frequencies of diploid sperm detected by multicolour FISH after treatment of rats with carbendazim without micronucleus induction in peripheral blood erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single oral dose of carbendazim (CARB) on the frequencies of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm and on micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rats. Dual colour FISH on epididymal sperm of rats treated 31 days before sacrifice (0, 50, 150, 450 and 800 mg\\/kg body wt CARB

Joyce M. de Stoppelaar; Ton van de Kuil; Mirjam Bedaf; Henny W. Verharen; Wout Slob; Georges R. Mohn; Barbara Hoebee; Jan van Benthem



Enhanced Erythrocytic Lipid Peroxides and Reduced Plasma Ascorbic Acid, and Alteration in Blood Trace Elements Level in Dairy Cows with Mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress has been associated in several inflammatory conditions and incriminated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, little information is available on the status of plasma antioxidant levels, essential components of important antioxidant enzymes such as copper, zinc and selenium in blood, and the end product of oxidative damage to the erythrocytic polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory udder conditions.

R. Ranjan; D. Swarup; R. Naresh; R. C. Patra



RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen.  


Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate. PMID:24002067

Ito, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Arumugam, Thangavelu U; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Takeo, Satoru; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek; Long, Carole A; Torii, Motomi; Tsuboi, Takafumi



Erythrocyte-dependent regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow: role of varied oxyhemoglobin and exercise on nitrite, S-nitrosohemoglobin, and ATP  

PubMed Central

The erythrocyte is proposed to play a key role in the control of local tissue perfusion via three O2-dependent signaling mechanisms: 1) reduction of circulating nitrite to vasoactive NO, 2) S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb)-dependent vasodilatation, and 3) release of the vasodilator and sympatholytic ATP; however, their relative roles in vivo remain unclear. Here we evaluated each mechanism to gain insight into their roles in the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow during hypoxia and hyperoxia at rest and during exercise. Arterial and femoral venous hemoglobin O2 saturation (O2Hb), plasma and erythrocyte NO and ATP metabolites, and leg and systemic hemodynamics were measured in 10 healthy males exposed to graded hypoxia, normoxia, and graded hyperoxia both at rest and during submaximal one-legged knee-extensor exercise. At rest, leg blood flow and NO and ATP metabolites in plasma and erythrocytes remained unchanged despite large alterations in O2Hb. During exercise, however, leg and systemic perfusion and vascular conductance increased in direct proportion to decreases in arterial and venous O2Hb (r2 = 0.86–0.98; P = 0.01), decreases in venous plasma nitrite (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.01), increases in venous erythrocyte nitroso species (r2 = 0.74; P < 0.05), and to a lesser extent increases in erythrocyte SNO (r2 = 0.59; P = 0.07). No relationship was observed with plasma ATP (r2 = 0.01; P = 0.99) or its degradation compounds. These in vivo data indicate that, during low-intensity exercise and hypoxic stress, but not hypoxic stress alone, plasma nitrite consumption and formation of erythrocyte nitroso species are associated with limb vasodilatation and increased blood flow in the human skeletal muscle vasculature.

Patel, Rakesh P.; Brandon, Angela; Teng, Xinjun; Pearson, James; Barker, Horace; Ali, Leena; Yuen, Ada H. Y.; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose



RALP1 Is a Rhoptry Neck Erythrocyte-Binding Protein of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites and a Potential Blood-Stage Vaccine Candidate Antigen  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate.

Ito, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Arumugam, Thangavelu U.; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Takeo, Satoru; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek; Long, Carole A.; Torii, Motomi



White Blood Cell Count and the Risk for Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between white blood cell (WBC) count and coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY) study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. Methods and Findings 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years) with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000–12,000 cells/mm3) were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3–5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles) above 6,900 cells/mm3 (quintile 4) were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI?=?1.18–3.97) in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC?5,400 cells/mm3). When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI?=?1.067–1.290, p?=?0.001). A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range) during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. Conclusions WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir



Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.

Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej



Vitamin B1 Status Assessed by Direct Measurement of Thiamin Pyrophosphate in Erythrocytes or Whole Blood by HPLC: Comparison with Erythrocyte Transketolase Activation Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The concentration of thiamin diphosphate (TDP) in erythrocytes is a useful index of thiamin status. We describe an HPLC method for TDP and its results in patients at risk of thiamin deficiency. Methods: We used reversed-phase HPLC with postcol- umn derivatization with alkaline potassium ferricya- nide and fluorescence detection. Samples were depro- teinized and injected directly onto a C18

Dinesh Talwar; Helen Davidson; Josephine Cooney


White Blood Cells Count and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Association between white blood cell (WBC) count and diabetes risk has been recently suggested. We assessed whether WBC count is an independent risk factor for diabetes incidence among young healthy adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS WBC count was measured in 24,897 young (mean age 30.8 ± 5.36 years), normoglycemic men with WBC range of 3,000 to 12,000 cells/mm3. Participants were periodically screened for diabetes during a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. RESULTS During 185,354 person-years of follow-up, diabetes was diagnosed in 447 subjects. A multivariate model adjusted for age, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, and fasting glucose and triglyceride levels revealed a 7.6% increase in incident diabetes for every increment of 1,000 cells/mm3 (P = 0.046). When grouped in quintiles, a baseline WBC count above 6,900 cells/mm3 had an independent 52% increase in diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.52 [95% CI 1.06–2.18]) compared with the lowest quintile (WBC <5,400 cells/mm3). Men at the lowest WBC quintile were protected from diabetes incidence even in the presence of overweight, family history of diabetes, or elevated triglyceride levels. After simultaneous control for risk factors, BMI was the primary contributor of the variation in multivariate models (P < 0.001), followed by age and WBC count (P < 0.001), and family history of diabetes and triglyceride levels (P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS WBC count, a commonly used and widely available test, is an independent risk factor for diabetes in young men at values well within the normal range.

Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Gordon, Barak; Tirosh, Amir



White Blood Cell Count and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)  

PubMed Central

Several studies have reported that inflammatory markers are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). White blood cell (WBC) count is a widely available and broadly utilized marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between increased WBC count and incident AF, and whether this association is mediated by smoking, myocardial infarction and heart failure. We examined participants in the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine the relation between WBC count and incident AF over 5-year follow-up period. We adjusted for standard AF risk factors, and smoking, previous myocardial infarction, as well as interim myocardial infarction and heart failure prior to incident AF. Our sample consisted of 936 participants, mean age was 76±6 years and 61% were women. Median WBC count was 6.4*109/L (25th-75th percentile 5.6*109/L- 7.8*109/L). During a median follow-up of 5 years, 82 participants (9%) developed new-onset AF. After adjusting for standard risk factors for AF, increased WBC count was significantly associated with incident AF, with a hazard ratio per standard deviation (0.26*109/L) increase of 2.22, (95% confidence interval, 1.10–4.48; P=0.03). We found no substantive differences adjusting for smoking, previous myocardial infarction, interim myocardial infarction and heart failure. In conclusion, in our community-based sample, increased WBC count was associated with incident AF during 5-years of follow-up. Our findings provide additional evidence for the relation between systemic inflammation and AF.

Rienstra, Michiel; Sun, Jenny X.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.



Low whole blood and erythrocyte levels of glutathione in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialysis patients are reported to have impaired antioxidant mechanisms, including those involving glutathione-dependent enzymes. This study used high-performance liquid chromatography assays that directly measure total (oxidized + reduced) glutathione and its precursor cysteine (CYS) to compare the whole blood of hemodialysis (prehemodialysis and posthemodialysis) and peritoneal dialysis patients to that of blood donors with no known kidney disease (n =

Edward A. Ross; Lilia C. Koo; James B. Moberly



[The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].  


In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease. PMID:24511683

Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I



Influence of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media on the phenotype of erythrocytes from different laboratory animal species.  


It is well known that clinically relevant concentrations of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media (CM) induce morphological changes in human erythrocytes. However, there are only few reports about CM effects on erythrocytes of animals (e.g. mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs). Thus, two conventional iodine-containing CM (iodixanol, Visipaque™ 320; iomeprol, Iomeprol™ 350) were tested for their effects on the morphology of erythrocytes from these. After venous blood sampling and blood centrifugation, the autologous plasma was supplemented with 40 vol% CM. Then, a defined number of erythrocytes was incubated in this CM-supplemented plasma for 5 min at body temperature (37°C). Subsequently, 10 ?L of the cell suspension were transferred to a purified glass slide and the number of discocytes, echinocytes, and acanthocytes was counted within a total number of 100 erythrocytes (40 fold primary magnification, transmitted light mode). Shape changes of the erythrocytes from all animal species strongly depended on the type of CM and compared to the effects which have already been described for human erythrocytes. Incubation in both CM resulted in morphological changes of the erythrocytes. Incubation in a iodixanol/plasma mixture induced the lowest echinocyte or acanthocyte formation. Porcine erythrocytes showed a much more distinct shape change than those of other animal species and humans. These results suggest erythrocytes from mice, rats, and rabbits are a suitable model system for a model system for human erythrocytes when CM effects on the cellular shape of erythrocytes have to be tested. The distinct deformation of the pig erythrocytes could be due to differences in the pig erythrocyte membrane or the physical and chemical constitution of pig erythrocytes. PMID:24113501

Hiebl, B; Hopperdietzel, C; Hünigen, H; Dietze, K; Klein, S; Schreier, B; Jung, F



Analysis of white blood cell counts in mice after gamma- or proton-radiation exposure.  


In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose-response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes. PMID:21476859

Maks, Casey J; Wan, X Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H; Romero-Weaver, Ana L; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wilson, Jolaine M; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S; Slater, James M; Kennedy, Ann R



Analysis of White Blood Cell Counts in Mice after Gamma- or Proton-Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

In the coming decades human space exploration is expected to move beyond low-Earth orbit. This transition involves increasing mission time and therefore an increased risk of radiation exposure from solar particle event (SPE) radiation. Acute radiation effects after exposure to SPE radiation are of prime importance due to potential mission-threatening consequences. The major objective of this study was to characterize the dose–response relationship for proton and ? radiation delivered at doses up to 2 Gy at high (0.5 Gy/min) and low (0.5 Gy/h) dose rates using white blood cell (WBC) counts as a biological end point. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease in WBC counts in mice exposed to high- and low-dose-rate proton and ? radiation, suggesting that astronauts exposed to SPE-like radiation may experience a significant decrease in circulating leukocytes.

Maks, Casey J.; Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Romero-Weaver, Ana L.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Rightnar, Steve; Wroe, Andrew J.; Koss, Peter; Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Kennedy, Ann R.



Aggregation properties of erythrocytes of whole blood under shear stress by backscattering nephelometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of aggregation and disaggregation of red blood cells in whole blood subjected to shear stress is different with normal and pathological blood. To measure the kinetics we have applied a backscattering nephelometric technique, and quantitatively registered the alternation of the scattered intensity due to appearance or disappearance of different types of cell aggregates under controlled shear stresses. The latter were obtained in a Couette flow in a thin gap between two concentrical cylinders, the inner one rotating at controlled velocities. The peculiarities of backscattered light signal formation and obtained results were discussed.

Firsov, Nikolai N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Ryaboshapka, Olga M.; Sirko, Igor V.



Reticulocyte count and reticulocyte maturation profile in human umbilical cord blood from healthy newborns.  


Most fetal hematologic parameters show a significant relationship with gestational age: a linear increase is evident throughout gestation for several hematologic parameters. A few reports have described reference values for umbilical cord blood reticulocyte counts performed with automated hematology analyzers. Our aim was to use automated hematology analyzers (ADVIA 120; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) to establish reference intervals for reticulocyte parameters in cord blood from healthy newborns of 34 to 42 weeks of gestation. We also investigated whether differences in reticulocyte parameters exist between the sexes and between different weeks of gestation. We enrolled 98 healthy, appropriate for gestational age newborns. In term infants, the reticulocyte percentage, the absolute reticulocyte count, and the reticulocyte hemoglobin content decreased significantly as the gestational age increased, but the maturation subpopulations did not change significantly. We found no significant differences between the sexes. In conclusion, our results contribute to the establishment of reference intervals for cord blood from full-term newborns that are measured with an automated hematology analyzer. PMID:20223743

Maconi, Mariacaterina; Formisano, Debora; Cavalca, Leandra; Rolfo, Alessandro; Cardaropoli, Simona; Danise, Paolo



Admixture Mapping of White Cell Count: Genetic Locus Responsible for Lower White Blood Cell Count in the Health ABC and Jackson Heart Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

White blood cell count (WBC) is an important clinical marker that varies among different ethnic groups. African Americans are known to have a lower WBC than European Americans. We surveyed the entire genome for loci underlying this difference in WBC by using admixture mapping. We analyzed data from African American participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study and

Michael A. Nalls; James G. Wilson; Nick J. Patterson; Arti Tandon; Joseph M. Zmuda; Scott Huntsman; Melissa Garcia; Donglei Hu; Rongling Li; Brock A. Beamer; Kushang V. Patel; Ermeg L. Akylbekova; Joe C. Files; Cheryl L. Hardy; Sarah G. Buxbaum; Herman A. Taylor; David Reich; Tamara B. Harris; Elad Ziv



Effect of revascularization on mortality associated with an elevated white blood cell count in acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is increasingly recognized as having an important role in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count would predict subsequent mortality and whether revascularization would have a protective effect. We analyzed data from 10,480 patients with acute coronary syndromes enrolled in the PURSUIT trial who had a WBC count measured

Deepak L Bhatt; Derek P Chew; A. Michael Lincoff; Maarten L Simoons; Robert A Harrington; Steve R Ommen; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol



Clinical Value of the Total White Blood Cell Count and Temperature in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The total white blood cell (WBC) count and temperature are often expected to be elevated in patients with appendicitis. Clinicians often use the results of these parameters in making a judgment about the presence or absence of disease. The objective of this study was to assess the discriminatory value of the total WBC count and presenting body temperature in

Taylor Cardall; Judd Glasser; David A. Guss



Human-type blood group activities on chimpanzee erythrocytes with special reference to M and N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-type blood group activities on the red blood cells (RBCs) of three chimpanzees were individually examined with commercial mouse monoclonal antibodies (anti-A, -B, -H, -M, -N, -Lea, and -Leb) as well as lectins (UEA-I and VGA) and conventional polyclonal antisera for the systems ABO, MN, Lewis, Rh-Hr, P, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and Lutheran. For further analysis of the MN antigens,

T. Takayasu; T. Ohshima; H. Maeda; T. Nagano; T. Tsuji



AMPK?1 Deletion Shortens Erythrocyte Life Span in Mice  

PubMed Central

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPK?1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPK?1 (AMPK?1?/?), but not in those lacking AMPK?2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPK?1?/? mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPK?1?/? mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPK?1?/? erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPK?1?/? mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPK?1?/? mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPK?1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes.

Wang, Shaobin; Dale, George L.; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-hui



Changes in full blood count parameters in leptospirosis: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis presents diagnostic challenges to clinicians, in settings where other acute febrile illness are prevalent. The patterns of serial changes in haematological parameters in leptospirosis has not been evaluated previously. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were collected prospectively from patients with leptospirosis in two hospitals in Sri Lanka. Leptospirosis was diagnosed based on WHO clinical criteria with confirmation using Microscopic Agglutination Test titre?>?400 or 4 fold rise between acute and convalescent samples. Full blood count parameters were analysed up to the 14th day of illness. Results Data from 201 patients with leptospirosis were available. Leukocyte counts and absolute neutrophil counts showed a decline over the first 5 days of illness, then rose until the end of the second week. On day 3 of fever, the majority (75%) had normal leukocyte counts, and by day 5, leukocytosis was seen only in 38.1%; leucopenia was an uncommon finding. Lymphopenia was seen in over half on day 5, declining to just under a quarter of patients by day 10. Platelets declined over the first 6 days and then gradually rose. Thrombocytopenia was seen in nearly three-fourths of patients by day 5. Haemoglobin and haematocrit levels declined over the course of illness. Total white cell and neutrophil counts were higher, and haemoglobin and haematorcrit were significantly lower, in patients with severe disease. Conclusions Neither leukocytosis nor lymphopenia were prominent features, while thrombocytopenia was seen during the 3rd to 5th day of illness, with dropping haemoglobin levels. Neutrophilia and low haemoglobin levels appear to predict severe disease. These findings may be of use to clinicians in differentiating leptospirosis from other acute infections like dengue, and could help in predicting severe leptospirosis.



[49 day storage of erythrocyte concentrates in blood bags with the PAGGS-mannitol solution].  


The red cell preservation solution PAGGS-Mannitol differs from the well documented PAGGS-Sorbitol only by the exchange from Sorbitol in Mannitol. In a clinical investigation with volunteers, up to 21 of the pure PAGGS-Mannitol solution were infused within 4 h. Blood and urine parameters were determined. The solution was well tolerated, no unexpected change of blood and urine parameters was found. The 24 h red cell in vivo survival rate of PAGGS-Mannitol was found to be 74.5 +/- 4.4%, after 49 days storage, a value which was described for PAGGS-Sorbitol before. In vitro data on storage of red cell concentrates with and without buffy coat were determined for hemolysis, 2,3-DPG and ATP using a blood bag system with DEHP and TOTM plastisized PVC. If 1% hemolysis is regarded as acceptable, red cell concentrates can be stored in PAGGS-Mannitol with a TOTM plastisized blood bag system up to 42 days. Under these conditions the amount of plastisizer in the red cell concentrate was found to be only 1% of the amount determined in a standard DEHP plastisized PVC blood bag system. PMID:1703901

Walker, W H; Netz, M; Gänshirt, K H



Interpretation of the full blood count in systemic disease - a guide for the physician.  


The full blood count (FBC) is perhaps the single most common investigation performed in medical patients. It has the potential, when interpreted carefully and in relation to the clinical history, to provide very useful information to assist in diagnosis and management. Clinicians are often alerted to the presence of a primary haematological disorder by abnormalities in the FBC. For the purpose of this review these diseases will not be discussed in detail but the reader will be alerted to pointers which might indicate primary blood disorders throughout the text. The haematology laboratory in large teaching hospitals will often provide up to 1,500 automated FBC analyses each day. These are individually checked for 'flags' provided by the analyser which indicate values outside the normal range. It is clearly essential that clinical information is provided with the request as this will influence how the result is handled by scientific and medical staff. Furthermore, significant abnormalities will generate a blood film request and the report will be most useful when interpreted in light of the patient's working diagnosis. In cases where a diagnosis is not yet known, even brief information on presentation, for example 'collapse with hypotension', 'fever on return to UK', 'weight loss and anorexia', can all be important and help the lab provide clinicians with guidance. This short review aims to provide physicians with a workable guide to the interpretation of some of the commoner findings in the full blood count. Some of these will be very familiar to you but some will not. This review is not meant to be exhaustive as the rare minutiae will obscure the essential core material. Your haematology colleagues are always happy to help and available for assistance in difficult or problematic cases. I have not specified normal ranges in relation to each entity as these will be defined by your local laboratory. PMID:24995446

Leach, M



Acute drop in blood monocyte count differentiates NEC from other causes of feeding intolerance.  


Objective:Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by macrophage infiltration into affected tissues. Because intestinal macrophages are derived from recruitment and in situ differentiation of blood monocytes in the gut mucosa, we hypothesized that increased recruitment of monocytes to the intestine during NEC reduces the blood monocyte concentration and that this fall in blood monocytes can be a useful biomarker for NEC.Study Design:We reviewed medical records of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated for NEC and compared them with a matched control group comprised of infants with feeding intolerance but no signs of NEC. Clinical characteristics and absolute monocyte counts (AMCs) were recorded. Diagnostic accuracy of AMC values was tested using receiver-operator characteristics (ROC).Result:We compared 69 cases and 257 controls (median 27 weeks, range 26 to 29 in both the groups). In stage II NEC, AMCs decreased from median 1.7 × 10(9)?l(-1) (interquartile range (IQR) 0.98 to 2.4) to 0.8 (IQR 0.62 to 2.1); P<0.05. In stage III NEC, monocyte counts decreased from median 2.1 × 10(9)?l(-1) (IQR 0.1.5 to 3.2) to 0.8 (IQR 0.6 to 1.9); P<0.05. There was no change in AMCs in control infants. ROC of AMC values showed a diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.76. In a given infant with feeding intolerance, a drop in AMCs of >20% indicated NEC with sensitivity of 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.81) and specificity of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.77).Conclusion:We have identified a fall in blood monocyte concentration as a novel biomarker for NEC in VLBW infants. PMID:24674979

Remon, J; Kampanatkosol, R; Kaul, R R; Muraskas, J K; Christensen, R D; Maheshwari, A



Reticulocyte count  


A reticulocyte count measures the percentage of reticulocytes (slightly immature red blood cells) in the blood. ... marrow at an appropriate rate. The number of reticulocytes in the blood is a sign of how ...



EPA Science Inventory

Multicompartment models have been fitted to experimental data on plasma lead and blood lead concentrations of subjects studied by de Silva (1981, Brit. J. Industr. Med. 38, 209-217) and one subject studied by Manton and Malloy (1983, Brit. J. Industr. Med., 40, 51-57). Nonlinear ...


Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, H.; Mueller, Gerhard J.



Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.  


The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. PMID:22858449

Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis



Low blood cell counts in wild Japanese monkeys after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.  


In April 2012 we carried out a 1-year hematological study on a population of wild Japanese monkeys inhabiting the forest area of Fukushima City. This area is located 70?km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), which released a large amount of radioactive material into the environment following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011. For comparison, we examined monkeys inhabiting the Shimokita Peninsula in Aomori Prefecture, located approximately 400?km from the NPP. Total muscle cesium concentration in Fukushima monkeys was in the range of 78-1778?Bq/kg, whereas the level of cesium was below the detection limit in all Shimokita monkeys. Compared with Shimokita monkeys, Fukushima monkeys had significantly low white and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and the white blood cell count in immature monkeys showed a significant negative correlation with muscle cesium concentration. These results suggest that the exposure to some form of radioactive material contributed to hematological changes in Fukushima monkeys. PMID:25060710

Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Hayama, Shin-Ichi; Nakiri, Sachie; Nakanishi, Setsuko; Ishii, Naomi; Uno, Taiki; Kato, Takuya; Konno, Fumiharu; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Tsuchida, Shuichi; Omi, Toshinori



Individuals lacking the Gerbich blood-group antigen have alterations in the human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma.  

PubMed Central

Membranes from erythrocytes with a new Gerbich (Ge)-negative phenotype (Leach phenotype), as well as those from two other Ge-negative phenotypes, were examined. Whereas cells of the Leach phenotype apparently lack three minor sialoglycoproteins (beta, beta 1 and gamma), the membranes of Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes apparently lack beta- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins but contain additional diffusely migrating components of apparent Mr 30 500-34 500 and 32 500-36 500 respectively. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the abnormal components of both Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes reacted with two monoclonal antibodies, BRIC 4 and BRIC 10. These antibodies have been shown to react with sialoglycoproteins beta and beta 1 in normal erythrocytes. Cytoskeletal preparations from Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocyte membranes contained the abnormal components. In contrast with cells of the Leach phenotype, which are elliptocytic, Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ were of normal shape, despite their apparent lack of beta- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins. It seems likely that the abnormal components in these cells contribute to their normal shape. Ovalocytic erythrocytes were shown to incorporate more radioactivity in the sialoglycoprotein-beta 1 region than normal erythrocytes after labelling by the periodate/NaB3H4 technique. It is suggested that abnormal components in Ge- Yus- and Ge- Yus+ erythrocytes result from chromosomal misalignment with unequal crossing-over at meiosis between the genes giving rise to beta-, beta 1- and gamma-sialoglycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Anstee, D J; Ridgwell, K; Tanner, M J; Daniels, G L; Parsons, S F



Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count.  


We assessed the acute effects of a 1-h exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) on complete blood count (CBC) markers in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment. Nineteen adult never-smokers completed a 1-h .exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels, and a 1-h exposure to normal room air. Blood samples were collected at the baseline at 30?min during each exposure, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4?h after each exposure. The values of white blood cells (WBC) at 1?h (p?=?0.010), 3?h (p?=?0.040), and 4?h (p?=?0.008) following SHS were significantly increased compared with the baseline values. Also, there was a positive association between the WBC and cotinine levels (r?=?0.28, p?=?0.007). A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels significantly increased the WBC for at least 4?h following the exposure time. This effect of SHS on WBC has dose-response characteristics and should be considered to prescribing CBC. PMID:23544435

Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Wallace Hayes, A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Flouris, Andreas D



[New complete blood count parameter to evaluate iron status of haemodialysis patients].  


The presence of functionnal iron deficiency during erythropoietin therapy especially in patients with chronic renal failure leads to a diagnostic problem due to the low sensitivity and specificity of the biological parameters usually used in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. However, this diagnostic appears to be essential in so far as its treatment consists in intravenous iron perfusion that allow an optimal efficiency of erythropoietin therapy. Hypochromic red blood cells and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) are two new parameters that are given by Bayer blood count analyser (H3 and ADVIA 120) that may be usefull in the diagnostic of functionnal iron deficiency. The measurement is based on optical red cell analysis by laser beam diffraction in two angles that permit to analyze content and volume. Reticulocytes are identified by dying of residual nucleic acid. Many papers have demonstrated the usefulness of these parameters in the initial take care and follow up of haemodialysis patient. It seems that these parameters are complementary and need to be analysed simultaneously; Hypochromic red blood cells having the most interesting sensibility specificity ratio but reticulocyte hemoglobin content being superior in the understanding of acute modification. PMID:17373278

Salignac, Sylvain; Lecompte, Thomas



Negative correlation between blood cell counts and serum neopterin concentration in patients with HIV-1 infection.  


Hematopoietic disturbances are common in patients with HIV-1 infection. Recent studies on immune activation markers such as neopterin demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with chronic immune activation. We investigated a possible association between serum neopterin concentrations and blood cell counts (CD4+ T cells, white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells) and hemoglobin and hematocrit in 94 HIV-1-seropositive individuals [52 Walter Reed (WR) stage 1, 31 WR2, one WR5, and 10 WR6]. There were significant negative correlations between neopterin concentrations and CD4+ T cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. These correlations were also significant if either only WR1 and WR2 patients or the entire set of data were considered for calculations. Thus, hematological abnormalities are associated with chronic immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection. Large amounts of neopterin are released by human macrophages on stimulation with interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) further enhances the effect of IFN gamma. Therefore, our data suggest that activated immune cells and specific cytokines such as IFN gamma and TNF alpha are involved inhibiting hematopoiesis. PMID:1674419

Fuchs, D; Shearer, G M; Boswell, R N; Lucey, D R; Clerici, M; Reibnegger, G; Werner, E R; Zajac, R A; Wachter, H



Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70?years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P?count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke.



RBC count  


... renal cell carcinoma) Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia) Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Your RBC count will increase for several weeks when you move to a higher altitude. Drugs that can increase the RBC count include: Gentamicin ...


Automated screening for myelodysplastic syndromes through analysis of complete blood count and cell population data parameters.  


The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) requires a high clinical index of suspicion to prompt bone marrow studies as well as subjective assessment of dysplastic morphology. We sought to determine if data collected by automated hematology analyzers during complete blood count (CBC) analysis might help to identify MDS in a routine clinical setting. We collected CBC parameters (including those for research use only and cell population data) and demographic information in a large (>5,000), unselected sequential cohort of outpatients. The cohort was divided into independent training and test groups to develop and validate a random forest classifier that identifies MDS. The classifier effectively identified MDS and had a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) of 0.942. Platelet distribution width and the standard deviation of red blood cell distribution width were the most discriminating variables within the classifier. Additionally, a similar classifier was validated with an additional, independent set of >200 patients from a second institution with an AUC of 0.93. This retrospective study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying MDS in an unselected outpatient population using data routinely collected during CBC analysis with a classifier that has been validated using two independent data sets from different institutions. PMID:24276948

Raess, Philipp W; van de Geijn, Gert-Jan M; Njo, Tjin L; Klop, Boudewijn; Sukhachev, Dmitry; Wertheim, Gerald; McAleer, Tom; Master, Stephen R; Bagg, Adam



Vildagliptin in addition to metformin improves retinal blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - results from an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Numerous rheological and microvascular alterations characterize the vascular pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated effects of vildagliptin in comparison to glimepiride on retinal microvascular blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in T2DM. Fourty-four patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy were included in this randomized, exploratory study over 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or glimepiride individually titrated up to 4 mg in addition to ongoing metformin treatment. Retinal microvascular blood flow (RBF) and the arteriolar wall to lumen ratio (WLR) were assessed using a laser doppler scanner. In addition, the erythrocyte elongation index (EI) was measured at different shear stresses using laserdiffractoscopy. Both treatments improved glycaemic control (p?blood flow and decreased the arterial WLR (p?blood flow beyond glucose control. In contrast, the improvement in erythrocyte deformability observed in both treatment groups, seems to be a correlate of improved glycaemic control.



Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 ?m fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p < 0.0001; PPIX: rs = 0.959, p < 0.0001). In difference spectra from oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.



Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ? 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from different areas in Iraq.

Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H



[Effect of occupational lead exposure on various elements in the human blood. Effects on calcium, cadmium, iron, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc levels in the human blood, erythrocytes and plasma in vivo].  


The influence of occupational lead-exposure on calcium, magnesium and trace elements concentration in blood was investigated. We examined 96 lead-exposed persons and for comparison 46 persons without occupational lead exposure. The levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, iron, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in whole-blood, erythrocytes, as well as in plasma. The median of the lead-concentration in whole blood of the exposed group was 646 micrograms/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 449-814 micrograms/l). For the normal persons a median of 148 micrograms Pb/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 107-235 micrograms Pb/l) was calculated. In whole-blood, erythrocytes and plasma all element-concentrations of the non-exposed persons were in the normal ranges. The lead-exposed workers showed a higher manganese level. The other elements were found in normal values for this group. Increasing lead-concentrations in blood correlated with elevated levels of manganese and zinc in whole-blood, erythrocytes and plasma. The lead workers showed for the whole-blood manganese concentration a median of 14.2 micrograms/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 8.5-22.3 micrograms/l), for zinc a median of 6.3 mg/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 5.2-8.2 mg/l). Those levels were significantly higher than the levels of the non-exposed persons. For this group the median concentration of manganese was 4.8 micrograms/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 2.7-8.6 micrograms/l) and 5.7 mg/l (+/- 66.6%-range: 5.1-6.3 mg/l) for zinc respectively. For zinc positive correlation between blood lead levels and the levels of manganese and zinc in the three blood-compartments was found. An essential change of the element concentrations between erythrocytes and plasma, in the sense of a displacement from one blood-compartment to the other could not be detected. PMID:6475377

Truckenbrodt, R; Winter, L; Schaller, K H



Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.  


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs, and (5) AO/PI dual staining method. The results show comparable total PBMC counting among all five methods, which validate the AO/PI staining method for PBMC measurement in the image cytometry method. PMID:23201386

Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean



Kolaviron improved resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation in the blood (erythrocyte, serum, and plasma) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  


Aims. Bitter kola seed (Garcinia kola, family: Guttiferae) has been used as a social masticatory agent in Africa for several years and is believed to possess many useful medicinal properties. The present study evaluates the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects of kolaviron (an extract from the Garcinia kola seeds) in the blood of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetic rats were treated with kolaviron (100?mg/kg b·wt) orally, five times a week for a period of six weeks. Serum glucose and HBA1C concentrations were estimated in experimental groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (in erythrocytes) as well as plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor: interleukin- (IL-) 1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were also analyzed. Results. Kolaviron treatment markedly improved antioxidant status and abated inflammatory response evidenced by reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor, lipid peroxidation product, and the restoration of activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in the blood of diabetic rats. Conclusion. Kolaviron improved antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, and protected against hyperglycemic-induced oxidative damage in the blood of diabetic rats. PMID:24795542

Ayepola, Omolola R; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O



Kolaviron Improved Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Blood (Erythrocyte, Serum, and Plasma) of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Aims. Bitter kola seed (Garcinia kola, family: Guttiferae) has been used as a social masticatory agent in Africa for several years and is believed to possess many useful medicinal properties. The present study evaluates the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antilipidemic effects of kolaviron (an extract from the Garcinia kola seeds) in the blood of streptozotocin- (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetic rats were treated with kolaviron (100?mg/kg b·wt) orally, five times a week for a period of six weeks. Serum glucose and HBA1C concentrations were estimated in experimental groups. The activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) (in erythrocytes) as well as plasma concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. Serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor: interleukin- (IL-) 1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), respectively, were also analyzed. Results. Kolaviron treatment markedly improved antioxidant status and abated inflammatory response evidenced by reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factor, lipid peroxidation product, and the restoration of activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in the blood of diabetic rats. Conclusion. Kolaviron improved antioxidant status, reduced inflammation, and protected against hyperglycemic-induced oxidative damage in the blood of diabetic rats.

Ayepola, Omolola R.; Brooks, Nicole L.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.



Relevance of the eosinophil blood count in bancroftian filariasis as a screening tool for the treatment  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Lymphatic filariasis constitutes a major public health issue in French Polynesia. Diagnosis has been revolutionized with the availability of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) tests which are easy to perform but are costly. Filariasis is responsible for acquired eosinophilia and eosinophil blood count (EBC) is commonly used as a screening tool. Methods We retrospectively analysed all the results of EBCs and CFA tests performed in our laboratory over a 2-year period. We calculated the prevalence of antigenemia for nine different eosinophil cutoffs. We calculated the number of patients detected by CFA testing and the number of estimated CFA-positive patients according to their EBC. Results Over a 2-year period, we detected 7503 eosinophilic patients. For an EBC above 500/mm3, the prevalence of positive CFA was 25.78% and the estimated number of positive CFA patients was 1934. During the same period, as CFA determination is not routinely performed, only 141 patients were detected and treated. Conclusion Our current strategy against lymphatic filariasis which combines annual mass drug administration, systematic treatment of antigenemic and microfilaraemic patients, and vector control; failed to reach the target of 1% prevalence. Unfortunately, mainly for economical reasons, the antigenemia cannot be determined for all patients. In complement to existing strategy, we propose an additional action based on the treatment of eosinophilic patients in order to reduce the filariasis prevalence in our country.

Musso, Didier



The value of serum bilirubin level and of white blood cell count as severity markers for acute appendicitis.  


Discussions regarding the correlations between elevated white blood cell levels and clinical and pathological stages of acute appendicitis are well known. Recent studies show that a high level of serum bilirubin could emerge as a prognostic marker for gangrenous or perforated stages of acute appendicitis. We studied the correlations between anatomical and pathological stages of acute appendicitis and white blood cell count, serum total bilirubin, and indirect serum bilirubin on a large series of cases, in the course of one year, in our department. Although there being a correlation between severe forms of acute appendicitis (gangrenous, perforated), elevated white blood cell count, elevated serum bilirubin (mostly the indirect fraction), none of the indicators proved to have a definitive diagnostic value. Cases with perforation and localized generalized peritonitis are more frequently associated with elevated bilirubin levels. PMID:24331322

Socea, B; Carâp, A; Rac-Albu, M; Constantin, V



Estimating malaria parasite density among pregnant women at central Sudan using actual and assumed white blood cell count  

PubMed Central

Background Microscopic examination using Giemsa-stained thick blood films remains the reference standard for detection of malaria parasites and it is the only method that is widely and practically available for quantifying malaria parasite density. There are few published data (there was no study during pregnancy) investigating the parasite density (ratio of counted parasites within a given number of microscopic fields against counted white blood cells (WBCs) using actual number of WBCs. Methods Parasitaemia was estimated using assumed WBCs (8,000), which was compared to parasitaemia calculated based on each woman’s WBCs in 98 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Medani Maternity Hospital, Central Sudan. Results The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count was 12,014.6 (9,766.5) and 7,870.8 (19,168.8) ring trophozoites /?l, P <0.001 using the actual and assumed (8,000) WBC count, respectively. The median (range) of the ratio between the two parasitaemias (using assumed/actual WBCs) was 1.5 (0.6-5), i e, parasitaemia calculated assuming WBCs equal to median (range) 1.5 (0.6-5) times higher than parasitaemia calculated using actual WBCs. There were 52 out of 98 patients (53%) with ratio between 0.5 and 1.5. For 21 patients (21%) this ratio was higher than 2, and for five patients (5%) it was higher than 3. Conclusion The estimated parasite density using actual WBC counts was significantly lower than the parasite density estimated using assumed WBC counts. Therefore, it is recommended to use the patient`s actual WBC count in the estimation of the parasite density.



Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution  


The fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution test is used to measure the number of the unborn baby's red blood cells ... that has been exchanged between the mother and fetus. All Rh- pregnant women should get this test ...


Quantitation of Bacteria in Blood of Typhoid Fever Patients and Relationship between Counts and Clinical Features, Transmissibility, and Antibiotic Resistance  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi was isolated from 369 and Salmonella paratyphi A was isolated from 6 of 515 Vietnamese patients with suspected enteric fever. Compared with conventional broth culture of blood, direct plating of the buffy coat had a diagnostic sensitivity of 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 100%). Blood bacterial counts were estimated by the pour plate method. The median S. typhi count in blood was 1 CFU/ml (range, <0.3 to 387 CFU/ml), of which a mean of 63% (95% CI, 58 to 67%) were intracellular. The mean number of bacteria per infected leukocyte was 1.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.7 to 2.4) CFU/cell (n = 81). Children (<15 years old; n = 115) had higher median blood bacterial counts than adults (n = 262): 1.5 (range, <0.3 to 387) versus 0.6 (range, <0.3 to 17.7) CFU/ml (P = 0.008), and patients who excreted S. typhi in feces had higher bacteremias than those who did not: a median of 3 (range, <0.3 to 32) versus 1 (range, <0.3 to 68) CFU/ml (P = 0.02). Blood bacterial counts declined with increasing duration of illness (P = 0.002) and were higher in infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. typhi (1.3 [range, <0.3 to 387] CFU/ml; n = 313) than in infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive S. typhi (0.5 [range, <0.3 to 32] CFU/ml; n = 62) (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis this proved to be an independent association, suggesting a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in S. typhi.

Wain, John; Diep, To Song; Ho, Vo Anh; Walsh, Amanda M.; Hoa, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Parry, Christopher M.; White, Nicholas J.



A review on peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in healthy adult Indians  

PubMed Central

The CD4+ T lymphocytes are the crucial cells in the cascade of events in forming immune response to the foreign antigen and hence monitoring the CD4+ T cell counts to understand the extent of immune deficiency is a common practice. CD4+ T cells are also the primary target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hence CD4+ T lymphocyte count is the most important marker of immune dysfunction in HIV disease progression. The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts is used to decide the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART), to monitor the efficacy of ART and to start treatment for opportunistic infections (OIs). To develop the threshold levels of CD4+ T cell counts, data from western countries are being used in India. The CD4+ T cell counts are known to be influenced by race and environmental factors. Hence it is important to establish the reference ranges for the CD4+ T cell counts in the target population to understand the immune dysfunction. The information on the lower limits of the CD4+ T cells count is necessary to decide the initiation and monitoring of ART. The published data on the CD4+ T cells count in healthy Indian adult population have been reviewed, analyzed and discussed in this review article. The requirement of establishment of reference ranges in Indian population is discussed.

Shete, Ashwini; Thakar, Madhuri; Abraham, Philip Raj; Paranjape, Ramesh



Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

Thompson, Joselyn H.


Abnormal Glucose Tolerance, White Blood Cell Count, and Telomere Length in Newly Diagnosed, Antidepressant-Na?ve Patients with Depression  

PubMed Central

Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and ageing, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naďve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0 mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1 × 109/L [0.6] vs. 2.5 ×109/L [0.7] p=.028).Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated ageing disease.

Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J.; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian



Use of hematopoietic progenitor cell count on the Sysmex XE-2100 for peripheral blood stem cell harvest monitoring.  


Successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection depends on the timing of apheresis based on CD34+ cell enumeration. Because this analysis is expensive and induces organization difficulties, we evaluated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) quantification on the Sysmex XE-2100 as a surrogate analysis. We tested 157 blood samples for CD34+ cells and HPC counts. We found a good linear correlation between HPC and CD34+ and determined simple rules allowing to use HPC count in daily practice. We set a positive cut-off >30 HPC/mm(3) for allowing PBSC harvest and a negative cut-off at 0 HPC/mm(3) for which collection should be delayed. These two situations accounted for 62% of cases and CD34+ cell count by flow cytometry confirmed HPC result in 95% of cases. Between 0 and 30 HPC/mm3, CD34+ enumeration is required for decision-making. We conclude that HPC count may be a useful surrogate for CD34+ enumeration in PBSC harvest monitoring. PMID:17327950

Letestu, Rémi; Marzac, Christophe; Audat, Françoise; Belhocine, Ramdane; Tondeur, Sylvie; Baccini, Véronique; Garçon, Loďc; Cortivo, Liliane Dal; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Lefrčre, François; Valensi, Françoise; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, Florence



Fecal blood loss in patients with colonic polyps: a comparison of measurements with 51chromium-labeled erythrocytes and with the Haemoccult test  

SciTech Connect

The quantitative determinations of fecal daily blood loss after intravenous administration of /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocytes in 44 patients with colonic polyps and in 11 controls were compared with the results of the daily performed Haemoccult test without dietary restrictions. A total of 642 stool specimens was analyzed for /sup 51/Cr loss and the Haemoccult test. The mean fecal daily blood loss in the 34 patients with adenomatous polyps of the descending colon and rectosigmoid was 1.36 +/- 0.14 ml/day (mean +/- SEM), in the 10 patients with polyps of the ascending and transverse colon it was 1.28 +/- 0.31 ml/day, and in the 11 controls 0.62 +/- 0.07 ml/day. There was no positive Haemoccult test in the controls. In fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the descending colon and rectosigmoid containing 2.0-3.99 ml blood/day, the Haemoccult-test was positive in 86%. Fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the ascending colon and transverse colon containing equal blood loss yielded a positive Haemoccult test result in 26%. Thus, the positivity of the Haemoccult test is determined by the fecal daily blood loss and the anatomic location of colonic bleeding sites.

Herzog, P.; Holtermueller, K.H.; Preiss, J.; Fischer, J.; Ewe, K.; Schreiber, H.J.; Berres, M.



Aorto-porto-caval micro-rheological differences of red blood cells in laboratory rats: further deformability and ektacytometrial osmoscan data.  


Investigation of regional hemorheological properties are important in ischemia-reperfusion experimental surgical and microsurgical research models, however, the physiological arterio-venous as well as porto-caval differences in erythrocyte deformability and aggregation are still controversial. In this study, besides measuring blood pH, blood gases, lactate concentration and hematological parameters we determined erythrocyte deformability (rotational ektacytometer) together with osmoscan data as well as erythrocyte aggregation (light transmittance aggregometer) in blood samples taken from the portal vein, caudal caval vein and abdominal aorta of rats. Blood pH, partial blood gas pressures showed the anticipated physiological differences. Leukocyte count was lower in arterial blood; hematocrit, erythrocyte and platelet count was higher in systemic and portal venous blood. The lowest elongation index values were measured in arterial blood, the highest in venous and portal venous blood showed values in between. The osmoscan data did not show important differences. Erythrocyte aggregation M index 5 s showed the lowest values in arterial, higher in systemic venous and portal venous blood samples. M index 10 s showed significantly low values in systemic venous blood. M1 values were slightly higher in arterial blood compared to venous blood but the highest were in portal venous blood. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation may show aorto-porto-caval differences in the rat. The appropriate control examinations thus are important in experimental surgical and microsurgical research models. PMID:22398331

Klarik, Zoltan; Kiss, Ferenc; Miko, Iren; Nemeth, Norbert



Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C



Ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count at diagnosis is associated with progression-free survival in follicular lymphoma.  


The prognosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) is significantly associated with host immunity and tumor microenvironment. Lymphopenia has been identified as a negative prognostic factor for FL. The association between monocytosis and progression-free survival (PFS) in FL remains controversial. It is unknown whether the ratio of peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count to absolute monocyte count (ALC/AMC) at diagnosis is associated with FL prognosis. We studied 99 consecutive patients with FL who were treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy at Kitano Hospital or Kyoto University Hospital between 2000 and 2012. We analyzed individual variables associated with the ALC/AMC ratio before treatment, as well as known prognostic factors of FL, and found that an ALC/AMC ratio of 4.7 was the best cut-off value for PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was associated with inferior PFS (P = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that a decreased ALC/AMC ratio was a significant poor prognostic factor independent of other variables (hazard ratio, 2.714; 95 % confidence interval, 1.060-6.948; P = 0.037). The ALC/AMC ratio before treatment may be a significant prognostic factor predicting PFS of FL. PMID:24756873

Kumagai, Shogo; Tashima, Masaharu; Fujikawa, Jun; Iwasaki, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshihiro; Sueki, Yuki; Fukunaga, Akiko; Yanagita, Soshi; Nishikori, Momoko; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arima, Nobuyoshi



Effects of low power laser-irradiation on differential blood count and body temperature in endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits.  


Low power laser irradiation has been shown to have various immune-modulatory effects under in vitro conditions but little is known about such effects in animal models. Escherichia coli endotoxin-preimmunized rabbits were used to determine the influence of transcutaneously applied low power laser light on differential blood count and rectal temperature. After three initial immunizations animals were either boostered with 5 ng/kg of endotoxin or injected with pyrogen-free saline and subsequently underwent irradiation using two different wavelengths of red laser light and sham irradiation, respectively. Differential blood count of laser-treated animals was characterized by significantly higher lymphocyte values and lower neutrophil values at twenty hours (boostered rabbits) and twenty-three hours (non-boostered rabbits) after irradiation. Differential blood cell counts returned to baseline values within 23 hours in the boostered animals, whereas in the non-boostered rabbits lymphocytes showed a trend to further increase. Recording of rectal temperature revealed a further rise after laser application, changes being of greater magnitude and longer duration in the non-boostered animals. These results seem to indicate that a single low power laser irradiation can modulate immune-responses depending on the immunological status of the organism. PMID:9129122

Schindl, L; Schindl, M; Polo, L; Jori, G; Perl, S; Schindl, A



Elevated white blood cell count and outcome in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.  


A significant association between elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and mortality in patients with cancer has been reported, but the predictive value of elevated WBC on mortality in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been explored. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the three-month outcome of cancer patients with acute VTE according to their WBC count at baseline. As of May 2007, 3805 patients with active cancer and acute VTE had been enrolled in RIETE. Of them, 215 (5.7%) had low- (<4,000 cells/microl), 2,403 (63%) normal- (4,000-11,000 cells/microl), 1,187 (31%) elevated (>11,000 cells/microl) WBC count. During the study period 190 patients (5.0%) had recurrent VTE, 156 (4.1%) major bleeding, 889 (23%) died (399 of disseminated cancer, 113 of PE, 46 of bleeding. Patients with elevated WBC count at baseline had an increased incidence of recurrent VTE (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.2), major bleeding (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) or death (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 2.3-3.2). Most of the reported causes of death were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated WBC count. Multivariate analysis confirmed that elevated WBC count was independently associated with an increased incidence of all three complications. In conclusion, cancer patients with acute VTE and elevated WBC count had an increased incidence of VTE recurrences, major bleeding or death. This worse outcome was consistent among all subgroups and persisted after multivariate adjustment. PMID:18989537

Trujillo-Santos, Javier; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Iannuzzo, Mariateresa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Guijarro, Ricardo; Madridano, Olga; Monreal, Manuel



The phylogenetic odyssey of the erythrocyte. IV. The amphibians.  


Amphibians manifest permanently nucleated, oval, flattened, biconvex erythrocytes. These cells demonstrate a cytoskeleton which is responsible for their morphogenetic conversion from a sphere to an ellipse and imparts to their cellular mass reversibility of traumatic deformation. The class Amphibia has the largest of all erythrocytes attaining volumes greater than 10,000 femtoliters in the Amphiuma. The large dimensions reflect evolutionary processes, genomic size, ploidy and the relative size of other somatic cells. Conversely, the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration of these species are low. Occasional denucleated red cells can be seen in the peripheral blood but may attain levels of 90-95% of the total circulating population in certain members of the tribe Bolitoglossini (e.g. Batrachoseps attenuatus). These erythroplastids retain the marginal band thus remaining different from mammalian erythrocytes. Embryologically, erythropoiesis initiates in the yolk sac and then progresses to the kidney, liver, and possibly spleen. The yolk sac cohort is transitory and is successively replaced by the larval and definitive populations of erythrocytes. Red cell production (along with thrombocytopoiesis) in adult urodeles is conducted intravascularly in the spleen. In anurans this organ is usually the major site although the liver also serves as a secondary locus for this activity. Medullary (bone marrow) erythropoiesis makes its phylogenetic debut in anurans and typically occurs during heightened hemopoiesis following metamorphosis or hibernation. Maturation of the erythrocyte in the circulation is commonplace (especially in urodeles) while proliferation at this site is inducible by splenectomy and/or hemolysins. Erythrocyte-related values demonstrate variable differences associated with age, weight, season, gender, and environment. PMID:9046052

Glomski, C A; Tamburlin, J; Hard, R; Chainani, M



White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n?=?4,377) and a prospective assessment (n?=?1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Trial registration Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Nuria; Bullo, Monica; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Warnberg, Julia; Salaverria, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramon; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, Jose Vicente; Salas-Salvado, Jordi



Palmitic acid induces the opening of a Ca2+-dependent pore in the plasma membrane of red blood cells: the possible role of the pore in erythrocyte lysis.  


Earlier we found that in the presence of Ca(2+) palmitic acid (Pal) increases the nonspecific permeability of artificial (planar and liposomal) membranes and causes permeabilization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. An assumption was made that the mechanism of Pal/Ca(2+)-induced membrane permeabilization relates to the Ca(2+)-induced phase separation of Pal and can be considered as formation of fast-tightening lipid pores due to chemotropic phase transition in the lipid bilayer. In this article, we continue studying this pore. We have found that Pal plus Ca(2+) permeabilize the plasma membrane of red blood cells in a dose-dependent manner. The same picture has been revealed for stearic acid (20 ?M) but not for myristic and linoleic acids. The Pal-induced permeabilization of erythrocytic membranes can also occur in the presence of Ba(2+) and Mn(2+) (200 ?M), but other bivalent cations (200 ?M Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+)) are relatively ineffective. The formation of Pal/Ca(2+)-induced pores in the erythrocytic membranes has been found to result in the destruction of cells. PMID:20835705

Belosludtsev, Konstantin N; Trudovishnikov, Alexander S; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Agafonov, Alexey V; Mironova, Galina D



What's Blood?  


... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...


[Effect of 2-cyanoethylurea, thymus extract and lithium carbonate on the leukocyte count in peripheral blood following whole body irradiation].  


In our investigations the qualification of the substances 2-cyanoethyl urea, thymus extract and lithium carbonate was tested for a potential reducing or shortening of the leukocyte-depression in rats after whole-body irradiation. Intravenous applications of 2-cyanoethyl urea and intramuscular injections of thymus extract showed no effect in Wistar rats not only in increase of leukocyte number of peripheral blood, but also in variation of leukocyte portion in differential blood-count. Leukocytes depression appearing in consequence of whole-body irradiation was independent of cyanoethyl urea applications and of thymus extract, too. Lithium carbonate shows a significant increase of leukocytes in peripheral blood in dependence of dosage and frequency of applications. After whole-body irradiation with 7 Gy under lithium therapy, it was shown that on day 6 after irradiation leukocyte number was significantly higher than in controls. Radiogenic leukopenia phase was reduced significantly by lithium. PMID:3101018

Saul, G; Rose, H; Kehrberg, G



Complete blood count reference intervals and age- and sex-related trends of North China Han population.  


Abstract Background: Defining common reference intervals (RIs) are encouraging. The aim of this study is to establish RIs for complete blood count (CBC) in a Chinese Han population and probe their age- and sex-related CBC trends. Additionally, we will compare the CBC RIs of Han with those of other races. Methods: In total 1259 Han individuals (584 male and 675 female) were recruited in North China. CBC was processed on Sysmex XE-2100, Coulter LH750 and Mindray BC5800 whose traceability was well verified. The non-parametric 2.5th-97.5th percentiles RIs were calculated. Results: The RIs for CBC parameters did not show apparent analyzer-specificity, apart from mean cellular volume (MCV), mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT) and platelet distribution width (PDW). Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HBG), hematocrit (HCT), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MGHC) are higher in males; and their male mean values tend to drop after 40 years; conversely, the female mean values tend to rise. Platelet (PLT) is higher in females and tends to drop after 40 years in both sexes. White blood cell (WBC) and absolute count of neutrophils (NE) and monocytes (MO) are higher in males, but there is no apparent change with age. Lymphocytes (LY) absolute count declines with age in males, but the same change in females is not obvious. RIs for HBG and HCT are similar among Han, Nordic, US European and US Mexican populations and are lower in US Africans. WBC RIs for Han and US African populations are lower than that for US Europeans and US Mexicans. Conclusions: RIs for major blood cell parameters are not method-dependent; variations obviously exist in age, sex and race. Consequently, common RIs for most CBC parameters appear inapplicable. PMID:24497225

Qiao, Rui; Yang, Shuo; Yao, Bei; Wang, Hongya; Zhang, Jie; Shang, Hong



[Effect of sample volumes and utilized anticoagulants on the measurement of complete blood counts including 3-part differentials using capillary blood].  


We collected the different volumes of venous blood(60 microL, 125 microL, 250 microL and 500 microL) into micro sample cups from respective volunteer to compare complete blood count (CBC) among 4 sample volumes, and found that 60 microL of sample volume seemed enough for CBC measurement using Microsemi LC-667 CRP (Horiba Co.). Subsequently, we measured CBC using 60 microL of peripheral blood after combining one of the 3 capillary tubes (heparin coated, EDTA coated and plain) with either EDTA coated or plain micro sample cups to examine the effect of anticoagulants contained into these commercially available maneuvers for capillary blood sampling. When we used the plain micro sample cup, platelet aggregation and false increase of white blood cell(WBC) count were observed irrespective to the combination of capillary tubes. We also tried whether commercially recommended volume (250 microL) of sample could be obtained by either fingertip or earlobe puncture from volunteers, and found that 7 of 16 fingertip and only 1 earlobe punctures could achieve sufficient volume. Whereas, at least 60 microL of sample were available more than 80% of volunteers by both methods, and CBC data obtained from these lesser samples obtained by fingertip puncture showed no statistically significant differences when compared with those of conventional venous samples (2 mL). From these findings, we concluded that at least 60 microL of capillary blood obtained from fingertip then collected into EDTA coated micro sample cup was enough to measure CBC using Microsemi LC-667 CRP. PMID:23947185

Inaba, Tohru; Yuasa, Soichi; Nakanishi, Masaki; Takahashi, Mayako; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Kensuke; Oku, Narihiro; Fujita, Naohisa



A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.  


The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B



The association between white blood cell count and acute myocardial infarction mortality in patients ?65 years of age: findings from the cooperative cardiovascular project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe purpose of the study was to examine the association between white blood cell (WBC) count on admission and 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BACKGROUNDElevations in WBC count have been associated with the development of AMI and with long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between WBC count and prognosis following AMI is

Hal V. Barron; Steven D. Harr; Martha J. Radford; Yongfei Wang; Harlan M. Krumholz



CD34 counts to predict the adequate collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential prerequisite for successful procurement of sufficient autologous peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) for engraftment is the optimal timing of collection. A number of surrogate markers of peripheral blood progenitor cells were analysed to identify a single test which could predict the optimum time to harvest, providing at least 2 × 106 CD34+ cells\\/kg patient body weight. The study

S Armitage; R Hargreaves; D Samson; M Brennan; E Kanfer; C Navarrete



Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. FINDINGS: The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed

Christine J Piek; Bas Brinkhof; Jan Rothuizen; Aldo Dekker; Louis C Penning



White Blood Cell Counts in Persons Aged 65 Years or More from the Cardiovascular Health Study Correlations with Baseline Clinical and Demographic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A higher white blood cell (WBC) count has been shown to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in middle-aged populations. This study evaluated the relation between baseline WBC count and other risk factors, as well as subclinical and prevalent disease, in the Cardiovascular Health Study, an epidemiologic study of coronary heart disease and stroke in 5,201 persons

Edwin G. Bovill; Diane E. Bild; Gerardo Heiss; Lewis H. Kuller; Marshall H. Lee; Robert Rock; Patricia W. Wahl


Relationship between baseline white blood cell count and degree of coronary artery disease and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis study was designed to determine the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with unstable angina (UA)\\/non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to see if WBC count was a significant predictor of outcomes independent of other biomarkers.

Marc S Sabatine; David A Morrow; Christopher P Cannon; Sabina A Murphy; Laura A Demopoulos; Peter M DiBattiste; Carolyn H McCabe; Eugene Braunwald; C. Michael Gibson



Dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal blood typing and cross-matching by gel column technique  

PubMed Central

Background Testing for canine blood types other than dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 (DEA 1.1) is controversial and complicated by reagent availability and methodology. Objectives The objectives of this study were to use available gel column technology to develop an extended blood-typing method using polyclonal reagents for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal and to assess the use of gel columns for cross-matching. Methods Dogs (43–75) were typed for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Methods included tube agglutination (Tube) using polyclonal reagents, a commercially available DEA 1.1 gel column test kit (Standard-Gel) using monoclonal reagent, and multiple gel columns (Extended-Gel) using polyclonal reagents. Blood from 10 recipient and 15 donor dogs was typed as described above and cross-matched using the gel column technique. Results Of 43 dogs typed for DEA 1.1, 23, 25, and 20 dogs were positive using Standard-Gel, Extended-Gel, and Tube, respectively. Typing for DEA 1.2 was not achievable with Extended-Gel. For 75 dogs typed for DEA 3, 4, and 7, concordance of Extended-Gel with Tube was 94.7%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Dal, determined only by Extended-Gel, was positive for all dogs. Post-transfusion major cross-matches were incompatible in 10 of 14 pairings, but none were associated with demonstrable blood type incompatibilities. Conclusions Gel column methodology can be adapted for use with polyclonal reagents for detecting DEA 1.1, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Agglutination reactions are similar between Extended-Gel and Tube, but are more easily interpreted with Extended-Gel. When using gel columns for cross-matching, incompatible blood cross-matches can be detected following sensitization by transfusion, although in this study incompatibilities associated with any tested DEA or Dal antigens were not found.

Kessler, Rebecca J.; Reese, Jessica; Chang, Denise; Seth, Mayank; Hale, Anne S.; Giger, Urs



[Accreditation of automated complete blood count by the LH750 Analyzer (Beckman Coulter) in Georges Pompidou Hospital (Paris, France)].  


Preliminary evaluation of quantitative clinical laboratory measurements is a prerequisite for the accreditation of clinical laboratories, according to the French Committee of Accreditation guidelines following the European reference Standard EN ISO 15189. Numerous papers have been published regarding biochemistry and immunology. However, data are lacking for automated complete blood count accreditation. We report here our experience at Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou hematology laboratory and present the performance characteristics of two mirrored LH750 Beckman-Coulter analysers, including precision, accuracy and uncertainty of measurement. PMID:24342794

Robinet, Sylvain; Lemaire, Pierre; Louis, Gauthier; Vieillefond, Vincent; Daigneau, Yolande; Gaillaud, Emilie; Vincent, Béatrice; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Siguret, Virginie



The effects of exercise in water at 4°C and 25°C on the rheological properties of blood and the composition of fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes of laboratory rats.  


The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a single session of maximal exercise performed in water (4°C or 25°C) on blood rheological properties and the composition of fatty acids in the erythrocyte membranes of laboratory rats. This study will permit better understanding of the reactions occurring in the organism during rapid cooling in cold water, especially in regards to the hemorheological and biochemical parameters of blood. When compared to the control group, exercise performed in water at 4°C led to an increase in the elongation index (EI, from 0.30 Pa to 4.24 Pa) with no concurrent changes in erythrocyte aggregation, blood plasma viscosity, and fatty acid composition (saturated, unsaturated, saturated/unsaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated polyunsaturated-n3, polyunsaturated-n6 fatty acids) of the erythrocyte membrane. In rats swimming in water at 25°C, we observed an increase in EI at shear stress from 0.30 Pa to 2.19 Pa, along with a decrease in the half-time of total aggregation when compared to the control group. These changes in erythrocyte rheological properties can be treated as a protective reaction to thermal stress resulting in their improved deformability. PMID:22240381

Teleg?ów, Aneta; Bilski, Jan; D?browski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Ja?kiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasi?ska, Joanna; G?odzik, Jacek; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Lizak, Dorota



White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza



White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.  


The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI < 30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p < 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar



Normal limits of gated blood pool SPECT count-based regional cardiac function parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Computations of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) ejection fraction (EF) have been well\\u000a validated against other imaging modalities. As GBPS images depict the entire extent of both blood pools, it is possible to\\u000a compute not only global but also regional biventricular function parameters, which have the prospect of being clinically useful\\u000a for

Kenneth J. Nichols; Andrew Van Tosh; Pieter De Bondt; Steven R. Bergmann; Christopher J. Palestro; Nathaniel Reichek



Relationship between serum cholesterol and indices of erythrocytes and platelets in the US population.  


Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest versus highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/?l versus 281,000/?l, respectively (adjusted model, P < 0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 2007-2008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components. PMID:23999863

Fessler, Michael B; Rose, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanmei; Jaramillo, Renee; Zeldin, Darryl C



New monoclonal antibodies in CD59: use for the analysis of peripheral blood cells from paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) patients and for the quantitation of CD59 on normal and decay accelerating factor (DAF)-deficient erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

CD59 is a widely expressed cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein which acts as an inhibitor of the assembly of the membrane attack complex of autologous complement. Four new monoclonal antibodies to CD59 (2/24, 1B2, BRIC 229, BRIC 257) are described. Competitive binding experiments using these antibodies, two known CD59 antibodies (MEM-43, YTH 53.1) and a previously described antibody LICR-LON-Fib75.1 demonstrated that all seven antibodies see related epitopes on human erythrocyte CD59. In common with other GPI-linked proteins, CD59 (as defined by antibody 2/24) was sensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) on lymphocytes and monocytes but not on erythrocytes. Flow cytometric analysis using antibody 2/24 identified two populations (CD59 positive and CD59 deficient) of lymphocytes, monocytes and erythrocytes in peripheral blood from a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). The abundance of CD59 on normal erythrocytes was determined as 21,000 copies/cell when radioiodinated BRIC 229 was used. Other CD59 antibodies gave values of 10,000 (IF5) and 15,000 (2/24) against the same target cells. Radioiodinated Fab fragments of BRIC 229 gave a value of 39,000 copies/cell. Erythrocytes from two individuals with a rare inherited deficiency of decay accelerating factor (DAF), known as the Inab phenotype, expressed normal levels of CD59. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Fletcher, A; Bryant, J A; Gardner, B; Judson, P A; Spring, F A; Parsons, S F; Mallinson, G; Anstee, D J



Dynamics of Blood Count after Rheohemapheresis in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Possible Association with Clinical Changes  

PubMed Central

Background. Rheohemapheresis (RHF) is a method that can stop the activity of the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The pathophysiologic mechanisms are not well understood, and the effects of the RHF procedures extend beyond the time of the individual procedures. Patients and Methods. We present the data for 46 patients with AMD treated with a series of 8 rheohemapheretic procedures. Blood count parameters were measured before the first and the last procedures. The clinical effect was judged by changes in the drusenoid pigment epithelium detachment (DPED) area before and after the rheopheretic sessions. Results. Rheopheresis caused a decrease in hemoglobin (P < 0.001), a decrease in leukocytes (P < 0.034), and an increase in platelets (P < 0.005). We found a negative correlation between the amount of platelets and their volume (P < 0.001, Pearson correlation coefficient: ?0.509). We identified the platelet/MPV ratio as a good predictor of the clinical outcome. Patients with a platelet/MPV ratio greater than 21.5 (before the last rheopheresis) had a significantly better outcome (P = 0.003, sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 80%). Conclusion. Several basic blood count parameters after RHF can be concluded to significantly change, with some of those changes correlating with the clinical results (reduction of the DPED area).

Kostal, Milan; Blaha, Milan; Rencova, Eva; Lanska, Miriam; Rozsival, Pavel; Kratochvilova, Vera



Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks.  


In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks. PMID:23717809

Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari



Predictive value of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein in children with appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/PurposeFew studies have addressed the predictive value of white blood cells (WBCs) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at different cutoff values in appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine the cutoff values for WBC and CRP at different periods during clinical evolution of appendicitis and to establish their use for the diagnosis of appendicitis and differentiation of simple from perforated appendicitis.

Marcelo A. Beltrán; Jorge Almonacid; Alfonso Vicencio; Jorge Gutiérrez; Karina S. Cruces; Miguel A. Cumsille



Metabolic changes in newborn infants following surgical operations. II. Acid-base status of whole blood and erythrocytes, blood lactate and electrolytes.  


In 29 newborn infants subjected to surgery for congenital anomalies, the extracellular and intracellular acid-base status, and the sodium, potassium and plasma lactate levels were observed from the second to the seventh postoperative days. During anaesthesia and surgery metabolic acidosis developed but improved spontaneously by the end of the first postoperative day. The metabolic acidosis gradually developing during the postoperative phase was due probably to hypoalimentation. The plasma lactate level decreased on the first days, then increased slightly; the level showed no statistically significant correlation with the acid-base equilibrium. In the postoperative period the sodium level decreased gradually in the plasma while in the erythrocytes it was relatively constant. The diminished plasma sodium/potasium ratio was mainly a result of the decreased plasma sodium concentration. PMID:1229834

Pintér, A



Characterization of recombinant alpha-galactosidase for use in seroconversion from blood group B to O of human erythrocytes.  


Alpha-Galactosidase (alpha-GAL) purified from green coffee bean cleaves the terminal galactose residues from the surface of group B erythrocytes, thereby converting these cells serologically to group O cells. Such enzymatically converted red cells have been transfused into group A and O recipients as part of the first phase of FDA-approved clinical trials. Recently we expressed the recombinant alpha-GAL (r)alpha-GAL) in large quantities in a methylotrophic yeast strain Pichia pastoris and purified the protein to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on a macro prep S50 column. Purified (r)alpha-GAL, migrating as a single band of 41 kDa on a SDS-PAGE, appears to be identical to its native counterpart in specific activity (32 U/mg) and kinetic parameters (K(m) =0.363 mM and V(max) = 46.9 U/mg). Both enzymes demonstrate the same pH profile in the pH range from 2 to 9, with an optimal pH at 6.4 when tested with the substrate p-nitrophenol-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. Furthermore, as with its native counterpart, (r)alpha-GAL specifically cleaves alpha-linked terminal galactose residues from group B red cells without affecting other major antigens on the red cell surface. In addition, we developed a method for using RT-PCR to detect possible DNA contamination in the purified protein preparation, which is one of the concerns for in vivo studies. Thus, with a simple procedure for over-expression and purification of (r)alpha-GAL from P. pastoris culture, one can readily obtain the enzyme needed for large-scale sero-conversion of red cells. PMID:8619622

Zhu, A; Leng, L; Monahan, C; Zhang, Z; Hurst, R; Lenny, L; Goldstein, J



Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. \\u000aA simple flow cytometer was built equipped with a 5-mW helium neon laser that measures simultaneously four light scattering parameters. Lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were identified by

L. W. M. M. Terstappen; Grooth de B. G; K. Visscher; F. A. Kouterik; J. Greve



Isolation of fetal trophoblasts and nucleated erythrocytes from the peripheral blood of pregnant women for prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a study of fetal cell isolation from the peripheral blood of 46 women in the first trimester of pregnancy. The trophoblasts were sorted with paramagnetic beads labelled with a novel monoclonal antibody 340 (Mab340) (Durrant et al., Prenat. Diagn., 14 (1994) 131). This was followed by triple density gradient enrichment to remove maternal lymphocytes and

L. G. Durrant; W. L. Martin; K. M. McDowall; D. T. Y. Liu



A study of erythrocyte changes in white Pekin ducks.  


Erythrocyte distribution studies were determined in 5 control (non-stressed) and 5 ducks which were bled 1.6% of their body weight 3 times at 10-day intervals. Erythrocyte distribution studies were performed using a Coulter ZBI with channelizer and Accucomp accessory. The total erythrocyte count (P1 + P2) and the P1 population dropped 10% from the pre-bleeding count; however, test animals exhibited less than a 10% change after the third sampling. There was no apparent effect of the bleeding on the total counts and the P1 count over the 28-day trial period. PMID:3212935

Hebert, R; Nanney, J; Pedersoli, W; Krista, L; Spano, J



Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in leukemic phase: extraordinarily high white blood cell count.  


Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct type of T/null-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that commonly involves nodal and extranodal sites. The World Health Organization of lymphoid neoplasms recognizes two types: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive or ALK negative, the former as a result of abnormalities involving the ALK gene at chromosome 2p23. Patients with ALCL rarely develop a leukemic phase of disease, either at the time of initial presentation or during the clinical course. Described herein is a patient with ALK+ ALCL, small cell variant, associated with the t(2;5)(p23;q35), who initially presented with leukemic involvement and an extraordinarily high leukocyte count of 529 x 10(9)/L, which subsequently peaked at 587 x 10(9)/L. Despite chemotherapy the patient died 2(1/2) months after diagnosis. In the literature review 20 well-documented cases are identified of ALCL in leukemic phase reported previously, with a WBC ranging from 15 to 151 x 10(9)/L. Leukemic phase of ALCL occurs almost exclusively in patients with ALK+ ALCL, most often associated with the small cell variant and the t(2;5)(p23;q35), similar to the present case. Patients with leukemic phase ALK+ ALCL appear to have a poorer prognosis than most patients with ALK+ ALCL. PMID:19432678

Nguyen, Jacqueline T; Condron, Michael R; Nguyen, Nghia D; De, Jitakshi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Padula, Anthony



Elevated Serum Levels of CCL17 Correlate with Increased Peripheral Blood Platelet Count in Patients with Active Tuberculosis in China ?  

PubMed Central

The serum levels of Th2 markers, including CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC]), CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine [MDC]), and soluble CD30, were measured in 101 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients, 103 healthy community controls, and 18 tuberculosis patients in recovery. The levels of CCL17/TARC (249.8 ± 19.91 versus 143.9 ± 10.54, P < 0.0001) and sCD30 (7.78 ± 0.44 versus 4.93 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis than in controls; however, the CCL22/MDC serum level had no statistical difference between the groups (579.9 ± 16.42 versus 556.5 ± 15.29, P = 0.298). The counts of platelet and eosinophil in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis are significantly increased as well (289.4 ± 8.14 versus 248.3 ± 5.34 [P < 0.0001] and 165.1 ± 14.33 versus 102.5 ± 10.72 [P = 0.0005], respectively), and the platelet counts were positively correlated with serum TARC levels (Pearson r = 0.456, P < 0.0001), which indicates a new source of Th2 bias showing in active TB patients.

Feng, Yonghong; Yin, Hongyun; Mai, Guangliang; Mao, Ling; Yue, Jun; Xiao, Heping; Hu, Zhongyi



Elevated serum levels of CCL17 correlate with increased peripheral blood platelet count in patients with active tuberculosis in China.  


The serum levels of Th2 markers, including CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine [TARC]), CCL22 (macrophage-derived chemokine [MDC]), and soluble CD30, were measured in 101 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients, 103 healthy community controls, and 18 tuberculosis patients in recovery. The levels of CCL17/TARC (249.8 ± 19.91 versus 143.9 ± 10.54, P < 0.0001) and sCD30 (7.78 ± 0.44 versus 4.93 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis than in controls; however, the CCL22/MDC serum level had no statistical difference between the groups (579.9 ± 16.42 versus 556.5 ± 15.29, P = 0.298). The counts of platelet and eosinophil in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis are significantly increased as well (289.4 ± 8.14 versus 248.3 ± 5.34 [P < 0.0001] and 165.1 ± 14.33 versus 102.5 ± 10.72 [P = 0.0005], respectively), and the platelet counts were positively correlated with serum TARC levels (Pearson r = 0.456, P < 0.0001), which indicates a new source of Th2 bias showing in active TB patients. PMID:21270281

Feng, Yonghong; Yin, Hongyun; Mai, Guangliang; Mao, Ling; Yue, Jun; Xiao, Heping; Hu, Zhongyi



A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.  


Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638

Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A



Nucleated red blood cell counts in term neonates with umbilical artery pH < or = 7.00.  


The purpose of this study was to determine whether nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts are elevated in term neonates who have severe fetal acidemia at birth. The neonatal NRBC counts of term (gestational age > or = 37 weeks) neonates with pathological acidemia were compared with those from control neonates who met the following criteria: gestational age > or = 37 weeks, birth weight > or = 2800 g, umbilical artery pH > or = 7.25, and a 5-minute APGAR > 7. Pathological acidemia was defined as an umbilical artery pH < or = 7.0 and a base excess > -12 mEq/L. Twenty-six neonates met all inclusion criteria and were compared to 78 controls. The mean NRBC/100 WBC was 11.9 +/- 13.5 (range 0 to 45) for acidemic neonates compared to 3.9 +/- 2.9 NRBC/100 WBC (range 0 to 11) for control neonates [p <0.001]. Our findings suggest that the onset of hypoxia-ischemia in pregnancies complicated by severe fetal acidemia often begins prior to the intrapartum period. PMID:11383706

Blackwell, S C; Refuerzo, J S; Hassan, S S; Wolfe, H M; Berry, S M; Sorokin, Y



Comparison of automated differential blood cell counts from Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Beckman Coulter DxH 800, and Sysmex XE-2100 in normal and pathologic samples.  


Reliable automated blood cell characterization and quantification remain challenging in pathologic samples, whereas slide reviews due to unnecessary flagging should be avoided. We compared 4 modern hematology analyzers-Abbott Sapphire, Siemens Advia 120, Sysmex XE-2100, and Beckman Coulter DxH 800-regarding complete blood cell count (CBC), leukocyte differential count, and flagging efficacy in a total of 202 samples from hematology patients and normal controls. Manual differential count was used as reference. The analyzers exhibited very good correlation for CBC parameters. Neutrophils and eosinophils also showed very good correlations, whereas lymphocytes and monocytes correlated fairly. The Advia 120 displayed notably lower measurements for both parameters, which is attributable to classification of some events as large unstained cells. Basophil counts were unreliable with all analyzers. Flagging for blasts and immature granulocytes showed moderate sensitivity and specificity. Operators must not rely on blast flagging alone to detect leukemic samples with any analyzer. PMID:23596116

Meintker, Lisa; Ringwald, Jürgen; Rauh, Manfred; Krause, Stefan W



White blood cell count and mortality in patients with ischemic and nonischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (an analysis of the studies of left ventricular dysfunction [SOLVD])  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) trials to assess the predictive value of the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count on mortality. Mortality was higher in participants with a baseline WBC count >7,000 compared to those with a baseline WBC ?7,000 (27% vs 21%, p <0.0001). After controlling for important covariates, each increase

Howard A Cooper; Derek V Exner; Myron A Waclawiw; Michael J Domanski



Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: Should obese patients have their own "normal values?".  


Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly. Am. J. Hematol. 89:671-677, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24644218

Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George



Genome-Wide Investigation of Regional Blood-Based DNA Methylation Adjusted for Complete Blood Counts Implicates BNC2 in Ovarian Cancer.  


Due to its potential as a biomarker for early cancer detection, blood-based DNA methylation (DNAm) is of interest in cancer research. Specifically, highly predictive mechanisms for early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are desired, so previous studies have compared DNAm between EOC cases and controls. However, case-control studies are confounded by the distribution of white blood cell types through an immune response induced by the cancer. Rather than determining the distribution of the cell types manually or investigating isolated cell types, an alternative approach involves the use of complete blood count (CBC), which is routinely collected. In the analysis of an EOC case-control study of DNAm, we incorporate CBC measures to adjust for this confounding and compare DNAm between 242 EOC cases and 181 age-matched controls (assayed on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 or HumanMethylation450 Beadchips), at both the individual CpG and CpG island levels. We found that adjustment for leukocyte distribution using CBC measurements dramatically reduced confounding, with 62 single CpG sites found to be associated with EOC status after adjustment (P < 5E-8). Additionally, regional DNAm was assessed by applying principal components analysis to CpG islands. The top associated CpG island (P = 7E-6) was located in the promoter/transcription start site of the human basonuclin 2 gene (BNC2), a known susceptibility gene for EOC risk identified through GWAS. Follow-up studies are necessary to establish the role of BNC2 in blood-based DNA and EOC, including prospective studies to validate this region as a potential biomarker and predictor of EOC susceptibility. PMID:24853948

Winham, Stacey J; Armasu, Sebastian M; Cicek, Mine S; Larson, Melissa C; Cunningham, Julie M; Kalli, Kimberly R; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L



Effects of exercise and oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) fatty acids on blood oxidant markers and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses.  


The aim of this study was to investigate in a placebo-controlled field study the effect of a (n-3)-vitamin supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF), oxidant/antioxidant markers and plasmatic omega3/omega6 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in 12 eventing horses. Venous blood was sampled at rest before (PRE) and after (POST) a three week treatment period with either the supplement (group S, n=6) or a placebo (group P, n=6) as well as after 15min (POST E15') and 24h (POST E24h) after a standardised exercise test. The following markers were analysed: EMF, plasma antioxidant capacity of water and lipid soluble components, ascorbic acid, uric acid (UA), glutathione (reduced: GSH, oxidised: GSSG), vitamin E (Vit E), beta-carotene, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, selenium, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), oxidised proteins (Protox), lipid peroxides (Pool) and FAR. EMF did not differ between group S and P after treatment, but GPx remained unchanged in group S whereas it decreased in group P and plasma Cu/Zn ratio remained unchanged whereas it increased in group P. FAR were significantly increased in group S. Exercise induced a significant decrease of EMF (POST vs. E24h) in both groups, but which was significantly lower at E15' in group S than in group P. Exercise induced a significant increase of UA and ACW (POST vs. E15') and Protox (POST vs. E24h) in both groups. An exercise-related decrease in GSH and Pool (POST vs. E15') was found in group P, whereas Vit E and FAR (POST vs. E24h) significantly decreased in both groups. The study showed that exercise induced a decrease in EMF in horses associated with changes of blood oxidative balance. The (omega-3)-vitamin supplementation tested improved the oxidative balance poorly but delayed the exercise-induced decrease of EMF and increased the FAR. PMID:17110141

De Moffarts, B; Portier, K; Kirschvink, N; Coudert, J; Fellmann, N; van Erck, E; Letellier, C; Motta, C; Pincemail, J; Art, T; Lekeux, P



Minimal sensor count approach to fuzzy logic rotary blood pump flow control.  


A rotary blood pump fuzzy logic flow controller without flow sensors was developed and tested in vitro. The controller, implemented in LabView, was set to maintain a flow set point in the presence of external pressure disturbances. Flow was estimated as a function of measured pump's delta P and speed, using a steady-state, nonlinear approximation. The fuzzy controller used the pump's flow estimate and delta P as feedback variables. The defuzzified control output manipulated the pump speed. Membership functions included flow error, delta P, and pump speed. Experimental runs in a mock loop (water/glycerin 3.5 cPs, 37 degrees C), using the estimated flow, were compared with those using a Transonic flow meter for nine conditions of flow and delta P (4 to 6 L/min, 150 to 350 mm Hg). Pressure disturbances generated by a servo pinch valve ranged from +/-23 to +/-47 mm Hg. Results indicated that the fuzzy controller ably regulated the flow set point to within +/-10% of the baseline even under large swings in pressure. There was no difference in controller performance between the ultrasonic flow measurement and the estimated flow calculation scenarios. These tests demonstrated that the fuzzy controller is capable of rejecting disturbances and regulating flow to acceptable limits while using a flow estimate. PMID:17413551

Casas, Fernando; Ahmed, Nisar; Reeves, Andrew



Comparison of platelet clumping and complete blood count results with Sysmex XT-2000iV in feline blood sampled on EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD (citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole)  

Microsoft Academic Search

False thrombocytopenia may result from platelet aggregation, especially in feline ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) blood specimens. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) was added to 46 feline EDTA specimens to test its anti-aggregation action. Platelet aggregation was estimated from blood films and a complete blood count was performed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser. Platelet aggregation score was >2 in 11\\/46

Fanny Granat; Anne Geffré; Jean-Pierre Braun; Catherine Trumel



Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900?cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend <0.0001), respectively, when compared to the subnormal leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts.

Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun



Effects of 4-nonylphenol on blood cells of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  


In the present work, the destructive effects of the 4-nonylphenol on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, namely African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were studied. Apoptosis, erythrocytes alterations, micronucleus test and blood parameters count were used as biological indicators to detect those effects. After exposure to sublethal concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1mg/l), apoptotic red blood cells with many malformations and micronucleated erythrocytes were recorded. Decrease in the blood parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), package cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets, white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, basophils, monocytes and increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), neutrophils, eosinophils indicated the negative effects of 4-nonylphenol. It was concluded that, the 4-nonylphenol caused genotoxicity in erythrocytes with many malformations in shape and number indicated with other blood parameters. PMID:21501852

Mekkawy, Imam A; Mahmoud, Usama M; Sayed, Alaa El-Din H



Subcompartmentalisation of Proteins in the Rhoptries Correlates with Ordered Events of Erythrocyte Invasion by the Blood Stage Malaria Parasite  

PubMed Central

Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction – the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Gout, Alexander M.; Dekiwadia, Chaitali; Marapana, Danushka S.; Angrisano, Fiona; Turnbull, Lynne; Riglar, David T.; Rogers, Kelly L.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Ralph, Stuart A.; Speed, Terence P.; Baum, Jake



Relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a function of white blood cell and absolute neutrophil counts during maintenance chemotherapy.  


Several reports document an inverse correlation between bioavailability of maintenance chemotherapeutic agents and the likelihood of relapse in childhood. White blood cell counts (WBC) and absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) are easily ascertainable parameters which might be expected to reflect plasma levels of chemotherapy. To determine whether WBC and ANC predict outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we did a multivariate analysis of means of these values during maintenance therapy in patients with ALL treated on a single protocol. Of the 52 patients, 15 (29%) relapsed. For those still disease-free, minimum time of follow-up is 7-8/12 years. During the first year of maintenance therapy, mean WBC (x 10(3)/mm3) in the relapsed and nonrelapsed groups were 4.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.9 +/- 0.7, respectively (p = 0.03); mean ANC (x 10(3)/mm3) were 3.0 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.6 (p = 0.05). However, the range of values was large with considerable overlap between the two groups. There was no obvious difference in distribution of values when confounding prognostic features were adjusted for in the analysis. No significant differences were seen between WBC or ANC during the second year of therapy. Larger numbers of patients will be needed to ascertain whether specific guidelines for dosage modifications can be made on the basis of serial WBC. Future pharmacokinetic studies should look at possible correlations with mean WBC and ANC. PMID:1524994

Lucas, K; Gula, M J; Blatt, J



Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

PubMed Central

Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Hanscheid, Thomas; Langin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Potschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P



Effects of cold water swimming on blood rheological properties and composition of fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of untrained older rats.  


This is the first report on the effects of a single bout of swimming to exhaustion in cold water on rat erythrocyte deformability, aggregation and fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes. The results indicate that there was a significant decrease in body temperature of experimental rats swimming in water at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C when compared to the control. Erythrocyte aggregation indices did not change after swimming in water at 4 degrees C whereas erythrocyte deformability increased at shear stress 1,13 [Pa] and 15,96 [Pa]. Physical effort performed in water at 4 degrees C when compared to the control group resulted in an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid content in erythrocyte membranes that influenced the increase in their fluidity and permeability even though that of polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids decreased. Physical effort performed in 25 degrees C water resulted in an increase in saturated fatty acid content and a decrease in all polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids when compared to the control group. Swimming of untrained old rats in cold water affected rheological properties oferythrocytes in a negligible way while changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes were more pronounced. PMID:22195477

Teleg?ów, Aneta; Dabrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Bilski, Jan; Ja?kiewicz, Jerzy; Gdula-Argasi?ska, Joanna; G?odzik, Jacek; Lizak, Dorota; Kepi?ska, Magdalena



Cell Types, Differential Cell Counts, and Blood Cell Measurements of a Portuguese Shark, 'Centroscymnus coelolepis,' Captured at 700 Fathoms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Portuguese shark, Centroscymnus coelolepis, 620 mm (24.4 inches) in total length captured in a lobster trap 700 fm deep at Hudson Canyon in February 1971 had a mean erythrocyte size of 33.4 x 23.6 micron, which is larger than any previously recorded for...

S. W. Sherburne



Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People  

PubMed Central

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming



Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.  


White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming



Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.  


Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ? 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management. PMID:23928130

Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak



The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  


Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W



Caffeine inhibits suicidal erythrocyte death.  


Eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes, is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis is triggered by several stress conditions including isotonic cell shrinkage (Cl(-) removal) and energy depletion (glucose removal). Both are effective through an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes are cleared from circulating blood. Enhanced eryptosis thus leads to anemia. Accordingly, drugs interfering with eryptosis may prove useful in the treatment of anemia. The present study explored, whether caffeine interferes with eryptosis. Erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure was estimated from annexin V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter and cytosolic Ca(2+) activity from Fluo3 fluorescence. Under control conditions, eryptosis affected less than 5% of the erythrocytes and was not significantly modified by the presence of caffeine (50-500 microM). Glucose depletion (for 48 hours) significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence and annexin V-binding and decreased forward scatter, effects partially reversed by caffeine (500 microM). Low Cl(-) solution (Cl(-) exchanged by gluconate for 48 hours) similarly increased annexin V-binding and decreased forward scatter, effects again reversed by caffeine (50-500 microM). In conclusion, caffeine inhibits Ca(2+) entry following glucose depletion and thus counteracts eryptosis during isotonic cell shrinkage and energy depletion. PMID:18769052

Floride, Elisa; Föller, Michael; Ritter, Markus; Lang, Florian



Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.  


The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p?0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p?0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p?0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients. PMID:22982547

Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter



Comparative study of erythrocytes of polyploid hybrids from various fish subfamily crossings.  


We have undertaken comparative studies of the number and phenotypes of erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of red crucian carp (RCC), blunt snout bream (BSB), and their hybrids, including triploids, tetraploids, and pentaploids. The results indicate that the mean nuclear volume of erythrocytes in peripheral blood increases regularly with increasing ploidy. Furthermore, many more mature erythrocytes have a dumbbell nucleus in the peripheral blood of polyploid hybrids compared with their diploid parents. With the increase in ploidy level, the percentage of such erythrocytes increases. The polyploid hybrids also have a large number of erythrocytes with abnormal shapes. For example, round and tear-shaped erythrocytes have been observed in the peripheral blood of polyploid hybrids. Since the erythrocytes in polyploid hybrids with their larger volume and lower specific surface area are unfavorable for the conveyance of oxygen, morphological variations of erythrocytes might improve defective blood circulation. PMID:19225811

Lu, WenTing; Liu, ShaoJun; Long, Yu; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Chen, Song; Liu, JinHui; Liu, Yun



Phenotypic conversion of human erythrocytes by H-Y antigen.  


Human male erythrocytes absorb H-Y antiserum while those of human females do not. Studies on the mode of attachment of H-Y antigen to the erythrocyte membrane reveal: (1) After several washes H-Y antigen can only be removed from male erythrocytes and not from other male cells such as granulocytes. (2) Female erythrocytes absorb exogenous H-Y antigen and thus become H-Y positive. (3) Complement mediated lysis of erythrocytes by H-Y antiserum is not sex specific but is dependent on the ABO blood group type of the red blood cells. It is concluded that H-Y antigen is unspecifically attached to red blood cells and is therefore not an integral part of the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:7005076

Müller, U; Mayerová, A; Siebers, J W; Wolf, U



40 CFR 799.9539 - TSCA mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of a DNA specific stain (e.g. acridine orange (techniques described in...Peripheral Blood Reticulocytes Using Acridine Orange-Coated Slides. Mutation Research...Mouse Peripheral Blood Erythrocytes by Acridine Orange Supravital Staining: The...



40 CFR 799.9539 - TSCA mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...use of a DNA specific stain (e.g. acridine orange (techniques described in...Peripheral Blood Reticulocytes Using Acridine Orange-Coated Slides. Mutation Research...Mouse Peripheral Blood Erythrocytes by Acridine Orange Supravital Staining: The...



Erythrocytes induce proinflammatory endothelial activation in hypoxia.  


Although exposure to ambient hypoxia is known to cause proinflammatory vascular responses, the mechanisms initiating these responses are not understood. We tested the hypothesis that in systemic hypoxia, erythrocyte-derived H(2)O(2) induces proinflammatory gene transcription in vascular endothelium. We exposed mice or isolated, perfused murine lungs to 4 hours of hypoxia (8% O(2)). Leukocyte counts increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors, reactive oxygen species, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in freshly recovered lung endothelial cells (FLECs). These effects were inhibited by extracellular catalase and by the removal of erythrocytes, indicating that the responses were attributable to erythrocyte-derived H(2)O(2). Concomitant nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? stabilization in FLECs occurred only in the presence of erythrocytes. Hemoglobin binding to the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3, induced the release of H(2)O(2) from erythrocytes and the p65 translocation in FLECs. These data indicate for the first time, to our knowledge, that erythrocytes are responsible for endothelial transcriptional responses in hypoxia. PMID:23043086

Huertas, Alice; Das, Shonit R; Emin, Memet; Sun, Li; Rifkind, Joseph M; Bhattacharya, Jahar; Bhattacharya, Sunita



Identification of the erythrocyte binding domains of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax and the related monkey malaria, P. knowlesi, require interaction with the Duffy blood group antigen, a receptor for a family of chemokines that includes interleukin 8, to invade human erythrocytes. One P. vivax and three P. knowlesi proteins that serve as erythrocyte binding ligands in such interactions share sequence homology. Expression of different regions of the P. vivax protein in COS7 cells identified a cysteine-rich domain that bound Duffy blood group-positive but not Duffy blood group-negative human erythrocytes. The homologous domain of the P. knowlesi proteins also bound erythrocytes, but had different specificities. The P. vivax and P. knowlesi binding domains lie in one of two regions of homology with the P. falciparum sialic acid binding protein, another erythrocyte binding ligand, indicating conservation of the domain for erythrocyte binding in evolutionarily distant malaria species. The binding domains of these malaria ligands represent potential vaccine candidates and targets for receptor-blockade therapy.



Lack of dietary calcium effect on chlordecone increased white blood cell count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat.  


Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 ppm of chlordecone (Cd) mixed in calcium-sufficient (Ca-S) or calcium-deficient (Ca-D) diet for 15 days. The control rats fed with Ca-D diet exhibited a significant increase in white blood cell (WBC) counts compared to the rats fed with Ca-S diet. Dietary calcium (Ca), however, did not elicit any significant effect on total iron content and iron-binding capacity (transferrin) of control rats, whereas Cd at higher concentrations significantly increased WBC counts, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of both Ca-S and Ca-D rats. The data suggest that dietary Ca did not alter Cd-increased WBC count, total iron, and iron-binding capacity in serum of rat. PMID:8727520

Chetty, K N; Fantroy, L; Landau, G; Ivie, G W



Alterations of the Erythrocyte Membrane during Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Erythrocytes have been long considered as “dead” cells with transport of oxygen (O2) as their only function. However, the ability of red blood cells (RBCs) to modulate the microcirculation is now recognized as an important additional function. This capacity is regulated by a key element in the rheologic process: the RBC membrane. This membrane is a complex unit with multiple interactions between the extracellular and intracellular compartments: blood stream, endothelium, and other blood cells on the one hand, and the intracytoplasmic compartment with possible rapid adaptation of erythrocyte metabolism on the other. In this paper, we review the alterations in the erythrocyte membrane observed in critically ill patients and the influence of these alterations on the microcirculatory abnormalities observed in such patients. An understanding of the mechanisms of RBC rheologic alterations in sepsis and their effects on blood flow and on oxygen transport may be important to help reduce morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis.

Serroukh, Yasmina; Djebara, Sarah; Lelubre, Christophe; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael



Alterations of the Erythrocyte Membrane during Sepsis.  


Erythrocytes have been long considered as "dead" cells with transport of oxygen (O(2)) as their only function. However, the ability of red blood cells (RBCs) to modulate the microcirculation is now recognized as an important additional function. This capacity is regulated by a key element in the rheologic process: the RBC membrane. This membrane is a complex unit with multiple interactions between the extracellular and intracellular compartments: blood stream, endothelium, and other blood cells on the one hand, and the intracytoplasmic compartment with possible rapid adaptation of erythrocyte metabolism on the other. In this paper, we review the alterations in the erythrocyte membrane observed in critically ill patients and the influence of these alterations on the microcirculatory abnormalities observed in such patients. An understanding of the mechanisms of RBC rheologic alterations in sepsis and their effects on blood flow and on oxygen transport may be important to help reduce morbidity and mortality from severe sepsis. PMID:22675622

Serroukh, Yasmina; Djebara, Sarah; Lelubre, Christophe; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael



[White blood cells counts and parasite density in malaria in children aged 6 to 60 months in urban areas of Togo].  


Rational use of the artemisinin-based combination therapies in Togo requires laboratory parasitemia values to confirm suspected malaria. This study was conducted to determine the impact of the measured white blood cell (WBC) count on the determination of malaria parasite density among children younger than 5 years old infected with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in Togo. This cross-sectional study of 267 children from four pediatric centers diagnosed malaria with both thick and thin blood smears and counted WBCs with a hematology analyzer. The parasite densities, calculated with the number of WBCs and estimated with an assumed count of 8,000/?L, were compared with the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test. The children's median age was 35 months (interquartile range [24-48]), with a sex ratio of 1.32. The median WBC value was 8,300 cells/?L (range: 1,300-24,900 cells/?L). The median parasitemia value calculated with the absolute WBC count was 35,714 (range: 139-48,860 parasites/?L) was not statistically different from that estimated with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L - 33 125 parasites/?L (p = 0.564). This study shows that malaria parasite density obtained by assuming 8000 cells/?L does not result in overestimations for children aged 6-59 months. PMID:24480599

Dorkenoo, A M; Layibo, Y; Agbo, Y M; Morgah, K; Agbčrč, D



Low level leucocyte counting: a critical variable in the validation of leucodepleted blood transfusion components as highlighted by an external quality assessment study.  


Leucocyte counts of < 5 x 106 per blood transfusion product are currently recommended in the UK in order to reduce transfusion-related infections and febrile reactions. Routine leucocyte depletion, however, requires the development of reliable internal and external quality assurance (EQA) programmes. We report preliminary findings from the UK NEQAS for Low-Level Leucocyte Counting from 18 UK Transfusion Centres over a four month period. Data analysis showed that the IMAGN 2000 had the lowest CVs (range 7.5-36%, mean 16.7) for samples with counts of 5-30 cells/microl when compared to the flow cytometric (range 13.8-88%, mean 29.5) and Nageotte methods (range 20.6-117%, mean 61.8). In addition, laboratories using commercial nuclear stains (LeucoCOUNTTM) had consistently lower CVs than those using 'in-house' propidium iodide staining methods. Important differences in flow cytometric gating strategies were also identified. This study highlights the current variability in low level leucocyte counting, especially within the critical range of 5-30 cells/microl (equating to < 5 x 106/l). The acceptance of consensus protocols, including gating strategies and nuclear staining techniques, is required to reduce the observed interlaboratory variation. Finally, we demonstrate that stabilized blood preparations can be successfully used to provide a national/international low-level leucocyte EQA scheme. PMID:11422230

Barnett, D; Goodfellow, K; Ginnever, J; Granger, V; Whitby, L; Reilly, J T



Micronucleus test of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of the people living in the radiation pollution zone as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical plant on April 6, 1993  

SciTech Connect

We have carried out analysis of the number of blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes with micronuclei in the inhabitants of four settlements located near the place of the accident which happened at the atomic power station of the Siberian Chemical plant (Tomsk-7) on April 6, 1993. In all cases, the people examined showed a considerable increase in the number of cells with micronuclei as compared with the control. We observed the same people for two years and found a gradual decrease in the number of cells with micronuclei. It has been shown in this work that people born in 1963-1970 have a much higher level of cells with micronuclei which we tend to regard as a result of the radiation accident at the Siberian chemical plant in 1963. The data we have obtained allow us to conclude that penetration of radionuclides into the human organism in the prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to the formation of stable clones of erythroid cells with micronuclei and a higher level of erythrocytes with micronuclei which can remain in the blood for a long time.

Ilyinskikh, N.N.; Ivanchuk, I.I.; Ilyinskikh, E.N. [Siberian Medical Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation)



Malaria, erythrocytic infection, and anemia.  


Malaria is a major world health problem. It results from infection of parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the major human malarias, with P falciparum being the more virulent. During their blood stages of infection, both P falciparum and P vivax induce anemia. Severe malarial anemia caused by P falciparum is responsible for approximately a third of the deaths associated with disease. Malarial anemia appears to be multi-factorial. It involves increased removal of circulating erythrocytes as well as decreased production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The molecular mechanisms underlying malarial anemia are largely unknown. Over the last five years, malaria parasite ligands have been investigated for their remodeling of erythrocytes and possible roles in destruction of mature erythrocytes. Polymorphisms in cytokines have been associated with susceptibility to severe malarial anemia: these cytokines and malaria "toxins" likely function by perturbing erythropoiesis. Finally a number of co-infections increase susceptibility to malarial anemia, likely because they exacerbate inflammation caused by malaria. Because of the complexities involved, the study of severe malarial anemia may need a "systems approach" to yield comprehensive understanding of defects in both erythropoiesis and immunity associated with disease. New and emerging tools such as (i) mathematical modeling of the dynamics of host control of malarial infection, (ii) ex vivo perfusion of human spleen to measure both infected and uninfected erythrocyte retention, and (iii) in vitro development of erythroid progenitors to dissect responsiveness to cytokine imbalance or malaria toxins, may be especially useful to develop integrated mechanistic insights and therapies to control this major and fatal disease pathology. PMID:20008186

Haldar, Kasturi; Mohandas, Narla



Differences in normal values for murine white blood cell counts and other hematological parameters based on sampling site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and design: The effect of blood sampling site on the hemogram and neutrophil adhesion molecules was examined in BALB\\/c mice.¶Materials and methods: Blood samples were drawn from the tail, eye, and heart during anesthesia with ketamine and xylazine. Cell numbers were quantified with an automated counter and flow cytometry was used to quantify CD11b and CD18.¶Results: Total white blood

J. A. Nemzek; G. L. Bolgos; B. A. Williams; D. G. Remick



Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and normoblast count were higher in the newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group, and total leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and thrombocyte counts were lower. The number of neutropenic and thrombocytopenic subjects in newborns of hypertensive mothers was higher compared to the control group. On peripheral smears, dysplastic changes in neutrophils and erythrocytes were observed with a higher rate in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. HbF levels were found to be higher in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of infections in newborns of hypertensive mothers was found to be higher than the control group. Conclusion: Newborns of hypertensive mothers should be carefully evaluated and monitored in terms of hematologic abnormalities. Complete blood counts and peripheral blood smears can be used as significant parameters for early diagnosis of possible complications. PMID:23812509

Bolat, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan



Assumed White Blood Cell Count of 8,000 Cells/?L Overestimates Malaria Parasite Density in the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Quantification of parasite density is an important component in the diagnosis of malaria infection. The accuracy of this estimation varies according to the method used. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between the parasite density values obtained with the assumed value of 8,000 cells/?L and the automated WBC count. Moreover, the same comparative analysis was carried out for other assumed values of WBCs. The study was carried out in Brazil with 403 malaria patients who were infected in different endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The use of a fixed WBC count of 8,000 cells/?L to quantify parasite density in malaria patients led to overestimated parasitemia and resulted in low reliability when compared to the automated WBC count. Assumed values ranging between 5,000 and 6,000 cells/?L, and 5,500 cells/?L in particular, showed higher reliability and more similar values of parasite density when compared between the 2 methods. The findings show that assumed WBC count of 5,500 cells/?L could lead to a more accurate estimation of parasite density for malaria patients in this endemic region.

Alves-Junior, Eduardo R.; Gomes, Luciano T.; Ribatski-Silva, Daniele; Mendes, Clebson Rodrigues J.; Leal-Santos, Fabio A.; Simoes, Luciano R.; Mello, Marcia Beatriz C.; Fontes, Cor Jesus F.



The relationship between nucleated red blood cell counts at birth and neuropsychological outcome in preterm-birth preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between a putative marker of antenatal hypoxia, nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in circulating neonatal blood obtained shortly after birth, and motor, memory and intellectual development at preschool age in children with history of preterm birth (gestational ages 24–34 weeks). ^ Children with congenital disorders and children who

Angela K DeBastos



Genetic polymorphism of blood proteins in the troops of Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata : II. Erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase polymorphism in Macaca fuscata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating the genetic marker for population genetics of Japanese macaques by electrophoresis, the author found the erythrocyte lacate dehydrogenase (LDH) polymorphism existing in some troops. There were four kinds of variations which seemed to be controlled by two loci, controlling A and B subunits of this enzyme. The variant phenotypes were named LDH-Amac2-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac3-1 LDH-Bmac1-1, LDH-Amac 1-1 LDH-Bmac2-1,

Takayoshi Shotake



Effects of light with several wavelengths on human erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the low power light and the tissues is not clear. We chose the blood and the erythrocytes because, the first one is the plenty and most necessary for life and the erythrocyte is the simplest cell. Light from different sources, HeNe laser, 675 nm laser, 785 nm laser, 904 nm GaAs laser and 940 nm light emitting

Esperanza Puron-Sopena; Antonio M. Fontela; Elda Palomo; Carmen Camber; Serleides de Roux; Arllene Perez; Yaise Gonzalez-Lavina



Comparative clinical study of canine and feline total blood cell count results with seven in-clinic and two commercial laboratory hematology analyzers  

PubMed Central

Background A CBC is an integral part of the assessment of health and disease in companion animals. While in the past newer technologies for CBC analysis were limited to large clinical pathology laboratories, several smaller and affordable automated hematology analyzers have been developed for in-clinic use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare CBC results generated by 7 in-clinic laser- and impedance-based hematology instruments and 2 commercial laboratory analyzers. Methods Over a 3-month period, fresh EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples from healthy and diseased dogs (n = 260) and cats (n = 110) were analyzed on the LaserCyte, ForCyte, MS45, Heska CBC, Scil Vet ABC, VetScan HMT, QBC Vet Autoread, CELL-DYN 3500, and ADVIA 120 analyzers. Results were compared by regression correlation (linear, Deming, Passing-Bablok) and Bland-Altman bias plots using the ADVIA as the criterion standard for all analytes except HCT, which was compared with manual PCV Precision, linearity, and carryover also were evaluated. Results For most analytes, the in-clinic analyzers and the CELL-DYN performed similarly and correlated well with the ADVIA. The biases ranged from ?0.6 to 2.4 × 109/L for WBC count, 0 to 0.9 × 1012/L for RBC count, ? 1.5 to 0.7g/dL for hemoglobin concentration, ?4.3 to 8.3 fL for MCV, and ?69.3 to 77.2 × 109/L for platelet count. Compared with PCV, the HCT on most analyzers had a bias from 0.1% to 7.2%. Canine reticulocyte counts on the LaserCyte and ForCyte correlated but had a negative bias compared with those on the ADVIA. Precision, linearity, and carryover results were excellent for most analyzers. Conclusions Total WBC and RBC counts were acceptable on all in-clinic hematology instruments studied, with limitations for some RBC parameters and platelet counts. Together with evaluation of a blood film, these in-clinic instruments can provide useful information on canine and feline patients in veterinary practices.

Becker, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Giger, Urs



White blood-cell count and the risk of impaired fasting glucose or Type II diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Aims\\/hypothesis:   To investigate the association between white blood-cell (WBC) count and the development of diabetes, independent of cigarette\\u000a smoking. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   We examined 2953 Japanese men who were office workers and between 35 and 59 years of age and who did not have impaired fasting\\u000a glucose (IFG) (a fasting glucose concentration of 6.1–6.9 mmol\\/l), Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (a

N. Nakanishi; H. Yoshida; Y. Matsuo; K. Suzuki; K. Tatara



CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects.  

PubMed Central

We examined the relationships among CD4+-T-cell counts, spontaneous apoptosis, and Fas expression among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. After 2 days of incubation, propidium iodide DNA staining and flow cytometry revealed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with the lowest CD4+-cell numbers (0 to 99/microl; n = 20) showed the highest frequency of apoptosis: 22.4% +/- 2.7% (mean +/- standard error) versus 13.8% +/- 1.2% and 12.7% +/- 1.4% among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with 100 to 499 CD4+ cells/microl (n = 19) and >500 CD4+ cells/microl (n = 17), respectively. Each of these means differed significantly from the mean frequency of apoptosis (6.3% +/- 0.7%) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1-seronegative controls (P < 0.001, Student's t test). After incubation, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing Fas antigen was increased for the HIV-1-infected subjects, and this was most evident for patients with more advanced disease. Among patients with fewer than 100 CD4+ cells/microl, 64.4% +/- 5.4% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were Fas+, as opposed to 25.8% +/- 3.0% and 14.5% +/- 1.7% Fas+ cells among patients with more than 100 CD4+ cells/microl and healthy controls, respectively (P < 0.05 for each group comparison). Interestingly, in all populations, most apoptotic cells did not express Fas. Thus, apoptosis and Fas expression are increased in incubated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1-infected patients and these phenomena are enhanced as disease progresses.

Patki, A H; Georges, D L; Lederman, M M



Cutaneous presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as unique extramedullar involvement in a patient with normal peripheral blood lymphocyte count (monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis).  


Skin infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very rare and almost all reported cases occur in advanced stage. We report a patient with no relevant past medical history who presented with cutaneous erythematous plaques. A punch biopsy showed typical CLL morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Subsequent studies revealed a normal lymphocyte count in peripheral blood, and there was no evidence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Flow cytometry demonstrated a clonal B-cell population both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (1.60 × 10(9)/l) with a CLL phenotype, but it did not fulfill required criteria for CLL diagnosis. Without cutaneous involvement, this case should be classified as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. PMID:23639136

Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José-Luis; Fuente, María-José; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández-Figueras, Maria-Teresa; Juncŕ, Jordi; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Ariza, Aurelio



The erythrocyte receptor for Fusobacterium necrophorum hemolysin: phosphatidylcholine as a possible candidate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to determine the receptor for the hemolysin of Fusobacterium necrophorum using horse erythrocyte or its membranes as target. The spectrum of erythrocyte sensitivity has indicated that horse, dog and mouse erythrocytes are highly sensitive whereas cattle, sheep, goat and chicken red blood cells are insensitive to this hemolysin. A high correlation between sensitivity and phosphatidylcholine content

Kingsley Kwaku Amoako; Yoshitaka Goto; Naoaki Misawa; De Long Xu; Toshiharu Shinjo



In vitro susceptibility of duck, chicken, and pig erythrocyte lipids to peroxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

e susceptibility of erythrocyte lipid to in vitro peroxidation as measured by TBARS (thiobarbi- turic acid-reactive substances) and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and erythrocyte suspension before and after incubation with hydrogen peroxide was assessed in ducks, chickens and pigs. A high susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidation in vitro was observed in all animals tested, but this




Effect of lead on erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed Central

The effect of blood lead on erythrocyte membrane proteins was studied in 28 workers from a scrap lead refining factory and in 18 controls working in railway construction. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the polypeptides in the erythrocyte membrane showed that bands 3 and 4.1 had significantly decreased while bands 2.3, 6, and 7 had significantly increased in the lead workers compared with the controls. For the lead workers, the correlation coefficients between blood lead and bands 2.3 and 3 were r = 0.545 (p less than 0.01) and r = -0.51 (p less than 0.01) respectively. These results suggest that the decrease in erythrocyte membrane permeability results from a decrease in the membrane transfer protein responsible for band 3. Images

Fukumoto, K; Karai, I; Horiguchi, S



Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Exposure in ?-Thalassemia.  


[ABS]Phospholipid asymmetry is well maintained in erythrocyte (RBC) membranes with phosphatidylserine (PS) exclusively present in the inner leaflet. Eryptosis, the suicidal death of RBCs, is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipids scrambling with PS exposure at the cell surface. Erythrocytes exposing PS are recognized, bound, engulfed, and degraded by macrophages. Eryptosis thus fosters clearance of affected RBCs from circulating blood, which may aggravate anemia in pathological conditions. Thalassemia patients are more sensitive to the eryptotic depletion and osmotic shock which may affect RBC membrane phospholipid asymmetry. We aimed in this work to determine the RBC PS exposure in splenectomized and nonsplenectomized ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients and correlate it with the clinical presentation and laboratory data. RBCs were stained for annexin V to detect phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure in 46 ?-TM patients (27 splenectomized and 19 nonsplenectomized) compared to 17 healthy subjects as a control group. We observed a significant increase in RBC PS exposure in ?-TM patients compared to control group (P = .0001). Erythrocyte PS exposure was significantly higher in splenectomized ?-TM patients compared with nonsplenectomized ?-TM patients (P = .001). No correlation was found between RBC PS exposure and clinical or hematological data of ?-TM patients, but there was a positive correlation between RBC PS exposure and ferritin level in ?-TM patients have higher levels of RBC PS exposure, and splenectomy was shown to aggravate RBC PS exposure without aggravation of anemia. PMID:25000947

Ibrahim, Hamdy A; Fouda, Manal I; Yahya, Raida S; Abousamra, Nashwa K; Abd Elazim, Rania A



[Genetic polymorphism of blood group and erythrocyte enzymes in three ethno-territorial groups of the northern European part of Russia].  


Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056). PMID:11771313

Evseeva, I V; Spitsyn, V A; Makarov, S V; Bychkovskaia, L S; Paé, G V



Polyvinylpyrrolidone Used as Cryoprotective Substance for Erythrocyte Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results obtained with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) used as a cryoprotective substance for erythrocyte preservation were presented. Best in vitro results were obtained by rapid freezing of whole blood with a 9% concentration of PVP. Post-transfusion survival...

E. Dobry J. Jelinek J. Livora V. Sebestik





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


Antigenotoxic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and rutin on chromium trioxide-induced micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse peripheral blood.  


This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and rutin on the genotoxic damage induced by Cr(VI) in polychromatic erythrocytes of CD-1 mice. The animals were divided into the following groups: (i) vehicle only; (ii) flavonoids (10 mg/kg EGCG, 100 mg/kg quercetin, 625 mg/kg rutin, or 100-625 mg/kg quercetin-rutin); (iii) Cr(VI) (20 mg/kg of CrO3); and (iv) flavonoids concomitantly with Cr(VI). All of the treatments were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The genotoxic damage was evaluated based on the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) obtained from the caudal vein 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Groups treated with EGCG and quercetin exhibited no significant statistical changes in induction of MN-PCE. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCE induction 24 and 48 h after injection. Treatment with flavonoids prior to CrO3 exposure decreased MN-PCE induction compared with CrO3 only. The magnitudes of the potency of flavonoids were in the following order: rutin (82%) > quercetin (64%) > quercetin-rutin (59%) and EGCG (44%). The group treated with rutin significantly reduced genotoxic damage in mice treated with Cr(VI) (antioxidant effect). However rutin exerted a marginal genotoxic effect when administered alone (pro-oxidant effect). Our findings suggest protective effects of EGCG, quercetin, and rutin against genotoxic damage induced by Cr(VI). PMID:24593145

García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Nicolás-Méndez, Tonancy; Montańo-Rodríguez, Ana Rosa; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín



Cloning and expression of chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase.  

PubMed Central

We report the sequences of cDNAs encoding chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase (EC The complete mRNA consists of 3345/3349 nucleotides and predicts a single open reading frame. Nine peptide sequences derived from partial digests of the isolated protein agreed with the corresponding translation of the open reading frame. Approximately 60% identities between the avian protein and three related mammalian enzymes were found. Chicken erythrocyte transglutaminase mRNA is most abundant in red blood cells and kidney, and it accumulates during erythroid cell differentiation. Images

Weraarchakul-Boonmark, N; Jeong, J M; Murthy, S N; Engel, J D; Lorand, L



[Erythrocytes and microvascular tone during acute traumatic haemorrhagic shock].  


Haemorrhagic shock remains a leading cause of death in trauma patients. The concept of haematologic damage control is gradually taking place in the management of traumatic haemorrhagic shock. It is based primarily on the early implementation of a quality blood transfusion involving erythrocytes, plasmas and platelets transfusion. Red blood cell transfusion is mainly supported by the oxygen carrier properties of erythrocytes. However, it appears that erythrocytes ability to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) plays a major role in capillary opening and perfusion. Erythrocytes are also actively involved in the processes of hemostasis and coagulation. In this context, it seems difficult to define a threshold of hemoglobin concentration to determine the implementation of a blood transfusion in traumatic haemorrhagic shock. PMID:23611789

Morel, N; Biais, M; Delaunay, F; Dubuisson, V; Cassone, O; Siméon, F; Morel, O; Janvier, G



Analysis of cytotoxicity and invasiveness of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) isolated from drinking water on blood media.  


Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria are naturally present in all aqueous environments. These bacteria undergo multiplication cycles in drinking water, especially in closed containers (bottled water) or in tap water when chlorine levels are dissipated, such as in dead ends in water mains or household plumbing. A study was undertaken to estimate health risk from these naturally occurring bacteria by the determination of cytotoxicity and invasiveness in a human enterocyte cell line. HPC bacteria were isolated from bottled and tap water samples by enumerating them under physical and chemical conditions analogous to human physiology. All HPC bacteria were examined at both log and lag phase of their growth cycles. Bacterial broth supernatant fluids were also tested to serve as critical negative controls. Naturally occurring HPC bacteria demonstrated low invasiveness and cytotoxicity with more than 95% of isolates showing equivalency to broth supernatant fluid. When showing either invasiveness or cytotoxicity, only a small number of cells from the culture were positive. Of those that were positive, log phase HPC bacteria were significantly more cytotoxic and invasive than those from stationary phase. Bacterial broth controls demonstrated varied, but often marked, cytotoxicity. PMID:9134720

Edberg, S C; Kops, S; Kontnick, C; Escarzaga, M



Evaluation of the T helper 17 cell specific genes and the innate lymphoid cells counts in the peripheral blood of patients with the common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by a deficiency in the immune system with a heterogeneous collection of disorders resulting in antibody deficiency and recurrent infections. T helper 17 (Th17) cells promote B-cell survival and synergize with the B-cell activating factor to induce their differentiation into the plasma cells. A sub-population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) also produces interleukin 17 (IL-17). This study aimed to measure the Th17 specific genes and ILCs counts in the CVID patients in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Total messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was extracted from the whole blood samples of 10 CVID patients and 10 healthy individuals. IL-17, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C2 (RORC2), IL-23R, and IL-9 gene expression were measured using the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Count of lineage negative/CD127+/CD90+ ILCs in the blood samples was performed by the flow cytometry method. Results: The transcript levels of IL-17 and RORC2 in CVID patients was strongly lower than control subjects (P = 0.049 and P = 0.046, respectively), but slight reduction in the IL-23R expression (P = 0.252) have seen in the CVID patients. Accordingly, the number of ILCs decreased significantly (P = 0.04). Interestingly, IL-9 mRNA level was more significantly in the CVID patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The results presented in this study show that the Th17 cell specific genes expression (as the determiner Th17 cells) and ILCs (another lymphoid source of IL-17) are decreased in patients with CVID and this could be an explanation for the defect of their humoral immune response. In addition, elevation of the IL-9 gene expression may shed a new light into the way toward the understanding of the mechanism of autoimmunity in the CVID patients.

Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Yazdani, Reza; Sherkat, Roya; Homayouni, Vida; Masjedi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Mohsen



Flow Behavior of Erythrocytes in Microvessels and Glass Capillaries: Effects of Erythrocyte Deformation and Erythrocyte Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow behavior of erythrocytes in microvessels and glass capillaries with an inner diameter of 10-50 ?m was compared in relation to erythrocyte deformation and erythrocyte aggregation. This study was focused on the formation of a marginal cell-free layer, and the thickness was determined using an image processor. Human erythrocytes were perfused through a part of microvascular networks isolated from rabbit

Y. Suzuki; N. Tateishi; M. Soutani; N. Maeda



Prolonged erythrocyte T-polyagglutination in two children with bowel disorders.  


In vivo erythrocyte polyagglutination of microbial origin is usually a transient condition. In two children with bowel disorders, erythrocyte T-polyagglutination persisted for 12 months in one case and for seven months in the other. Both cultures required both transfusions to support surgery. Washed red cell concentrates were transfused instead of whole blood to prevent dangerous destruction of T-transformed erythrocytes by anti-T antibodies normally present in the plasma of blood donors. PMID:591634

Obeid, D; Bird, G W; Wingham, J



Prolonged erythrocyte T-polyagglutination in two children with bowel disorders.  

PubMed Central

In vivo erythrocyte polyagglutination of microbial origin is usually a transient condition. In two children with bowel disorders, erythrocyte T-polyagglutination persisted for 12 months in one case and for seven months in the other. Both cultures required both transfusions to support surgery. Washed red cell concentrates were transfused instead of whole blood to prevent dangerous destruction of T-transformed erythrocytes by anti-T antibodies normally present in the plasma of blood donors.

Obeid, D; Bird, G W; Wingham, J



Zinc concentration in erythrocyte membranes in normal volunteers and in patients with taste and smell dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte membrane zinc concentration was measured in 14 normal volunteers and in 36 patients with taste and smell dysfunction,\\u000a and compared with zinc concentration in erythrocyte cytosol and blood plasma in the normal volunteers and with zinc concentration\\u000a in erythrocyte cytosol, blood serum, urine, and parotid saliva in the patients. A A significant negative correlation was found\\u000a between age and

P. L. McWilliams; R. P. Agarwal; R. I. Henkin



Single cell impedance cytometry for identification and counting of CD4 T-cells in human blood using impedance labels.  


Single cell microfluidic impedance cytometry has been used to identify cells at high speed, on the basis of their dielectric properties. However, there is no electrical analogue to a fluorescent label, meaning that it is not possible to identify subpopulations of cells. We demonstrate discrimination and enumeration of antigenically defined cell subpopulations using an alternating current (AC) impedance labeling method. Small antibody conjugated beads are mixed with cells and bind to the target population, changing the electrical properties of the target subset of cells. The principle of the technique is demonstrated by identifying and enumerating the CD4 T-lymphocyte subpopulation in human whole blood. The technique represents a simple method for detecting a subpopulation of cells within a heterogeneous mix. The impedance-based antibody identification method could form the basis of simple low-cost point of care diagnostic technologies. PMID:20104894

Holmes, David; Morgan, Hywel



Storage-Induced Changes in Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins Promote Recognition by Autoantibodies  

PubMed Central

Physiological erythrocyte removal is associated with a selective increase in expression of neoantigens on erythrocytes and their vesicles, and subsequent autologous antibody binding and phagocytosis. Chronic erythrocyte transfusion often leads to immunization and the formation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies. We investigated whether erythrocyte storage leads to the increased expression of non-physiological antigens. Immunoprecipitations were performed with erythrocytes and vesicles from blood bank erythrocyte concentrates of increasing storage periods, using patient plasma containing erythrocyte autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitate composition was identified using proteomics. Patient plasma antibody binding increased with erythrocyte storage time, while the opposite was observed for healthy volunteer plasma, showing that pathology-associated antigenicity changes during erythrocyte storage. Several membrane proteins were identified as candidate antigens. The protein complexes that were precipitated by the patient antibodies in erythrocytes were different from the ones in the vesicles formed during erythrocyte storage, indicating that the storage-associated vesicles have a different immunization potential. Soluble immune mediators including complement factors were present in the patient plasma immunoprecipitates, but not in the allogeneic control immunoprecipitates. The results support the theory that disturbed erythrocyte aging during storage of erythrocyte concentrates contributes to transfusion-induced alloantibody and autoantibody formation.

Dinkla, Sip; Novotny, Vera M. J.; Joosten, Irma; Bosman, Giel J. C. G. M.



Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1  

PubMed Central

In the war against Plasmodium, humans have evolved to eliminate or modify proteins on the erythrocyte surface that serve as receptors for parasite invasion, such as the Duffy blood group, a receptor for Plasmodium vivax, and the Gerbich-negative modification of glycophorin C for Plasmodium falciparum. In turn, the parasite counters with expansion and diversification of ligand families. The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none has been identified. We provide evidence from erythrocyte-binding that glycophorin B is a receptor for the P. falciparum protein EBL-1, a member of the Duffy-binding-like erythrocyte-binding protein (DBL-EBP) receptor family. The erythrocyte-binding domain, region 2 of EBL-1, expressed on CHO-K1 cells, bound glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes. In addition, glycophorin B+ but not glycophorin B-null erythrocytes adsorbed native EBL-1 from the P. falciparum culture supernatants. Interestingly, the Efe pygmies of the Ituri forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the highest gene frequency of glycophorin B-null in the world, raising the possibility that the DBL-EBP family may have expanded in response to the high frequency of glycophorin B-null in the population.

Mayer, D. C. Ghislaine; Cofie, Joann; Jiang, Lubin; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tracy, Erin; Kabat, Juraj; Mendoza, Laurence H.; Miller, Louis H.



Elongation index of erythrocytes, study of activity of chosen erythrocyte enzymes, and the levels of glutathione, malonyldialdehyde in polycythemia vera (PV).  


The principal aim of the study was to investigate rheological properties of erythrocytes obtained from patients admitted to the clinic, and diagnosed with polycythemia vera. The polycythemia vera diagnosis was based on the WHO criteria for polycythemia vera. Using a laser rheometer SSD Rheometer-Rheodyn, the elongation index of erythrocytes was determined, indicating an increased rigidity of the erythrocytes in this disease compared with the erythrocytes in healthy people. In order to explain (albeit partially) the reason for reduced elasticity, the erythrocytes of patients with polycythemia were studied for the activity of enzymes - glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase membrane enzyme, as well as the levels of glutathione and malonyldialdehyde. The elevated activities of these enzymes, the glutathione level, and elevated ‰ of reticulocytes, indicated an increased pool of juvenile erythrocyte forms; furthermore, the elevated value of malonyldialdehyde may suggest a lipid peroxidative damage in certain pool of the erythrocyte membrane in blood circulation. PMID:21498896

D?browski, Z; Dybowicz, A J; Marchewka, A; Teleg?ów, A; Skotnicki, A; Zdu?czyk, A; Aleksander, P; Filar-Mierzwa, K



Effects of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean on blood glucose and lipid concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We divided patients into two groups and fed them, respectively, a basal diet (control group) and a basal diet with 69 g/d of soybean (soybean group) for 4 weeks. Pills with roasted soybean powder were provided to the soybean supplementation group three times a day. Macronutrients intake except dietary fiber was similar between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in dietary intakes or body weight before and after the supplementation. Energy composition ratio of C:F:P was 65:19:16 in the control group, 64:20:16 in the soybean group. The blood parameters of subjects before supplementation, such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HbA(1)C were not different between the two groups. After supplementation, fasting blood glucose (p<0.001), postprandial glucose level (p<0.001) and serum triglyceride level (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the soybean group in comparison with the control group. The total cholesterol level was not significantly different between the control and the supplemented group after 4 weeks of treatment. TBARS levels of the soybean group were not significantly different from those of the control group. The activities of catalase (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05) were significantly higher in the soybean group compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that soybean supplementation would be helpful to control blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic patients. Also, soybean showed an antioxidant activity that may contribute to enhance the effect of antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to protection against oxidative damage in type 2 DM patients. Soybean may have potential use in the disease management of patients with DM. PMID:20126600

Chang, Ji Ho; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Tae Wha; Lee, Sang Sun



Improvement in the Procedure of Washing of Erythrocyte-Containing Transfusion Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in transfusion medicine is based on development of new materials for hemotherapy. Currently, hemotherapeutic transfusion media are used only to compensate the deficiency of structural and functional blood components (erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and plasma proteins). Blood components should be purified from exogenous cells and humoral impurities. Washing of fresh and decryoconserved erythrocyte-containing media is an important part of the hemotherapeutic

E. B. Zhiburt; S. V. Sidorkevich; A. V. Golubeva; G. I. Petrenko



Hematology and blood biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris).  


Comprehensive hematologic and biochemical analyses were conducted on blood from 23 male and 31 female clinically stable captive mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris). Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV), potassium, cholesterol, and calcium concentrations were significantly greater in juvenile males than in juvenile females, but no significant differences were determined between parameters of subadult males and subadult females. The mean WBC count and mean heterophil count were significantly higher in adult males than in adult females. Mean uric acid concentration was significantly greater in adult females than in males. Mean erythrocyte count was significantly higher in adults than in juveniles. Adult mean WBC and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower than those of both juveniles and subadults. Subadults had significantly lower mean eosinophil counts than both adults and juveniles. Subadults had significantly lower mean alkaline phosphatase activities than juveniles, whereas the adults had significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities than other groups. Lactate dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower for subadults than for juveniles and adults. Cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher for subadults and juveniles compared with adults. Triglyceride concentration was significantly lower for subadults and highest for juveniles. Glucose concentrations were significantly higher for adults. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly lower for subadults than for both adults and juveniles. Uric acid concentrations were significantly higher for juveniles than for the subadults and adults. The subadult animals also had a significantly lower potassium concentration. The results obtained were then compared with known values for other crocodilian species. PMID:11237141

Stacy, B A; Whitaker, N



Separation of model mixtures of epsilon-globin positive fetal nucleated red blood cells and anucleate erythrocytes using a microfluidic device.  


Microfluidic devices are capable of separating microparticles and cells. We developed and tested the efficiency of silicon cross-flow microfilters for the separation of primitive fetal nucleated red blood cells (FNRBCs) and adult anucleate red blood cell (AARBCs) from model mixtures. Stepwise improvements over three generations of device design resulted in an increasing trend in the recovery of FNRBCs. We obtained a recovery of FNRBCs (74.0+/-6.3%, p<0.05, n=5) using the third generation device, with a depletion of 46.5+/-3.2% AARBCs from the cell mixture. The purity of FNRBCs in the enriched fraction was enhanced by a factor of 1.7-fold. PMID:20144459

Lee, Daniel; Sukumar, Ponnusamy; Mahyuddin, Aniza; Choolani, Mahesh; Xu, Guolin



Thermal destruction of erythrocyte spectrin: Rheology, deformability, and stability with respect to detergents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of blood heating in the region of the thermal denaturation transition of spectrin (50°C) the relationship between the stability of erythrocytes with respect to detergents and their deformability and rheological parameters of blood was studied.

Yamaikina, M. V.; Mansurov, V. A.; Ivashkevich, É. V.



Let's Count!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice our counting skills with these fun games! Let's soar into the sky and practice Counting on a Cloud! The ants need lining up, let's Count the Ants! Help Rabbit eat his carrots by dropping the correct number of food into the basket! ...

Popwell, Ms.



Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.



Immune Evasion Strategies of Pre-Erythrocytic Malaria Parasites  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans. It begins with a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito and leads to the development of the pre-erythrocytic and blood stages. Blood-stage infection is the exclusive cause of clinical symptoms of malaria. In contrast, the pre-erythrocytic stage is clinically asymptomatic and could be an excellent target for preventive therapies. Although the robust host immune responses limit the development of the liver stage, malaria parasites have also evolved strategies to suppress host defenses at the pre-erythrocytic stage. This paper reviews the immune evasion strategies of malaria parasites at the pre-erythrocytic stage, which could provide us with potential targets to design prophylactic strategies against malaria.

Zheng, Hong; Tan, Zhangping



Erythrocyte survival studies in a rat myelogenous leukemia  

SciTech Connect

To determine the extent intrinsic erythrocyte defects and/or extrinsic factors were involved in anemia of rats bearing Shay chloroleukemia (SCL), survival of /sup 3/H-DFP labeled erythrocytes was studied in leukemic and nonleukemic hosts. Red blood cells labeled before induction of leukemia, were rapidly lost from the peripheral circulation of SCL rats in terminal stages of disease. However, labeled erythrocytes from terminal SCL animals displayed normal lifespans when transfused into nonleukemic controls. Thus the anemia of this leukemia probably resulted from extrinsic factors associated with the leukemic process. Hemorrhage appeared to be primarily responsible for the anemia of this disease.

Derelanko, M.J.; Meagher, R.C.; Lobue, J.; Khouri, J.A.; Gordon, A.S.



Count Around  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners explore their surroundings while reasoning about categories and counting. Pose a question that involves locating items in the room or building, and have learners count how many they can findâand figure out "what counts." Itâs easy to vary the question for different levels of challenge. For instance, for less challenge, ask: How many light switches are in the room? For more, ask: How many light sources are in the room? Once everyone has counted, engage the group in discussing findings: Why might the answers differ even if everyone counted correctly? Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should be able to write the numbers to 12.



Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine and blood volume in professional cyclists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulated hematopoiesis is observed in the bone marrow of endurance-trained athletes by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)\\u000a independent of the hemoglobin concentration (hematocrit or erythrocyte count) or circulating reticulocytes, but may be related\\u000a to blood volume (BV). This study determined whether hyperplasia of hematopoietic bone marrow of professional cyclists correlates\\u000a with their red cell volume (RCV). Twelve male professional cyclists (mean ± SD;

Stefan Vogt; Carsten Altehoefer; Dirk Bueltermann; Torben Pottgiesser; Stephan Prettin; Andreas Schmid; Kai Roecker; Walter Schmidt; Katja Heinicke; Lothar Heinrich



Erythrocyte sequestration and anemia in severe falciparum malaria. Analysis of acute changes in venous hematocrit using a simple mathematical model.  

PubMed Central

Microvascular erythrocyte sequestration, the characteristic pathological feature of falciparum malaria, was evaluated using a mathematical model in 46 patients with severe infections. From admission radioisotopic circulating red cell volumes and simultaneous venous hematocrits, the model-derived sequestrum hematocrit (mean [95% confidence limits]: 0.70 [0.43-0.97], n = 29) was twice that of peripheral blood (0.33 [0.30-0.36]). Serial reticulocyte and radiolabeled erythrocyte counts indicated that small numbers of cells enter the circulation during initial therapy. The mean fall in hematocrit over 84 h in 26 nontransfused patients conformed to a three-term equation. A first-order decline (t1/2 2.0 h [0.6-3.4]) suggested an average 7.5% plasma volume expansion through rehydration. A zero-order 6.3% (3.1-9.5) fall (t1/2 25.7 h [21.2-30.2]) occurred contemporaneously with a fall in mean parasitemia from 4.5% (3.6-5.4); from these data the model-derived average sequestered erythrocyte volume (4.8% of the admission hematocrit) was similar to the peripheral parasite burden. A second, first-order fall (t1/2 1,047 h [278-1,816]) indicated loss of uninfected erythrocytes with mean lifespan 62 d. Predicted total plasma volume expansion during initial therapy (21.2%) was similar to radioisotopic estimates in 11 patients (17.3% [2.0-33.1]). Application of the model to individual patient data showed wide variations in relative proportions of circulating and sequestered parasitized cells. The model provides evidence of the nature and fate of all parasitized erythrocytes in malaria.

Davis, T M; Krishna, S; Looareesuwan, S; Supanaranond, W; Pukrittayakamee, S; Attatamsoonthorn, K; White, N J



National trends in emergency department use of urinalysis, complete blood count, and blood culture for fever without a source among children ages 2-24 months in the PCV-7 era  

PubMed Central

Objective The epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000. Whether Emergency Department (ED) physicians have changed diagnostic approaches to fever without source (FWS) in response is unknown. We examine trends in rates of complete blood counts (CBC), urinalyses (UA), and blood cultures among 2–24 month old children with FWS since the introduction of PCV-7. Methods The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED, 2001–2009 was used to identify visits to the ED by 2–24 month old children with FWS. Rates of CBC, UA, neither CBC nor UA, and blood culture were tracked across time. Trends were identified using Joinpoint regression, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions with year as the independent variable and ordering of each test as dependent variables. Results In bivariate and multivariate analysis, CBC orders declined between 2004 and 2009 for visits by all children 2–24 months, children 2–11 months, and boys 2–24 months (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.88 per year, p<0.01; aOR: 0.88, p<0.05; and aOR: 0.83, p<0.01, respectively). Between 2004 and 2009 ordering neither CBC nor UA increased among all children 2–24 months (aOR: 1.10, p<0.05) and among boys (aOR=1.16, p<0.05). Orders for blood cultures declined across the time period in bivariate, but not multivariate analysis. Conclusion The rate of ordering a CBC for children in the 2–24 month age group presenting to the ED with FWS declined, a change coincident with the changing epidemiology of SBI since the PCV-7 vaccine was introduced.

Simon, Alan E.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Mendola, Pauline



Evaluation of the automated leucocyte count and differential from the Cell-Dyn 3500 in sickle cell disease.  


Erythrocytes resistant to standard lysing reagents are known to occur in sickle cell disease. These lyse-resistant erythrocytes can cause aberrant automated leucocyte counts and differentials. The ability of the Cell-Dyn 3500 automated haematology analyser to eliminate resistant erythrocytes and accurately count and differentiate leucocytes was evaluated. Samples were obtained from paediatric patients with sickle cell disease or haemoglobin SC disease. The Cell-Dyn 3500, using impedance and optical counting with a hypotonic salt "extended lyse mode', was compared to the Cell-Dyn 3000, an optical analyser that also uses a hypotonic salt lyse, the Cell-Dyn 400, a "hard detergent lyse' impedance counter, and a reference 400-cell manual white cell differential (National committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards [NCCLS] Approved Guideline H20-A). Seventy-five samples from patients with sickle cell disease or haemoglobin SC disease were evaluated for total leucocyte count, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of neutrophils, and nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) flags. The Cell-Dyn 3500 correlated well with Cell-Dyn 400 leucocyte counts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When compared to the manual differential, the correlation coefficient for lymphocytes was 0.93 and for neutrophils 0.95. The Cell-Dyn 3500 NRBC flag had a sensitivity of 47.7% and a specificity of 80.6%. The predictive value of a positive flag was 77.7%. The Cell-Dyn 3500's extended lyse mode clearly enhances the accuracy of leucocyte counts and differentials in patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:8697728

Joyner, R E; Brooks, M J



Improvement of the Eakins and Brown Method for Measuring 59Fe and 55Fe in Blood and Other Iron-Containing Materials by Liquid Scintillation Counting and Sample Preparation Using Microwave Digestion and Ion-Exchange Column Purification of Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous measurement of59Fe and55Fe in whole blood by liquid scintillation counting by the Eakins and Brown (EB) method is extensively used in iron absorption studies. The EB method requires many steps which increase the chances of error and decrease its sensitivity. We describe two modifications to the above method consisting of microwave digestion and column purification of iron. This

Fernando E. Viteri; Bettina A. Kohaut



Nucleated red blood cell counts: An early predictor of brain injury and 2-year outcome in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the era of cooling-based treatment.  


Background: Raised nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in neonates may indicate in utero hypoxia and brain damage. Objective: The study aimed to examine the use of NRBC counts as a predictor of brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated under current cooling-based strategy. Methods: Forty-three neonates with asphyxia between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively investigated. Twenty neonates with moderate/severe HIE underwent hypothermia (HT), and 23 with mild HIE were treated in normothermia (NT). Neonates were divided into groups according to the presence of cerebral parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2weeks after birth. All patients were followed-up neurologically for ?24months. NRBC counts during the first 3days were compared between groups. Results: Eleven HT (HT-N) and 21 NT (NT-N) neonates had normal MRI, and 9 HT (HT-L) and 2 NT (NT-L) neonates had parenchymal lesions. NRBC counts, both absolute and /100 white blood cells (WBC) counts, during the first 3days in HT-L and NT-L were significantly higher than those in HT-N and NT-N, particularly within 6hours after birth (HT-N: 502 [0-3060]/mm(3) vs HT-L: 2765 [496-6192]; 0 [0-3417] vs NT-L: 4384 [3978-4789], median [range]). Neonates with /100 white blood cells ?6/mm(3) and absolute NRBC counts ?1324/mm(3) within 6hours of birth had high risks of abnormal MRIs and 2-year outcomes. Conclusions: NRBC counts can predict brain injury and neurological outcomes in cooled and non-cooled asphyxiated neonates. PMID:23860386

Li, Jingang; Kobata, Keisuke; Kamei, Yoshiya; Okazaki, Yoko; Nishihara, Masato; Wada, Hiroshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Funato, Masahisa; Jenkin, Graham



Diagnostic Usefulness of White Blood Cell and Absolute Neutrophil Count for Postoperative Infection after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM.

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Ahn, Chi Young



Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia



Enzyme Loading of Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated that ?-glucosidase and ?-galactosidase can be trapped inside erythrocytes by rapid hemolysis of the cell in the presence of these enzymes. Enzyme enters only during hemolysis, and optimum uptake occurs within 60 sec. There is no loss in cell number after hemolysis-induced enzyme uptake, and the ghosts have only a slightly increased mean cell volume. Smaller proteins enter more readily than larger proteins, although enzymes with a molecular weight of at least 180,000 can be readily entrapped by erythrocytes. This finding may provide a useful approach to the problem of enzyme replacement in certain diseases, including Gaucher's disease.

Ihler, Garret M.; Glew, Robert H.; Schnure, Frederick W.



Blood Tests  


... may cause some short-term discomfort. Most people don't have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells ...


Frequencies and Specificities of "Enzyme-Only" Detected Erythrocyte Alloantibodies in Patients Hospitalized in Austria: Is an Enzyme Test Required for Routine Red Blood Cell Antibody Screening?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies and specificities of “enzyme-only” detected red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in the routine antibody screening and antibody identification in patients hospitalized in Austria. Routine blood samples of 2420 patients were investigated. The antibody screening was performed with a 3-cell panel in the low-ionic strength saline- (LISS-) indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 3-cell panel fully automated on the ORTHO AutoVue Innova System. The antibody identification was carried out manually with an 11-cell panel in the LISS-IAT and with an enzyme-pretreated (papain) 11-cell panel. In total 4.05% (n = 98) of all patients (n = 2420) had a positive RBC antibody screening result. Of them 25.51% (25/98) showed “enzyme-only” detected specific or nonspecific RBC alloantibodies. Rhesus and Lewis system antibodies were found the only specificities of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies: all in all 4.8% (4/98) were detected with anti-E, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-Lea, 3.06% (3/98) with anti-D after anti-D prophylaxis and 1.02% (1/98) with anti-e. In total, 14.29% (14/98) showed a nonspecific RBC alloantibody result with the enzyme test. The results of the present study demonstrate that a high number of unwanted positive reactions with the enzyme technique overshadows the detection of “enzyme-only” RBC alloantibodies. (Trial Registration: K-37-13).

Habres, Claudia; Wallner, Franz; Mayr, Barbara; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele



An algorithm for utilizing peripheral blood CD34 count as a predictor of the need for plerixafor in autologous stem cell mobilization--cost-effectiveness analysis.  


Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34? stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34? stem cell count (PBCD34) ?8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34? targets in ?3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34? target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies. PMID:23426644

Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J



RBC Barcoding Allows for the Study of Erythrocyte Population Dynamics and P. falciparum Merozoite Invasion  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum invasion of host erythrocytes is essential for the propagation of the blood stage of malaria infection. Additionally, the brief extracellular merozoite stage of P. falciparum represents one of the rare windows during which the parasite is directly exposed to the host immune response. Therefore, efficient invasion of the host erythrocyte is necessary not only for productive host erythrocyte infection, but also for evasion of the immune response. Host traits, such as hemoglobinopathies and differential expression of erythrocyte invasion ligands, can protect individuals from malaria by impeding parasite erythrocyte invasion. Here we combine RBC barcoding with flow cytometry to study P. falciparum invasion. This novel high-throughput method allows for the (i) direct comparison of P. falciparum invasion into different erythrocyte populations and (ii) assessment of the impact of changing erythrocyte population dynamics on P. falciparum invasion.

Clark, Martha A.; Goheen, Morgan M.; Spidale, Nicholas A.; Kasthuri, Raj S.; Fulford, Anthony; Cerami, Carla



Erythropoietin increases reticulocyte counts and maintains hematocrit in neonates requiring surgery?  

PubMed Central

Background Limited erythropoietin (Epo) production diminishes neonates’ ability to regenerate blood removed by phlebotomy. Neonates requiring surgery are at risk to receive multiple transfusions. We sought to determine if recombinant Epo administration to neonates requiring surgery would stimulate erythropoiesis. Methods Infants were randomized in double-masked fashion to receive Epo (200 units kg?1 d?1) or placebo for 14 days. Complete blood count, absolute reticulocyte count (ARC), phlebotomy losses, and transfusions were measured during the study period. Infants were transfused using a strict transfusion protocol. Results In the Epo group (n = 10, 2034 ± 308 g, 8 ± 2 days old; mean ± SEM), ARC increased significantly, whereas in the placebo group (n = 10, 2400 ± 184 g, 7 ± 2 days old), ARC remained low. Hematocrits in the Epo group trended upward from 34.4 ± 1.7% to 37.3 ± 1.9% (although not statistically significant) despite phlebotomy losses of 53 ± 12 mL/kg. Hematocrits in the placebo group were 35.9 ± 1.8% and 33.2 ± 1.6% on days 1 and 15, respectively, with phlebotomy losses of 27 ± 5 mL/kg. There were no differences in absolute neutrophil counts or platelet counts between groups at the end of the study. No adverse effects were noted. Conclusions Infants randomized to Epo increased reticulocyte counts and hematocrits without adverse effects. Erythropoietin administration may provide an adjunct to present care in decreasing or eliminating erythrocyte transfusions in surgical neonates.

Bierer, Ryann; Roohi, Mahshid; Peceny, Connie; Ohls, Robin K.



Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota



Scanning electron-microscopic and light-optic investigations of erythrocytes in toxic anaemia.  

PubMed Central

Detailed assessment of the peculiarities of erythrocyte morphology by applying scanning electron microscopy and light-optics methods gives valuable information on the age characteristics, functional failures of the erythrocyte, pathogenesis of anaemia, and also diagnosis. In toxic anaemia caused by the chronic effect of lead and chlorobenzene there is accumulation of aging erythrocytes in blood that are spherical with rough and folded surfaces, fragmented with protuberances, processes, crypt-like hollows, and holes. In lead intoxication there is increased destruction of erythrocytes; anaemia caused by chlorobenzene is mainly due to a decreased entry of the young forms of the erythrocyte into the blood. Light-optics investigation combined with scanning electron microscopy allows a quantitative calculation of erythrocytes with abnormalities of form and surfaces. This may be used as an additional diagnostic test as part of the haematological examination of patients with anaemia. Images

Arutjunov, V D; Batsura JuD; Gribova, I A; Kruglikov, G G



Reduced sodium concentration and increased sodium-potassium pump activity of erythrocytes in human hypertension  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocyte Nai, Nai/Ki and ouabain-sensitive and ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake (K transport) were measured in whole blood of 16 normotensive and 19 hypertensive white male subjects, within seconds or minutes after withdrawal of blood. Erythrocyte Nai and Nai/Ki were reduced (p less than 0.05), and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was increased (p less than 0.01) in hypertensive subjects. In a separate group of hypertensive white male subjects, an inverse correlation was found between erythrocyte Nai/Ki and ouabain-binding sites per erythrocyte (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01, n = 9). The abnormalities of erythrocyte cation fluxes in hypertensive subjects are similar to those induced by aldosterone in vascular smooth muscle cells and by glucocorticoid administration in the erythrocytes of human subjects, suggesting similarities in pathogenesis.

Simon, G.; Engel, C.R.



[Examination of the morphofunctional properties of red blood cells of humans in 5-day dry immersioin].  


Blood of six normal male volunteers sampled before, immediately after and in 7 days since 5-d dry immersion was analyzed for morphological parameters, erythrocyte metabolism, lipids and phospholipids levels. The experimental exposure was shown to increase the erythrocyte count. Also, upward trends were displayed by hemoglobin and PCV on the first day after the experiment; a significant decrease in adenosine triphosphate and low level of reduced glutathione could be an outcome of enhanced oxidation in cell due to, maybe, LPO activation. There was a downward trend in the phospholipids fraction of erythrocyte membrane against steady levels of cholesterol and its ethers which might be linked with the reliable growth of the fraction of nonesterified fatty acids on day 1 and triglycerides on days 1 and 7 post the experiment. PMID:22423495

Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Labetskaia, O I; Iarlykova, Iu V



Differential White Blood Cell Count and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Prospective Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D), and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC) and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated. Research Design and Methods Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases). Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored. Results The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p?=?1.5*10?18). Substantial heterogeneity was present (I2?=?83%). For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p?=?1.5*10?4), for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p?=?0.029), and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p?=?0.67) comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p?=?7.7*10?13), while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p?=?7.7*10?5). We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75) was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29) after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.

Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Ye, Zheng; Cooper, Andrew J.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Luben, Robert; Biggs, Mary L.; Chen, Liang-Kung; Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Hanefeld, Markolf; Ingelsson, Erik; Lai, Wen-An; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lind, Lars; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Mohan, Viswanathan; Muscari, Antonio; Nilsson, Goran; Ohrvik, John; Chao Qiang, Jiang; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Tamakoshi, Koji; Temelkova-Kurktschiev, Theodora; Wang, Ya-Yu; Yajnik, Chittaranjan Sakerlal; Zoli, Marco; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Langenberg, Claudia



Erythrocyte Binding Preference of Human Pandemic Influenza Virus A and Its Effect on Antibody Response Detection  

PubMed Central

Background Validation of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays is important for evaluating antibody responses to influenza virus, and selection of erythrocytes for use in these assays is important. This study aimed to determine the correlation between receptor binding specificity and effectiveness of the HI assay for detecting antibody response to pandemic influenza H1N1 (pH1N1) virus. Methods Hemagglutination (HA) tests were performed using erythrocytes from 6 species. Subsequently, 8 hemagglutinating units of pH1N1 from each species were titrated by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To investigate the effect of erythrocyte binding preference on HI antibody titers, comparisons of HI with microneutralization (MN) assays were performed. Results Goose erythrocytes showed most specific binding with pH1N1, while HA titers using human erythrocytes were comparable to those using turkey erythrocytes. The erythrocyte binding efficiency was shown to have an impact on antibody detection. Comparing MN titers, HI titers using turkey erythrocytes yielded the most accurate results, while those using goose erythrocytes produced the highest geometric mean titer. Human blood group O erythrocytes lacking a specific antibody yielded results most comparable to those obtained using turkey erythrocytes. Further, pre-existing antibody to pH1N1 and different erythrocyte species can distort HI assay results. Conclusions HI assay, using turkey and human erythrocytes, yielded the most comparable and applicable results for pH1N1 than those by MN assay, and using goose erythrocytes may lead to overestimated titers. Selection of appropriate erythrocyte species for HI assay allows construction of a more reliable database, which is essential for further investigations and control of virus epidemics.

Makkoch, Jarika; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Songserm, Thaweesak; Amonsin, Alongkorn



In vitro effect of insulin on rats erythrocytes rheological behaviour.  


Blood viscosity is an important cardiovascular risk factor that might be related to diabetes complications. Hyperinsulinemia has been suggested as "the most important candidate" to characterise diabetes as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There is no evidence of the beneficial effect of insulin on type 2 diabetes erythrocytes in patients without cardiovascular disease, whereas the opposite is observed in those with cardiovascular disease. In the present study we analysed the in vitro effect of different doses of insulin on red blood cell rheological aspects in an obesity model. Previous studies carried out in beta strain rats had shown that this strain possess insulin blood levels higher than the ones observed in alpha strain (eumetabolic), as well as blood hyperviscosity and erythrocyte deformability decrease. Our results points out that in vitro insulin produced an increase in erythrocyte aggregability, although it did not modified either their osmotic fragility or erythrocyte deformability estimated by viscometry, even against decreased viscosity of treated erythrocytes submitted to increased shear rate. PMID:16899958

Cinara, Luis; Bollini, Adriana; Gayol, María Del C; Hernández, Gladis N



Unavailability of CD147 leads to selective erythrocyte trapping in the spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

erythrocyte lineage cells throughout erythroid development, includ- ing in mature erythrocytes,8 and has been shown to be the carrier molecule for the blood group antigen Oka.15 To investigate whether this expression has a functional significance, we determined the effect of the in vivo treatment with a CD147-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the development and trafficking of erythrocytes in mice. We

Isabelle Coste; Jean-Francois Gauchat; Anne Wilson; Shozo Izui; Pascale Jeannin; Yves Delneste; H. Robson MacDonald; Jean-Yves Bonnefoy; Toufic Renno



Influence of serum proteins on erythrocyte uptake of digoxin and digitoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

My purpose was to find out whether changes in serum protein content (albumin and gamma globulin) influenced erythrocyte uptake of glycosides and the capacity of erythrocytes to equilibrate glycoside levels when there are changes in protein binding. Heparinized human blood was incubated with 3H-digoxin, 6 ng\\/ml, and 3H-digitoxin, 44 ng\\/ml for 15 min. After centrifugation, distribution between plasma and erythrocytes

M L Gonçalves; Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves DrPharmSci



Evaluation of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Serum Iron Profile in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to evaluate iron status, erythrocyte, and platelet modifications in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). Dogs were grouped as food-responsive diarrhea (FRD, n = 11), antibiotic-responsive diarrhea (ARD, n = 5), and steroid-responsive diarrhea (SRD, n = 6) relating to therapeutic-response. Clinical and haematological findings, evidence of gastrointestinal blood loss, and iron metabolism were evaluated before and after treatment. A mild normocytic or microcytic anemia and thrombocytosis were identified, respectively in 18.0% and 31.8% of CE dogs. No significant differences between pre- and posttreatment of hematocrit, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume, platelet count and mean platelet volume were found. Statistical analysis pointed out significant differences between pre- and posttreatment in serum iron (P < .03) and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) (P < .01). No significant correlations were found between these parameters and canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease activity index and pattern of CE as well.

Marchetti, Veronica; Lubas, George; Lombardo, Andrea; Corazza, Michele; Guidi, Grazia; Cardini, Giovanni



Exposure to ozone and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in the rat  

SciTech Connect

In order to learn the biological effect of photochemical oxidants on living bodies, we exposed newborn and adult rats, of both sexes, to ozone at a concentration of 0.25 ppm, which can be encountered in an urban environment, and then measured the osmotic resistance of their erythrocytes. The results of experiments using newborn rats indicated a positive increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in whole blood following ozone exposure for 4 weeks. An increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in the top part obtained by centrifugation was observed following ozone exposure for 12 weeks. This tendency was especially evident among male rats. On the other hand, no increase in the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes was recognized in the adult animals which had been exposed to the same concentration of ozone for 18 months.

Ikemi, Y.; Ohmori, K.; Ito, T.; Osaka, F.; Matuura, Y. (Yokohama City Univ. school of Medicine (Japan))



Utility of the tourniquet test and the white blood cell count to differentiate dengue among acute febrile illnesses in the emergency room.  


Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm(3)) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2-7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue. PMID:22163057

Gregory, Christopher J; Lorenzi, Olga D; Colón, Lisandra; García, Arleene Sepúlveda; Santiago, Luis M; Rivera, Ramón Cruz; Bermúdez, Liv Jossette Cuyar; Báez, Fernando Ortiz; Aponte, Delanor Vázquez; Tomashek, Kay M; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa



Utility of the Tourniquet Test and the White Blood Cell Count to Differentiate Dengue among Acute Febrile Illnesses in the Emergency Room  

PubMed Central

Dengue often presents with non-specific clinical signs, and given the current paucity of accurate, rapid diagnostic laboratory tests, identifying easily obtainable bedside markers of dengue remains a priority. Previous studies in febrile Asian children have suggested that the combination of a positive tourniquet test (TT) and leucopenia can distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses, but little data exists on the usefulness of these tests in adults or in the Americas. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the TT and leucopenia (white blood cell count <5000/mm3) in identifying dengue as part of an acute febrile illness (AFI) surveillance study conducted in the Emergency Department of Saint Luke's Hospital in Ponce, Puerto Rico. From September to December 2009, 284 patients presenting to the ED with fever for 2–7 days and no identified source were enrolled. Participants were tested for influenza, dengue, leptospirosis and enteroviruses. Thirty-three (12%) patients were confirmed as having dengue; 2 had dengue co-infection with influenza and leptospirosis, respectively. An infectious etiology was determined for 141 others (136 influenza, 3 enterovirus, 2 urinary tract infections), and 110 patients had no infectious etiology identified. Fifty-two percent of laboratory-positive dengue cases had a positive TT versus 18% of patients without dengue (P<0.001), 87% of dengue cases compared to 28% of non-dengue cases had leucopenia (P<0.001). The presence of either a positive TT or leucopenia correctly identified 94% of dengue patients. The specificity and positive predictive values of these tests was significantly higher in the subset of patients without pandemic influenza A H1N1, suggesting improved discriminatory performance of these tests in the absence of concurrent dengue and influenza outbreaks. However, even during simultaneous AFI outbreaks, the absence of leucopenia combined with a negative tourniquet test may be useful to rule out dengue.

Gregory, Christopher J.; Lorenzi, Olga D.; Colon, Lisandra; Sepulveda Garcia, Arleene; Santiago, Luis M.; Cruz Rivera, Ramon; Cuyar Bermudez, Liv Jossette; Ortiz Baez, Fernando; Vazquez Aponte, Delanor; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gutierrez, Jorge; Alvarado, Luisa



Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...




Relationship between erythrocyte volume and cell age in humans and baboons. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of red blood cell size to age during steady-state hematopoiesis has been studied using erythrocytes separated on the basis of size using counterflow centrifugation. The ratio of the age-related enzyme, erythrocyte glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (EGOT), to hemoglobin (Hb) increased progressively through the fractions, suggesting a correlation between erythrocyte volume and age. Reticulocytes, while present in all fractions, were selectively enriched in the larger subpopulations. To verify the biochemical evidence that erythrocytes decrease in volume with aging, in vivo cohort labeling of red blood cells with 59Fe was performed in baboons. A similar relationship of EGOT to Hb was observed to that in the human subpopulations. While a certain amount of erythrocyte volume heterogeneity seems to be present as a result of erythropoeisis, our data support the hypothesis that red blood cells decrease in volume as they age.

Thompson, C.B.; Galli, R.L.; Melaragno, A.J.; Valeri, C.R.




EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory brook trout were used to evaluate, refine, or develop biochemical procedures for the analysis of fish blood. Analytical values were obtained for the following blood properties: total and differential leucocytes and erythrocytes; erythrocyte and plasma proteins (by elec...


Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Mcduffee, Ms.



Counting carbohydrates  


Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...


Studies on avian erythrocyte metabolism. XIII. Changing organic phosphate composition in age-dependent density populations of chicken erythrocytes.  


These studies were performed to determine whether the erythrocytes (RBC's) of chickens are able to alter the concentrations of organic phosphates, particularly inositol pentakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (inositol-P5), in response to anemia. Acute anemia with 33.5% reticulocytes (retics) in the peripheral blood of 4-month-old White Leghorn cockerels was produced after two successive days of controlled bleeding. Five populations of RBC's were prepared from blood of these anemic birds based upon age-dependent density by angle rotor centrifugation. The relative increase in age of Fraction 1 (younger cells) through Fraction 5 (oldest cells) was verified by increased hemoglobin concentration and decreased retic count and cell volume. The acid aqueous-soluble phosphates from each RBC fraction were extracted, fractionated by ion exchange column chromatography, and the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and inositol-P5 quantitated by wet-ash phosphate analysis. Determination of Pi, ATP, and inositol-P5 in Fraction 1 (younger cells, 7.4% retics) from the initial (Day 1) blood withdrawn gave 4.3, 5.7, and 18.6 mumoles Pi/ml RBC, respectively. On Day 4 of controlled-bleeding, Pi, ATP, and inositol-P5 concentrations in Fraction 1 (95.1% retics) were 12.7, 10.6, and 12.3 mumoles Pi/ml RBC, respectively. On Day 11, after 1 week recovery from controlled-bleeding, the values for Pi, ATP, and inositol-P5 in Fraction 1 (37.7% retics) were 5.0, 5.4, and 19.0 mumoles Pi/ml RBC, respectively, which were similar to the values before bleeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6634598

Isaacks, R; Kim, C; Liu, H L; Goldman, P; Johnson, A; Harkness, D



Platelet count  


... measure how many platelets you have in your blood. Platelets are parts of the blood that help the ... of bleeding is much higher. Even every day activities can cause this bleeding. You need to know ...


Cerenkov counting.  


When auditing research laboratories, health physics personnel are often alarmed to find liquid scintillation vials that only contain filters and no cocktail. They are then surprised when lab personnel state that they don't need cocktail to count their samples. While not frequently used by the health physicist, counting of samples by using Cerenkov radiation is valid and advantageous when correctly used. PMID:11045514

BenZikri, A



Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Mathematics, Illustrative



A Direct Relationship between Adenosine Triphosphate-level and in vivo Viability of Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH Loehr et al.1 described in 1959 that adenosine triphosphate content (ATP) in erythrocytes decreased gradually during their life-span of 120 days on the average in blood vessels and suggested that the drop of the ATP-level caused destruction of erythrocytes in vivo, no concrete evidence for this theory has yet been presented.

Kiku Nakao; Takehisa Wada; Teruaki Kamiyama; MAKOTO NAKAO; KEI NAGANO



Protective effect of dietary curcumin in Anabas testudineus (Bloch) with a special note on DNA fragmentation assay on hepatocytes and micronucleus assay on erythrocytes in vivo.  


The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety of long-term dietary curcumin at doses 0.5 and 1% in Anabas testudineus employing hematological and cytological techniques. The fish were fed with curcumin-supplemented feed for 6 months. Fine blood smears were prepared and subjected to three different staining techniques. The erythrocyte micronucleus frequency (MN) and the cytometric measurements of erythrocytes were determined. Blood from the control and treated fish was subjected to the assessment of several hematological parameters. Also, DNA fragmentation assay on hepatocytes was conducted. The results showed that hemoglobin content, RBC count and hematocrit increased in the curcumin-fed fish compared to control, whereas WBC count, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were unaffected. WBC/RBC ratio was lower in the case of curcumin-treated fish. The cytometric measurements revealed no change in the erythrocytes and their nuclei after curcumin treatment. DNA fragmentation assay revealed intact DNA in curcumin-fed group, ruling out the possibility of curcumin-induced DNA damage. The positive control group showed a significant increase in MN frequency compared to negative control and curcumin-fed groups. In fact, the MN frequency decreased in 1% curcumin-fed group compared to the negative control and 0.5% curcumin groups. All these indicated a state of well-being of the curcumin-treated fish. Therefore, it is concluded that curcumin could be used as a safe feed ingredient to improve the growth of finfish in aquaculture. PMID:23515757

Manju, Maniyan; Vijayasree, Appiyathu Saraswathy; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; Oommen, Oommen Vilaverthottathil



Interactions between Fusobacterium necrophorum hemolysin, erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes.  


The interactions between the hemolysin of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes were studied as an attempt to determine the initial characteristics leading to hemolysis. The spectrum of erythrocyte sensitivity indicated that horse, dog and mouse erythrocytes were highly sensitive whereas those of cattle, sheep, goat and chicken were insensitive to the hemolysin. Binding of hemolysin to horse and dog erythrocytes or their ghosts was more pronounced than to those of cattle and sheep as detected by a decrease of hemolytic activity from hemolysin preparations. The kinetics of hemolysis revealed that lysis is preceded by a prelytic phase characterized by binding of hemolysin to erythrocytes. Treatment of horse erythrocytes with hemolysin at various temperatures prior to incubation at 37 degrees C also revealed that this binding prelytic phase is temperature independent. This was followed by a temperature dependent lytic stage since erythrocytes pretreated with hemolysin and incubated at 4 degrees C showed no hemolysis. An inverse relation was found between erythrocyte concentration and hemolytic activity suggesting a multiple-hit mechanism of hemolysis. PMID:9163913

Amoako, K K; Goto, Y; Misawa, N; Xu, D L; Shinjo, T



Delayed blood regeneration in lead exposure: An effect on reserve capacity  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-five lead-exposed Danish battery production workers and 25-age-matched controls were examined to evaluate subclinical effects on blood formation. Blood lead levels averaged 2.14 mumol/L and 0.35 mumol/L in the two groups; the lead workers also showed high levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin, as compared to the controls. Otherwise, the hematological parameters indicated an appropriate iron status and no other deviations. From all subjects, 0.45 L of blood was bled as part of a normal blood donation. Five and 11 days later, reticulocyte counts were significantly higher in the control group than in the lead-exposed workers. On day 15, the lead workers showed a significant delay in blood regeneration, as evidenced by lower hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts. The lead exposure in the present study was within legal limits, and lead-induced anemia would be expected only at much higher exposure levels. Thus, despite the normal hematological findings in the initial examination, the lead exposure caused a decreased reserve capacity for blood formation, and this effect became evident only after the blood loss.

Grandjean, P.; Jensen, B.M.; Sando, S.H.; Jogensen, P.J.; Antonsen, S. (Odense Univ. (Denmark))



[The noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes, leukocytes and erythrocytes].  


The article considers the noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes and formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic-thrombocytic aggregates and some particular indicators of hemostasis system. The speckle-analysis of characteristics of coherent light dispersion from surface of erythrocytes moving in artificially isolated vessel section. The study established high correlation ratio between light dispersion index and spontaneous ADP-, adrenalin- and collagen-induced aggregation of thrombocytes, formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic and thrombocytic-erythrocytic aggregations. The established facts permits to consider that analysis noninvasive technique makes it possible to estimate approximately the aggregation activity of blood corpuscles. PMID:23984549

Kuznik, B I; Fa?n, I A; Kaminski?, A V; Maksimova, O G; Kustovskaia, E M; Bogdanova, Iu V; Zhdanovich, N G; Rodnina, O S; Khasanova, N V



In vitro adherence of bovine erythrocytes infected with Babesia bovis to thrombospondin and laminin.  


This study was undertaken to examine how eight putative adhesive agents bound to plastic surfaces affected the capacity of bovine erythrocytes, infected with either virulent or avirulent strains of Babesia bovis, to adhere in vitro. Thrombospondin (TSP) induced B. bovis-infected bovine erythrocytes to adhere and adherence was augmented when the infected blood was cultured for 24 h before the assay. Moreover, TSP also caused erythrocytes infected with avirulent strains of B. bovis to adhere to plastic in vitro. Laminin promoted the adherence of infected, and to a lesser extent, of uninfected erythrocytes. PMID:2777473

Parrodi, F; Wright, I G; Bourne, A S; Dobson, C



Biophysical Properties of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes from Novel Analysis of the Flicker Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infectious processes often modulate the intrinsic properties of vertebrate cells. We studied the modulation of human erythrocyte flicker during the intra-erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using video microscopy imaging and a data analysis system of our design to extract flicker spectra and lateral cell edge undulations of individual erythrocytes at various stages of infection. The total flicker power, the power weighted mean flicker frequency, the mode amplitudes of lateral undulations, and the time correlation of translation mode was quantified by infectious stage and modeled theoretically. Our results suggest that malaria-infected erythrocytes become increasingly more rigid following infection and provide an insight into the modulation of erythrocyte cytoplasmic viscosity by the parasites. These studies of malaria-infected erythrocytes elucidate the kinetics of both membrane and cellular changes that are relevant to blood microcirculation and improve our understanding of the malaria disease process.

Arie, Takayuki; Jin, Albert; Dvorak, James



[Cytospectrophotometric research on hemoglobin in human erythrocytes. I. The methemoglobin content in intact erythrocytes and its alteration under the influence of chromosmon, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and glutathione].  


The blood of healthy men and patients with methemoglobinemia of different genesis was incubated with chromosmon, ascorbic acid, riboflavin and glutathione, the percentage of erythrocytes with thorn-shaped protuberances-echinocytes being subsequently determined in the blood smears. The absorbtion spectra at the range 400-650 nm were investigated both in the smooth erythrocytes and in echinocytes. A correlation was found between the percentage of echinocytes and the methemoglobin content in the blood. The methemoglobin amount in the echinocytes was determined to be higher than in the smooth erythrocytes. It is discovered that effects of chromosmon, glutathione and riboflavin on production of methemoglobin depend on the dose, individual peculiarities of erythrocytes and on the illness that caused methemoglobinemia. The calculation of echinocyte percentage may be used as an express-diagnostics of methemoglobinemia and for purposes of studying the effect of methemoglobin-producing substances and drugs. PMID:2749902

Filev, L V; Zakharov, I I; Selivanova, G V; Zhiburt, E B; Kuznetsov, V A



Expression of cryptantigen Th on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes in association with a hemolytic exacerbation.  

PubMed Central

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) erythrocytes lack complement regulatory membrane proteins and are susceptible to complement. Although the critical role of complement in intravascular hemolysis in PNH is accepted, the precise mechanism of complement activation in vivo is unknown. Accordingly, in a PNH patient who was suffering from a hemolytic precipitation soon after a common cold-like upper respiratory infection, we analyzed the erythrocytes with lectins and by flow cytometry to detect membrane alteration that lead to complement activation. The lectin reactivity of erythrocytes showed the expression of cryptantigen Th. The patient serum at the time of the hemolysis induced the expression of Th on erythrocytes from PNH patients and from healthy volunteers in vitro, whereas neither the patient serum after recovery from the hemolysis nor blood type-matched control serum from healthy donor showed this activity. Moreover, autologous serum selectively hemolyzed Th+ PNH erythrocytes, but not Th- PNH erythrocytes, or Th+ control erythrocytes. Hemolysis was not observed either in complement-inactivated serum or in blood type-matched cord blood serum, which lacks natural antibodies to cryptantigens. These findings indicate that the immunoreaction of infection-induced Th with natural antibody on PNH erythrocytes is a trigger of the complement activation, leading to intravascular hemolysis. Images

Nakakuma, H; Hidaka, M; Nagakura, S; Nishimura, Y; Iwamoto, N; Horikawa, K; Kawaguchi, T; Kagimoto, T; Takatsuki, K



Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: A 6-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background After the Chernobyl nuclear accident on April 26, 1986, all children in the contaminated territory of the Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, were obliged to participate in a yearly medical examination. We present the results from these examinations for the years 1993 to 1998. Since the hematopoietic system is an important target, we investigated the association between residential soil density of 137Caesium (137Cs) and hemoglobin concentration, and erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte counts in 1,251 children, using 4,989 repeated measurements taken from 1993 to 1998. Methods Soil contamination measurements from 38 settlements were used as exposures. Blood counts were conducted using the same auto-analyzer in all investigations for all years. We used linear mixed models to compensate for the repeated measurements of each child over the six year period. We estimated the adjusted means for all markers, controlling for potential confounders. Results Data show a statistically significant reduction in red and white blood cell counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin with increasing residential 137Cs soil contamination. Over the six-year observation period, hematologic markers did improve. In children with the higher exposure who were born before the accident, this improvement was more pronounced for platelet counts, and less for red blood cells and hemoglobin. There was no exposure×time interaction for white blood cell counts and not in 702 children who were born after the accident. The initial exposure gradient persisted in this sub-sample of children. Conclusion The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure.

Stepanova, Eugenia; Karmaus, Wilfried; Naboka, Marina; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; Mousseau, Tim; Shestopalov, Viacheslav M; Vena, John; Svendsen, Erik; Underhill, Dwight; Pastides, Harris



Photodynamic effects on human and chicken erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intracellular accumulation of a variety of photosensitizers in human (non-nucleated) and chicken (nucleated) erythrocytes, as well as the photodynamically induced hemolysis were studied using 488 nm laser microirradiation (15 (mu) W, 100X) and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Cells incubated with the negatively charged hydrophilic compounds TPPS4 and Pd-TPPS4 exhibited no significant fluorescence before irradiation, but developed strong fluorescence in the cellular and nuclear membranes following photoinduced membrane damage. In contrast, microirradiation of Photofrin-incubated erythrocytes showed instantaneous fluorescence which decreased due to photodegradation. For the cationic, hydrophilic dye Methylene Blue, significant fluorescence was detected in the nucleus only. Following ALA incubation, large intercellular differences were observed in fluorescence in the red spectral region. These differences are probably due to the differential ability of individual erythrocytes to biosynthesize protoporphyrin IX. Photofrin was the most efficient photosensitizer to induce hemolysis. Higher radiant exposures were required for lysis of nucleated than of human red blood cells, except in the case of Methylene Blue. Irradiation was more efficient for unwashed cell suspensions than for washed suspensions, indicating the non-negligible role of extracellular photosensitizing molecules.

Kimel, Sol; Konig, K.; Berns, Michael W.



Erythrocyte age-fractionation using a Percoll-Renografin density gradient: application to autologous red cell antigen determinations in recently transfused patients.  


A rapid technic for the age-fractionation of human erythrocytes into reticulocyte-enriched (young) red blood cells and reticulocyte-poor (old) red blood cells using an isopycnic density gradient centrifugation through Percoll-Renografin was evaluated for use in autologous red blood cell antigen determinations in multiply-transfused patients. The fractionation was demonstrated by statistically significant density-related changes in pyruvate kinase and acetylcholinesterase activities (P = 0.002 and 0.042, respectively) and by the distribution of reticulocytes on the gradient (P less than 0.005). With initial reticulocyte counts of less than or equal to 1.5%, reticulocyte counts up to 78% were achieved (means = 25%; n = 31). When starting with reticulocyte counts greater than 5%, samples containing up to 98% reticulocytes were obtained (means = 64%; n = 7). The technic requires less than two hours, uses isotonic media, and is nontoxic to red blood cells. Volumes of red blood cells up to 10 mL can be fractionated at one time and the gradient medium is stable when refrigerated at 4 degrees C. Red blood cell typing was performed in six patients who had received from 4-29 units of blood within a 12-hour period. Within 72 hours posttransfusion, typing of the reticulocyte enriched fraction correctly identified the patient's red blood cell antigens with all 16 antisera tested. This technic for typing reticulocyte-enriched samples is of importance for confirmation of antibody specificity in determining whether an antibody is an alloantibody or autoantibody, and in the selection of donor blood for transfusion to patients having autoimmune hemolytic anemia. PMID:6312792

Branch, D R; Hian, A L; Carlson, F; Maslow, W C; Petz, L D



Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.



Biodiversity Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this class exercise, students count the number of species they can find in a five minute block of time in both an urban lawn and natural, remnant forest area. The students are introduced to the concept of low and high biodiversity areas and engage in a discussion about biodiversity loss.

Suzanne Savanick, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College,


Shared Count  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're interested in checking out the social media shares for various websites, the Shared Count tool is a nice find. Visitors just need to enter the URL in question and then can find out how often the site has been shared on a range of social media platforms. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

Kumar, Neeraj



Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the sequence. Have the students start counting around the circle one by one until the last number in the sequence is reached. When the last number is reached all students clap and that student is out and sits down on the floor in the middle of the circle. Start the counting sequence over again until another student reaches the number at the end of the sequence; everyone claps and that student sits in the center with the first student. Continue repeating the sequence until only one child is left standing and the rest are seated in the center of the circle. For example: for the counting sequence 1-10: the first student says "one," the next student says "two" and so on until the 10th students gets to "ten" at this point everyone claps and the tenth child sits in the center of the circle. The eleventh student starts over with "one" and so on.

Mathematics, Illustrative



Inheritance of abnormal erythrocyte cation transport in essential hypertension.  


Net fluxes of sodium and potassium ions were determined in sodium-loaded, potassium-depleted erythrocytes from 370 white subjects, 194 of whom had essential hypertension or had been born to parents with essential hypertension. Findings were compared with those in 86 controls who were normotensive and did not have a family history of hypertension. Compared with controls all patients with essential hypertension had a low sodium to potassium ratio secondary to a deficit in the sodium-potassium cotransport system. A similar abnormality was found in subjects born to parents with essential hypertension, the prevalences of a deficient cotransport system in such subjects being 53.6% (52 out of 97) among those with one hypertensive parent and 73.7% (14 out of 19) among those with two hypertensive parents. Both sexes were equally affected. Studies in 14 families over two or three generations showed the erythrocyte cation abnormality in one or more members of each consecutive generation. No close association was evident between the deficient erythrocyte sodium-potassium cotransport system and either blood groups ABO, Rh, Kidd, Duffy, P, and MNS or the major histocompatibility HLA antigens. Out of 90 consecutive unrelated and normotensive white blood donors, 36 showed a low erythrocyte sodium-potassium net flux ratio. It is concluded that in white people abnormal erythrocyte cation transport is a biochemical disorder characteristic of essential hypertension and transmitted by a dominant and autosomal mode expressing a single abnormal gene. PMID:6786458

Meyer, P; Garay, R P; Nazaret, C; Dagher, G; Bellet, M; Broyer, M; Feingold, J



Inheritance of abnormal erythrocyte cation transport in essential hypertension.  

PubMed Central

Net fluxes of sodium and potassium ions were determined in sodium-loaded, potassium-depleted erythrocytes from 370 white subjects, 194 of whom had essential hypertension or had been born to parents with essential hypertension. Findings were compared with those in 86 controls who were normotensive and did not have a family history of hypertension. Compared with controls all patients with essential hypertension had a low sodium to potassium ratio secondary to a deficit in the sodium-potassium cotransport system. A similar abnormality was found in subjects born to parents with essential hypertension, the prevalences of a deficient cotransport system in such subjects being 53.6% (52 out of 97) among those with one hypertensive parent and 73.7% (14 out of 19) among those with two hypertensive parents. Both sexes were equally affected. Studies in 14 families over two or three generations showed the erythrocyte cation abnormality in one or more members of each consecutive generation. No close association was evident between the deficient erythrocyte sodium-potassium cotransport system and either blood groups ABO, Rh, Kidd, Duffy, P, and MNS or the major histocompatibility HLA antigens. Out of 90 consecutive unrelated and normotensive white blood donors, 36 showed a low erythrocyte sodium-potassium net flux ratio. It is concluded that in white people abnormal erythrocyte cation transport is a biochemical disorder characteristic of essential hypertension and transmitted by a dominant and autosomal mode expressing a single abnormal gene.

Meyer, P; Garay, R P; Nazaret, C; Dagher, G; Bellet, M; Broyer, M; Feingold, J



Cytoskeletal dynamics of human erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

The human erythrocyte (red blood cell, RBC) demonstrates extraordinary ability to undergo reversible large deformation and fluidity. Such mechanical response cannot be consistently rationalized on the basis of fixed connectivity of the cell cytoskeleton that comprises the spectrin molecular network tethered to phospholipid membrane. Active topological remodeling of spectrin network has been postulated, although detailed models of such dynamic reorganization are presently unavailable. Here we present a coarse-grained cytoskeletal dynamics simulation with breakable protein associations to elucidate the roles of shear stress, specific chemical agents, and thermal fluctuations in cytoskeleton remodeling. We demonstrate a clear solid-to-fluid transition depending on the metabolic energy influx. The solid network's plastic deformation also manifests creep and yield regimes depending on the strain rate. This cytoskeletal dynamics model offers a means to resolve long-standing questions regarding the reference state used in RBC elasticity theory for determining the equilibrium shape and deformation response. In addition, the simulations offer mechanistic insights into the onset of plasticity and void percolation in cytoskeleton. These phenomena may have implication for RBC membrane loss and shape change in the context of hereditary hemolytic disorders such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis.

Li, Ju; Lykotrafitis, George; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra



Effects of Static Magnetic Fields on Erythrocyte Rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute influence of an external static magnetic field on the erythrocyte rheology is briefly reviewed. 1) The magnetohydrodynamic\\u000a action may be effective to alter the fast blood flow in aorta at a field over 5 T, but no experimental study has been made.\\u000a 2) The diamagnetic interaction, between the normal blood component and uniform magnetic field, has been found:

Takeshi Shiga; Masaharu Okazaki; Nobuji Maeda; Akitoshi Seiyama


Counting Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to practice counting money. We will be reviewing the penny, nickel, and dime, and quarter. The coin with the lowest value is the penny. Here is a picture of a penny. A penny is worth one cent or $0.01picture of a penny The next coin of the lowest value is the nickel. Here is a picture of a nickel. picture of a nickel A nickel is worth five cents or $0.05 The next coin ...




Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in

W R Keatinge; S R Coleshaw; F Cotter; M Mattock; M Murphy; R Chelliah



Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Malaria-Infected Erythrocytes Using a Cell Microarray Chip  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is one of the major human infectious diseases in many endemic countries. For prevention of the spread of malaria, it is necessary to develop an early, sensitive, accurate and conventional diagnosis system. Methods and Findings A cell microarray chip was used to detect for malaria-infected erythrocytes. The chip, with 20,944 microchambers (105 µm width and 50 µm depth), was made from polystyrene, and the formation of monolayers of erythrocytes in the microchambers was observed. Cultured Plasmodium falciparum strain 3D7 was used to examine the potential of the cell microarray chip for malaria diagnosis. An erythrocyte suspension in a nuclear staining dye, SYTO 59, was dispersed on the chip surface, followed by 10 min standing to allow the erythrocytes to settle down into the microchambers. About 130 erythrocytes were accommodated in each microchamber, there being over 2,700,000 erythrocytes in total on a chip. A microarray scanner was employed to detect any fluorescence-positive erythrocytes within 5 min, and 0.0001% parasitemia could be detected. To examine the contamination by leukocytes of purified erythrocytes from human blood, 20 µl of whole blood was mixed with 10 ml of RPMI 1640, and the mixture was passed through a leukocyte isolation filter. The eluted portion was centrifuged at 1,000×g for 2 min, and the pellet was dispersed in 1.0 ml of medium. SYTO 59 was added to the erythrocyte suspension, followed by analysis on a cell microarray chip. Similar accommodation of cells in the microchambers was observed. The number of contaminating leukocytes was less than 1 on a cell microarray chip. Conclusion The potential of the cell microarray chip for the detection of malaria-infected erythrocytes was shown, it offering 10–100 times higher sensitivity than that of conventional light microscopy and easy operation in 15 min with purified erythrocytes.

Yamaguchi, Yuka; Shinohara, Yasuo; Tamiya, Eiichi; Horii, Toshihiro; Baba, Yoshinobu; Kataoka, Masatoshi



Trauma to erythrocytes induced by long term in vitro pumping using a roller pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of trauma on erythrocyte caused by long term in vitro pumping using roller pump. Ten bags of human blood (400ml each) were provided by a local blood bank and they were divided into two groups with five bags in each group. Each blood bag was subject to pumping in a

M. J. Ding; S. W. Xu; J. Zhang; Q. Wang; Y. Chang; F. Chen; Y. J. Zeng



Erythrocyte enzymes in experimental lead poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravenous administration of 6 mg per kg lead acetate to rabbits resulted in plumbism with elevated erythrocyte lead levels and marked depression of activity of erythrocyte d-aminolevulmic acid dehydratase. By comparison other erythrocyte enzymes were insensitive to the effects of lead. Activities of anaerobic glycolysis and of the hexose monophosphate shunt were unaffected by lead administration as were erythrocyte methemoglobin

Lon E. Rogers; Norma D. Battles; Ekkehard W. Reimold; Peggy Sartain



Spectral Markers of Erythrocytes on Solid Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed in previous paper [1,2] the new nondestructive method of optical microscopy allows to examine the structures of living cells (human erythrocytes) in their natural colors without its staining by using a specially designed substrate for deposition of biological sample and observing a native blood smears in reflected light. Color interference contrast image is achieved due to special condition of experiment is connected with chose of angle of incidental light, wave length of light of reflected ray, chemical composition of sample, thickness of sample, refractive index of sample, refractive index of substrate, chemical composition of substrate [1,2]. We can identify chemical compounds of erythrocytes after calibration color scale by alternative methods. For comparison we used Synchrotron Radiation based Fourier Transformed Infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy. By focusing of infrared beam of FTIR microscope on cell surface we can screen and distinguish difference erythrocytes by its color. For example on Fig. 49.1 we can see two neighbored erythrocytes where one of them have red color (point 1) and other-green (point 5). To identify their spectral markers we measured IR absorption spectra of cells at different points (1,2,3,4 and 5). Intermediated area (points 3 and 4) correspond to substrate spectra (silicon substrate) and their spectra are same. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids. At 1,650 cm-1 the amide I band is observed, which results, principally, from the n(CO) stretching vibrations of the protein amide bonds; the amide II band, near 1,550 cm-1, is a combination of the d(N-H) bending and n(C-N) stretching vibrations of the amide bonds. The peaks at 2,850 and 2,920 cm-1 correspond mainly to the CH2 stretching modes of the methylene chains in membrane lipids [3. The intensities of the absorption bands at 2,920 and 2,850 cm-1 in green erythrocyte (point 5) were also significantly increased compared to red one (point 1). The protein conformational change of the red and green cells could be expressed as the ratio of the absorbance intensity at wavenumber 1650/1550, which represented the intensity of the amide II band of cells. Lipids have long hydrocarbon chains, so the dominant features in the IR spectrum of lipids are attributed to the asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of CH2 (2,920 and 2,850 cm-1) groups in the molecule. Other biological components, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, also have unique IR spectra.

Paiziev, Adkhamjon A.; Krakhmalev, V. A.


Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry  

SciTech Connect

Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.



[Cytoplasmic cross links of erythrocytes (observations in scanning electron microscopy)].  


Erthyrocytes can form cytoplasmatic bridged connecting with each other individual cells or a great number of cells into a conglomerate. The cytoplasmatic bridges--is a peculiar form of existance of erythrocytes which differ from the forms described earlier: thorm-like (spheroechinocytes) and myelino-like forms having nothing in common with the mechanism of agglutination. The cytoplasmatic bridges of erythrocytes were found in man, dogs and guinea-pigs irrespective of a disease or conditions of an experiment, i.e. they may be referred to as a common biological system. The cytoplasmatic bridges may desintegrate, i.e. to be subjected to reverse development, which in a overwhelming majority of cases, as well as their formation, does not effect materiality the size and form of red corpuscles. Erythrocytes are united by means of cytoplasmatic bridges only with erthrocytes (predominantly with young ones) and never with any other cells of the blood. PMID:1131068

Krymdki?, L D; Nesta?ko, G V; Rybalov, A G; Shanoian, S A



Erythrocyte G Protein as a Novel Target for Malarial Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains a serious health problem because resistance develops to all currently used drugs when their parasite targets mutate. Novel antimalarial drug targets are urgently needed to reduce global morbidity and mortality. Our prior results suggested that inhibiting erythrocyte Gs signaling blocked invasion by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Methods and Findings We investigated the erythrocyte guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs as a novel antimalarial target. Erythrocyte “ghosts” loaded with a Gs peptide designed to block Gs interaction with its receptors, were blocked in ?-adrenergic agonist-induced signaling. This finding directly demonstrates that erythrocyte Gs is functional and that propranolol, an antagonist of G protein–coupled ?-adrenergic receptors, dampens Gs activity in erythrocytes. We subsequently used the ghost system to directly link inhibition of host Gs to parasite entry. In addition, we discovered that ghosts loaded with the peptide were inhibited in intracellular parasite maturation. Propranolol also inhibited blood-stage parasite growth, as did other ?2-antagonists. ?-blocker growth inhibition appeared to be due to delay in the terminal schizont stage. When used in combination with existing antimalarials in cell culture, propranolol reduced the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations for existing drugs against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold and was also effective in reducing drug dose in animal models of infection. Conclusions Together these data establish that, in addition to invasion, erythrocyte G protein signaling is needed for intracellular parasite proliferation and thus may present a novel antimalarial target. The results provide proof of the concept that erythrocyte Gs antagonism offers a novel strategy to fight infection and that it has potential to be used to develop combination therapies with existing antimalarials.

Murphy, Sean C; Harrison, Travis; Hamm, Heidi E; Lomasney, Jon W; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi



Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem. Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been field tested in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.



Identification of the phorbol ester receptor in human and avian erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of phorbol esters to inhibit the uptake of a fluorescent glucose analogue in goose but not human erythrocytes is consistent with earlier reports that the human red blood cell lacks the phorbol ester receptor. However, they have located specific phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding sites in both human and goose erythrocytes. Human and goose red blood cells contain 2 classes of phorbol ester receptors with similar affinities, however the human erythrocyte contains 1/3 as many phorbol ester receptors as does the goose red blood cell. An additional contrast in the binding of phorbol esters to human and goose red blood cells is the temperature-induced enhancement of binding to goose, but not human erythrocytes. Equilibrium phorbol ester binding to goose red blood cells at 37/sup 0/C is enhanced 3.3 +/- 0.4 times that amount bound at 4/sup 0/C. Equilibrium binding of phorbol esters to human erythrocytes is identical at both temperatures. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation profiles of C-kinase substrates also differ between the human and goose erythrocyte.

Kramer, C.M.; Sando, J.J.; Speizer, L.A.



A Unique Feature of Iron Loss via Close Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Host Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia is an extra-stomach disease experienced in H. pylori carriers. Individuals with type A blood are more prone to suffering from H. pylori infection than other individuals. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying H. pylori-associated anemia, we collected erythrocytes from A, B, O, and AB blood donors and analyzed morphology, the number of erythrocytes with H. pylori colonies attached to them, and iron contents in erythrocytes and H. pylori (NCTC11637 and SS1 strains) by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation soft X-ray imaging. The number of type A erythrocytes with H. pylori attached to them was significantly higher than that of other erythrocytes (P<0.05). Far more iron distribution was observed in H. pylori bacteria using dual energy analysis near the iron L2, 3 edges by soft X-ray imaging. Iron content was significantly reduced in host erythrocytes after 4 hours of exposure to H. pylori. H. pylori are able to adhere more strongly to type A erythrocytes, and this is related to iron shift from the host to the bacteria. This may explain the reasons for refractory iron deficiency anemia and elevated susceptibility to H. pylori infection in individuals with type A blood.

Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Zhi; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Bingya; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Qiulan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan



Oxidative damages in erythrocytes of patients with metabolic syndrome.  


The aim of the study was to estimate the changes caused by oxidative stress in structure and function of membrane of erythrocytes from patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study involved 85 patients with MS before pharmacological treatment and 75 healthy volunteers as a control group. Cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, glutathione level (GSH), and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes were investigated. The damage to erythrocyte proteins was also indicated by means of activity of ATPase (total and Na(+),K(+) ATPase) and thiol group level. The membrane fluidity of erythrocytes was estimated by the fluorescent method. The cholesterol concentration and the level of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher, whereas the concentration of proteins thiol groups decreased in the patient group. ATPase and GSH peroxidase activities diminished compared to those in the control group. There were no differences in either catalase or superoxide dismutase activities. The membrane fluidity was lower in erythrocytes from patients with MS than in the ones from control group. These results show changes in red blood cells of patients with MS as a consequence of a higher concentration of cholesterol in the membrane and an increased oxidative stress. PMID:23516039

Ziobro, A; Duchnowicz, P; Mulik, A; Koter-Michalak, M; Broncel, M



Nucleotides in Frozen Glycerolized Erythrocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nucleotide content (ATP, ADP, AMP) of deglycerolized and resuspended erythrocytes, previously frozen with glycerol and the slow freeze technic and processed by the centrifuguation and agglomeration methods, was measured for a three-week post-thaw inte...

F. J. Lionetti C. R. Valeri J. C. Bond C. Kivowitz E. Weinman



Marginal bands in camel erythrocytes.  


The elliptical, anucleate erythrocytes of camels have been examined for the presence of marginal bands and their constituent microtubules. Lysis of erythrocytes under microtubule-stabilizing conditions readily revealed marginal bands in at least 3 % of the cells, as observed by phase-contrast and darkfield light microscopy. Microtubules plus a marginal band-encompassing network of material are visible in lysed cell whole mounts with transmission electron microscopy. Marginal band microtubules are also evident in electron micrographs of thin-sectioned camel erythrocytes identifiable as reticuloyctes on the basis of submaximal electron density (reduced haemoglobin iron content) and presence of polysomes. The results suggest that marginal bands may be involved in morphogenesis of camel erythrocytes but are not required for maintenance of their ellipticity after cells are fully differentiated. PMID:457820

Cohen, W D; Terwilliger, N B



Urban air pollution induces micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of mice in vivo.  


In this study, we explored the role of chronic exposure to urban air pollution in causing DNA damage (micronuclei frequency in peripheral erythrocytes) in rodents in vivo. Mice (n=20) were exposed to the urban atmosphere of Săo Paulo for 120 days (February to June 1999) and compared to animals (n=20) maintained in the countryside (Atibaia) for the same period. Daily levels of inhalable particles (PM10), CO, NO(2), and SO(2), were available for Săo Paulo. Occasional measurements of CO and O(3) were made in Atibaia, showing negligible levels of pollution in the area. The frequency of micronuclei (repeated-measures ANOVA) increased with aging, the highest values obtained for the 90th day of experiment (P<0.001). The exposure to urban air pollution elicited a significant (P=0.016) increase of micronuclei frequency, with no significant interaction with time of study. Associations (Spearman's correlation) between pollution levels of the week that precede blood sampling and micronuclei counts were observed in Săo Paulo. The associations between micronuclei counts and air pollution were particularly strong for pollutants associated with automotive emissions, such as CO (P=0.037), NO(2) (P<0.001), and PM10 (P<0.001). Our results support the concept that urban levels of air pollution may cause somatic mutations. PMID:12804515

Soares, S R C; Bueno-Guimarăes, H M; Ferreira, C M; Rivero, D H R F; De Castro, I; Garcia, M L B; Saldiva, P H N



The association between erythrocyte internal viscosity, protein non-enzymatic glycosylation and erythrocyte membrane dynamic properties in juvenile diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

The association of intracellular viscosity of red blood cells and the dynamic properties of erythrocyte membranes in children suffering from diabetes has been investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. It has been revealed that the slight decrease in the ratio hw/hs of maleimide bound to membrane protein-SH groups of erythrocytes in diabetes may ensue from the enhanced membrane protein immobilization in the plane of lipid bilayer. These alterations were accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative rotational correlation time (tau c) of iodoacetamide spin label, thus suggesting that the conformational changes in membrane proteins may occur at both the intrinsic and more exposed thiol groups. The membranes of diabetic red blood cells were more glycosylated than those of relevant controls, and the extent of glycosylation was found to correlate significantly with h + 1/h0 and tau c (r = -0.652, P < 0.01 and r = 0.609, P < 0.01). Further, the conformational alterations in erythrocyte membranes from diabetic subjects were accompanied by a significant increase in the mobility parameter (h + 1/h0) of haemoglobin molecules in diabetic erythrocytes. The latter changes correlated well with the enhanced intracellular viscosity of diabetic red blood cells and the level of glycosylated haemoglobin. We conclude that the alterations in membrane lipid-protein interactions together with the increased glycosylation-derived internal viscosity may consequently imply altered viscoelastic properties of erythrocyte membranes and, underlying the impaired deformability of red blood cells in the diabetic state, contribute to the development of late diabetic sequelae.

Watala, C.; Witas, H.; Olszowska, L.; Piasecki, W.



Erythrocyte hyperaggregation and thrombogenic dysfibrinogenemia.  


Erythrocyte aggregation was measured in 12 patients with congenital dysfibrinogenemia. The results showed hyperaggregation in four patients who had presented a thrombotic disorder, while aggregation was entirely normal in patients with asymptomatic dysfibrinogenemia. None of the four symptomatic patients had any other anomaly of hemostasis, in particular no coagulation inhibitor deficit or anti-phospholipid antibodies. The possible involvement of erythrocyte hyperaggregation in the thrombotic process is discussed. PMID:9741663

Nguyen, F; Drouet, L; Boisseau, M; Léger, P; Juchet, H; Bierme, R; Cambus, J P



Relapsing fever Borrelia binds to neolacto glycans and mediates rosetting of human erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of acute relapsing fever borreliosis is severe bacteremia. Some Borrelia species, such as B. duttonii and B. crocidurae, associate with erythrocytes and induce aggregation recognized as erythrocyte rosetting. Erythrocyte rosettes contribute to disease severity by increased tissue invasiveness (such as invasion of CNS and encephalitis), hemorrhaging, and reduced blood flow in affected microcapillaries. Here we report that relapsing fever Borrelia binds to neolacto (Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1)–carrying glycoconjugates that are present on human erythrocytes. This interaction is of low affinity but is compensated for by the multivalency of neo-lacto-oligosaccharides on the erythrocyte cell surface. Hence, the protein–carbohydrate interaction is dependent on multivalent neolacto-glycans to mediate binding.

Guo, Betty P.; Teneberg, Susann; Munch, Robert; Terunuma, Daiyo; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji; Angstrom, Jonas; Boren, Thomas; Bergstrom, Sven



Immobilization-Induced Changes in Erythrocyte Membrane Fluidity in Rabbits: a Spin-Label Electron Spin Resonance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that many diseases are linked to abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane. This study observed the changes in erythrocyte membrane fluidity during an immobilization period of 21 days. The right hindlimbs of male adult New Zealand white rabbits were immobilized for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and heparinized prior to immobilization and on days 1, 3,

Ming Ju Liu; Jing Xian Li; Ling Qin; Kwong Man Lee; Kai Ming Chan



Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells has been investigated in static high magnetic fields. The anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility Deltachi of erythrocytes and blood platelets are determined. Deltachi of blood platelets is 1.5 times larger than that of erythrocytes. The contribution of microtubules to the Deltachi of platelets is also discussed.

A. Yamagashi; T. Takeuchi; T. Hagashi; M. Date



The sheep erythrocyte T-dependent antibody response (TDAR).  


The sheep erythrocyte T-dependent antibody Response (TDAR) evaluates the ability of animals sensitized in vivo to produce primary IgM antibodies to sheep erythrocytes (sRBC). The assay enumerates the number of antigen specific IgM antibody producing cells in the spleen. When exposure to the test material takes place in vivo, as does sensitization, the actual quantification of the number of antibody producing cells occurs ex vivo. Following the animal being euthanized, a single cell suspension of spleen cells is prepared. These spleen cells containing the IgM secreting plasma cells are incubated in a semisolid matrix of agar, sheep erythrocytes, and guinea pig serum as a single cell layer between a Petri dish and glass cover slip. After a 3 h incubation period, lysis of sRBCs around each of the IgM secreting antigen specific plasma cells results in the formation of a clear plaque, which can easily be counted. The TDAR has been found to be the most sensitive functional assay for evaluating effects on the immune system, particularly the humoral immune component. The TDAR to sheep erythrocytes still remains the gold standard for evaluating the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the immune system. PMID:19967513

White, Kimber L; Musgrove, Deborah L; Brown, Ronnetta D



Accurate automated quantitative imaging of tortoise erythrocytes using the NIS image analysis system.  


The standard method for assessing blood cell characteristics using an ocular micrometer is time-consuming and limited. We used the Nikon NIS Elements imaging software and May- Grünwald-Giemsa staining to determine whether automated image analysis is suitable for rapid and accurate quantitative morphometry of erythrocytes. Blood was collected during four seasons from 126 geometric tortoises and the blood smears were evaluated for cell (C) and nuclear (N) characteristics of the erythrocytes. We measured area, length (L), width (W), perimeter, elongation and pixelation intensity, and calculated L/W and N/C areas. Erythrocyte size differed among cohorts; females, the larger sex, had smaller erythrocytes than either males or juveniles. Males had more elongated erythrocytes than females and erythrocytes of adults were more elongated than those of juveniles. Erythrocyte size and shape influence the efficiency of gas exchange owing to surface area to volume ratios, which are greater for small, elongated cells than for large, round cells. The high N/C ratio and low pixelation intensities of males and juveniles indicate that they may have had more immature erythrocytes in their circulation than females. The use of pixelation intensity to indicate the presence of immature erythrocytes was validated by seasonal differences that corresponded to the biology of the tortoises. Pixelation intensity was lowest in winter. We found that automated image analysis is a rapid and reliable method for determining cell size and shape, and it offers the potential for distinguishing among developmental stages that differ in staining intensity. The method should be useful for rapid health assessments, particularly of threatened species, and for comparative studies among different vertebrates. PMID:23387424

Walton, S; Hofmeyr, M D; van der Horst, G



Saturable binding of indisulam to plasma proteins and distribution to human erythrocytes.  


The anticancer agent indisulam has a nonlinear pharmacokinetic profile, which may be partly related to saturable binding to blood constituents. To gain insight into the complex nonlinear behavior of indisulam, we investigated binding to plasma proteins and erythrocytes. The purpose of the study was to develop a physiological model for the distribution of indisulam in blood. Concentrations of radiolabeled indisulam were measured in vitro 1) in total plasma and in ultrafiltrate to investigate plasma protein binding, 2) in erythrocytes and in plasma to investigate distribution to erythrocytes, and 3) in erythrocyte membranes to investigate nonspecific binding in erythrocytes. For in vivo assessment, 21 patients received 400 to 900 mg/m2 indisulam in a 1- or 2-h infusion. Total and free concentrations in plasma and concentrations in erythrocytes were determined at multiple time points. In vitro plasma protein binding was described by a Langmuir model with a maximal binding capacity (Bmax = 767 microM) and an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD = 1.02 microM). The maximal capacity of plasma protein binding in vivo corresponded to albumin levels. The bound concentration in erythrocytes was described by a two-site model, comprising a saturable and a nonspecific binding component. The saturable component (Bmax = 174 microM) may correspond to binding to carbonic anhydrase. The physiological model adequately described the nonlinear disposition of indisulam in whole blood. Indisulam was bound to plasma proteins and distributed to erythrocytes in a saturable manner. These saturable processes may be attributed to binding to albumin (in plasma) and to carbonic anhydrase (in erythrocytes). PMID:16565173

Zandvliet, Anthe S; Copalu, William; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R



BASIGIN is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion requires a series of extracellular recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive form of the parasite. None of the few known receptor-ligand interactions involved1-4 are required in all parasite strains suggesting that the parasite is able to access multiple redundant invasion pathways5. Here, we show that we have identified a receptor-ligand pair that is essential for erythrocyte invasion in all tested P. falciparum strains. By systematically screening a library of erythrocyte proteins, we have found that the Ok blood group antigen, BASIGIN, is a receptor for PfRh5, a parasite ligand that is essential for blood stage growth6. Erythrocyte invasion was potently inhibited by soluble BASIGIN or by BASIGIN knockdown, and invasion could be completely blocked using low concentrations of anti-BASIGIN antibodies; importantly, these effects were observed across all laboratory-adapted and field strains tested. Furthermore, Ok(a?) erythrocytes, which express a BASIGIN variant that has a weaker binding affinity for PfRh5, exhibited reduced invasion efficiencies. Our discovery of a cross-strain dependency on a single extracellular receptor-ligand pair for erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum provides a focus for novel anti-malarial therapies.

Crosnier, Cecile; Bustamante, Leyla Y.; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Bei, Amy K.; Theron, Michel; Uchikawa, Makoto; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndir, Omar; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Rayner, Julian C.; Wright, Gavin J.



Parasite Sequestration in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Spleen and Antibody Modulation of Cytoadherence of Infected Erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sequestration, the adherence of infected erythrocytes containing late developmental stages of the parasite (trophozoites and schizonts) to the endothelium of capillaries and venules, is characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum infections. We have studied two host factors, the spleen and antibody, that influence sequestration of P. falciparum in the squirrel monkey. Sequestration of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes that occurs in intact animals is reduced in splenectomized animals; in vitro, when infected blood is incubated with monolayers of human melanoma cells, trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes from intact animals but not from splenectomized animals bind to the melanoma cells. The switch in cytoadherence characteristics of the infected erythrocytes from nonbinding to binding occurs with a cloned parasite. Immune serum can inhibit and reverse in vitro binding to melanoma cells of infected erythrocytes from intact animals. Similarly, antibody can reverse in vivo sequestration as shown by the appearance of trophozoite/schizont-infected erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of an intact animal after inoculation with immune serum. These results indicate that the spleen modulates the expression of parasite alterations of the infected erythrocyte membrane responsible for sequestration and suggest that the prevention and reversal of sequestration could be one of the effector mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated protection against P. falciparum malaria.

David, Peter H.; Hommel, Marcel; Miller, Louis H.; Udeinya, Iroka J.; Oligino, Lynette D.



[Observations on the deformability of erythrocytes in pregnancy-induced hypertension].  


By using a model DXC-300 erythrocyte deformability (ED) test apparatus, we determined the indices of filtration (IF) in 34 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension, 27 normal pregnancies and 36 healthy women as control to reflect the deformability of their erythrocyte. The result showed that the IF of hypertensive pregnant women from 37 to 40 weeks was strikingly higher than that in the control and the ED was much less erythrocyte deformability defects the viscosity of blood, the blood flow, and the microcirculation. Therefore, we think that observations on the erythrocyte deformability may be of value in monitoring hydrokinetic and detecting altered microcirculation. ED may be used as a new index for monitoring pregnancy induced hypertension. PMID:2805937

Ma, F X



Structural and textural classification of erythrocytes in anaemic cases: a scanning electron microscopic study.  


The objective of this study is to address quantitative microscopic approach for automated screening of erythrocytes in anaemic cases using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images of unstained blood cells. Erythrocytes were separated from blood samples and processed for SEM imaging. Thereafter, erythrocytes were segmented using marker controlled watershed transformation technique. Total 47 structural and textural features of erythrocytes were extracted using various mathematical measures for six types of anaemic cases as compared to the control group. These features were statistically evaluated at 1% level of significance and subsequently ranked using Fisher's F-statistic describing the group discriminating potentiality. Amongst all extracted features, twenty nine features were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). Finally, Bayesian classifier was applied to classify six types of anaemia based on top seventeen ranked features those of which are of course statistically significant. The present study yielded a predictive accuracy of 88.99%. PMID:23063546

Bhowmick, Sirsendu; Das, Dev Kumar; Maiti, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Chandan



High-grade loss of leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells caused by erythrocyte-lysing procedures for flow cytometric analyses.  


All current-flow cytometric techniques use erythrocyte-lysing procedures before leukocyte analysis. We investigated the impact of four lysing procedures with different flow cytometric techniques on the loss of leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells in blood samples. A total of 280 determinations out of 10 samples were measured by two flow cytometers (FCMs), using a FACS-Calibur (Becton Dickinson) and a particle-analyzing system (PAS) with a "true volumetric unit" (Partec). All samples were prepared with four different commercially available erythrocyte-lysing reagents (n = 10, respectively). CD34(+) cells were determined in relation to counted leukocytes with both FCMs (dual platform determinations, 2-PF). In addition, further immunologic and nuclear staining determinations of cells with and without erythrocyte-lysing procedures were performed in the "true volumetric unit" (single platform mode 1-PF) using the PAS system (n = 10, respectively). In the 2-PF mode, both systems showed identical results for CD34(+) cells (r = 0.997). The comparison of 1-PF and 2-PF modes with immunologic stainings revealed a mean decrease of 34.5% for absolute amounts of CD45(+) cells [in detail: Becton-Dickinson (BD) lysis 40%; Ortho Diagnostics (OD) lysis 31%; Uti lyse (UL) 38%; Cylyse (CL) 29%] and of 41.3% for absolute concentration of CD34(+) cells [in detail: BD lysis 45%; OD lysis 40%; UL lysis 45%; CL lysis 34%] by the lysing procedures. In contrast, the nuclear stainings revealed a mean leukocyte loss of only 5% for the nonlysed samples and of 12% for lysed samples. All investigated lysing procedures induced a large loss of leukocytes and progenitor cells, obviously due to cell membrane destruction as demonstrated for identical samples in the 1-PF and 2-PF modes by immunologic and nuclear staining methods. PMID:12857373

Greve, Burkhard; Beller, Constanze; Cassens, Uwe; Sibrowski, Walter; Severin, Erhard; Göhde, Wolfgang



Topical pimecrolimus lacks genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by means of micronucleus erythrocyte rodent assay.  


Topical pimecrolimus is an alternative treatment of atopic dermatitis. However, rare cases of malignancy have been reported with their use. This study was performed to investigate the possible geno- or cytotoxic effect in mouse bone marrow caused by systemic absorption of pimecrolimus 1% cream. In order to determine this, induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in mouse peripheral blood was determined after the cutaneous application of three different doses, daily for 5 consecutive days. No differences were found in frequencies of polychromatic erythrocytes, MNE, and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the different groups of study. In conclusion, under described conditions, no geno- or cytotoxic effects were detected after the cutaneous application of pimecrolimus. PMID:21749197

Flores-García, Aurelio; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zamora-Pérez, Ana L; Garibaldi-Becerra, Vicente; Barba-Barajas, Martha; Zúńiga-González, Guillermo M



Fragmentation of erythrocyte aggregates in the skin vascular plexus by low-intensity laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of low-intensity laser irradiation on backscattered radiation from the skin vascular plexus is investigated in vivo. Laser irradiation of the blood in the absorption range of haemoglobin leads to an increase in the intensity of the back-scattered emission. The calculated temperature gradients are sufficient to produce structural and conformational changes in the cellular proteins of the erythrocytes and/or to produce a change in the permeability of membrane and cause the disaggregating of the aggregates of erythrocytes. A theoretical calculation for the increase in the intensity of the back-scattered emission with the disaggregating of erythrocytes was performed.

Korolevich, Alexander N.; Naumenko, Elena K.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.; Belsley, Michael S.



Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts and Their Associations With Circulating Interleukin6 Levels in Community-Dwelling Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an inflammatory biomediator, and age-related increases in IL-6 levels are associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, disability, and mortality in older adults. Although white blood cells (WBC), or leukocytes, are known to produce IL-6 in vitro, their in vivo relationship with circulating IL-6 levels is not well established. Methods. In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Women's

Sean Leng; Qian-Li Xue; Yi Huang; Richard Semba; Paulo Chaves; Karen Bandeen-Roche; Linda Fried; Jeremy Walston


In vivo decline of methotrexate and methotrexate polyglutamates in age-fractionated erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methotrexate (MTX) accumulates in erythrocytes (ery) during weekly MTX administration, and the ery-MTX concentration reaches a steady state after 4–6 weeks. In order to study MTX accumulation and metabolism to polyglutamate derivatives in different age populations of red blood cells, we took erythrocytes from 12 children with ALL who were receiving maintenance treatment with MTX and 6-MP and separated them

Henrik Schrřder; Karsten Fogh; Troels Herlin



Avian erythrocytes have functional mitochondria, opening novel perspectives for birds as animal models in the study of ageing  

PubMed Central

Background In contrast to mammalian erythrocytes, which have lost their nucleus and mitochondria during maturation, the erythrocytes of almost all other vertebrate species are nucleated throughout their lifespan. Little research has been done however to test for the presence and functionality of mitochondria in these cells, especially for birds. Here, we investigated those two points in erythrocytes of one common avian model: the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of mitochondria in erythrocytes of this small passerine bird, especially after removal of haemoglobin interferences. High-resolution respirometry revealed increased or decreased rates of oxygen consumption by erythrocytes in response to the addition of respiratory chain substrates or inhibitors, respectively. Fluorometric assays confirmed the production of mitochondrial superoxide by avian erythrocytes. Interestingly, measurements of plasmatic oxidative markers indicated lower oxidative stress in blood of the zebra finch compared to a size-matched mammalian model, the mouse. Conclusions Altogether, those findings demonstrate that avian erythrocytes possess functional mitochondria in terms of respiratory activities and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, since blood oxidative stress was lower for our avian model compared to a size-matched mammalian, our results also challenge the idea that mitochondrial ROS production could have been one actor leading to this loss during the course of evolution. Opportunities to assess mitochondrial functioning in avian erythrocytes open new perspectives in the use of birds as models for longitudinal studies of ageing via lifelong blood sampling of the same subjects.



Detection of erythrocytes in patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia using atomic force microscopy.  


The pathological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the nanometer scale, which is important for revealing the onset of diseases and diagnosis. The aim of this study is to examine the ultrastructural changes of erythrocytes in Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) at a nanometer scale. Blood samples were collected from two healthy volunteers, two WM patients, and three multiple myeloma (MM) patients when they were first diagnosed. The changes of morphology in the erythrocytes were studied at the nanometer level by high-resolution atomic force microscopy imaging (AFM). Compared with the healthy controls and the MM patients, there were dramatic deformations in the overall shape and surface membrane of the erythrocytes in WM patients. Healthy, pathological WM, and MM erythrocytes could be distinguished by several morphological parameters, including the width, length, length-to-width ratio, valley, peak, peak-to-valley, and Ra. AFM is able to detect the morphological differences in the red blood cells from WM patients, healthy controls, and MM patients. Therefore, the erythrocyte morphology is an important parameter for the diagnosis of WM, which can be used to distinguish WM from MM. The changes of ultrastructure in red blood cells may provide a clue to reveal the mechanism of WM. PMID:24675428

Liu, Junru; Li, Juan



Alterations of membrane properties in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Sabra rats.  


This study was designed to investigate the effects of a hypertensive stimulus, high salt intake, in hypertension-prone (SBH) and -resistant (SBN) Sabra rats on erythrocyte Na+ content (Na+i), Ca2+ influx and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The relationships of these parameters to plasma lipids, circulating digoxin-like immunoreactivity and membrane microviscosity, determined by the fluorescence anisotropy of trimethylamino-diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPH) and diphenylhexatriene (DPH), were also evaluated. Erythrocytes of SBH rats were characterized by increased [Ca2+]i, unchanged Ca2+ influx and reduced Na+i. There were no significant differences in the plasma digoxin-like immunoreactivity between the two strains. High-salt intake decreased membrane microviscosity (DPH anisotropy) in SBH rats but did not alter the above parameters. Erythrocyte [Ca2+]i correlated positively with diastolic blood pressure and negatively with erythrocyte Na+i. Membrane dynamics evaluated by the two fluorescent probes did not correlate with [Ca2+]i, Ca2+ influx or Na+i whereas DPH anisotropy was inversely related to blood pressure. These relationships were independent of plasma cholesterol or triglycerides. It can be concluded that 1) similarly to earlier observations in essential hypertension and spontaneously hypertensive rats, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i correlates positively with blood pressure in salt-dependent hypertension, and 2) increased erythrocyte Na+ content need not be a hallmark of hypertension. PMID:7968237

Pernollet, M G; David-Dufilho, M; Zicha, J; Kunes, J; Devynck, M A



The free erythrocyte protoporphyrin assay in monitoring lead-exposed workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a comparative analysis of two different fluorometric methods used to determine free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) blood concentration. The first method is based on an extractive procedure, whereas the second one involves the direct fluorometric analysis of whole blood. Our results show that the extractive procedure is probably the most reliable technique available for FEP determination, but it

S. Vaccaro; C. Barghigiani; G. Colombetti; F. Lenci; A. M. Loi; P. L. Paggiaro; G. Pagano; G. Toma



Clot contraction: compression of erythrocytes into tightly packed polyhedra and redistribution of platelets and fibrin.  


Contraction of blood clots is necessary for hemostasis and wound healing and to restore flow past obstructive thrombi, but little is known about the structure of contracted clots or the role of erythrocytes in contraction. We found that contracted blood clots develop a remarkable structure, with a meshwork of fibrin and platelet aggregates on the exterior of the clot and a close-packed, tessellated array of compressed polyhedral erythrocytes within. The same results were obtained after initiation of clotting with various activators and also with clots from reconstituted human blood and mouse blood. Such close-packed arrays of polyhedral erythrocytes, or polyhedrocytes, were also observed in human arterial thrombi taken from patients. The mechanical nature of this shape change was confirmed by polyhedrocyte formation from the forces of centrifugation of blood without clotting. Platelets (with their cytoskeletal motility proteins) and fibrin(ogen) (as the substrate bridging platelets for contraction) are required to generate the forces necessary to segregate platelets/fibrin from erythrocytes and to compress erythrocytes into a tightly packed array. These results demonstrate how contracted clots form an impermeable barrier important for hemostasis and wound healing and help explain how fibrinolysis is greatly retarded as clots contract. PMID:24335500

Cines, Douglas B; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Hayes, Vincent; Massefski, Walter; Litvinov, Rustem I; Rauova, Lubica; Lowery, Thomas J; Weisel, John W



Physiologically aged red blood cells undergo erythrophagocytosis in vivo but not in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The lifespan of red blood cells is terminated when macrophages remove senescent red blood cells by erythrophagocytosis. This puts macrophages at the center of systemic iron recycling in addition to their functions in tissue remodeling and innate immunity. Thus far, erythrophagocytosis has been studied by evaluating phagocytosis of erythrocytes that were damaged to mimic senescence. These studies have demonstrated that acquisition of some specific individual senescence markers can trigger erythrophagocytosis by macrophages, but we hypothesized that the mechanism of erythrophagocytosis of such damaged erythrocytes might differ from erythrophagocytosis of physiologically aged erythrocytes. Design and Methods To test this hypothesis we generated an erythrocyte population highly enriched in senescent erythrocytes by a hypertransfusion procedure in mice. Various erythrocyte-aging signals were analyzed and erythrophagocytosis was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Results The large cohort of senescent erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice carried numerous aging signals identical to those of senescent erythrocytes from control mice. Phagocytosis of fluorescently-labeled erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice injected into untreated mice was much higher than phagocytosis of labeled erythrocytes from control mice. However, neither erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice, nor those from control mice were phagocytosed in vitro by primary macrophage cultures, even though these cultures were able to phagocytose oxidatively damaged erythrocytes. Conclusions The large senescent erythrocyte population found in hypertransfused mice mimics physiologically aged erythrocytes. For effective erythrophagocytosis of these senescent erythrocytes, macrophages depend on some features of the intact phagocytosing tissue for support.

Gottlieb, Yehonatan; Topaz, Orit; Cohen, Lyora A.; Yakov, Liat David; Haber, Tom; Morgenstern, Abigail; Weiss, Avital; Chait Berman, Karen; Fibach, Eitan; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.



Improved fetal nucleated erythrocyte sorting purity using intracellular antifetal hemoglobin and Hoechst 33342.  


Fetal nucleated erythrocytes (FNRBC) flow sorted from maternal peripheral blood, using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that bind fetal cell surface antigens, are a noninvasive source of fetal DNA for prenatal diagnosis. These mAbs, however, also bind antigens shared by maternal cells. In sorted populations, this results in maternal cell contamination and low fetal cell purities, which complicates genetic analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fetal hemoglobin, (alpha 2 gamma 2), has been proposed as a useful fetal marker. To improve fetal cell enrichment from maternal blood, we developed an intracellular staining protocol that combines anti-gamma mAb with Hoechst 33342 to identify and flow sort FNRBC. Artificial mixtures of male umbilical cord cells (as a source of fetal hemoglobin) and female adult, non-pregnant peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained and flow sorted using this protocol. FISH analysis was performed using chromosome X and Y specific probes. Fetal cell purities were calculated by microscope confirmation of anti-gamma staining and counting the number of X and Y signals present after FISH. Results from microscope analyses showed a fetal cell yield of 39-100% and fetal cell purities of 59-73%. These purities are significantly higher than the .001-4.8% previously reported by us in maternal samples using cell surface staining protocols. FISH results demonstrated that 83-100% (mean = 98%) of anti-gamma positive cells were male, whereas 82-100% (mean = 92.5%) of anti-gamma negative cells were female. These results confirmed that the anti-gamma mAb is highly fetal specific. When applied to maternal blood samples, this protocol should lead to increased sensitivity for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:8875053

DeMaria, M A; Zheng, Y L; Zhen, D; Weinschenk, N M; Vadnais, T J; Bianchi, D W



Effects of Daflon 500 mg* on haemoconcentration and alterations of white blood cell count elicited by the upright position in anaesthetized dogs.  


In the passive upright position, arterial and venous pressures in the human feet increase capillary pressure which leads to the filtration of fluid from the circulating plasma into the tissues of the feet. Loss of fluid concentrates both red cells and plasma so that the haematrocrit and plasma protein concentration of venous blood leaving the feet greatly exceed their mean values in the circulation. To study this phenomenon in animals, we used Beagle dogs in upright position. In blood of saphenous vein, red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration have been studied. As in human (Moyses et al. Haemoconcentration and accumulation of white cells in the feet during venous stasis. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 1987;5:311-20) red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration increase in upright position. The increases in red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration were higher and levels were greater after 2 hours when compared to the corresponding values after 1 hour. Daflon 500 mg, a micronized purified flavonoidic fraction, (200 mg/kg-1 per os) administered 20 minutes before upright position, significantly reduced these increases. This model might be a suitable model to test drugs interfering with venous stasis. PMID:8919260

Delbarre, B; Delbarre, G; Pillion, G; Calinon, F



Lithium-induced suicidal erythrocyte death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium (Li+), an effective drug for treatment of bipolar disorders, is known to alter several Ca2+ transporting systems. Increased cellular Ca2+ has in turn been shown to stimulate eryptosis, the suicidal death of erythrocytes. Eryptosis is characterised by exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface and by cell shrinkage. The present experiments explored whether Li+ influences eryptosis. In erythrocytes

JP Nicolay; S. Gatz; F. Lang; UE Lang



A Demonstration of Erythrocyte Membrane Asymmetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-period experiment was developed to help students visualize asymmetric distribution of proteins within membranes. It includes: (1) isolating erythrocyte membranes; (2) differential labeling of intact erythrocytes and isolated erythrocyte membranes with an impermeable fluorescent dye; and (3) separating proteins by polyacrylamide gel…

Pederson, Philip; And Others



The impact of erythrocyte lysing procedures on the recovery of hematopoietic progenitor cells in flow cytometric analysis.  


Since preanalytic lysing of erythrocytes remains critical in flow cytometry, we investigated the influence of four lysing procedures on the quantification of leukocyte and CD34+ cells in hematopoietic cell transplants (HCTs). Samples were derived from stem cell-enriched mobilized whole blood collected by apheresis (unselected) and immunologically purified stem cell products (selected) and were measured using the dual-platform (2-PF) method with two flow cytometric systems. Additionally, cells were measured by a volume-based technique (single platform [1-PF]). Results were identical in the 2-PF mode (unselected HCTs, r = 0.998; selected HCTs, r = 0.999). In comparison with the 2-PF results, the single-platform (1-PF) measurements revealed a mean decrease of 59.5% for CD34+ cells (50.8% for CD45+ cells) in unselected HCTs and a mean decrease of 52% for CD34+ cells (49.8% for CD45+ cells) in selected HCTs. In order to check the accuracy of cell quantification using the 1-PF method, leukocyte reference values from hematology counter results were compared with flow cytometric (1-PF)-counted nucleated cells. That analysis revealed good congruency, with r = 0.998 for unselected HCTs and r = 0.999 for selected HCTs. In conclusion, all lysing procedures that we used induced substantial loss of leukocytes and CD34+ cells. As demonstrated by the high accuracy of the 1-PF technique, all erythrocyte lysing procedures caused significant cell loss, which led to inconsistent counting of CD34+ cells in nonvolumetric flow cytometric (2-PF) protocols. PMID:16210405

Greve, Burkhard; Beller, Constanze; Cassens, Uwe; Sibrowski, Walter; Göhde, Wolfgang



Superiority of total white blood cell count over other leukocyte differentials for predicting long-term outcomes in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.  


Abstract Context: Leukocytes have been found to be the predictor of outcome following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: We sought to determine the relationship between leukocyte differentials and developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Materials and methods: A total of 490 consecutive patients were enrolled, and MACE incidence was evaluated at long-term follow-up period. Results: Total white blood cell (WBC) was higher in subjects occurring MACE. Moreover, elevated total WBC, ?7.5?×?10(3)/µL, independently predicted MACE. Discussion and conclusion: Elevated admission total WBC can predict long-term MACE in NSTE-ACS patients better than other differentials. PMID:24796431

Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Yousef; Taghipour-Sani, Leila



Fluoxetine Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death  

PubMed Central

The antidepressant fluoxetine inhibits ceramide producing acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramide is in turn known to trigger eryptosis the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ceramide is effective through sensitizing the erythrocytes to the pro-eryptotic effect of increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). In nucleated cells, fluoxetine could either inhibit or stimulate suicidal death or apoptosis. The present study tested whether fluoxetine influences eryptosis. To this end cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. As a result, a 48 h exposure of erythrocytes to fluoxetine (?25 µM) significantly decreased forward scatter, increased annexin V binding and enhanced [Ca2+]i. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, fluoxetine stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity.

Jilani, Kashif; Enkel, Sigrid; Bissinger, Rosi; Almilaji, Ahmad; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian



Investigation of deformability, viscosity, and aggregation of mPEG-modified erythrocytes.  


Several techniques for the development of a universal blood type are under investigation in order to address the vast shortage of blood required during times of crisis and for those receiving chronic transfusions. Recently, the covalent attachment of methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) has received attention as a means to conceal the major and minor blood antigens that can invoke an immune response. We have utilized a simple method to covalently bind mPEG to the surface of red blood cells and monitored the rheological properties including cellular deformability and suspension viscosity as a function of shear rate and aggregation. In order to simulate the deformability of mPEG-modified erythrocytes through small blood vessels, we have studied the flow of cells through a nickel-mesh membrane with a pore size of 5.8 microns. Using a gravity-based nickel-mesh filtration device, dilute solutions of red blood cells were filtered through a membrane. The pressure drop was monitored with time. We have examined the filterability of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, mPEG-altered erythrocytes, and mixtures of altered erythrocytes with whole blood. Results from this apparatus have suggested that there is a significant decrease in deformability using mPEG-modified erythrocytes compared to unaltered red blood cells at identical concentrations. Increasing the ratio of modified cells to unmodified cells resulted in decreased deformability of the suspension. Viscosity measurements of mPEG-modified red cells have shown a shear-thinning property, while results of aggregation measurements indicate reduced aggregation compared to whole blood. PMID:12085627

Leach, J Kent; Hinman, Alissa; O'Rear, Edgar A



Counting is FUN!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s Practice counting! Let\\'s practice are counting by visiting Count the Chickens!. Now we are going to visit Fishy Count! and count fish! So you think you are smart? Why not try this fun game and Help Froggy get across!! ...

Wren, Ms.



The Cell Adhesion Molecule "CAR" and Sialic Acid on Human Erythrocytes Influence Adenovirus In Vivo Biodistribution  

PubMed Central

Although it has been known for 50 years that adenoviruses (Ads) interact with erythrocytes ex vivo, the molecular and structural basis for this interaction, which has been serendipitously exploited for diagnostic tests, is unknown. In this study, we characterized the interaction between erythrocytes and unrelated Ad serotypes, human 5 (HAd5) and 37 (HAd37), and canine 2 (CAV-2). While these serotypes agglutinate human erythrocytes, they use different receptors, have different tropisms and/or infect different species. Using molecular, biochemical, structural and transgenic animal-based analyses, we found that the primary erythrocyte interaction domain for HAd37 is its sialic acid binding site, while CAV-2 binding depends on at least three factors: electrostatic interactions, sialic acid binding and, unexpectedly, binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human erythrocytes. We show that the presence of CAR on erythrocytes leads to prolonged in vivo blood half-life and significantly reduced liver infection when a CAR-tropic Ad is injected intravenously. This study provides i) a molecular and structural rationale for Ad–erythrocyte interactions, ii) a basis to improve vector-mediated gene transfer and iii) a mechanism that may explain the biodistribution and pathogenic inconsistencies found between human and animal models.

Wodrich, Harald; Billet, Olivier; Perreau, Matthieu; Hippert, Claire; Mennechet, Franck; Schoehn, Guy; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Dreja, Hanna; Ibanes, Sandy; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Wang, Jennifer P.; Finberg, Robert W.; Cusack, Stephen; Kremer, Eric J.



Effect of tamoxifen on erythrocyte membrane lipids, lipid peroxides, and antioxidative enzymes in breast cancer women.  


Fasting blood samples were taken from 64 tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. The levels of erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and the status of erythrocyte detoxifying enzymes were analyzed in untreated and treated patients for 3 months and 6 months with tamoxifen.