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A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.



Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.



Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood cell counts and the Dst  

E-print Network

Dynamical analysis of erythrocytes under the assumption of cross-spectral coherence between blood type of blood cell are expected to reflect the intrinsic dynamics of the hematologic system and its for the transport of oxygen, coagulation and the immune response respectively. In the healthy subject, blood cell

Dasso, Sergio


Erythrocyte and blood antibacterial defense  

PubMed Central

It is an axiom that blood cellular immunity is provided by leukocytes. As to erythrocytes, it is generally accepted that their main function is respiration. Our research provides objective video and photo evidence regarding erythrocyte bactericidal function. Phase-contrast immersion vital microscopy of the blood of patients with bacteremia was performed, and the process of bacteria entrapping and killing by erythrocytes was shot by means of video camera. Video evidence demonstrates that human erythrocytes take active part in blood bactericidal action and can repeatedly engulf and kill bacteria of different species and size. Erythrocytes are extremely important integral part of human blood cellular immunity. Compared with phagocytic leukocytes, the erythrocytes: a) are more numerous; b) are able to entrap and kill microorganisms repeatedly without being injured; c) are more resistant to infection and better withstand the attacks of pathogens; d) have longer life span and are produced faster; e) are inauspicious media for proliferation of microbes and do not support replication of chlamidiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, viruses, etc.; and f) are more effective and uncompromised bacterial killers. Blood cellular immunity theory and traditional view regarding the function of erythrocytes in human blood should be revised. PMID:24883200



Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O2 delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O2 sensor, contributing to the control of O2 delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O2 from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise (?50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 ± 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 ± 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 ± 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 ± 0.5 and 15.8 ± 0.7 l min?1, respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial–venous (a–v) O2 difference (r2 = 0.89–0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O2 gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules. PMID:16439430

Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus



The Picture of Inflammation: A New Concept That Combines the White Blood Cell Count and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate into a New Hematologic Diagnostic Modality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physicians who work in small clinics, far away from medical centers, cannot obtain relevant information regarding the acute phase response at low cost and real time. Methods: We adopted a simple slide test and image analysis to determine the number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, their degree of adhesiveness\\/aggregation as well as that of the red

Rivka Rotstein; Renato Fusman; David Zeltser; Itzhak Shapira; Esther Shabtai; Dani Avitzour; Nicole Sadees; David Levartovsky; Nadir Arber; Amiram Eldor; Shlomo Berliner



Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.



White blood cell count - series (image)  


The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...


Complete Blood Count (CBC) Interpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial is designed to aid first and second year medical students learn how to interpret a complete blood count. It includes material on how the test is done, its general application and pitfalls in interpretation. QuickTime movies and Java script runtime plug-in scripts are required for some pages. The tutorial concludes with a short self-help quiz covering the major points developed. The plug-ins noted above are available free at the following sites: and Questions should be directed to Dr. Mark Braun ( false



Morphofunctional characteristics of the glutathione cycle in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with a history of cytomegalovirus infection exacerbation during gestation.  


We studied factors influencing peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection during gestation. Cytomegalovirus infection was associated with a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and glutathione peroxidase, which leads to H2O2 accumulation in the blood. Exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection was associated with reduction of glutathione reductase and SOD activities. Erythrocyte antioxidant function and the peripheral blood discocyte count decreased. Accumulation of degenerative erythrocytes is fraught with the risk of anemia in pregnant women. PMID:24952498

Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A; Kutepova, O L



Effect of Telfairia occidentalis on erythrocyte indices of rats following acute blood loss.  


Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is popularly used in soup and folk medicine preparation in the management of various diseases such as diabetics, anaemia, and gastrointestinal disorders in Nigeria. This study sought to investigate the effect of orally administered aqueous extract of T. occidentalis leaf on some erythrocyte indices in albino rats of the Wistar strain following acute blood loss. Thirty rats were divided into 6 equal groups. Blood loss (haemorrhagic anaemia) was induced by bleeding 30% of the blood volume of rats through the retro-orbital venus plexus in 3 groups (IV-VI). Group I served as the normal control. 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract were administered orally, once daily to Groups II and III respectively, for 28 days. Group IV served as the bled control. Groups V and VI were bled animals to which 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract was administered orally, once daily respectively, for 28 days. On the 29th day, the rats (fasted overnight) were sacrificed by decapitation and blood was collected through the retro-orbital venus plexus and used for assessment of some erythrocyte indices: red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, white blood cell count, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and erythrocyte osmofragility. Telfairia occidentalis noticeable increased the red blood cell count of the treated bled rats with 10mg or 20mg/day of T. occidentalis leaf extract to give 11.90 x 10(12)/L and 11.91 x 10(12)/L respectively when compared to the bled control (10.85 x 10(12)/L), P<0.05). The 20mg/day T. occidentalis treated group showed increase in MCV (43.98fl) when compared to the bled control (39.56fl). Erythrocyte osmofragility which was decreased in the bled control was further decreased noticeably by the 20mg T. occidentalis treated group. The improved erythrocyte indices, at 20mg/day of extract, and reduced erythrocyte osmofragility are indications oferythropoietic potential of T. occidentalis. PMID:22416653

Odede, T A; Ikusagba, B; Odetola, A A



Optical assay of erythrocyte function in banked blood.  


Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel



Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel



[The erythrocyte composition of the peripheral blood in tobacco smokers].  


Data of cytometry and acid erythrography were evaluated in 60 tobacco smokers and 30 non-smoking healthy persons depending on length of smoking. Tobacco smoking was found to effect blood erythrocytes. Five-year smoking resulted in an increase of macrocytes, young resistant cells. Toxic signs were less pronounced concerning the resistance of circulating red cells. 6-10 years duration of smoking resulted in toxic lesions of the circulating erythrocytes confirmed by an increase of the number of spherulation-altered and low-resistant cells, early onset and late termination of hemolysis, increase of the percent of perished cells. PMID:1448983

German, A K



Comparison between a modified haemocytometric technique and electronic counters in goat blood cell counting.  


Dilutions of goat blood with Hayem-Jørgensen's fluid ranging from 1:200 to 1:1,000 were used for haemocytometer counting of red blood cells (RBC) in 27 goats. The optimal dilutions were 1:400-1:500. Correlation studies between the results obtained by the haemocytometer and the Coulter counter red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed in 551 goat blood samples. The haemocytometer RBC counts were 5.63% higher and WBC counts 2.79% lower than those of the electronic counter. The method of blood cell counting therefore influences the clinical haematological diagnoses and reference values in domestic animals. New cell counters specifically designed to measure cells of small volumes, e.g. goat erythrocytes, are needed. PMID:1910237

Mbassa, G K; Poulsen, J S



Complete blood count - series (image)  


... hematocrit may indicate: Dehydration Burns Diarrhea Eclampsia Erythrocytosis Polycythemia vera Shock ... blood Congenital heart disease Cor pulmonale Pulmonary fibrosis Polycythemia vera Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea) Emphysema


21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section...Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used to...



Blood leucocyte count in the human fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and differential leucocyte counts were measured in cord blood samples obtained by cordocentesis (n = 316) or at elective caesarean section (n = 11) from normal fetuses of between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation. The total fetal leucocyte count increased exponentially from 2.8 x 10(9)\\/l at 18 weeks to 11.8 x 10(9)\\/l at term. The lymphocyte and monocyte counts

N P Davies; A G Buggins; R J Snijders; E Jenkins; D M Layton; K H Nicolaides



Counting microaggregate particles in blood.  


A method is described for measuring microaggregates in stored blood with an electronic particle counter avoiding the usual use of a hemolytic agent. To overcome red blood cell coincidence at low dilutions of the samples two different sized apertures were used. The method reliably measures microaggregates from 12.7 micron to 80.6 micron diameter. Hemolytic agents added to fresh blood were shown to induce the formation of microaggregates. The present study demonstrated that a tenfold reduction in a commonly used saponin concentration produced satisfactory hemolysis without inducing significant microaggregate formation. Hemolytic agents added to stored blood decreased the population of microaggregates significantly from that of unhemolyzed blood. This phenomenon was minimized with reduced saponin concentrations. PMID:663994

Suehiro, A; Leinberger, H; McNamara, J J



Laser-based particle-counting microimmunoassay for the analysis of single human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

A particle-counting immunoassay system for ultrasensitive analysis of proteins in a capillary environment has been developed. The assay is based on the agglutination of antibody-coated particles in the presence of an antigen (usually a protein). The particles were electrophoretically migrated in a 20-[mu]m-i.d. capillary past a detection window where a laser beam irradiates continuously. The light scattering events generated by the agglutinated particles were counted while those produced by unreacted particles were electronically rejected. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was chosen as a test compound for the off-column as well as for the on-column versions of this method. A limit of detection of 620 molecules of G6PDH (1 zmol) was found in the on-column assay. The standard deviation between runs was approximately 6%, which is comparable to that of standard immunoassay methods. The application to the determination of G6PDH levels in individual human erythrocytes is presented. A 14-fold cell-to-cell variation was found which can be explained by the age distribution in the red blood cells. 42 refs., 5 figs.

Rosenzweig, Z.; Yeung, E.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States) Ames Lab., IA (United States))



Why Count Types of White Blood Cells?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can we make use of complex cellular level responses in the human body to microbial infections and other disorders? Why is it important to differentiate between white blood cells in a blood sample and keep a record of their numbers? Improve skills at cell identification and explore these questions with the program Cell Differentials. * identify lymphocytes in a clinical laboratory simulation of blood cell counts

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Donald Buckley (Quinnipiac University;Biology)




E-print Network

count than those repolted for other sharks. 10 Microns I I FIGURE I.-Mitosis-Prophase. Cell Differentials FIGURE 2.-Mitosis-Anaphase. The mean size of the POltuguese shark mature erythrocytes (Figure 3


Erythrocyte volume in acidified venous blood from exercising limbs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five male volunteers performed arm exercises in the sitting position by cranking the pedals of a bicycle ergometer at 50 revolutions per min. The initial mechanical work load of 0 kgm/min was increased every minute by 75 kgm/min until exhaustion occurred. The data obtained show a significant acidification of the venous blood from the working arms and a substantial increase in venous pCO2 during this type of muscular activity. However, the erythrocyte volume remained unaltered during the exercise.

Van Beaumont, W.; Rochelle, R. H.



Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil counts in blood are determined by the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells in the bone marrow, release of mature neutrophils into the blood, margination in organs like the lung and spleen, and transmigration through the endothelial lining followed by neutrophil apoptosis and uptake by phagocytes. This brief review summarizes how the regulation of neutrophil production by G-CSF is in part controlled by IL-17 and IL-23. Neutrophils are retained in the bone marrow through interaction of CXCL12 with its receptor CXCR4. The relevance of this mechanism is illustrated by rare diseases in which disrupting the desensitization of CXCR4 results in neutrophil accumulation in the bone marrow. Although blood neutrophil numbers in inbred mouse strains and individual human subjects are tightly controlled, the large variation of blood neutrophil counts among outbred populations suggests genetic control. One example is benign ethnic neutropenia, which is found in about 5% of African Americans. Reduced and elevated neutrophil counts, even within the normal range, are associated with excess all-cause mortality. PMID:18832668

von Vietinghoff, Sibylle; Ley, Klaus



Cord blood full blood count parameters in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Full blood count (FBC), one of the most frequently requested for laboratory investigations, is a simple, fast and cheap test and is a reliable indicator of health. Due to its usefulness in the assessment of health status of individuals, its parameters in cord blood, a major source of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation and an ideal source for laboratory investigations for newborns were determined to provide a useful guide to local neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians. Methods Three millilitres of umbilical cord blood was collected from 130 normal birth weight newborns (69 males and 61 females) whose cord were clamped immediately after delivery, at a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria and full blood count parameters were determined using Sysmex autoanalyzer, model KX-21N. Consented mothers of the newborns were selected based on, age between 18 and 45 years; uneventful pregnancy and delivery and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration ? 10 g/dL. Results There were no statistical gender differences in the mean values of Hb concentrations (M = 13.27 ±1.60 g/dL; F = 13.32±1.61g/dL; p = 0.93), total white cell count (M = 3.16±5.43 × 109/L; F = 13.07±4.98 × 109/L; p= 0.92), platelet count (M= 223.64± 64.21 × 109/L; F = 226.69±80.83 × 109/L; p = 0.81) and other parameters. Conclusion Mean values of full blood count parameters obtained in this study are comparable to reports from other studies in developing countries and could be a useful guide for neonatologists and stem cell transplant physicians in our geographical location. PMID:25396018

Adewumi, Adediran; Titilope A, Adeyemo; Akinsegun, Akinbami A; Abidoye, Gbadegesin; Ebele, Uche; Sulaimon, Akanmu A



Activity of Histidine in Peripheral Blood Erythrocytes of Pregnant Women during Exacerbation of Cytomegalovirus Infection.  


We studied the effect of active cytomegalovirus infection on histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women at gestation weeks 20-22 and its involvement into hemoglobin oxygenation. Using the histochemical technique developed by us, we studied the distribution of products of specific reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women. The percentage of histidine-positive erythrocytes and their area were evaluated. The relationship between the distribution of the products of the reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women and the titer of anti-cytomegalovirus IgG was revealed. The histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with active cytomegalovirus infection was reduced, which impaired heme binding to globin and decreased the formation of oxyhemoglobin. PMID:25348566

Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A



Recovery of Blood Group Antibodies from Erythrocyte Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN A PREVIOUS PAPER,' experiments on the application of erythrocyte powder in serologic laboratories were described. It was shown that erythrocyte powder may be successfully used for (1) absorption of useless and disturbing antibodies from test sera, (2) complement fixation test with strong group antibodies, and (3) preparation of \\




Small and cheap: accurate differential blood count with minimal sample volume by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: In patients, e.g. with congenital heart diseases, a differential blood count is needed for diagnosis. To this end by standard automatic analyzers 500 ?l of blood is required from the patients. In case of newborns and infants this is a substantial volume, especially after operations associated with blood loss. Therefore, aim of this study was to develop a method to determine a differential blood picture with a substantially reduced specimen volume. Methods: To generate a differential blood picture 10 ?l EDTA blood were mixed with 10 ?l of a DRAQ5 solution (500?M, Biostatus) and 10 ?l of an antibody mixture (CD45-FITC, CD14-PE, diluted with PBS). 20 ?l of this cell suspension was filled into a Neubauer counting chamber. Due to the defined volume of the chamber it is possible to determine the cell count per volume. The trigger for leukocyte counting was set on DRAQ5 signal in order to be able to distinguish nucleated white blood cells from erythrocytes. Different leukocyte subsets could be distinguished due to the used fluorescence labeled antibodies. For erythrocyte counting cell suspension was diluted another 150 times. 20 ?l of this dilution was analyzed in a microchamber by LSC with trigger set on forward scatter signal. Results: This method allows a substantial decrease of blood sample volume for generation of a differential blood picture (10 ?l instead of 500?l). There was a high correlation between our method and the results of routine laboratory (r2=0.96, p<0.0001 n=40). For all parameters intra-assay variance was less than 7 %. Conclusions: In patients with low blood volume such as neonates and in critically ill infants every effort has to be taken to reduce the blood volume needed for diagnostics. With this method only 2% of standard sample volume is needed to generate a differential blood picture. Costs are below that of routine laboratory. We suggest this method to be established in paediatric cardiology for routine diagnostics and for resource poor settings.

Mittag, Anja; Lenz, Dominik; Smith, Paul J.; Pach, Susanne; Tarnok, Attila



In vitro and in vivo validation of stored swine erythrocyte viability to establish an experimental model of homologous red blood cell transfusion: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop experimental models of erythrocyte transfusion, the first step is to ensure the viability of the red blood cells transfused. In this pilot study, we assessed the viability of transfused red blood cells with validation in vitro and in vivo of homologous swine erythrocytes stored for 14 days. Methods Blood collected from one Agroceres® swine was stored in two red blood cell units. In vivo validation was performed by labeling the red blood cells with Na251CrO4 and recovering the viable erythrocytes after 24 hours of infusion in one autologous and four homologous animals. In vitro validation was performed at baseline and after 14 days in sixteen red blood cell units by measuring hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis index and free hemoglobin. A post-mortem splenectomy was performed to evaluate the splenic sequestration of erythrocytes, and the radioactivity of the supernatant samples was counted to evaluate intravascular hemolysis. Results After 14 days of storage, the red blood cell units had lower volumes and equivalent total concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to human standards. The free hemoglobin concentration increased from 31.0±9.3 to 112.4±31.4mg/dL (p<0.001), and the hemolysis index increased from 0.1±0.1 to 0.5±0.1% (p<0.001). However, these tests were within the acceptable range for human standards. The percentage of radioactivity in supernatant samples was similar at baseline and after 24 hours, thus excluding significant hemolysis. No evidence of splenic sequestration of radioactive erythrocytes was found. Conclusion Swine red blood cells stored for 14 days are viable and can be used in experimental studies of transfusion. These validation experiments are important to aid investigators in establishing experimental models of transfusion. PMID:25295823

Biagini, Silvana; Costa, Paulo Aguirre; Wendel, Silvano; Schettino, Guilherme; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes



Detection and Segmentation of Erythrocytes in Blood Smear Images Using a Line Operator and Watershed Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Most of the erythrocyte related diseases are detectable by hematology images analysis. At the first step of this analysis, segmentation and detection of blood cells are inevitable. In this study, a novel method using a line operator and watershed algorithm is rendered for erythrocyte detection and segmentation in blood smear images, as well as reducing over-segmentation in watershed algorithm that is useful for segmentation of different types of blood cells having partial overlap. This method uses gray scale structure of blood cell, which is obtained by exertion of Euclidian distance transform on binary images. Applying this transform, the gray intensity of cell images gradually reduces from the center of cells to their margins. For detecting this intensity variation structure, a line operator measuring gray level variations along several directional line segments is applied. Line segments have maximum and minimum gray level variations has a special pattern that is applicable for detections of the central regions of cells. Intersection of these regions with the signs which are obtained by calculating of local maxima in the watershed algorithm was applied for cells’ centers detection, as well as a reduction in over-segmentation of watershed algorithm. This method creates 1300 sign in segmentation of 1274 erythrocytes available in 25 blood smear images. Accuracy and sensitivity of the proposed method are equal to 95.9% and 97.99%, respectively. The results show the proposed method's capability in detection of erythrocytes in blood smear images. PMID:24672764

Khajehpour, Hassan; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri; Taghizad, Hossein; Khajehpour, Esmat; Naeemabadi, Mohammadreza



Laboratory and field microassay of cholinesterases in whole blood, plasma, and erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

A straightforward method is described for determination of the activities of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase from single 10-?l samples of highly diluted whole blood. The procedure is a spectrophotometric microassay adapted for use with microtitration plates. The use of an enzyme immunoassay reader facilitates the rapid analysis of large numbers of samples. An inexpensive adaptation of the method was also devised that requires no instrumentation and was evaluated under field conditions in Haiti. Either the field or laboratory versions of the method can accurately determine increments of 10% or less in the level of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase or cholinesterase in whole blood, plasma, or erythrocytes. PMID:3496988

Brogdon, W. G.



The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.



An analysis of bison erythrocyte antigens and blood proteins  

E-print Network

procedures adopted for bovine blood characterization. However, the information available on the Bos bison species is still limited. Development and use of more tests for red cell antigens and blood enzymes and tests to demonstrate the genotypic... more recent summary of the 12 blood group systems and blood factors described for cattle to date (Rasmusen, 1975 and Caldwell, 1982). Bison Blood Groups It has been shown that various blood typing reagents used in detecting cattle (Bos taurus...

Zamora, Linda Elia



Blood glucose partition and levels of glycolytic enzymes in erythrocytes and somatic tissues of penguins.  


1. A comparative study was carried out on blood glucose partition and glucose metabolism of penguin erythrocytes and somatic tissues. Pygoscelidae penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica and P. papua) were used in these experiments. 2. Blood glucose partition was established by assaying whole blood and plasma glucose in several individuals of the gentoo and chinstrap penguins. 3. It was found that almost all the whole blood sugar is compartmentalized at the plasma site, the red blood cells being ineffective in regard to glucose metabolism. 4. Levels of hexokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphopyruvate hydratase (enolase), pyruvate kinase, alpha-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase and fructose bisphosphate phosphatase were estimated in the erythrocytes of both gentoo and chinstrap penguins, the same determinations being carried out also on the somatic tissues (leg muscle, breast muscle, heart muscle, liver and brain) of the gentoo. PMID:2924538

Rosa, R; Rodrigues, E; Bacila, M



21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  




21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR




21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR




21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  


The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N



[Lipid composition of blood plasma and erythrocyte membrane of volleyball players under intensive physical load].  


As the result of prolonged training activity highly skilled volleyball players have marked deficiency of fatty acids of w3 family both in the blood plasma as erythrocyte membranes. These acids may be used in the lipid peroxidation processes, that is proved by the facts of POL products content and their drawing into oxidation reaction, which is certified by high level of ATP in erythrocytes. Reduction of quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids of w3 family may be regarded as results of their insufficient arrival with food. PMID:9583128

Popichev, M I; Tolkacheva, N V; Kulakova, S N; Konoshenko, S V



Null types of the human erythrocyte blood groups. Philip Levine award lecture.  


Null types of 12 human erythrocyte blood groups are reviewed. They have helped in identifying new antigens and defining the various genetically-distinct systems. They are very valuable in identifying the antibodies in alloimmunized people and in transfusion therapy of some of these people. Fy(a-b-) erythrocytes resist invasion by malarial parasites. At least two (Rh null and the McLeod type) are responsible for congenital hemolytic disorders. Testing for K15(Kx) on neutrophils appears to be diagnostic for chronic granulomatous disease of the sex-linked recessive type. PMID:822706

Allen, F H



Prognostic Value of Elevated White Blood Cell Count in Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic low-grade inflammation may contribute to vascular injury and atherogenesis, and has been described in association to high blood pressure (BP). However, as yet the prognostic significance of white blood cell (WBC) count in the setting of uncomplicated hypertension has not been investigated.Methods: In the Progetto Ipertensione Umbria Monitoraggio Ambulatoriale (PIUMA) study, 1617 white patients with essential hypertension (aged

Giuseppe Schillaci; Matteo Pirro; Giacomo Pucci; Tiziana Ronti; Gaetano Vaudo; Massimo R. Mannarino; Carlo Porcellati; Elmo Mannarino



Pediatric metabolic syndrome and cell blood counts: bivariate Bayesian modeling.  


Cell blood counts are components of hematological parameters and indicators of pro-inflammatory states. They are proposed to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to assess the relationship of the white blood cell (WBC) and the red blood cell (RBC) counts with components of MetS in the pediatric age group. The sample consisted of 300 children (152 boys) aged 6-12 years. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis of the bivariate Poisson regression model was used to estimate the effect of various components of MetS according to the cell blood counts. We found that RBC and WBC counts were correlated with the fasting blood glucose, the waist-to-height ratio, serum triglycerides and the blood pressure levels adjusted for age, the body mass index, gender, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the hip circumference. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was correlated with the RBC counts based on 95% high posterior density regions for parameters in the Bayesian model. Our findings may serve as confirmatory evidence for the beginning of inflammatory process related to the cardio-metabolic factors from early life. PMID:24108065

Mansourian, Marjan; Kazemi, Iraj; Kelishadi, Roya



Diagnostic significance of platelet count and other blood analyses in patients with lung cancer.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of an elevated platelet count and other routine laboratory tests for predicting malignancy in patients with radiologically suspected lung cancer. Platelet count, haemoglobin, total leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were analysed in 126 prospectively admitted patients with suspected lung cancer. The patients were divided by pathologic diagnosis into those with benign disorders (n=65) and with malignancies (n=61). Patients with lung cancer were staged (TNM) and the tumours were classified according to histological types (WHO). Thrombocytosis (platelet count >400x10(9)/l) was present in 8% (5/65) of patients with benign disease and in 57% (35/61) of patients with malignant disease (p<0.00001). The prevalence of thrombocytosis in patients with primary lung cancer was 53% (27/51). Elevated platelet count was more common in advanced disease (stage III and IV). No difference was observed between histological types. The sensitivity of thrombocytosis for predicting malignancy was 0.57 and the specificity 0.92. When elevated platelet counts, LDH and ESR were combined, a sensitivity of 0.71 and a specificity of 1.00 was achieved. The positive and negative predictive values were 1.00 and 0.89, respectively. Elevated platelet count is frequently observed in patients with lung cancer. When test results of platelet count and other routine blood analyses are combined, a high sensitivity and specificity for predicting malignancy can be achieved. These tests are clinically useful in the evaluation of patients with radiologically suspected lung cancer. PMID:12469171

Pedersen, Lars M; Milman, Nils



Plug effect of erythrocytes in capillary blood vessels.  


As an idealized problem of the motion of blood in small capillary blood vessels, the low Reynolds number flow of plasma (a newtonian fluid) in a circular cylindrical tube involving a series of circular disks is studied. It is assumed in this study that the suspended disks are equally spaced along the axis of the tube, and that their centers remain on the axis of the tube and that their faces are perpendicular to the tube axis. The inertial force of the fluid due to the convective acceleration is neglected on the basis of the smallness of the Reynolds number. The solution of the problem is derived for a quasi-steady flow involving infinitesimally thin disks. The numerical calculation is carried out for a set of different combinations of the interdisk distance and the ratio of the disk radius to the tube radius. The ratio of the velocity of the disk to the average velocity of the fluid is calculated. The different rates of transport of red blood cells and of plasma in capillary blood vessels are discussed. The average pressure gradient along the axis of the tube is computed, and the dependence of the effective viscosity of the blood on the hematocrit and the diameter of the capillary vessel is discussed. PMID:5409778

Lew, H S; Fung, Y C



Yield of the admission complete blood count in medical inpatients.  

PubMed Central

The clinical efficacy of routine admission complete blood count was evaluated in 302 patients admitted to internal medicine wards of a university teaching hospital. Patient medical problems, physical findings and medication history were evaluated by preset criteria to determine the proportion of tests performed for screening and the proportion of test results directly influencing patient management. Of the 282 complete blood counts performed, 80% were ordered routinely with no medical indications (screening tests). An haemoglobin abnormality was found in 16.7% of the patients, leucocyte abnormality in 16.1% and platelet abnormality in 4.6%. However, these results directly influenced patient management in only one case (0.14%). It is concluded that the utility of screening admission complete blood counts in medical inpatients is negligible. PMID:2602251

Mozes, B.; Haimi-Cohen, Y.; Halkin, H.



Identification of blood group A-active glycoproteins in the human erythrocyte membrane.  


Normal human erythrocytes of blood groups A1, A2, B and O, and En (a-) erythrocytes lacking glycophorin A, but with A1B-activity, were surface-labeled with tritiated sodium borohydride after oxidation of terminal galactosyl and N-acetylgalactosaminyl residues with galactose oxidase. A1 cells were also labeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination. After solubilization in Triton X-100, the blood group A-active glycoconjugates were isolated using the A-specific lectin from Vicia cracca coupled to Sepharose. No radioactivity was bound from erythrocytes of B and O blood groups. The glycoconjugates from A cell membranes which bound to the lectin and were eluted with 0.01 M N-acetyl-D-galactosamine were analyzed using cylindrical or slab gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The A-active glycoproteins included the major integral glycoprotein, band 3, and many minor, previously poorly defined components. Glycophorins A and B did not contain A-activity. PMID:7378460

Karhi, K K; Gahmberg, C G



Effect of erythrocytes oscillations on dielectric properties of human diabetic-blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated that the erythrocytes (RBCs) oscillate during their tank-treading motion with high-frequency oscillations. This oscillatory motion drastically affects the dielectric and electrical properties of RBCs. Moreover, the glucose level in blood affects the electrical and dielectric properties of blood. It has been, also, shown that the frequency of these oscillations exponentially decrease from 1.2 MHz down to 0.85 MHz with variation of glucose level from 85 mg/dL up to 346.1 mg/dL. It is expected that these oscillations strongly affect the general physiological properties of blood and would stimulate the curiosity of scientists and bioengineers to present new, more efficient, rapid, safe and viable diagnostic and/or therapeutic methods for blood disorders; in particular diabetes.

Abdalla, S.



A system for counting fetal and maternal red blood cells.  


The Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test is the standard method for quantitating fetal-maternal hemorrhage in maternal care. In hospitals, the KB test is performed by a certified technologist to count a minimum of 2000 fetal and maternal red blood cells (RBCs) on a blood smear. Manual counting suffers from inherent inconsistency and unreliability. This paper describes a system for automated counting and distinguishing fetal and maternal RBCs on clinical KB slides. A custom-adapted hardware platform is used for KB slide scanning and image capturing. Spatial-color pixel classification with spectral clustering is proposed to separate overlapping cells. Optimal clustering number and total cell number are obtained through maximizing cluster validity index. To accurately identify fetal RBCs from maternal RBCs, multiple features including cell size, roundness, gradient, and saturation difference between cell and whole slide are used in supervised learning to generate feature vectors, to tackle cell color, shape, and contrast variations across clinical KB slides. The results show that the automated system is capable of completing the counting of over 60 000 cells (versus  ? 2000 by technologists) within 5 min (versus  ? 15 min by technologists). The throughput is improved by approximately 90 times compared to manual reading by technologists. The counting results are highly accurate and correlate strongly with those from benchmarking flow cytometry measurement. PMID:24879644

Ge, Ji; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Jun; Nguyen, John; Yang, Zongyi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu



Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrins and blood lead - a pilot study of childhood growth patterns  

SciTech Connect

The National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-1980 demonstrated the inverse association of blood lead 8-35 {mu}g/dl (0.4-1.7 {mu}M) with height and weight in 2680 children 1-7 yr old. Growth has not been examined. A retrospective pilot study was made of growth, 0-42 mo, for 54 children found to have erythrocyte protoporphyrins >35 {mu}g/dl (0.6 mM) at 12-23 mo. For 24/54, all blood leads were <30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M), with a peak annual mean of 18.5 {mu}g/dl (0.9 {mu}M); for 30/54, mean blood lead was 46.7 {mu}/dl (2.2 {mu}M) at 12-23 mo with all subsequent blood leads {ge}30 {mu}g/dl (1.2 {mu}M). In both groups the mean height and weight at birth were at the 25th percentile. The high-lead children had increased weight velocity at 15 mo of age and were heavier at 24 mo. Weight gain related to total caloric intake, supporting food consumption, and hand-to-mouth behavior as significant factors in an increased blood lead ages 9-24 mo. The monthly directional change of height and weight percentiles after 24 mo, however, showed a decreased frequency of upward shifts when blood lead was {ge}30 {mu}g/dl. Although an early high food intake appears to contribute to high blood lead by increasing the intake of lead from food and mouthing, persistent increases in the high blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrins were associated with subsequent growth retardation.

Angle, C.R.; Kuntzelman, D.R. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha (USA))



Blood group A and H determinants in polyglycosyl peptides of A1 and A2 erythrocytes.  


Polyglycosyl peptides were isolated from delipidated erythrocyte membranes of human blood-group A1 and A2 erythrocytes by extensive pronase digestion and gel filtration. As estimated by the amounts of N-acetylgalactosamine and 2-O-substituted galactose residues about 85% of the possible acceptor sites (H determinants) were saturated with A determinants in A1 polyglycosyl peptides whereas only 25% of H sites were filled in A2 glycopeptides. The distribution of A and H determinants in the glycopeptides was studied by affinity chromatography with Sepharose-bound Bandeiraea simplicifolia I-lectin (binds blood-group A and B determinants) and Ulex Europeaus I-lectin (binds blood-group H determinants). About 55% of the polyglycosyl peptides contained A, H, or A and H determinants in both A1 and A2 blood subgroups. 48% of the polyglycosyl peptides of blood group A1 and 10% of A2 bound to Bs I-lectin. 25% of the polyglycosyl peptides in A1 and 53% in A2 carried H determinants. The molecular size, monosaccharide composition and the substitution pattern of the monosaccharides in the Bs-I-bound polyglycosyl peptides were very similar in both A1 and A2 blood groups. The only difference was the amount of N-acetylgalactosamine which was on the average 3.7 mol/mol in A1 and 2.5 mol/mol in A2. The active fraction was found to be heterogeneous with respect to the amount of A determinants, which varied from 1 to 6 per glycopeptide in A1 and A2 polyglycosyl peptides. The findings do not indicate a structural difference between blood-group A1 and A2 polyglycosyl peptides and state chemically that A1 glycopeptides contain more A determinants than A2 glycopeptides. PMID:6181994

Viitala, J; Finne, J; Krusius, T



[Purification of superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte by nano magnetic chitosan microspheres].  


Nano magnetic microspheres prepared by chitosan and poly acylic acid were applied to purifying superoxide dismutase from blood erythrocyte. Chitosan-polyacyilc acid graft copolymer was synthesized by free radical graft copolymerization with potassium persulfate as inititator. To prepare Fe3O4 magnetic fluids with chemical coprecipitation, chitosan-polyacylic nano magnetic microspheres were prepared with glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Structure of nano magnetic microspheres was detected by FT-IR spectrometer. Particle size and morphology were characterized by JEM-4000EX technology. Chitosan-polyacylic nanometer microspheres have good paticle cize distribution, magnetic responsiveness and protein adsoption. Activity, product yield and activity recovery of SOD after purification reached 6 727 U/mg, 21.1%, and 85.7% respectively. Purification of blood superoxide dismutase by chistosan-polyacylic acid microspheres has its renewable and feasible nature. PMID:25212016

Wang, Baoquan; Ping, Juan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Yongzhou; Liu, Cui; Pang, Xiaobin



Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.  


Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:24995861

Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K



Erythrocyte membranes from slaughterhouse blood as potential drug vehicles: Isolation by gradual hypotonic hemolysis and biochemical and morphological characterization.  


The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of isolation process-gradual hypotonic hemolysis on chosen parameters of the erythrocyte membranes (ghosts) originating from bovine and porcine slaughterhouse blood. The estimation of the gradual hypotonic hemolysis as a drug loading procedure for the erythrocyte ghosts was performed as well. Based on the results derived from analysis of the osmotic properties of the erythrocytes, the gradual hemolysis was performed with high volume of erythrocytes and 35mM hypotonic sodium-phosphate/NaCl, enabling >90% of hemolysis for both types of erythrocytes. Detailed insight into ghosts' morphology by field emission-scanning electron microscopy revealed a distortion from erythrocyte shape and an altered surface texture with increased bilayer curvature for both samples. Compared to erythrocytes, an average diameter of ghosts from both type of erythrocytes decreased for only about 10%. The reported unidispersity of the isolated ghosts is of great importance for their potential application as vehicles of active compounds. Gradual hemolysis did not lead to substantial loss of cholesterol and membrane/cytoskeleton proteins. This result indicated the ghosts' possibility to mimic the chemical and structural anisotropic environment of in vivo cell membranes, which is of significance for drug diffusion and partition coefficients. Induced shift of phosphatidylserine to external surface of the ghosts demonstrated their potential application as vehicles for targeted drug delivery to cells of reticuloendothelial system. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of a drug model - dexamethasone-sodium phosphate, and its interaction with structural components in both types of erythrocyte ghosts. PMID:25051307

Kosti?, Ivana T; Ili?, Vesna Lj; Dor?evi?, Verica B; Bukara, Katarina M; Mojsilovi?, Slavko B; Nedovi?, Viktor A; Bugarski, Diana S; Veljovi?, Dor?e N; Miši?, Danijela M; Bugarski, Branko M



Erythrocyte anisocytosis. Visual inspection of blood films vs automated analysis of red blood cell distribution width.  


An improved anemia classification may be available by combining measures of red blood cell size variability with mean corpuscular volume. Visual inspection of the peripheral blood film allows semiquantitative description of anisocytosis while quantitative measures are determined from electronic cell counter analyzers' red blood cell distribution width. We evaluated correlations between semiquantitative and quantitative measures of anisocytosis for different groups of observers. Hematologists', medical students', and medical residents' semiquantitative assessment of anisocytosis correlated with the quantitative red blood cell distribution width. The interobserver variability demonstrated that all observers correlated with each other, while the intraobserver variability of semiquantitative anisocytosis demonstrated that observers were more precise than could be predicted by chance. However, the extreme precision of the red blood cell distribution width strongly suggests that it should be the "gold standard" for measuring red blood cell size variability. PMID:3355302

Simel, D L; DeLong, E R; Feussner, J R; Weinberg, J B; Crawford, J



Quantitative assessment of dielectrophoresis as a micro fluidic retention and separation technique for beads and human blood erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide important quantitative information on particle retention by dielectrophoresis (DEP), we performed systematic quantitative experiments with both, polystyrene beads (with diameters of 500 nm, 2 ?m and 6 ?m) and erythrocytes (red blood cells, diameter approximately 6 ?m) in buffers with various conductivities. We determined the cross-over frequencies for these systems. We demonstrated the retention of beads

Janko Auerswald; Helmut F. Knapp



[The fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes in test of glucose tolerance].  


The sample of 26 patients with ischemic heart disease and syndrome of insulin resistance was subjected to standard test of glucose tolerance. The content of individual fatty acids was detected using technique of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In blood plasma, after 2 hours of post-prandial hyperglycemia, reliably decreased content of C 16:1 of palmitoleic mono fatty acid, C 18:1 oleic mono fatty acid and in a lesser degree C 18:2 linoleic unsaturated fatty acid (p < 0.05). The level C 14:0 of myristic unsaturated fatty acid, C 16:0 of palmitic unsaturated fatty acid and with 18:0 of stearic unsaturated fatty acid, ratio C 16:0/C 16:1 and C 18:0/C 18:1 had no changes: content of both (omega-6 C 20:3 digomo-gamma-linoleic unsaturated fatty acid and essential polyenoic fatty acids remained the same. The significant differences between initial content in blood plasma of palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic monoenic fatty acid was noted. The alteration in content of fatty acids in membranes of erythrocytes is the most expressed. In erythrocytes reliable (p < or = 0.05) decrease of content of C 16:0 palmitic fatty acid, C 18:0 stearic fatty acid and C 18:1 oleic fatty acid is established. The reliable decrease is noted in content of linoleic unsaturated fatty acid. In erythrocytes, moderate decrease is detected in levels of C 20:4 arachidonic polyenoic fatty acid, C 20:5 eicosapentaenoic polyenoic fatty acid. It is assumed that under post-prandial hyperglycemia insulin regulates metabolism of fatty acids, blocks lipolysis, decreases in cytosol of cells content of oleic and palmitic fatty acids inform of acetyl-KoA and forces mitochondrions intensively oxidate acetyl-KoA formed from pyruvate, from GLU. On surface of membrane, insulin increases number of glucose carriers GLUT4. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin is mediated by regulation first of all of metabolism of fatty acids. Hyperglycemia and insulin are two phylogenetically different humoral regulators. Insulin initiates blockade of lipolysis in adipocytes and positioning on membrane GLUT4. Hyperglycemia passively (activated) increases absorption by cells GLU on gradient of concentration inter-cellular medium--cytosol and synthesis of glycogen. PMID:25080793

Ameliushkina, V A; Aripovski?, A V; Titov, V N; Kaba, S I; Kotkina, T I; Parkhimovich, R M



Characterization of Human Blood Tissue by Impedance Spectroscopy and Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of the Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has increased since the middle of 20th century for the characterization of materials which exhibit a frequency dependent behavior over the applied electric field; this behavior is correlated to the substance composition, its structural organization and the interactions between its components. In this work, the human whole blood electrical properties are studied, as well as that of its separated components (plasm, leukocytes, erythrocytes), using an harmonic voltage from 1Hz to 10MHz. The impedance modulus response |Z| and the angular phase lag were registered as functions of the frequency swept. Also, it was studied the variation of the same electrical parameters during sedimentation of blood cells as a function of time. It was found that the use of IS, as a characterization tool for human blood tissue, is an important instrument for the diagnosis and disease tracking of certain pathologies, which could be identified by its correspondent impedance "footprint" in the complex coordinate system.

Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Zavala, Eder; Hernández, Francisco; Lamadrid, Raúl; Guerrero, Carlos; Sosa, Modesto; Villagomez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual



Control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic cycle: ?? T cells target the red blood cell-invasive merozoites.  


The control of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocytic parasite density is essential for protection against malaria, because it prevents pathogenesis and progression toward severe disease. P falciparum blood-stage parasite cultures are inhibited by human V?9V?2 ?? T cells, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both intraerythrocytic parasites and the extracellular red blood cell-invasive merozoites specifically activate V?9V?2 T cells in a ?? T cell receptor-dependent manner and trigger their degranulation. In contrast, the ?? T cell-mediated antiparasitic activity only targets the extracellular merozoites. Using perforin-deficient and granulysin-silenced T-cell lines, we demonstrate that granulysin is essential for the in vitro antiplasmodial process, whereas perforin is dispensable. Patients infected with P falciparum exhibited elevated granulysin plasma levels associated with high levels of granulysin-expressing V?2(+) T cells endowed with parasite-specific degranulation capacity. This indicates in vivo activation of V?9V?2 T cells along with granulysin triggering and discharge during primary acute falciparum malaria. Altogether, this work identifies V?9V?2 T cells as unconventional immune effectors targeting the red blood cell-invasive extracellular P falciparum merozoites and opens novel perspectives for immune interventions harnessing the antiparasitic activity of V?9V?2 T cells to control parasite density in malaria patients. PMID:22045985

Costa, Giulia; Loizon, Séverine; Guenot, Marianne; Mocan, Iulia; Halary, Franck; de Saint-Basile, Geneviève; Pitard, Vincent; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Moreau, Jean-François; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Behr, Charlotte



Effects of nickel chloride on the erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broilers.  


This study was conducted to investigate the immune adherence function of erythrocytes and erythrocyte induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) in broilers fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Blood samples were collected from five broilers in each group at 14, 28, and 42 days of age. Changes of erythrocyte parameters showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) contents, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly lower (p?erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) was higher (p?erythrocyte immune adherence function indicated that erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR) was significantly decreased (p?erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) was markedly increased (p?erythrocytic integrity, erythrocytic ability to transport oxygen, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broilers. Impairment of the erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function was one of main effect mechanisms of NiCl2 on the blood function. PMID:25108640

Li, Jian; Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Tang, Kun; Yin, Shuang




Microsoft Academic Search

Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites\\/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or

Ralph D. Godfrey; Alan M. Fedynich; Danny B. Pence



Invasion of Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Erythrocytes by Mycoplasma bovis? †  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma bovis is a small, cell wall-less bacterium that contributes to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases in both dairy and feedlot cattle, including mastitis and bronchopneumonia. Numerous reports have implicated M. bovis in the activation of the immune system, while at the same time inhibiting immune cell proliferation. However, it is unknown whether the specific immune-cell population M. bovis is capable of attaching to and potentially invading. Here, we demonstrate that incubation of M. bovis Mb1 with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) resulted in a significant reduction in their proliferative responses while still remaining viable and capable of gamma interferon secretion. Furthermore, we show that M. bovis Mb1 can be found intracellularly (suggesting a role for either phagocytosis or attachment/invasion) in a number of select bovine PBMC populations (T cells, B cells, monocytes, ?? T cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, cytotoxic T cells, and T-helper cells), as well as red blood cells, albeit it at a significantly lower proportion. M. bovis Mb1 appeared to display three main patterns of intracellular staining: diffuse staining, an association with the intracellular side of the cell membrane, and punctate/vacuole-like staining. The invasion of circulating immune cells and erythrocytes could play an important role in disease pathogenesis by aiding the transport of M. bovis from the lungs to other sites. PMID:20713619

van der Merwe, Jacques; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practicing Counting Count the number of bunnies and match it to the correct number of characters on the right. Click on the correct one. Bunny Count Practice counting by 1 Countin by 1 Practice counting Sea Horses! Counting Sea Horses ...

Person, Ms.



Single-use lancet and capillary loading mechanism for complete blood count point of care device  

E-print Network

As part of the development of a point of care complete blood count device, I designed a single use lancet integrated with a blood collection mechanism and interface and successfully tested a prototype. High speed video was ...

Zimmerman, Julia C



Prevalence of increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in German blood donors: Screening using a modified glycerol lysis test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We screened for increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in 1464 healthy German blood donors. The osmotic fragility was determined by an acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT) using glycerol-sodium phosphate-buffered NaCl solution. Since the original test described by Zanella et al. [23] showed only low specificity for hereditary spherocytosis, we used a modification with 0.0093M sodium phosphate-buffered glycerol-saline solution, pH

S. W. Eber; A. Pekrun; A. Neufeldt; W. Schröter



Elevated blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels of children near a battery-recycling plant in Haina, Dominican Republic.  


A survey of children from a community adjacent to an auto-battery-recycling smelter in Haina, the Dominican Republic, revealed alarming elevations of blood lead (B-Pb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) compared with controls. The authors recommend follow-up confirmation and treatment of severely lead-poisoned children, shutdown of the plant, controlled disposal of the hazardous waste from the site, and relocation of the community. PMID:10633250

Kaul, B; Mukerjee, H



Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.



Strawberry intake increases blood fluid, erythrocyte and mononuclear cell defenses against oxidative challenge.  


The health promoting effects of a regular consumption of strawberries deserve attention, and a direct or indirect antioxidant role of strawberry bioactive compounds is among the most probable mechanisms underlying their beneficial properties. In the present study, we evaluated the overall effects of a 2-week daily consumption of strawberries on plasma antioxidant status, membrane lipid susceptibility to ex vivo-induced oxidation, and erythrocyte and mononuclear cell resistance to oxidative damage in apparently healthy volunteers. After strawberry intake, a moderate increase in fasting plasma antioxidant capacity and vitamin C was observed, together with a significant increase in the lag phase preceding plasma lipid oxidation. A significantly enhanced resistance to oxidative hemolysis was confirmed in red blood cells, while no significant changes were found in the extent of their membrane lipid peroxidation. For the first time, increased intake of strawberries for only 2weeks was shown to be sufficient to attenuate mononuclear cell mortality after ex vivo exposure to a single acuteoxidative challenge, but the analysis of DNA oxidative damage gave conflicting results. These findings suggest that a regular consumption of strawberries may enhance body defences against oxidative challenges. PMID:24629942

Tulipani, Sara; Armeni, Tatiana; Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Gonzalez-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Busco, Franco; Principato, Giovanni; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio



[Studies of the blood antioxidant system and oxygen-transporting properties of human erythrocytes during 105-day isolation].  


Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes. PMID:21675192

Brazhe, N A; Ba?zhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V



Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood\\u000a tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports\\u000a involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils,

P. L. Horn; D. B. Pyne; W. G. Hopkins; C. J. Barnes



Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about "Quatrefoil" Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears  

PubMed Central

The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabo, Nicola; Lubas, George



70-year old female patient with mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values: the effects of cold agglutinin on complete blood count  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are a number of pre-analytical and analytical factors, which cause false results in the complete blood count. The present case identifies cold agglutinins as the cause for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Materials and methods: 70-year old female patient had a history of cerebrovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. During routine laboratory examination, the patient had normal leukocyte and platelet counts; however, the hemoglobin (Hb: 105 g/L) and hematocrit (HCT: 0.214 L/L) results were discordant. Hemolysis, lipemia and cold agglutinin were evaluated as possible reasons for the mismatch between hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Results: First blood sample was slightly hemolysed. Redrawn sample without hemolysis or lipemia was analyzed but the mismatch became even more distinct (Hb: 104 g/L and HCT: 0.08 L/L). In this sample, the titration of the cold agglutinin was determined and found to be positive at 1:64 dilution ratios. After an incubation of the sample at 37°C for 2 hours, reversibility of agglutination was observed. Conclusion: We conclude that cold agglutinins may interfere with the analysis of erythrocyte and erythrocyte-related parameters (HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC); however, Hb, leukocyte and platelet counts are not affected. PMID:25351358

Ercan, Serif; Cal?skan, Mustafa; Koptur, Erhan



Pseudospontaneous Platelet Aggregation and Spuriously Elevated Blood Cell Counts in Cryoglobulinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryoglobulinemia has been reported sometimes to cause false elevation in platelet and\\/or leukocyte counts in au tomated blood cell counters due to temperature-dependent pro tein precipitates that are falsely interpreted as blood cells at room temperature. Upon heating to 37°C, these blood counts decrease to normal levels as cryoproteins dissolve. Therefore, cryoglobulins could theoretically lead to erroneous diagnosis of spontaneous

Yahya Büyüka?ik; N. ?emnur ileri; Ibrahim C. Haznedaroglu; Selma Karaahmetoglu; Osman Müftüo?lu; ?erafettin Kirazli; Semra Dündar



Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. The WBC count of the DIFF channel was highly correlated with the WBC count of the microscopic reference method (r ¼ 0.99; WBC analyser ¼ 0.870 ? WBC reference method þ 0.413). In contrast, no agreement existed between WBC counts generated by the WBC\\/BASO channel of the analyser and the reference method (r ¼ 0.52; WBC analyser ¼ 0.008

R. de Jonge; R. Brouwer; M. Smit; R. J. E. M. Dolhain; J. M. W. Hazes; A. W. van Toorenenbergen; J. Lindemans



The impact of elevated blood glycemic level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on the erythrocyte membrane: FTIR study.  


In developed countries, medical awareness about the disease and how to deal with it is less acknowledged. With diabetes mellitus the situation becomes more serious due to the fact that it affects nearly all parts of the body and may lead to loss of vision. In this study, the variation of blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients was considered, and its effect(s) on their blood erythrocyte membranes was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were classified into two groups with mean fasting blood glucose level of 185 mg/dl (D-185 group) and 285 mg/dl (D-285 group). For comparison, healthy individuals were involved where their mean fasting blood glucose level is 86 mg/dl. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to induce change in the lipid and protein components and causing some important structural changes in the protein secondary structure with change in the beta-sheet and beta-turn structures at D-285 mg/dl group. Erythrocyte membrane disorder was increased associated with restriction in the vibrational motion around the phospholipids interface region. PMID:20652761

Mahmoud, Sherif S




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting different objects. Have fun counting with this counting game. Play the game three times. Go under the sea with Fishy Count. Play the game three times. These spooky ghosts want you to practice counting by 2 s. ...

Beck, Mrs.



Dynamic changes in white blood cell counts in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts are basic and essential indicators in any type of illness resulting from infection. In malaria, WBC counts are generally characterized as low to normal during treatment. WBC-counts data, before and during treatment with artemisinin derivatives, was gathered for patients with either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infection (at 28-day follow-up), to investigate

Noppadon Tangpukdee; Haur-Sen Yew; Srivicha Krudsood; Nataya Punyapradit; Waraporn Somwong; Sornchai Looareesuwan; Shigeyuki Kano; Polrat Wilairatana



Age-dependent changes in spontaneous frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in bone marrow and DNA damage in peripheral blood of Swiss mice.  


Age-dependent changes in chromosomal damage in bone marrow - a self-proliferating tissue - in the form of spontaneously occurring micronucleated erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood were examined in male and female Swiss mice. In the erythrocyte population in the bone marrow, polychromatic (immature) erythrocytes showed a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei as a function of age of the mice (1-20 months). The increase in micronucleus frequency was less in normochromatic (mature) erythrocytes. The female mice showed a higher frequency of micronuclei than the male mice in all the age groups examined. However, the female to male ratio of micronucleus frequencies in total erythrocytes as well as in polychromatic erythrocytes decreased with age. DNA damage, measured as tail moment in the single-cell gel electrophoresis in peripheral blood of different age groups of mice (1, 6, 12 and 18 months) showed a gradual increase with age. Female mice showed more DNA damage than 1-month and 18-month-old male mice. In conclusion, these results show that there is an accumulation of genetic damage in bone marrow and DNA damage in peripheral blood of mice during ageing, and that females show more alterations than males. PMID:25344168

Bhilwade, Hari N; Jayakumar, S; Chaubey, R C



Quantification of hematozoa in blood smears.  


Ten thin blood smears from mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) infected with Haemoproteus maccallumi were examined by each of two observers using identical techniques and microscopy in an attempt to delineate the factors necessary to provide an accurate estimate of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes. The number of erythrocytes examined must be actually counted, not estimated from extrapolated partial counts or from the number of fields of view examined. Doubling the number of erythrocytes counted (1) decreased the overdispersed frequency distribution patterns in only 25% of the replicate counts for numbers of H. maccallumi/100 erythrocytes for a series of 2,000 versus 4,000 erythrocytes counted; and (2) did not significantly increase the accuracy for determining parasite intensities. Thus, the number of erythrocytes that must be counted to determine parasite intensities could be considerably reduced from the 10,000 or 20,000 estimated for most studies, and still provide an accurate determination of the number of parasites/n erythrocytes in datasets collected from hosts with moderate to high levels of parasitemia. This resulted in a decreased amount of time expended by the observer on each blood smear examined. With two equivalently trained individuals, differences between observers examining the same blood smears were minimal. This study suggests an approach by which a more standardized methodology for quantifying blood parasite intensities could be developed. PMID:3119870

Godfrey, R D; Fedynich, A M; Pence, D B



Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high (6-8 ppm) and moderate (1.5 ppm) amounts of ozone (O3) for various time periods. Response of the rat erythrocyte to ozone was monitored with red blood cell potassium (rubidium) influx studies, with storage stress combined with ultrastructural studies and with levels of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Erythrocytes of rats exposed to O3 showed no significant changes either in their potassium influx or in their glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to controls. Erythrocyte differential counts on O3-exposed animals showed significant changes initially as well as following storage stress compared to controls. Rats exposed to 8 ppm O3 for 4 h showed a marked increase in echinocytes. These consistent transformations from discocytes to echinocytes following O3 exposure suggest latent erythrocyte damage has occurred.

Larkin, E. C.; Kimzey, S. L.; Siler, K.



Higher erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs are associated with decreased blood pressure in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.  


Previous studies suggested that blood fatty acids (FAs) might affect blood pressure (BP), but the findings have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of erythrocyte FAs with BP in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Between 2008 and 2010, 1834 participants (1364 women and 470 men) aged 57 ± 5 y had baseline measurements taken of their erythrocyte FAs and BP. A total of 1477 participants (1103 women and 374 men) had their BP measured again after 3.09 ± 0.32 y (range: 2.91-3.26 y). In the cross-sectional analyses (n = 1834), the erythrocyte saturated FA (SFA) content was positively associated with BP, whereas total cis polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), their subtypes cis n-3 (?-3) PUFAs and cis n-6 (?-6) PUFAs, and the PUFA-to-SFA ratio were inversely associated with BP (all P-trends < 0.05). The longitudinal results (n = 1477) showed marginally inverse associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and BP. For individual cis n-3 PUFAs, higher contents of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were significantly associated with reduced increases in SBP over time (the mean change range between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.917 to -0.749 mm Hg for SBP; all P-trends < 0.01), and 20:5n-3 was inversely associated with DBP change (the mean change between quartile 4 and quartile 1 was -0.631; P-trend < 0.001). Path analyses suggested that the associations between cis n-3 PUFAs and BP might be mediated by decreasing serum triglycerides (TGs) and body mass index (BMI). Our findings revealed that a higher content of cis n-3 PUFAs (mainly very long-chain cis n-3 PUFAs) may benefit BP progress, probably mediated by decreasing serum TGs and BMI. PMID:24966412

Zeng, Fang-fang; Sun, Li-li; Liu, Yan-hua; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming



Nucleated Red Blood Cells Count in Pregnancies with Idiopathic Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) count is introduced as a potential marker of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). To investigate the probable association regardless of any known underlying disease, we aimed to study disturbances in NRBC count in infants experiencing idiopathic IUGR. Materials and methods Twenty three infants regarded IUGR without any known cause were chosen to be compared to 48 normal neonates. Blood samples were collected instantly after birth and the same measurements were done in both groups. Results NRBC count/100 white blood cells was significantly higher in the IUGR group (P value < 0.001). pH measurements did not reveal any significant difference. Conclusion Increased NRBC count in cases of idiopathic IUGR in absence of chronic hypoxia could strengthen its predictive value suggested in previous studies. It could help early IUGR detection and beneficial intervention. PMID:24971139

Kaveh, Mahbod; Nemati, Somayeh; Javadian, Pouya; Salmanian, Bahram



Effect of blood storage on erythrocyte\\/wall interactions: implications for surface charge and rigidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode\\u000a whose charge density ranges from –15 to +27 µC\\/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode.\\u000a Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by

Christine Godin; Adrien Caprani



Blood-group A and B determinants are located in different polyglycosyl peptides isolated from human erythrocytes of blood-group AB.  


The distribution of blood-group A and B determinants was studied by isolating blood-group ABH-active polyglycosyl peptides from delipidated human blood-group AB erythrocyte membranes after extensive digestion with pronase followed by chromatography on Bandeiraea simplicifolia I (BsI) lectin coupled to Sepharose. 20% of the polyglycosyl peptides were bound to BsI lectin. The glycopeptides bound were further fractionated using the blood-group-A-specific lectin from Vicia cracca (Vc). Approximately half of these were bound to the Vc lectin. The glycopeptides, which were bound to the Vc column, were not bound to the blood-group-B-specific isolectin from B. simplicifolia (BsIB4) whereas the Vc-unbound glycopeptides readily bound. The results indicate that in the polyglycosyl peptides isolated from AB erythrocytes A and B determinants are located in different carbohydrate chains. The polyglycosyl peptides, which did not bind to BsI lectin, were composed on the average of 30 monosaccharide units and those that bound contained on the average 55 monosaccharide units. The sugar composition was similar in both fractions except that N-acetylgalactosamine was found only in the BsI-bound glycopeptides. The substitution patterns of the monosaccharides were quite similar in both fractions except 2,3-O-linked galactose, which was enriched 7.5-fold in the BsI-bound glycopeptides and 3,6-O-linked galactose, which also enriched in the BsI-bound glycopeptides suggesting that these have a more branched structure than the BsI-unbound glycopeptides. Glycopeptides derived from bands 3 and 4.5 were prepared from A1B-blood-group erythrocyte membranes and fractionated as above. 25% of the glycopeptides were bound to BsI-lectin from both samples. 70% of the BsI-bound material from band 3 was bound to Vc lectin and 60% from band 4.5. The results indicate heterogeneity in the glycosylation of these bands. PMID:7202409

Viitala, J; Karhi, K K; Gahmberg, C G; Finne, J; Järnefelt, J; Myllylä, G; Krusius, T



Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts in growth-restricted fetuses: Relationship to arterial and venous Doppler studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Elevated nucleated red blood cell count in neonatal blood and Doppler-detected circulatory decompensation in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction are associated with hypoxemia. We sought to determine the relationship between the nucleated red blood cell count at birth and the circulatory status of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. Study Design: Eighty-four fetuses with elevated umbilical artery pulsatility index values

Ahmet A. Baschat; Ulrich Gembruch; Irwin Reiss; Ludwig Gortner; Chris R. Harman; Carl P. Weiner



RALP1 Is a Rhoptry Neck Erythrocyte-Binding Protein of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites and a Potential Blood-Stage Vaccine Candidate Antigen  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites is an obligatory stage of Plasmodium infection and is essential to disease progression. Proteins in the apical organelles of merozoites mediate the invasion of erythrocytes and are potential malaria vaccine candidates. Rhoptry-associated, leucine zipper-like protein 1 (RALP1) of Plasmodium falciparum was previously found to be specifically expressed in schizont stages and localized to the rhoptries of merozoites by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Also, RALP1 has been refractory to gene knockout attempts, suggesting that it is essential for blood-stage parasite survival. These characteristics suggest that RALP1 can be a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate antigen, and here we assessed its potential in this regard. Antibodies were raised against recombinant RALP1 proteins synthesized by using the wheat germ cell-free system. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated for the first time that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck protein of merozoites. Moreover, our IFA data showed that RALP1 translocates from the rhoptry neck to the moving junction during merozoite invasion. Growth and invasion inhibition assays revealed that anti-RALP1 antibodies inhibit the invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites. The findings that RALP1 possesses an erythrocyte-binding epitope in the C-terminal region and that anti-RALP1 antibodies disrupt tight-junction formation, are evidence that RALP1 plays an important role during merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. In addition, human sera collected from areas in Thailand and Mali where malaria is endemic recognized this protein. Overall, our findings indicate that RALP1 is a rhoptry neck erythrocyte-binding protein and that it qualifies as a potential blood-stage vaccine candidate. PMID:24002067

Ito, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Miura, Kazutoyo; Yamasaki, Tsutomu; Arumugam, Thangavelu U.; Thongkukiatkul, Amporn; Takeo, Satoru; Takashima, Eizo; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Han, Eun-Taek; Long, Carole A.; Torii, Motomi



WBC count  


Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... in the blood is 4,500-10,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL). Normal value ranges ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 ...


Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.  


White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology. PMID:20640439

Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J



Blood counts at time of complete remission provide additional independent prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Prognostic relevance of blood counts at complete remission (CR) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not clear. To address this issue, we analyzed 891 AML patients in first CR. From the data of randomly selected 446 patients (training set), we first established optimal cutoffs for neutrophil and platelet counts and hemoglobin level at CR in terms of relapse-free survival (RFS). Patients whose counts were higher than each optimal cutoff were shown to have significantly better RFS (p < 0.01 for neutrophil and platelets, and p = 0.02 for hemoglobin). Then we tested whether these cutoffs were, after accounting for better known prognostic covariates, also predictive of RFS in the remaining 445 patients (validation set). Our data revealed that higher neutrophil count was independently predictive of longer RFS in the validation set (hazard ratio 1.38, p = 0.02), as was higher platelet count (hazard ratio 1.35, p = 0.04). These findings suggest that blood counts at CR, information readily available, are useful in prognostication in AML. PMID:18405972

Yanada, Masamitsu; Borthakur, Gautam; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Ravandi, Farhad; Faderl, Stefan; Pierce, Sherry; Kantarjian, Hagop; Estey, Elihu



Parathyroid hormone ablation alters erythrocyte parameters that are rescued by calcium-sensing receptor gene deletion.  


The mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) produces anemia are unclear. Parathyroid hormone secretion is regulated by the extracellular Ca2+ -sensing receptor. We investigated the effects of ablating PTH on hematological indices and erythrocytes volume regulation in wild-type, PTH-null, and Ca2+ -sensing receptor-null/PTH-null mice. The erythrocyte parameters were measured in whole mouse blood, and volume regulatory systems were determined by plasma membrane K+ fluxes, and osmotic fragility was measured by hemoglobin determination at varying osmolarities. We observed that the absence of PTH significantly increases mean erythrocyte volume and reticulocyte counts, while decreasing erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These changes were accompanied by increases in erythrocyte cation content, a denser cell population, and increased K+ permeability, which were in part mediated by activation of the K+ /Cl- cotransporter and Gardos channel. In addition we observed that erythrocyte osmotic fragility in PTH-null compared with wild-type mice was enhanced. When Ca2+ -sensing receptor gene was deleted on the background of PTH-null mice, we observed that several of the alterations in erythrocyte parameters of PTH-null mice were largely rescued, particularly those related to erythrocyte volume, K+ fluxes and osmotic fragility, and became similar to those observed in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ -sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone are functionally coupled to maintain erythrocyte homeostasis. PMID:23528155

Romero, Jose R; Youte, Rodeler; Brown, Edward M; Pollak, Martin R; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Pong, Lie-Chin; Chien, Lawrence; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Rivera, Alicia



The blood counts and lactate dehydrogenase levels in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).  


The blood counts and lactic dehydrogenase values of eight patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) were reviewed in relation to the clinical course. Three of the eight patients died. In these patients, the hemoglobin was significantly lower and the LDH higher at the time of presentation than that of the patients responding to treatment. The height of the absolute reticulocyte count and platelet count did not correlate as well with outcome as did the degree of anemia and LDH elevation. Microangiopathic changes were noted in all eight patients. A differential count showed that the total microangiopathic changes varied from 0.8 to 54%. The more severe microangiopathic changes occurred in the fatal cases. The observations indicate that the degree of anemia, elevation of LDH, and severity of microangiopathic changes at the time of presentation correlate with the outcome in TTP and provide useful parameters in the assessment of response to therapy. PMID:6685430

Crowley, J P; Metzger, J B; L'Europa, R A



[Blood group antigens may be the receptors for immunoallergic drug complexes reacting with erythrocytes].  


19 antibodies specific for 11 different drugs were extensively tested in the presence of the drug against a panel of red cells including common and public minus phenotypes. High incidence blood group antigens were shown to be specific receptors for several drug-antibody complexes proving thereby that red blood cells play more than an "innocent bystander" role in drug induced immune hemolytic anemias. PMID:6412981

Habibi, B; Bretagne, Y



White blood cell differential counts in severely leukopenic samples: a comparative analysis of different solutions available in modern laboratory hematology  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the efficacy of white blood cell (WBC) differential counts in severely leukopenic samples by the Hematoflow method and by automated hematology analyzers and compared the results with manual counts. Methods EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples (175 samples) with WBC counts of 40-990/µL were selected. Hematoflow differential counts were performed in duplicates employing flow cytometry using the CytoDiff reagent and analysis software. Differential counts were also performed using the DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter) and XE-2100 (Sysmex) automated hematology analyzers. The sum of the manual counts by a hematology technician and a resident were used as the manual counts. Results The total analysis time and hands-on time required by the Hematoflow method were shorter than those required by manual counting. Hematoflow counts were reproducible, showed a good correlation with automated analyzers, and also showed strong correlation with manual counts (r > 0.8) in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. None of the cases containing less than 4% blasts as analyzed by the Hematoflow method had blasts in the manual counts, but 8 cases of 21 cases (38.1%) with over 4% blasts by Hematoflow had blasts in manual counts. Conclusion Hematoflow counts of severely leukopenic samples were reproducible and showed a good correlation with manual counts in terms of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The Hematoflow method also detected the presence of blasts. Manual slide review is recommended when over 4% blasts are found by Hematoflow. PMID:25025014

Kim, Ah Hyun; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo



Brain, blood, and iron: Perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

The terms “neuroacanthocytosis” (NA) and “neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation” (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration. PMID:22426390

Prohaska, Rainer; Sibon, Ody C.M.; Rudnicki, Dobrila D.; Danek, Adrian; Hayflick, Susan J.; Verhaag, Esther M.; Jan J, Vonk; Margolis, Russell L.; Walker, Ruth H.



Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may lower lung cancer risk. The association of physical activity with reduced chronic inflammation provides a potential mechanism, yet few studies have directly related inflammatory markers to cancer incidence. The relation between physical activity, inflammation, and lung cancer risk was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4,831 subjects, 43–86 years of age, in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. A total physical activity index was created by summing kilocalories per week from sweat-inducing physical activities, city blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed. Two inflammatory markers, white blood cell count and serum albumin, were measured at the baseline examination. During an average of 12.8 years of follow-up, 134 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of total physical activity index had a 45% reduction in lung cancer risk compared to those in the lowest tertile (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.35–0.86). Participants with white blood cell counts in the upper tertile (?8×103/?L) were 2.81 (95% CI: 1.58–5.01) times as likely to develop lung cancer as those with counts in the lowest tertile (<6.4×103/?L). Serum albumin was not related to lung cancer risk. There was no evidence that inflammation mediated the association between physical activity and lung cancer risk, as the physical activity risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjustment for white blood cell count. While the potential for residual confounding by smoking could not be eliminated, these data suggest that physical activity and white blood cell count are independent risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:18843014

Sprague, Brian L.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Lee, Kristine E.; Hampton, John M.



[Assessment of erythrocytes pathology level in peripheral blood in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from reservoirs with different levels of radioactive contamination].  


In summer 2009, the level of pathology of erythrocytes was assessed in the peripheral blood of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) from the reservoirs for water-storage of low level radioactive waste of PA "Mayak". Roach from the Shershny reservoir and the Buffer reservoir (Chelyabinsk region) was used as a control. Radionuclide maintenance in water, sediment, and roach was determined and dose rates for the roach were calculated using the software package ERICA Assessment Tool 1.0 May 2009. It is revealed that chronic radiation exposure with the dose rates in the range from 0.8 up to 19 mGy/d leads to a twofold increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in peripheral blood, dose-dependent increase in the frequency of red blood cells with the nuclear pyknosis and causes no significant increase in the level oferythrocyte amitosis. It is suggested that the frequency rate of apoptosis in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the fish could be used in the biological monitoring of contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23516893

Priakhin, E A; Triapitsyna, G A; Stiazhkina, E V; Shaposhnikova, I A; Osipov, D I; Akleev, A V



Determination of the length of sedimentation reaction (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in non-anticoagulated blood with the Microtest 1.  


The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), now more appropriately referred to as the "length of sedimentation reaction in blood (LSRB)", remains the most widely used laboratory test for monitoring the course of infections, inflammatory diseases and some types of cancer. Thanks to the several recently developed methods for the measurement of this reaction, the safety and reliability of LSRB testing procedures have improved. The method for LSRB measurement recommended by the International Council for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) and the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) is based on the traditional Westergren method, using EDTA-anticoagulated samples. The present paper describes and evaluates a procedure for LSRB measurement with a new manual system, the Microtest 1, which requires only 30 microl of blood and is optimal for pediatric use. Microtest 1 results correlated satisfactorily with the ICSH recommended method (r=0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.91; y=3.45+0.85x), had no significant bias (2.15, 95% CI -0.32-4.63) and had an imprecision of less than 7% for the reference range values. In addition, the results obtained with the Microtest 1 in "native" whole blood were comparable with those obtained with the reference method in K3EDTA and sodium citrate-anticoagulated specimens; (bias = 1.19, 95% CI -1.78 to 4.16 for K3EDTA-anticoagulated samples and bias = 2.43, 95% CI -0.58 to 5.44 for sodium citrate-anticoagulated samples). PMID:12241020

Piva, Elisa; Fassina, Paolo; Plebani, Mario



Effects of high dietary fluorine on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.  


Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocyte count (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and EOF was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens. PMID:23955484

Deng, Yubing; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Luo, Qin



Assessment of erythrocyte aggregation in whole blood samples by light backscattering: clinical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a collaborative effort made in the field of optical diagnostics of whole blood samples to study the ability of red blood cells to aggregate in a Couette chamber. We studied a possibility to quantitatively measure this ability as a function of the physiological state of blood donors. The aggregometer designed by the Russian coauthors of this paper and described in their earlier publications (see e.g. Proc SPIE 1884, 2100, 2678, 2982) was extensively used in the experiments performed in the Rheumatology Institute in Moscow and in the Charite Clinic in Berlin. The following parameters were measured: two characteristic times of RBC aggregation and the average spontaneous aggregation rate in the state of stasis, the average hydrodynamic strength of all aggregates and that of the largest aggregates. Different algorithms of the remission signal processing for the quantitative evaluation of the above parameters were compared. Reproducible alterations of the parameters from their normal values were obtained for blood samples from individuals suffering auto-immune disease and diabetes. Statistical data is reported proving high efficiency of the technique for the diagnostics of rheological disorders. Basing on these data the quantitative criteria of the heaviness of hemorheological state of the patients are proposed that are important for choosing specific therapies for which the patient is minimally resistant.

Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Firsov, Nikolai N.; Vyshlova, Marina G.; Lademann, Juergen; Richter, Heike; Kiesewetter, Holger; Mueller, Gerhard J.



Characterization of Human Blood Tissue by Impedance Spectroscopy and Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) technique has increased since the middle of 20th century for the characterization of materials which exhibit a frequency dependent behavior over the applied electric field; this behavior is correlated to the substance composition, its structural organization and the interactions between its components. In this work, the human whole blood electrical properties are studied,

Jesús Bernal-Alvarado; Eder Zavala; Francisco Hernández; Raúl Lamadrid; Carlos Guerrero; Modesto Sosa; Julio C. Villagomez; Pascual Palomares



A comparative study of white blood cell counts and disease risk in carnivores.  

PubMed Central

In primates, baseline levels of white blood cell (WBC) counts are related to mating promiscuity. It was hypothesized that differences in the primate immune system reflect pathogen risks from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Here, we test for the generality of this result by examining hypotheses involving behavioural, ecological and life-history factors in carnivores. Again, we find a significant correlation in carnivores between mating promiscuity and elevated levels of WBC counts. In addition, we find relationships with measures of sociality, substrate use and life-history parameters. These comparative results across independent taxonomic orders indicate that the evolution of the immune system, as represented by phylogenetic differences in basal levels of blood cell counts, is closely linked to disease risk involved with promiscuous mating and associated variables. We found only limited support for an association between the percentage of meat in the diet and WBC counts, which is consistent with the behavioural and physiological mechanisms that carnivores use to avoid parasite transmission from their prey. We discuss additional comparative questions related to taxonomic differences in disease risk, modes of parasite transmission and implications for conservation biology. PMID:12639313

Nunn, Charles L; Gittleman, John L; Antonovics, Janis



Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Derived from Grand Multigravidae Display a Distinct Cytokine Profile in Response to P. falciparum Infected Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Immunopathology of placental malaria is most significant in women in their first pregnancy especially in endemic areas, due to a lack of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, which is acquired in successive pregnancies. In some studies (but not all), grand multigravidae (defined as 5 or more pregnancies, G5–7) are more susceptible to poor birth outcomes associated with malaria compared to earlier gravidities. By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae (G1), women in their second to fourth pregnancy (G2–4) and grand multigravidae we sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. PBMC were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. Higher levels of opsonising antibody were present in plasma derived from multigravid compared to primigravid women. Significant differences in the levels of cytokines and chemokines secreted in response to IE were observed. Less IL-10, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF but more CXCL8, CCL8, IFN? and CXCL10 were detected in G5–7 compared to G2–4 women. Our study provides fresh insight into the modulation of peripheral blood cell function and effects on the balance between host protection and immunopathology during placental malaria infection. PMID:24465935

Ludlow, Louise E.; Hasang, Wina; Umbers, Alexandra J.; Forbes, Emily K.; Ome, Maria; Unger, Holger W.; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Jaworowski, Anthony; Rogerson, Stephen J.



[Importance of non-Newtonian rheologic properties of blood in erythrocyte transport].  


The authors studied the global transport of red blood cells (RBC) in a stationary cylindrical tube flow. The human blood was considered as homogeneous fluid. For geometric and dynamic conditions fixed, the quantity of transported RBC was calculated using different models of constitutive equation: i) Newtonian model with apparent viscosity measured at 128 sec-1; ii) Landel's model for rigidified RBC suspension; iii) three non-Newtonian models (Casson law, power law and a relationship of Sisko). We showed that there was an optimum hematocrit for every model for which the quantity of transported RBC was maximum. The values of optimum hematocrit obtained for the non-Newtonian models varied in function of the tube radius and the pressure drop. It was equally observed that the optimum hematocrit was very small when the red blood cells were rigid. These theoretical results merit experimental studies and open the way to investigations of mechanical transport of RBC (global oxygen transport) under different types of flow conditions. PMID:8077863

Wang, X; Stoltz, J F



Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent. PMID:24453794

Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej



Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of permethrin in mice: micronuclei analysis in peripheral blood erythrocytes.  


Pyrethroids such as permethrin are synthetic compounds widely used in the agriculture of many countries to combat plagues and in domestic products, such as acaricides. Not so long ago these chemicals were characterized as non-toxic for non-target organisms; however, recent studies have showed that these compounds could present toxic potential for many organisms. In this sense, this study presents genotoxic and mutagenic potential of permethrin administered intraperitoneally in mice under artificial conditions by the use of micronucleus assay in the peripheral blood of these animals. The mice were divided into five groups: group I = negative control (distilled water), group II = positive control (cyclophosphamide), group III = 30% of permethrin LD(50) (96 mg/kg), group IV = 50% of permethrin LD(50) (160 mg/kg), and group V = 80% of permethrin LD(50) (256 mg/kg). The peripheral blood was collected 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Results showed that all the tested permethrin dosages presented genotoxic and mutagenic effects 24 h after treatment, which would contradict the classification of this chemical product as moderately toxic, i.e., unable to cause damages to the cell DNA. PMID:22965619

Roma, Gislaine Cristina; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Araujo, Andrea Mendez; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo



High-frequency ultrasound backscattering by blood: analytical and semianalytical models of the erythrocyte cross section.  


This paper proposes analytical and semianalytical models of the ultrasonic backscattering cross section (BCS) of various geometrical shapes mimicking a red blood cell (RBC) for frequencies varying from 0 to 90 MHz. By assuming the first-order Born approximation and by modeling the shape of a RBC by a realistic biconcave volume, different scattering behaviors were identified for increasing frequencies. For frequencies below 18 MHz, a RBC can be considered a Rayleigh scatterer. For frequencies less than 39 MHz, the general concept of acoustic inertia tensor is introduced to describe the variation of the BCS with the frequency and the incidence direction. For frequencies below 90 MHz, ultrasound backscattering by a RBC is equivalent to backscattering by a cylinder of height 2 microm and diameter 7.8 microm. These results lay the basis of ultrasonic characterization of RBC aggregation by proposing a method that distinguishes the contribution of the individual RBC acoustical characteristics from collective effects, on the global blood backscattering coefficient. A new method of data reduction that models the frequency dependence of the ultrasonic BCS of micron-sized weak scatterers is also proposed. Applications of this method are in tissue characterization as well as in hematology. PMID:17552743

Savéry, David; Cloutier, Guy



Which observations from the complete blood cell count predict mortality for hospitalized patients?  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the prognostic utility of the admission complete blood count (CBC) and differential count is lacking. Objective To identify independent predictors of mortality from the varied number and morphology of cells in the complete blood count defined as a hemogram, automated five cell differential count and manual differential count. Design Retrospective cohort study and chart review. Setting Wishard Memorial Hospital, a large urban primary care hospital. Patients 46,522 adult inpatients admitted over ten years to Wishard Memorial Hospital from January 1993 through December of 2002. Intervention None Measurements 30-day mortality measured from day of admission as determined by electronic medical records and Indiana State Death records. Results Controlling for age and gender, the multivariable regression model identified three strong independent predictors of 30-day mortality: Presence of nucleated RBCs, burr cells, or absolute lymphocytosis was associated with a three-fold increased risk of mortality at 30 days. Nucleated RBCs were associated with a 25.5% 30-day mortality rate across a range of diagnoses, excluding sickle cell disease and obstetrical patients in which NRBCs were not associated with increased mortality. Burr cells were associated with a 27.3% mortality rate and found most commonly in patients with renal failure or liver failure. Absolute lymphocytosis predicted a poor outcome in trauma and CNS injury patients. Conclusions In patients admitted to the hospital, presence of nucleated RBCs, burr cells, or absolute lymphocytosis at admission is each associated with a three-fold increase in risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:17274042

Kho, Abel N; Hui, Siu; Kesterson, Joe G.; McDonald, Clement J



Blood Neutrophil Counts in HIV-Infected Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Association with Sputum Mycobacterial Load  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB) and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×109/L (IQR, 96–232) and median ANC was 2.6×109/L (IQR, 1.9–3.6). Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×109/L (IQR, 2.4–5.1) compared to 2.5×109/L (IQR, 1.8–3.4) among those who were culture negative (p<0.0001). In multivariable analyses, having pulmonary TB was associated with an adjusted risk ratio (aRR) of 2.6 (95%CI, 1.5–4.5) for having an ANC level that exceeded the median value (ANC ?2.6×109/L; p?=?0.0006) and an aRR of 6.8 (95%CI, 2.3–20.4) for having neutrophilia defined by a neutrophil count exceeding the upper limit of the normal range (ANC >7.5×109/L; p?=?0.0005). Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ?2.6×109/L and with neutrophilia. Conclusions/Significance Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB. PMID:23874476

Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Wood, Robin; Lowe, David M.; Vogt, Monica; Lawn, Stephen D.



Phospholipid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma of mammalian blood including australian marsupials; Quantitative 31P NMR Analysis using detergent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phospholipid classes of erythrocyte membranes and plasma from several domestic animals and marsupials were quantified by 31P NMR using detergents. Washed erythrocyte samples were thoroughly haemolysed by tip-sonication and dissolved in sodium cholate; plasma samples were dissolved in Triton X-100. The species studied were: common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), black-striped wallaby (Macropus dorsalis), bandicoot (Isoodon macrocarpus), Eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus

M. Hossein Nouri-Sorkhabi; Nihal S Agar; David R Sullivan; Clifford Gallagher; Philip W Kuchel



A Multiple Parameters Biodosimetry Tool with Various Blood Cell Counts - the Hemodose Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There continue to be important concerns about the possibility of the occurrence of acute radiation syndromes following nuclear and radiological terrorism or accidents that may result in mass casualties in densely populated areas. To guide medical personnel in their clinical decisions for effective medical management and treatment of the exposed individuals, biological markers are usually applied to examine radiation induced biological changes to assess the severity of radiation injury to sensitive organ systems. Among these the peripheral blood cell counts are widely used to assess the extent of radiation induced bone marrow injury. This is due to the fact that the hematopoietic system is the most vulnerable part of the human body to radiation damage. Particularly, the lymphocyte, granulocyte, and platelet cells are the most radiosensitive of the blood elements, and monitoring their changes after exposure is regarded as a practical and recommended laboratory test to estimate radiation dose and injury. Based upon years of physiological and pathophysiological investigation of mammalian hematopoietic systems, and rigorous coarse-grained bio-mathematical modeling and validation on species from mouse, to dog, monkey, and human, we have developed a set of software tools Hemodose, which can use single or serial granulocyte, lymphocyte, leukocyte, or platelet counts after exposure to estimate absorbed doses of adult victims very rapidly and accurately. Some patient data from historical accidents are utilized as examples to demonstrate the capabilities of these tools as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic or centralized high-throughput assay system in a large-scale radiological disaster scenario. Most significant to the improvement of national and local preparedness of a potential nuclear/radiological disaster, this HemoDose approach establishes robust correlations between the absorbed doses and victim's various types of blood cell counts not only in the early time window (1 or 2 days), but also in the very late phase (up to 4 weeks) after exposure.

Hu, Shaowen



Correlation of Circulating MMP-9 with White Blood Cell Count in Humans: Effect of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC) count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population) into three groups: never (n?=?243), current (n?=?76) and former (n?=?64) smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group. Results Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R2?=?0.13, p<0.001) and women (R2?=?0.19, p<0.001). After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml), compared to never (529.7±20.6) and former smokers (568±39.3). WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r?=?0.45 or R2?=?0.21 (p<0.001) and steeper slope of ß?=?1.16±0.30 (p<0.001) in current smokers, compared to r?=?0.26 or R2?=?0.07 (p<0.001) and ß?=?0.34±0.10 (p<0.001) in never smokers. Conclusions WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans. PMID:23825535

Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yu, Daozhan; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Gong, Da-Wei



Interpretation of the full blood count in systemic disease--a guide for the physician.  


The full blood count (FBC) is perhaps the single most common investigation performed in medical patients. It has the potential, when interpreted carefully and in relation to the clinical history, to provide very useful information to assist in diagnosis and management. Clinicians are often alerted to the presence of a primary haematological disorder by abnormalities in the FBC. For the purpose of this review these diseases will not be discussed in detail but the reader will be alerted to pointers which might indicate primary blood disorders throughout the text. The haematology laboratory in large teaching hospitals will often provide up to 1,500 automated FBC analyses each day. These are individually checked for 'flags' provided by the analyser which indicate values outside the normal range. It is clearly essential that clinical information is provided with the request as this will influence how the result is handled by scientific and medical staff. Furthermore, significant abnormalities will generate a blood film request and the report will be most useful when interpreted in light of the patient's working diagnosis. In cases where a diagnosis is not yet known, even brief information on presentation, for example 'collapse with hypotension', 'fever on return to UK', 'weight loss and anorexia', can all be important and help the lab provide clinicians with guidance. This short review aims to provide physicians with a workable guide to the interpretation of some of the commoner findings in the full blood count. Some of these will be very familiar to you but some will not. This review is not meant to be exhaustive as the rare minutiae will obscure the essential core material. Your haematology colleagues are always happy to help and available for assistance in difficult or problematic cases. I have not specified normal ranges in relation to each entity as these will be defined by your local laboratory. PMID:24995446

Leach, M



White blood cell count and mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.  


Although associated with adverse outcomes in other cardiovascular diseases, the prognostic value of an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count, a marker of inflammation and hypercoagulability, is uncertain in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We therefore sought to assess the prognostic impact of the WBC in a large, state-wide retrospective cohort of patients with PE. We evaluated 14,228 patient discharges with a primary diagnosis of PE from 186 hospitals in Pennsylvania. We used random-intercept logistic regression to assess the independent association between WBC count levels at the time of presentation and mortality and hospital readmission within 30 days, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients with an admission WBC count <5.0, 5.0-7.8, 7.9-9.8, 9.9-12.6, and >12.6 × 10(9) /L had a cumulative 30-day mortality of 10.9%, 6.2%, 5.4%, 8.3%, and 16.3% (P < 0.001), and a readmission rate of 17.6%, 11.9%, 10.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with a WBC count 7.9-9.8 × 10(9) /L, adjusted odds of 30-day mortality were significantly greater for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.03), 9.9-12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.26-1.91), or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69), respectively. The adjusted odds of readmission were also significantly increased for patients with a WBC count <5.0 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68) or >12.6 × 10(9) /L (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51). In patients presenting with PE, WBC count is an independent predictor of short-term mortality and hospital readmission. PMID:23674436

Venetz, Carmen; Labarère, José; Jiménez, David; Aujesky, Drahomir



Comparison of whole body and tissue blood volumes in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) with 125I bovine serum albumin and 51Cr-erythrocyte tracers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Total, packed cell and, plasma volume estimates were made for the whole body and selected tissues of rainbow trout by the simultaneous injection of radiolabelled trout erythrocyte (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodinated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) tracers. Blood volumes were estimated with both markers separately by the tracer-hematocrit method and as the combination of the 51Cr-RBC packed cell and 125I-BSA plasma volumes. Mean whole body blood volume was significantly less when calculated from the 51Cr-RBC tracer data (3.52±0.78 ml/100 g; ±SD) than when calculated with the 125I-BSA tracer (5.06±0.86 ml/100 g) or as the sum of the two volumes combined (4.49±0.60 ml/100 g). The whole body hematocrit (28±5%), estimated as the quotient of the 51Cr-RBC volume divided by the sum of the 125I-BSA and the 51Cr-RBC volumes, also was significantly less than the dorsal aortic microhematocrit (36±4%). Estimates of total blood volumes in most tissues were significantly smaller when calculated from the51Cr-RBC data than when calculated by the other two methods. Tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly vascularized and well perfused tissues and least in poorly vascularized tissues. The relative degree of vascularization among tissues generally remained the same regardless of whether the red cell or the plasma tracer was used to calculated blood volume. It is not clear whether the expanded plasma volume is the result of the distribution of erythrocyte-poor blood into the secondary circulation or the result of extravascular exchange of plasma proteins.

Gingerich, W. H.; Pityer, R. A.



Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count.  


We assessed the acute effects of a 1-h exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) on complete blood count (CBC) markers in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment. Nineteen adult never-smokers completed a 1-h .exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels, and a 1-h exposure to normal room air. Blood samples were collected at the baseline at 30?min during each exposure, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4?h after each exposure. The values of white blood cells (WBC) at 1?h (p?=?0.010), 3?h (p?=?0.040), and 4?h (p?=?0.008) following SHS were significantly increased compared with the baseline values. Also, there was a positive association between the WBC and cotinine levels (r?=?0.28, p?=?0.007). A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels significantly increased the WBC for at least 4?h following the exposure time. This effect of SHS on WBC has dose-response characteristics and should be considered to prescribing CBC. PMID:23544435

Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Wallace Hayes, A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Flouris, Andreas D



Original article Individual heterogeneity in erythrocyte susceptibility  

E-print Network

, bovine, ovine and human erythrocytes and short-term survival in horse or donkey red blood cells (RBC development was demonstrated, with some individuals having refractory red blood cells (RBC). As neither or reservoir of B. divergens is discussed. Babesia divergens / sheep / erythrocyte / red blood cell

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Automated white blood cell counts in cerebrospinal fluid using the body fluid mode on the platform Sysmex XE-5000.  


Abstract Background. The Sysmex XE-5000 offers automated quantification of red blood cells and white blood cells (WBCs) in body fluids, with differentiation of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs). Methods. We evaluated automated WBC counting in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using the body fluid mode on the Sysmex XE-5000, comparing it with flow cytometry as the reference method, and also with manual counting by microscopy. Experimental analysis for linearity and limit of detection was performed by diluting isolated WBCs in cell-free CSF. To study the ability to discriminate between PMNs and MNCs, samples were spiked using MNCs separated from peripheral blood. Comparison of WBC counts between a counting chamber and the XE-5000 was performed for 198 CSF samples. Results. In the experimental set-up, within-run (CV 19%) and between-day imprecision (CV 15.3%) in quantitating total number of WBC on XE-5000 was acceptable for WBC counts ? 25 × 10(6)/L. Compared with expected cell counts, mean bias was + 2.6% for flow cytometry, + 5.5% for XE-5000 and - 73.2% for manual counting. Differentiation between PMNs and MNCs was in concordance with flow cytometry. In comparisons of clinical CSF samples, overall agreement between the XE-5000 and manual counting was observed in 81% of the samples, but mean difference in WBC differentiation was higher for PMN (51.1 × 10(6)/L) than for MNC (7.95 × 10(6)/L). Conclusion. Despite limited precision at low WBC counts, XE-5000 could be a favourable alternative to the labour-intensive, time-consuming and less reliable manual counting and cuts turnaround times in routine CSF-based diagnosis. PMID:25180445

Li, Aihong; Grönlund, Elisabeth; Brattsand, Göran



Whole-blood platelet counts with an impedance-type particle counter.  


The Clay-Adams Ultra-Flo 100 whole-blood platelet counter provides results that are accurate and precise for platelet counts greater than 20 x 10(9) per liter with virtually zero carryover from one specimen to the next. Comparison of results with those obtained by manual reference and Technicon Autocounter methods shows excellent correlation. The advantage of the Ultra-Flo 100 over the Technicon Autocounter lies in a smaller space requirement in the laboratory, a short start-up time, and minimal maintenance. This makes the Ultra-Flo 100 especially ideal for the stat laboratory. Operating costs of the Ultra-Flo 100 are comparable to those of other methods investigated, but rapid speed of operation has a significant effect on turnaround time. PMID:7352411

Shulman, G; Yapit, M K



Relation of an elevated white blood cell count after percutaneous coronary intervention to long-term mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased inflammatory markers are associated with a poor prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Leukocytes play a key role in inflammation, and an increase in white blood cell (WBC) counts is a nonspecific marker of inflammation. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, baseline WBC counts independently predict long-term mortality. In a pooled cohort of patients from the Evaluation of c7E3 for

Vivek Rajagopal; Hitinder S Gurm; Deepak L Bhatt; A. Michael Lincoff; James E Tcheng; Dean J Kereiakes; Neal S Kleiman; Gang Jia; Eric J Topol



How useful are complete blood count and reticulocyte reports to clinicians in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

Background Complete blood count (CBC) and reticulocyte (Retics) are routine hematology tests useful for the differential diagnosis of anemia and other medical conditions. However, it has been presumed that they are not used as regular as they should be in medical practice in Addis Ababa hospitals. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted during November-December 2010, in which 408 clinicians participated and their response on the use of CBC and Retics was assessed. The always/frequently (A/F) response was considered to reflect routine use of the CBC/Retics parameters by the clinicians. The Chi square test was used to study statistical associations among different variables. Result Only four of 13 parameters in CBC were frequently or always used by more than 85% of the clinicians. Health Officers were observed to use 12 of the 13 CBC parameters less than the other professional group; interns and residents demonstrated highest use of CBC results. More than a third of clinicians’ preferred white blood cell (WBC) differential report in percentages than the more useful absolute number report. Reticulocyte parameters were not being used by majority of clinicians in patient management. Clinicians rated ‘average’ regarding the adequacy of clinical laboratory methods course they took during medical education. As service users, clinicians indicated mm3 as unit of preference in cell count on the laboratory report form. Conclusion Overall, most clinicians do not use much of the data provided on routine CBC report. Additional research is needed to understand the issue further. Responsible bodies should promote the appropriate use of CBC/Retics reports by clinicians. PMID:24325971



Avian leucocyte counting using the hemocytometer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automated methods for counting leucocytes in avian blood are not available because of the presence of nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes. Therefore, total white blood cell counts are performed by hand using a hemocytometer. The Natt and Herrick and the Unopette methods are the most common stain and diluent preparations for this procedure. Replicate hemocytometer counts using these two methods were performed on blood from four birds of different species. Cells present in each square of the hemocytometer were counted. Counting cells in the corner, side, or center hemocytometer squares produced statistically equivalent results; counting four squares per chamber provided a result similar to that obtained by counting nine squares; and the Unopette method was more precise for hemocytometer counting than was the Natt and Herrick method. The Unopette method is easier to learn and perform but is an indirect process, utilizing the differential count from a stained smear. The Natt and Herrick method is a direct total count, but cell identification is more difficult.

Dein, F.J.; Wilson, A.; Fischer, D.; Langenberg, P.



Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

Thompson, Joselyn H.


The use of the white cell count and haemoglobin in combination as an effective screen to predict the normality of the full blood count  

PubMed Central

Introduction The utility of the full blood count (FBC) is vast with each parameter serving as a tool to aid diagnosis and monitor disease progression. However, the effectiveness of the test is hampered because of increased workload and lack of interpretation. In the effort to redress this issue, the combined use of the white blood cell count (WBC) and haemoglobin in predicting the normality of the FBC is evaluated. Method FBC data were collated from 2191 patients and classified into two groups depending on whether the WBC and the haemoglobin were within the reference range. Blood films were examined on the abnormal FBC samples in each group and graded on morphology. Results The FBC was normal in 89.6% of cases in the presence of a normal WBC and haemoglobin with subtle abnormalities in the remainder; 1+ grading of abnormal morphology in 93%. However, when the WBC and/or haemoglobin was abnormal, the remaining FBC was significantly abnormal (P < 0.05) and the corresponding blood films were grossly abnormal; 2+/3+ grading in 96% of cases. Conclusion We concluded that in the presence of a normal WBC and haemoglobin, the FBC is normal in almost all cases and measuring these two parameters could be used as an effective screen to predict FBC normality. PMID:21883968




Blood (For Parents)  


... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes) are ...


Evaluation of the veterinary application of a point-of-care device measuring white blood cell counts.  


A point-of-care device (POCD) for measuring total white blood cell count was evaluated for feline, canine, equine and bovine blood samples collected into EDTA. Mean biases were -9.2% (range, -12% to -6.3%) for feline samples, 20.2% (range, 15.3-25.1%) for canine samples, -7.1% (range, -8.3% to -5.9%) for equine samples, and 0.7% (range, -1.1% to 2.5%) for bovine samples. The results were influenced by the presence of nucleated red blood cells. The POCD provided precise, reliable data for feline, equine and bovine samples but the values obtained for the canine counts were overestimations. PMID:22503717

Riond, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans



Observational study of erythrocyte protoporphyrin screening test for detecting low lead exposure in children: Impact of lowering the blood lead action threshold  

SciTech Connect

We examined a retrospective sample of 1800 children on whom both erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and blood lead (BPb) measurements were taken. The primary objective was to ascertain whether EP is a cost-effective screening test for low but increased BPb concentrations and to establish the optimal thresholds. The data did not provide evidence of an EP threshold at low BPb concentrations; however, the data did show a significant age effect. A subset of 500 children for whom both EP and hematocrit data were available showed no correlation between those variables. Age-specific operating characteristic curves, total error, and cost analyses are presented. The latter sets bounds on the relative cost of EP testing, above which only BPb determination should be performed. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of impending changes in U.S. federal guidelines for preventing lead poisoning in young children.

Parsons, P.J.; Reilly, A.A.; Hussain, A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))



[The role of nitric oxide in regulation of the erythrocyte system state in rat offspring with chronic disturbance of uteroplacental blood circulation].  


The effect of exogenous nitric oxide donor deponit-10 (nitroglycerin) on red cell indices in the offspring of rats with experimental disturbances of uteroplacental circulation has been investigated. It is established that fetal hypoxia facilitates the mobilization of functional reserves of the red cell system in the prenatal and early days of postnatal life of offspring in white rats, which is manifested by the growing process of erythropoiesis. Hyperfunction of the erythrocyte system in the first lifedays of pups leads eventually to a depletion of its functional capacities. The administration of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on the background of damaged uteroplacental circulation prevents the depletion and disruption of the functional reserves of the blood red cell system. PMID:22834124

Nazarov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A



Blood cell counting in neonates: a comparison between a low volume micromethod and the standard laboratory method  

PubMed Central

Background Iatrogenic anaemia caused by repeated blood sampling to monitor laboratory parameters can contribute, particularly in neonates, to the need for transfusion. “Point of care” laboratory equipment uses smaller amounts of blood for analytic determinations and could, therefore, help to prevent secondary anaemia. In this study we compared the results of haematological parameters measured using a standard laboratory method and using a “point of care” micromethod, with the aim of validating the use of this latter method in clinical practice in neonatology. Materials and methods One hundred and fifty venous or capillary blood samples were taken from full-term or premature neonates 2–4 hours or 48 hours after birth. Each sample was processed by a standard haematology analyser and another micromethod instrument. Bland-Altman plots were constructed for each parameter and intra-class coefficients of correlation were calculated in order to evaluate the concordance between the two analysers. Results The concordance between the data obtained with the two analysers, expressed as the intra-class correlation, was 0.98 for white blood cell count, 0.97 for haemoglobin concentration, 0.96 for haematocrit, 0.95 for mean red cell volume and 0.98 for platelet count. The micromethod produced overestimated mean values for the leucocyte count (+1.27; p<0.001), haematocrit (+1.80; p<0.001) and platelet count (+13.55; p<0.001). Conclusions Overall, the concordance between the values obtained with the two analysers was high for each of the parameters taken into consideration. In the case of haemoglobin and leucocytes, give the high intra-class correlation and lack of systematic overestimation of one method over another, the micromethod guarantees a correct evaluation; however, despite the high intra-class correlations for platelet counts, the systemic error seems to suggest that the micromethod cannot guarantee an appropriate evaluation of this parameter. PMID:21839016

Papa, Fabrizio; Rongioletti, Mauro; Ventura, Marco Della; Di Turi, Francesco; Cortesi, Maurizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Majolini, Maria Bernardetta; Collegiani, Valeria; Cicchese, Marika; Notarmuzi, Maria Letizia; Agostino, Rocco; Liumbruno, Giancarlo Maria



Estimating malaria parasite density among pregnant women at central Sudan using actual and assumed white blood cell count  

PubMed Central

Background Microscopic examination using Giemsa-stained thick blood films remains the reference standard for detection of malaria parasites and it is the only method that is widely and practically available for quantifying malaria parasite density. There are few published data (there was no study during pregnancy) investigating the parasite density (ratio of counted parasites within a given number of microscopic fields against counted white blood cells (WBCs) using actual number of WBCs. Methods Parasitaemia was estimated using assumed WBCs (8,000), which was compared to parasitaemia calculated based on each woman’s WBCs in 98 pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria at Medani Maternity Hospital, Central Sudan. Results The geometric mean (SD) of the parasite count was 12,014.6 (9,766.5) and 7,870.8 (19,168.8) ring trophozoites /?l, P <0.001 using the actual and assumed (8,000) WBC count, respectively. The median (range) of the ratio between the two parasitaemias (using assumed/actual WBCs) was 1.5 (0.6-5), i e, parasitaemia calculated assuming WBCs equal to median (range) 1.5 (0.6-5) times higher than parasitaemia calculated using actual WBCs. There were 52 out of 98 patients (53%) with ratio between 0.5 and 1.5. For 21 patients (21%) this ratio was higher than 2, and for five patients (5%) it was higher than 3. Conclusion The estimated parasite density using actual WBC counts was significantly lower than the parasite density estimated using assumed WBC counts. Therefore, it is recommended to use the patient`s actual WBC count in the estimation of the parasite density. PMID:24386962



Nucleated red blood cells count as first prognostic marker for adverse neonatal outcome in severe preeclamptic pregnancies.  


The purpose of this study was to determine acceptability of the nucleated red blood cells counts (NRBC) as early prognostic parameter for adverse outcome in preterm neonates born from pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia. We analysed 77 premature newborns who were born from pregnancies with severe preeclampsia during eight years (2004-2011) in our tertiary center. Women with other pregnancy complications were excluded from the study, as well as newborns with malformations and chromosomal anomalies. Newborns were compared according to the count of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) on the first day of life. Cut off of NRBC was determined at 40 per 100 white blood cells. We analyzed and compared birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores in 1st and 5th minute, hypoglycemia in first day of life, need for respiratory support, neonatal infection and brain ultrasound findings at the day of discharge between the groups of newborns. We found significantly lower birth weight, gestational age and Apgar scores in case group (NRB C > 40) and significantly higher rate of infections, need for respiratory support, abnormal brain ultrasound findings, morbidity rate and adverse neonatal outcome compared to control newborns group. Increased count of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC) in preterm newborns born from pregnancies with severe preeclampsia seems to be the first significant marker for detecting adverse neonatal outcome. PMID:23213944

Gasparovi?, Vesna Elvedi; Ahmetasevi?, Snjezana Gveri?; Coli?, Ana



Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 hours in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed no effect in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 hours before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 hours. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. PMID:20064088

Bruske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Ruckerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdorster, Gunter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette



Migraine and erythrocyte biology: a review.  


Migraine is a common disabling headache disorder that is conventionally classified according to the presence or absence of aura. The pathogenesis of this disorder entails a complex interplay of neurovascular factors, that trigger reduction of cerebral blood flow followed by reactive vasodilatation. Despite major emphasis has been placed on the investigation of putative biomarkers that could predict response to specific treatments and prophylaxis, less focus has been directed at the association between migraine and erythrocytosis. Erythrocytosis is typically accompanied by hyperviscosity, that is now considered a crucial determinant in the pathogenesis of migraine. The results of some epidemiological investigations are in substantial agreement to confirm the existence of a significant relationship between increased haemoglobin levels and migraine, whereas some case reports have also reported an effective improvement of symptoms after reduction of erythrocyte count by therapeutic venesection. Interesting evidence has recently emerged from the assessment of red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a simple and inexpensive measure of anysocytosis that has been also associated with a variety of ischaemic and thrombotic disorders other than migraine. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current clinical and epidemiological evidence linking migraine and erythrocyte biology. PMID:24628738

Lippi, G; Cervellin, G; Mattiuzzi, C



Changes in haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) in captivity.  


The haematology, plasma biochemistry and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of the Nigerian laughing dove (Streptopelia senegalensis) were studied after 4 and 8 weeks in captivity. At 8 weeks, there was a normocytic hypochromic anaemia characterized by reduced values for packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), but the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was unaltered compared with the corresponding values at 4 weeks. The platelet count, total white blood cell count, heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts were also lower at 8 weeks than those of the birds sampled at 4 weeks in captivity. There was also a stress induced increased heterophil/lymphocyte ratio and the erythrocytes were more fragile in hypotonic solution in birds sampled at 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP) increased at 8 weeks, though non-significantly, which might have been due to muscle wasting consequent upon decreased muscular activities associated with prolonged captivity. The results suggest that maintaining wild birds in captivity for a prolonged period could be stressful as shown by the heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and reduced erythrocyte osmotic resistance, and could lead to decreases in erythrocyte parameters and muscle wasting. PMID:23955409

Azeez, O I; Oyagbemi, A A; Olawuwo, O S; Oyewale, J O



Abnormal glucose tolerance, white blood cell count, and telomere length in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients with depression.  


Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and aging, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1×10(9)/L [0.6] vs 2.5×10(9)/L [0.7] p=.028). Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated aging disease. PMID:23207109

Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K; Heaphy, Christopher M; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian



Abnormal Glucose Tolerance, White Blood Cell Count, and Telomere Length in Newly Diagnosed, Antidepressant-Na?ve Patients with Depression  

PubMed Central

Chronic mood disorders have been associated with a shortened telomere, a marker of increased mortality rate and ageing, and impaired cellular immunity. However, treatment may confound these relationships. We examined the relationship of glucose tolerance, white blood cell count and telomere length to depression in newly diagnosed, antidepressant-naïve patients. Subjects with major depression (n=15), and matched healthy control subjects (n=70) underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and evaluation of blood cell count and telomere content. The depression group had significantly higher two-hour glucose concentrations and a lower lymphocyte count than control subjects (respective means [SD] for two-hour glucose were 125.0 mg/dL [67.9] vs 84.6 [25.6] (p<.001); for lymphocyte count 2.1 × 109/L [0.6] vs. 2.5 ×109/L [0.7] p=.028).Telomere content was significantly shortened in the depression group (87.9 [7.6]) compared to control subjects (101.0 [14.3]; p<0.01). Abnormal glucose tolerance, lymphopenia and a shortened telomere are present early in the course of depression independently of the confounding effect of antidepressant treatment, supporting the concept of major depression as an accelerated ageing disease. PMID:23207109

Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Miller, Brian J.; Oliveira, Cristina; Justicia, Azucena; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Bernardo, Miguel; Kirkpatrick, Brian



Aggregation of erythrocytes in burn disease  

PubMed Central

The manuscript describes experiments designed to examine factors that influence erythrocytes aggregation within the blood of burn patients. Results showed that the rate and degree of erythrocytes aggregation increased significantly in burn patients, and what is especially unfavorable for microcirculation, erythrocytes disaggregation decreased. We show that normalization of blood plasma contents completely restores erythrocytes aggregation and disaggregation of burn patients. The rate and degree of aggregation was also increased as the fibrinogen concentration increased. It is found that fibrinogen-induced aggregation of erythrocytes is accompanied by “saturation” effect. The aggregation was not affected by monoclonal antibodies against platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptors. The level of oxidized fibrinogen in blood plasma of burn patients increased by about two fold. However, correlation between the level of oxidized fibrinogen and erythrocytes aggregation was not found. The level of medium molecular peptides increased sharply in blood plasma from burn patients. This increase was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in erythrocytes aggregation. Based on these results the authors conclude that in burn patients erythrocytes aggregation is affected by changes in the contents of blood plasma, specifically fibrinogen and the product of its transformation - fibrin fibrin monomer. PMID:22928156

Levin, Grigory Y; Egorihina, Marpha N



Prognostic study of continuous variables (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Analysis of a population of 1545 children treated by the French Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Group (FRALLE)  

PubMed Central

Many cutpoints have been proposed to categorize continuous variables in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (white blood cell count, peripheral blast cell count, haemoglobin level, platelet count and age), and have been used to define therapeutic subgroups. This variation in the choice of cutpoints leads to a bias called the ‘Will Rogers phenomenon’. The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the relative risk of relapse or death as a function of continuous prognostic variables in childhood ALL and to discuss the choice of cutpoints. We studied a population of 1545 children with ALL enrolled in three consecutive protocols named FRALLE 83, FRALLE 87 and FRALLE 89. We estimated the risk of relapse or death associated with different values of each continuous prognostic variable by dividing the sample into quintiles of the distribution of the variables. As regards age, a category of children under 1 year of age was distinguished and the rest of the population was divided into quintiles. The floated variance method was used to calculate the confidence interval of each relative risk, including the reference category. The relation between the quantitative prognostic factors and the risk was monotonic for each variable, except for age. For the white blood cell count (WBC), the relation is log linear. The risk associated with WBC values in the upper quintile was 1.9 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The peripheral blast cell count correlated strongly with WBC (correlation coefficient: 0.99). The risk increased with the haemoglobin level, and the risk in the upper quintile was 1.3 times higher than that in the lower quintile. The risk decreased as the platelet count increased: the risk in the lower quintile was 1.2 times higher than that in the upper quintile. The risk increased gradually with increasing age above one year. The small subgroup of patients (2.5% of the population) under 1 year of age at diagnosis had a risk 2.6 times higher than the reference category of patients between 3 and 4.3 years of age. When the risk associated with a quantitative prognostic factor varies monotonously, the selection of a cutpoint is arbitrary and represents a loss of information. Despite this loss of information, such arbitrary categorization may be necessary to define therapeutic stratification. In that case, consensus cutpoints must be defined if one wants to avoid the Will Rogers phenomenon. The cutpoints proposed by the Rome workshop and the NCI are arbitrary, but may represent an acceptable convention. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11104555

Donadieu, J; Auclerc, M-F; Baruchel, A; Perel, Y; Bordigoni, P; Landman-Parker, J; Leblanc, T; Cornu, G; Sommelet, D; Leverger, G; Schaison, G; Hill, C



A side-by-side evaluation of four platelet-counting instruments.  


The performances of four instruments for counting platelets were evaluated in a side-by-side study: the Haema-Count MK-4/HC, an electronic impedance instrument that counts platelets in platelet-rich plasma; the Ultra-Flo 100, and the Coulter Counter Model S-Plus, electronic impedance instruments that count platelets in the presence of intact erythrocytes; and the AutoCounter, an optical instrument that counts platelets in the presence of lysed erythrocytes. The Ultra-Flo 100 and the S-Plus showed the best within-run precision, and all four instruments were considerably more precise than manual platelet counting, especially at low levels of platelet count. The four instruments were all linear in the ranges tested (5 to 650 x 10(9)/or greater), and sample carry-over was less than 0.7% for each. A noteworthy finding was that the erythrocyte concentration of the blood samples affected the displayed platelet count of the S-Plus and, to a lesser extent, that of the AutoCounter, in a predictable way, whereas it did not greatly affect the displayed count of the Ultra-Flo 100. In addition to differences in quality of performances, the four instruments differed considerably in speed and ease of operation and in cost. PMID:7405890

Dalton, W T; Bollinger, P; Drewinko, B



Erythrocyte Aging: Physical and Chemical Membrane Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian erythrocyte is an interesting model for studies of membrane aging. Experimental approaches to this problem involve, first of all, comparison of properties of erythrocytes separated by density because red blood cell age correlates with density in principle. Other approaches to study red cell membrane aging, such as hypertransfusion, are also discussed. A number of physical and chemical changes

Grzegorz Bartosz



Assessing the environmental genotoxicity risk in the Baltic Sea: frequencies of nuclear buds in blood erythrocytes of three native fish species.  


Nuclear bud (NB) formation was investigated in blood erythrocytes of 1892 flounder Platichthys flesus, herring Clupea harengus, and eelpout Zoarces viviparus specimens that were collected at 82 sites representing different regions of the Baltic Sea in 2009-2011. This is the first attempt to evaluate the baseline levels of NB and rank the genotoxicity risk for native fish species. NB levels were compared to the previously published micronuclei (MN) data from the same individual fish specimens in order to compare the two methods of genotoxicity assessment and investigate the relationship between MN as the cytogenetic measure of genotoxicity and the DNA damage reflecting NB. In 2009-2011, elevated NB levels in 89.4 % of flounder sampling groups indicated high and extremely high genotoxicity risk levels. Herring and eelpout sampling groups showed elevated levels of NB, 74.6 and 45.7 %, respectively. In general, herring and eelpout NB measure was more sensitive as the genotoxicity biomarker than MN. PMID:25384369

Baršien?, Janina; Butrimavi?ien?, Laura; Michailovas, Aleksandras; Grygiel, Wlodzimierz



[Assay of total mercury in blood, plasma and erythrocytes by emission spectrometry-induced plasma HF (SEPIHF)].  


The mercury quantification in blood can be performed by ICPAES after dilution in an ammonia buffer and reduction by sodium borohydride. The proposed method does not need mineralization. The sample is not nebulized in the torch but the mercury vapor, after collection in a reactor vial, is swept into the plasma by the carrier gas (argon) using the described glass apparatus, and quantified at lambda = 253.65 nm. PMID:2610415

Buneaux, F; Bourdon, S; Bourdon, R



Diet of Racing Sled Dogs Affects Erythrocyte Depression by Stress  

PubMed Central

Fourteen racing huskies were matched into pairs then assigned to two diets, a commercial stress diet and an experimental diet. Proportions of protein: fat:carbohydrate on an available energy basis were 23:57:20 in a commercial stress diet and 28:69:3 in an experimental diet. The team participated in the 1979 Iditarod Trail race and was overtaken by an episode of diarrhea. Clinical signs were suggestive of parvovirus infection; high serum titers of parvo antibodies were found after the race. Blood examination showed normal levels of metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes after the race. Erythrocyte counts were depressed significantly during the race, by 15% in dogs fed an experimental diet and by 27% in those fed a commercial stress diet. Erythrocyte parameters have also become depressed during the racing season in middle distance sled dogs fed 28% protein (energy basis) but not 32 or 39%. Depressed red blood cell production has been demonstrated previously in dogs subjected to stress induced experimentally in several ways, and its restoration has been affected by dietary protein. Erythrocyte parameters may be useful indicies of the degree of stress in a dog as well as the adequacy of its protein intake during stress. PMID:17422178

Adkins, T. O.; Kronfeld, D. S.



Reference intervals of complete blood count constituents are highly correlated to waist circumference: should obese patients have their own "normal values?".  


Body mass index (BMI), the prevalent indicator of obesity, is not easily grasped by patients nor physicians. Waist circumference (WC) is correlated to obesity, is better understood and has a stronger relationship to the metabolic syndrome. We compiled WC, complete blood count (CBC) parameters as well as other pertinent data of 6766 25-55-year-old US volunteers sampled in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in the years 2005-2010. To determine reference intervals of typical US patients visiting their clinician, we used minimal exclusion criteria. We compiled hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW), platelet count, mean platelet volume, and counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, we also compiled serum C reactive protein and serum iron. The three major US races were studied and reference interval diagrams were constructed for each CBC parameter plotted against WC. WBC count, RDW, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and red blood cell count increase with WC. Conversely, serum iron and MCH and MCV decrease. These relationships may be related to insulin resistance and chronic activation of the immune system and the resulting low-grade inflammatory state. WC is a strong predictor for many CBC parameters, suggesting that WC should be taken into account when evaluating blood count results. Clinicians who take care of obese patients should be aware of altered hematology and investigate and treat accordingly. PMID:24644218

Vuong, Jennifer; Qiu, Yuelin; La, Myanh; Clarke, Gwen; Swinkels, Dorine W; Cembrowski, George



Effect of the Pre-erythrocytic Candidate Malaria Vaccine RTS,S/AS01E on Blood Stage Immunity in Young Children  

PubMed Central

(See the article by Greenhouse et al, on pages 19-26.) Background.?RTS,S/AS01E is the lead candidate malaria vaccine and confers pre-erythrocytic immunity. Vaccination may therefore impact acquired immunity to blood-stage malaria parasites after natural infection. Methods.?We measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies to 4 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (AMA-1, MSP-142, EBA-175, and MSP-3) and by growth inhibitory activity (GIA) using 2 parasite clones (FV0 and 3D7) at 4 times on 860 children who were randomized to receive with RTS,S/AS01E or a control vaccine. Results.?Antibody concentrations to AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-142 decreased with age during the first year of life, then increased to 32 months of age. Anti–MSP-3 antibody concentrations gradually increased, and GIA gradually decreased up to 32 months. Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E resulted in modest reductions in AMA-1, EBA-175, MSP-142, and MSP-3 antibody concentrations and no significant change in GIA. Increasing anti-merozoite antibody concentrations and GIA were prospectively associated with increased risk of clinical malaria. Conclusions.?Vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E reduces exposure to blood-stage parasites and, thus, reduces anti-merozoite antigen antibody concentrations. However, in this study, these antibodies were not correlates of clinical immunity to malaria. Instead, heterogeneous exposure led to confounded, positive associations between increasing antibody concentration and increasing risk of clinical malaria. PMID:21628653

Cook, Jackie; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke; Olotu, Ally; Lusingu, John; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Vekemans, Johan; Njuguna, Patricia; Leach, Amanda; Lievens, Marc; Dutta, Sheetij; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Savarese, Barbara; Villafana, Tonya; Lemnge, Martha M.; Cohen, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Corran, Patrick H.; Angov, Evelina; Riley, Eleanor M.; Drakeley, Chris J.



Blood Erythrocyte Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead and the Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma: A Nested Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma. Methods 194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible. Results There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65). Conclusions This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted. PMID:24312375

Porta, Miquel; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Palli, Domenico; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Botsivali, Maria; Vineis, Paolo; Vermeulen, Roel; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc



The platelet count in EDTA-anticoagulated blood from patients with thrombocytopenia may be underestimated when measured in routine laboratories.  


Spuriously low platelet counts (PCs) can be observed in normal blood samples anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)and, much less frequently, with citrate-tris-pyridossalphosphate (CPT),due to time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination. Accuracy in PC determination is essential as PC is one of the parameters that usually guides treatment for thrombocytopenic patients. PCs of 93 thrombocy to penic patients were measured in EDTA- or CPT-anticoagulated blood samples immediately after sampling (t0) and 90 min (t90) after storage at room temperature. The presence of platelet agglutinates in blood samples was determined by examining blood smears using optical microscopy.PCs decreased at t90 with both anticoagulants. Platelet agglutinates were present at t90 in 27% of EDTA-samples vs. 2% of CPT-samples with decreased PCs (P < 0.001). Based on PCs in EDTA-samples, 15 patients (16%) shifted from a lower bleeding risk at t0 to a higher bleeding risk category at t90 (P 5 0.019), compared to 5 (5%) patients, based on PCs in CPT-samples. Therefore, time-dependent in vitro platelet agglutination in EDTA-blood samples may cause underestimation of PCs in thrombocytopenic patients, possibly leading to improper management. PMID:22674424

Podda, Gian Marco; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Mezzasoma, Anna Maria; Gresele, Paolo; Carpani, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Marco



[Accreditation of automated complete blood count by the LH750 Analyzer (Beckman Coulter) in Georges Pompidou Hospital (Paris, France)].  


Preliminary evaluation of quantitative clinical laboratory measurements is a prerequisite for the accreditation of clinical laboratories, according to the French Committee of Accreditation guidelines following the European reference Standard EN ISO 15189. Numerous papers have been published regarding biochemistry and immunology. However, data are lacking for automated complete blood count accreditation. We report here our experience at Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou hematology laboratory and present the performance characteristics of two mirrored LH750 Beckman-Coulter analysers, including precision, accuracy and uncertainty of measurement. PMID:24342794

Robinet, Sylvain; Lemaire, Pierre; Louis, Gauthier; Vieillefond, Vincent; Daigneau, Yolande; Gaillaud, Emilie; Vincent, Béatrice; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Siguret, Virginie



Enzymatic Production of Universal Donor Erythrocytes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aims of this research contract were: 1) to isolate in pure culture strains of human enteric bacteria with the specialized ability to produce strong activities of extracellular glycosidases that convert blood type A or B erythrocytes to universal donor...

L. C. Hoskins



Stability of blood cell counts, hematologic parameters and reticulocytes indexes on the Advia A120 hematologic analyzer.  


Delayed sample analysis is not a rare circumstance in clinical and laboratory practice, especially when blood samples are shipped to distant centralized laboratories, when the analysis can not be readily performed, or when retesting is appropriate. In this study we sought to evaluate the stability of conventional and new hematologic parameters in blood specimens stored for as long as 24 hours at 4 degrees C. Of the 21 hematologic parameters tested with the use of the Advia 120 hematologic analyzer (Bayer Diagnostics), means for paired samples of specimens differed significantly over the 24-hour storage period for hematocrit, main corpuscular volume, percentage of macrocytes, platelet count, main platelet volume, reticulocyte count and percentage, and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (all P < .01). We noted no significant changes in the other parameters tested or in the white blood cell differential. The overall distribution of the immature reticulocytes fractions remained substantially unchanged, though the high staining-intensity fraction showed a considerable shift from the baseline measure. Bland-Altman plots and limits-of-agreement analysis showed mean biases between -4.8% and 37.2% and relative coefficients of variations ranging from 0.4% to 32.7%. The 95% agreement interval in the set of differences was satisfactory and almost within the current analytic-quality specifications for desirable bias. The results of this investigation suggest that, within certain limitations for parameters derived or calculated from cellular volumes, blood specimens stored for as long as 24 hours at 4 degrees C may be suitable for hematologic testing. PMID:16310516

Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Solero, Gian Pietro; Franchini, Massimo; Guidi, Gian Cesare



White Blood Cell Count in Women: Relation to Inflammatory Biomarkers, Haematological Profiles, Visceral Adiposity, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56±6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI >30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI <30 kg/m2. We evaluated the relationship between WBC and platelet count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin ? (Ang ?), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p< 0.05). The mean WBC count in obese subjects was 6.4±0.3 (×109/L) compared to 4.4±0.3 (×109/L) in non-obese subjects (p=0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r=0.31, p=0.004), CRP (r=0.25, P=0.03), WC (r=0.22, p=0.04), angiotensin ? (r=0.24, p=0.03), triglyceride (r=0.24, p=0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r=0.3, p=0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p<0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit were in consistent relationship with LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). In conclusion, obesity was associated with higher WBC count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women. PMID:23617205

Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza



On the evolution of erythrocyte programmed cell death: apoptosis of Rana esculenta nucleated red blood cells involves cysteine proteinase activation and mitochondrion permeabilization.  


Batracian Rana esculenta erythrocytes cell death induced by either calcium influx, or staurosporine, involves typical apoptotic phenotype. Our data reveal: (i) a drastic modification of the cell morphology with loss of the ellipsoidal form as assessed by phase contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) an exposure of the phosphatidylserine residues in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane; (iii) a caspase-3-like activity; (iv) a mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m) loss; and (v) a chromatin condensation and fragmentation. Erythrocyte chromatin condensation and fragmentation are prevented by caspase and calpain peptide inhibitors. These inhibitors also prevent Delta Psi m loss supporting the idea that mitochondria is a central sensor for Rana erythrocytes cell death. Our observations highlight the conservation of the programmed cell death machinery in erythrocytes across kingdom. PMID:15134833

Bratosin, Daniela; Estaquier, Jérôme; Slomianny, Christian; Tissier, Jean-Pierre; Quatannens, Brigitte; Bulai, Tatiana; Mitrofan, Laura; Marinescu, Alexandru; Trandaburu, Ioana; Ameisen, Jean-Claude; Montreuil, Jean



Genetic variants associated with the white blood cell count in 13,923 subjects in the eMERGE Network  

PubMed Central

White blood cell count (WBC) is unique among identified inflammatory predictors of chronic disease in that it is routinely measured in asymptomatic patients in the course of routine patient care. We led a genome-wide association analysis to identify variants associated with WBC levels in 13,923 subjects in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. We identified two regions of interest that were each unique to subjects of genetically determined ancestry to the African continent (AA) or to the European continent (EA). WBC varies among different ancestry groups. Despite being ancestry specific, these regions were identifiable in the combined analysis. In AA subjects, the region surrounding the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor gene (DARC) on 1q21 exhibited significant association (p value = 6.71e–55). These results validate the previously reported association between WBC and of the regulatory variant rs2814778 in the promoter region, which causes the Duffy negative phenotype (Fy?/?). A second missense variant (rs12075) is responsible for the two principal antigens, Fya and Fyb of the Duffy blood group system. The two variants, consisting of four alleles, act in concert to produce five antigens and subsequent phenotypes. We were able to identify the marginal and novel interaction effects of these two variants on WBC. In the EA subjects, we identified significantly associated SNPs tagging three separate genes in the 17q21 region: (1) GSDMA, (2) MED24, and (3) PSMD3. Variants in this region have been reported to be associated with WBC, neutrophil count, and inflammatory diseases including asthma and Crohn’s disease. PMID:22037903

McDavid, Andrew; Weston, Noah; Nelson, Sarah C.; Zheng, Xiuwen; Hart, Eugene; de Andrade, Mariza; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Pugh, Elizabeth; Kho, Abel; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Pretel, Stephanie; Saip, Alexander; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Crawford, Dana C.; Crane, Paul K.; Newton, Katherine; Li, Rongling; Mirel, Daniel B.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Larson, Eric B.; Carlson, Chris S.; Jarvik, Gail P.



A quantitative trait locus for faecal worm egg and blood eosinophil counts on chromosome 23 in Australian goats.  


Three microsatellite markers on goat chromosome 23 adjacent to the MHC were used to test for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting faecal worm egg count (WEC) and leukocyte traits in ten Australian Angora and twelve Australian Cashmere half-sib families (n = 16-57 per family). Data were collected from 280 Angora and 347 Cashmere kids over a 3- and 4-year period. A putative QTL affecting trichostrongyle WEC was found in two small families at the 5% chromosome-wise threshold level. The biggest QTL effect for WEC of 1.65 standard deviations (sigma(p)) was found within the region of OarCP73-BM1258. A significant QTL affecting blood eosinophil counts at the 1% chromosome-wise threshold level was detected at marker BM1258 (at 26 cM) in two Angora and Cashmere families. The magnitude of the putative QTL was 0.69 and 0.85 sigma(p) in Angora and Cashmere families, respectively. Due to the comparatively low power of the study these findings should be viewed as indicative rather than definitive. PMID:20536638

Bolormaa, S; van der Werf, J H J; Walkden-Brown, S W; Marshall, K; Ruvinsky, A



[The individual fatty acids in blood plasma, erythrocytes and lipoproteins. The comparison of tests results of patients with ischemic heart disease and volunteers].  


According to the generally accepted theory, the atherosclerosis is a kind of disorder of metabolism of lipids which chemically are the ethers of fatty lipids with spirits. Hence, the atherosclerosis is fatty acids pathology. In conformity with the biologic classification, among fatty acids it is functionally valid to distinguish saturated fatty acids without double bonds; monoenic fatty acids with one double bond; unsaturated fatty acids with two or three double bonds and polyenic fatty acids with four of six double bonds in chain. The saturated and monenic fatty acids are the substrates for cells to groundwork energy, ATP The unsaturated fatty acids in vivo are needed to form membranes. The polyenic fatty acids are essential since they are precursors of cell synthesis of humoral regulators--eicosanoids (prostanoids and leukotrienes). To clarify the pathogenesis of the "metabolic pandemics" most prevalent in human population, the quantitative determination of individual fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes using gas chromatography technique is needed. It is necessary to evaluate the content of medium chain fatty acids; palmitic and stearic saturated fatty acids; oleic monoenic fatty acid and its transforms--linoleic, linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic unsaturated fatty acids; essential polyenic omega-6 arachidonic, omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The higher is in food the content of palmitic saturated fatty acid, palmitoleic and trans-vaccenic monoenic fatty acids, the more is in patient diet of beef meat and products of fat cow's milk. The higher is ratio of palmitic/oleic fatty acids the lower is the risk of formation of atheromatosis of arteries intima and development of ischemic heart disease and vice versa. The decrease of ratio of omega-3/omega-6 essential polyenic fatty acids is undesirable in prognostic sense. The metabolism of these acids differs and functional activity of omega-3 eicosanoid type 3 is higher In case of deficiency of omega-3 and omega-6 polyenic fatty acids in cells eicosanoids are synthesized from unsaturated dihomogamma-linolenic fatty acid and their influence turns out to be aphysiologic. This condition is a pathogenic foundation of atherosclerosis. There is a diagnostic reason to detect fatty acids in case of diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome and partially arterial hypertension. PMID:22988791

Titov, V N; Aripovski?, A V; Kaba, S I; Kolesnik, P O; Vezhdel, M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K



Streptococcus pneumoniae Invades Erythrocytes and Utilizes Them to Evade Human Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth, as they contain abundant nutrients. However, the relationship between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes remains unclear. We analyzed interactions between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes, and found that iron ion present in human erythrocytes supported the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, another major Gram-positive sepsis pathogen, while it partially inhibited pneumococcal growth by generating free radicals. S. pneumoniae cells incubated with human erythrocytes or blood were subjected to scanning electron and confocal fluorescence microscopic analyses, which showed that the bacterial cells adhered to and invaded human erythrocytes. In addition, S. pneumoniae cells were found associated with human erythrocytes in cultures of blood from patients with an invasive pneumococcal infection. Erythrocyte invasion assays indicated that LPXTG motif-containing pneumococcal proteins, erythrocyte lipid rafts, and erythrocyte actin remodeling are all involved in the invasion mechanism. In a neutrophil killing assay, the viability of S. pneumoniae co-incubated with erythrocytes was higher than that without erythrocytes. Also, H2O2 killing of S. pneumoniae was nearly completely ineffective in the presence of erythrocytes. These results indicate that even when S. pneumoniae organisms are partially killed by iron ion-induced free radicals, they can still invade erythrocytes. Furthermore, in the presence of erythrocytes, S. pneumoniae can more effectively evade antibiotics, neutrophil phagocytosis, and H2O2 killing. PMID:24194877

Yamaguchi, Masaya; Terao, Yutaka; Mori-Yamaguchi, Yuka; Domon, Hisanori; Sakaue, Yuuki; Yagi, Tetsuya; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nizet, Victor; Kawabata, Shigetada



Erythrocytes Induce Proinflammatory Endothelial Activation in Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Although exposure to ambient hypoxia is known to cause proinflammatory vascular responses, the mechanisms initiating these responses are not understood. We tested the hypothesis that in systemic hypoxia, erythrocyte-derived H2O2 induces proinflammatory gene transcription in vascular endothelium. We exposed mice or isolated, perfused murine lungs to 4 hours of hypoxia (8% O2). Leukocyte counts increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors, reactive oxygen species, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in freshly recovered lung endothelial cells (FLECs). These effects were inhibited by extracellular catalase and by the removal of erythrocytes, indicating that the responses were attributable to erythrocyte-derived H2O2. Concomitant nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-?B and hypoxia-inducible factor–1? stabilization in FLECs occurred only in the presence of erythrocytes. Hemoglobin binding to the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3, induced the release of H2O2 from erythrocytes and the p65 translocation in FLECs. These data indicate for the first time, to our knowledge, that erythrocytes are responsible for endothelial transcriptional responses in hypoxia. PMID:23043086

Huertas, Alice; Das, Shonit R.; Emin, Memet; Sun, Li; Rifkind, Joseph M.; Bhattacharya, Sunita



Osmotic fragility of erythrocytes of two breeds of domestic fowl in the warm humid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Erythrocyte (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were found to be higher in Nigerian domestic fowls than those in Hubbard fowls. PCV and Hb values were higher in males than in females in both breeds. Erythrocytes of the Nigerian fowl were observed to be more susceptible to osmotic haemolysis than were erythrocytes of the Hubbard

J. O. Oyewale; L. A. Durotoye



Genome-Wide Association Study of White Blood Cell Count in 16,388 African Americans: the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network (COGENT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived “null” variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been

Alexander P. Reiner; Guillaume Lettre; Michael A. Nalls; Santhi K. Ganesh; Rasika Mathias; Melissa A. Austin; Eric Dean; Sampath Arepalli; Angela Britton; Zhao Chen; David Couper; J. David Curb; Charles B. Eaton; Myriam Fornage; Struan F. A. Grant; Tamara B. Harris; Dena Hernandez; Naoyuki Kamatini; Brendan J. Keating; Michiaki Kubo; Andrea LaCroix; Leslie A. Lange; Simin Liu; Kurt Lohman; Yan Meng; Emile R. Mohler; Solomon Musani; Yusuke Nakamura; Christopher J. ODonnell; Yukinori Okada; Cameron D. Palmer; George J. Papanicolaou; Kushang V. Patel; Andrew B. Singleton; Atsushi Takahashi; Hua Tang; Herman A. Taylor; Kent Taylor; Cynthia Thomson; Lisa R. Yanek; Lingyao Yang; Elad Ziv; Alan B. Zonderman; Aaron R. Folsom; Michele K. Evans; Yongmei Liu; Diane M. Becker; Beverly M. Snively; James G. Wilson



Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.  


Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ? 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management. PMID:23928130

Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak



Chronic khat (Catha edulis) and alcohol marginally alter complete blood counts, clinical chemistry, and testosterone in male rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Khat (Catha edulis) is a recreational psychoactive drug with psychostimulant properties. While the use of this drug is widespread in eastern Africa, including the Horn of Africa, surveys and anecdotal data show that its use has become cosmopolitan, with users now living in Europe and North America as well. Recent data in Uganda suggest an increasing pattern of simultaneous khat and ethanol use particularly among young adults. However, the effects of this pattern of use remain largely unknown, even though long-term use of either drug alone is known to be harmful. The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of simultaneous chronic administration of khat and ethanol on hematological parameters, clinical chemistry, and testosterone in a rat model. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of six dose groups: 2 g/kg khat; 4 g/kg khat; 4 g/kg ethanol; combined khat and ethanol (4 g/kg each); control; and an untreated group. Treatments were given by gavage twice daily for 28 days, followed by determination of hematological parameters, blood clinical chemistry, and testosterone. Results Ethanol alone significantly reduced platelet counts compared to control-, untreated and low-dose khat-treated rats; conversely low-dose khat significantly increased both the hemoglobin and hematocrit values, while ethanol alone also significantly increased the hemoglobin value compared to controls. Simultaneous khat and ethanol administration per se did not produce more toxic consequences in chronic use than either drug alone. Conclusion Chronic short-term khat use and ethanol dependence individually produce note-worthy effects on the blood, but not on clinical chemistry or testosterone. Chronic short-term combined khat and ethanol use does not produce more toxic effects compared to use of either drug alone. This provides an opportunity for appropriate clinical interventions to avert the chronic long-term effects that result from use of these drugs of abuse. PMID:24348075

Alele, Paul E; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Imanirampa, Lawrence



Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks

Berit Johannessen; Torhild Haugen; Colin Stephen Scott



Elevated white blood cell count is associated with higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people.  


White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming



Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People  

PubMed Central

White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming




Microsoft Academic Search

Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for wild and captive mallards, Anas p. platyrhynchos, for the late spring period prior to remige moult through early fall migration. Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, as well as the number of heterophils and lymphocytes, declined significantly during and after remige moult compared to values recorded prior to remige



Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes.  


Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042

Finstad, Oystein Wessel; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa; Lindholm, Tone Hæg; Nyman, Ingvild Berg; Løvoll, Marie; Wallace, Christian; Olsen, Christel Moræus; Storset, Anne K; Rimstad, Espen



Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infects Atlantic salmon erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) belongs to the Reoviridae family and is the only known fish virus related to the Orthoreovirus genus. The virus is the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and high loads of PRV in the heart are consistent findings in HSMI. The mechanism by which PRV infection causes disease remains largely unknown. In this study we investigated the presence of PRV in blood and erythrocytes using an experimental cohabitation challenge model. We found that in the early phases of infection, the PRV loads in blood were significantly higher than in any other organ. Most virus was found in the erythrocyte fraction, and in individual fish more than 50% of erythrocytes were PRV-positive, as determined by flow cytometry. PRV was condensed into large cytoplasmic inclusions resembling viral factories, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. By electron microscopy we showed that these inclusions contained reovirus-like particles. The PRV particles and inclusions also had a striking resemblance to previously reported viral inclusions described as Erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). We conclude that the erythrocyte is a major target cell for PRV infection. These findings provide new information about HSMI pathogenesis, and show that PRV is an important factor of viral erythrocytic inclusions. PMID:24694042



Blood differential  


Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...


Effects of experimental acute myocardial infarction on blood cell counts and plasma biochemical values in a nude rat model (Crl:NIH-Fox1 RNU )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the clinical pathology parameters in nude rats (Crl:NIH-Fox1RNU) following experimental induction of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 50 male adult nude rats weighing 250–350 g were used.\\u000a Complete blood count, total and differential leukocyte counts, plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, urea, creatinine, total\\u000a bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were determined before (time\\u000a zero, T0), 1, and 5 days

Zuhair Bani Ismail; Mahmoud Abu Abeeleh; Khaled R. Alzaben; Sami A. Abu-Halaweh; Abdel Karim S. Aloweidi; Iyad A. Al-Ammouri; Mohamed K. Al-Essa; Samir K. Jabaiti; Moaath M. Alsmady; Ahmad Al-Majali



Malaria, erythrocytic infection, and anemia.  


Malaria is a major world health problem. It results from infection of parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the major human malarias, with P falciparum being the more virulent. During their blood stages of infection, both P falciparum and P vivax induce anemia. Severe malarial anemia caused by P falciparum is responsible for approximately a third of the deaths associated with disease. Malarial anemia appears to be multi-factorial. It involves increased removal of circulating erythrocytes as well as decreased production of erythrocytes in the bone marrow. The molecular mechanisms underlying malarial anemia are largely unknown. Over the last five years, malaria parasite ligands have been investigated for their remodeling of erythrocytes and possible roles in destruction of mature erythrocytes. Polymorphisms in cytokines have been associated with susceptibility to severe malarial anemia: these cytokines and malaria "toxins" likely function by perturbing erythropoiesis. Finally a number of co-infections increase susceptibility to malarial anemia, likely because they exacerbate inflammation caused by malaria. Because of the complexities involved, the study of severe malarial anemia may need a "systems approach" to yield comprehensive understanding of defects in both erythropoiesis and immunity associated with disease. New and emerging tools such as (i) mathematical modeling of the dynamics of host control of malarial infection, (ii) ex vivo perfusion of human spleen to measure both infected and uninfected erythrocyte retention, and (iii) in vitro development of erythroid progenitors to dissect responsiveness to cytokine imbalance or malaria toxins, may be especially useful to develop integrated mechanistic insights and therapies to control this major and fatal disease pathology. PMID:20008186

Haldar, Kasturi; Mohandas, Narla



Leukocyte flotation during gravity sedimentation of the whole blood.  


The original Westergren blood sedimentation technique was modified to assess leukocyte sedimentation properties. The relative change of leukocyte and erythrocyte counts was measured in the upper half section of blood column in vertically positioned sedimentation tubes in 10-minute-intervals for 60 minutes. During the first 20 minutes of gravity sedimentation, the leukocytes taken from critically ill patients showed upward flotation, however, healthy individuals' leukocytes demonstrated slight sedimentation. The upward flotation rate of leukocytes seemed less dependent on erythrocyte sedimentation during the first 15 minutes of sedimentation time than after it. Based on this observation, the sedimentation properties of leukocytes were characterized by the leukocyte antisedimentation rate taken at the 15th minute of sedimentation time (LAR15). Erythrocyte aggregability index, plasma fibrinogen concentration and native leukocyte count did not correlate to LAR15 in healthy volunteers (n = 25). However, LAR15 was correlated to leukocyte adherence (p < 0.01), to whole blood viscosity (p < 0.05), to hematocrit (p < 0.05) and to the conventional erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.05). PMID:10711819

Bogar, L; Tekeres, M



Erythrocyte osmotic resistance during acute hypothermia in awake unrestrained rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and plasma ionic composition were studied in rats subjected to acute hypothermia. A decrease in osmotic fragility and a significant increase in plasma magnesium and total phosphorus were observed in blood from hypothermic rats in relation to control. A decrease in erythrocyte osmotic fragility from hypothermic animals was observed when the test was performed at 37°C, whereas

V. I. Peinado; V. Alfaro; J. Palomeque; L. Palacios; G. Viscor





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...




... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...


A white blood cell count in the normal concentration range is independently related to cardiorespiratory fitness in apparently healthy Korean men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the documented health benefits of physical activity, the mechanism whereby physical activity prevents cardiovascular disease is incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) count and cardiorespiratory fitness (V?o2max) after adjusting for several well-known cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects who visited our health promotion center for a medical checkup and treadmill test (n

Dong-Jun Kim; Jung-Hyun Noh; Byung-Wan Lee; Yoon-Ho Choi; Jae-Hoon Jung; Yong-Ki Min; Myung-Shik Lee; Moon-Kyu Lee; Kwang-Won Kim



Decreased Erythrocyte Deformability After Transfusion and the Effects of Erythrocyte Storage Duration  

PubMed Central

Background Erythrocyte cell membranes undergo morphologic changes during storage, but it is unclear whether these changes are reversible. We assessed erythrocyte cell membrane deformability in patients before and after transfusion to determine the effects of storage duration and whether changes in deformability are reversible after transfusion. Methods Sixteen patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion surgery were studied. Erythrocyte deformability was compared between those who required moderate transfusion (?5 units erythrocytes) and those who received minimal transfusion (0–4 units erythrocytes). Deformability was measured in samples drawn directly from the blood storage bags before transfusion, and in samples drawn from patients before and after transfusion (over 3 postoperative days). In samples taken from the blood storage bags, we compared deformability of erythrocytes stored for a long duration (?21 days), those stored for a shorter duration (<21 days), and cell-salvaged erythrocytes. Deformability was assessed quantitatively using the elongation index (EI) measured by ektacytometry, a method which determines the ability for the cell to elongate when exposed to shear stress. Results Erythrocyte deformability was significantly decreased from the preoperative baseline in patients after moderate transfusion (EI decreased by 12±4 to 20±6 %) (P = 0.03) but not after minimal transfusion (EI decreased by 3±1 to 4±1 %) (P = 0.68). These changes did not reverse over 3 postoperative days. Deformability was significantly less in erythrocytes stored for ?21 days (EI = 0.28±0.02) than in those stored for <21 days (EI = 0.33±0.02) (P = 0.001) or those drawn from patients preoperatively (EI = 0.33±0.02) (P = 0.001). Cell-salvaged erythrocytes had intermediate deformability (EI = 0.30±0.03) that was greater than that of erythrocytes stored ?21 days (P = 0.047), but less than that of erythrocytes stored <21 days (P = 0.03). Conclusions The findings demonstrate that increased duration of erythrocyte storage is associated with decreased cell membrane deformability and that these changes are not readily reversible after transfusion. PMID:23449853

Frank, Steven M.; Abazyan, Bagrat; Ono, Masahiro; Hogue, Charles W.; Cohen, David B.; Berkowitz, Daniel E.; Ness, Paul M.; Barodka, Viachaslau M.



Variations on Fibrinogen-Erythrocyte Interactions during Cell Aging  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte hyperaggregation, a cardiovascular risk factor, is considered to be caused by an increase in plasma adhesion proteins, particularly fibrinogen. We have recently reported a specific binding between fibrinogen and an erythrocyte integrin receptor with a ?3 or ?3-like subunit. In this study we evaluate the influence of erythrocyte aging on the fibrinogen binding. By atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy measurements we found that increasing erythrocyte age, there is a decrease of the binding to fibrinogen by decreasing the frequency of its occurrence but not its force. This observation is reinforced by zeta-potential and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. We conclude that upon erythrocyte aging the number of fibrinogen molecules bound to each cell decreases significantly, due to the progressive impairment of the specific fibrinogen-erythrocyte receptor interaction. Knowing that younger erythrocytes bind more to fibrinogen, we could presume that this population is the main contributor to the cardiovascular diseases associated with increased fibrinogen content in blood, which could disturb the blood flow. Our data also show that the sialic acids exposed on the erythrocyte membrane contribute for the interaction with fibrinogen, possibly by facilitating its binding to the erythrocyte membrane receptor. PMID:21464904

Carvalho, Filomena A.; de Oliveira, Sofia; Freitas, Teresa; Goncalves, Sonia; Santos, Nuno C.



Antigenotoxic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and rutin on chromium trioxide-induced micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse peripheral blood.  


This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and rutin on the genotoxic damage induced by Cr(VI) in polychromatic erythrocytes of CD-1 mice. The animals were divided into the following groups: (i) vehicle only; (ii) flavonoids (10 mg/kg EGCG, 100 mg/kg quercetin, 625 mg/kg rutin, or 100-625 mg/kg quercetin-rutin); (iii) Cr(VI) (20 mg/kg of CrO3); and (iv) flavonoids concomitantly with Cr(VI). All of the treatments were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The genotoxic damage was evaluated based on the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) obtained from the caudal vein 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Groups treated with EGCG and quercetin exhibited no significant statistical changes in induction of MN-PCE. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCE induction 24 and 48 h after injection. Treatment with flavonoids prior to CrO3 exposure decreased MN-PCE induction compared with CrO3 only. The magnitudes of the potency of flavonoids were in the following order: rutin (82%) > quercetin (64%) > quercetin-rutin (59%) and EGCG (44%). The group treated with rutin significantly reduced genotoxic damage in mice treated with Cr(VI) (antioxidant effect). However rutin exerted a marginal genotoxic effect when administered alone (pro-oxidant effect). Our findings suggest protective effects of EGCG, quercetin, and rutin against genotoxic damage induced by Cr(VI). PMID:24593145

García-Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Nicolás-Méndez, Tonancy; Montaño-Rodríguez, Ana Rosa; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario Agustín



Comparison of platelet clumping and complete blood count results with Sysmex XT-2000iV in feline blood sampled on EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD (citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole).  


False thrombocytopenia may result from platelet aggregation, especially in feline ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) blood specimens. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) was added to 46 feline EDTA specimens to test its anti-aggregation action. Platelet aggregation was estimated from blood films and a complete blood count was performed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser. Platelet aggregation score was >2 in 11/46 EDTA tubes and only in one EDTA+CTAD specimen. The platelet count was higher in all CTAD-supplemented tubes except one, medians measured by cytometry being 225.5 × 10(9)/l and 249.0 × 10(9)/l in EDTA and EDTA+CTAD, respectively (P = 0.007). Adding CTAD had statistically and analytically significant but moderate effects on other blood variables, the most intense variations being observed for reticulocytes (about 3% higher in EDTA specimens) and reticulocyte indexes. Addition of CTAD to EDTA when sampling feline blood is a useful option to reduce platelet clumping. PMID:22079363

Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine



Total and Differential White Blood Cell Counts Predict Eight-Year Incident Stoke in Elderly Japanese-American Men: The Honolulu Heart Program  

PubMed Central

Background: Previous studies have found that a higher white blood cell (WBC) count is associated with incident stroke. There have been few studies examining differential WBC counts in elderly or Asian populations. We studied the association between total and differential WBC counts and incident stroke in an older Asian population. Methods: The Honolulu Heart Program is a prospective population-based study of cardiovascular diseases in Japanese-American men that started in 1965. At exam 4 (1991–93), 3,741 men ages 71–93 years participated, and total and differential WBC counts were measured in 3,569 men using a Coulter counter machine. Data on incident stroke (all strokes [ALL-CVA], thromboembolic [TE-CVA] and hemorrhagic [HEM-CVA]) were available through December 1999 (8 years follow-up) from a comprehensive hospital surveillance system. After excluding 227 subjects with prevalent stroke, 3,342 subjects were divided into quartiles of total WBC, neutrophil (segmented and band), granulocyte (neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil), lymphocyte, and monocyte counts for separate analyses. Results: Age-adjusted incident ALL-CVA rates increased significantly with total WBC quartiles (7.68, 9.04, 9.26, 14.1, per 1,000 person years follow-up, respectively, P = .0014). Relative risks for ALL-CVA for each quartile of total and differential WBC counts were obtained using Cox proportional hazards, using the lowest quartile as the reference group. After full adjustment including age, cardiovascular risk factors, fibrinogen, prevalent CHD, cancer or COPD, and aspirin/NSAID use, the relative risks in the highest quartiles of total WBC, neutrophil, and granulocyte counts were 1.63 (95%CI = 1.05–2.54, P = .03), 2.19 (95%CI = 1.41–3.39, P < .001) and 1.91 (95%CI = 1.25–2.92, P = .003), respectively. These significant associations were also seen for TE-CVA, but not for HEM-CVA. No significant associations were found between lymphocyte or monocyte counts and incident stroke or subtypes. Conclusions: In elderly Japanese-American men, higher total WBC, neutrophil, and granulocyte counts were independent predictors of overall stroke, as well as thromboembolic stroke. Further studies are needed to establish cut-points and treatment options.

Ross, G Webster; Chen, Randi; Bell, Christina; Willcox, Bradley; Abbott, Robert; Launer, Lenore; Kaya, Brock; Masaki, Kamal



Coincidence detection of heterogeneous cell populations from whole blood with coplanar electrodes in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.  


Particle counting finds many industrial applications especially in medical healthcare. In particular, cell counting from whole blood is used pervasively for disease diagnostics. Microfluidic impedance cytometry is fast, requires a small volume of blood, can be used at point of care and can perform absolute enumeration of different cell types in the sample. Coincidence detection is very essential for accurate counting results and becomes more significant while counting specific target cells, e.g. CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell count in HIV/AIDS patient blood samples. In heterogeneous samples, e.g. blood, cell differentiation for all coincidence occurrences is essential in addition to the coincidence detection for accurate cell enumeration. In this paper, we have characterized the coincidence detection with cell differentiation using a microfluidic impedance biochip. The pure population of leukocytes is obtained after all erythrocytes are lysed on-chip from whole blood. Leukocytes were counted electrically as they pass over coplanar microfabricated electrodes bonded to the 15 ?m × 15 ?m cross section counting channel while generating a bipolar pulse for each cell passage. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the electrical cell pulse and its coincidences. We show that coincidence detection can be characterized into three main types based on the range of time delay at which the coincidence occurs. We have also characterized cell differentiation for all the three coincidence types and show that multiple coincidences of different types can also occur. We used healthy and HIV-infected patient blood samples and used our coincidence detection technique to count CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and show the improvement in accuracy of cell counts compared to that without coincidence detection. We have also shown the improvement in the erythrocyte counting with coincidence detection in diluted whole blood samples. PMID:25231594

Hassan, U; Bashir, R



Zinc concentration in erythrocyte membranes in normal volunteers and in patients with taste and smell dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte membrane zinc concentration was measured in 14 normal volunteers and in 36 patients with taste and smell dysfunction,\\u000a and compared with zinc concentration in erythrocyte cytosol and blood plasma in the normal volunteers and with zinc concentration\\u000a in erythrocyte cytosol, blood serum, urine, and parotid saliva in the patients. A A significant negative correlation was found\\u000a between age and

P. L. McWilliams; R. P. Agarwal; R. I. Henkin



Isolation of high-molecular-weight DNA from small samples of blood having nucleated erythrocytes, collected, transported, and stored at room temperature.  


Blood samples collected in the field for isolating DNA suitable for molecular analysis need special care in their storage and handling. In this article, we describe a simple method for the isolation of good-quality high-molecular-weight DNA that does not require low temperature conditions during collection, storage, and/or transportation of blood samples. This method involves smearing small aliquots of blood onto clean slides and air drying them at room temperature. The slides with blood smears can then be transported or stored at room temperature and still serve as a very good source of high-molecular-weight DNA. Genomic DNA from these samples can be extracted by organic phase separation (phenol-chloroform extraction) after lysis. The DNA thus obtained is of high quality and yields DNA fingerprints qualitatively similar to those prepared from corresponding control DNA isolated from frozen blood samples. Needing minimal facilities at field sites, the method is very convenient for conducting RFLP analysis of wild/field populations for demographic, behavioral, and ecologic studies. PMID:1356382

Aggarwal, R K; Lang, J W; Singh, L



Storage-Induced Changes in Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins Promote Recognition by Autoantibodies  

PubMed Central

Physiological erythrocyte removal is associated with a selective increase in expression of neoantigens on erythrocytes and their vesicles, and subsequent autologous antibody binding and phagocytosis. Chronic erythrocyte transfusion often leads to immunization and the formation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies. We investigated whether erythrocyte storage leads to the increased expression of non-physiological antigens. Immunoprecipitations were performed with erythrocytes and vesicles from blood bank erythrocyte concentrates of increasing storage periods, using patient plasma containing erythrocyte autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitate composition was identified using proteomics. Patient plasma antibody binding increased with erythrocyte storage time, while the opposite was observed for healthy volunteer plasma, showing that pathology-associated antigenicity changes during erythrocyte storage. Several membrane proteins were identified as candidate antigens. The protein complexes that were precipitated by the patient antibodies in erythrocytes were different from the ones in the vesicles formed during erythrocyte storage, indicating that the storage-associated vesicles have a different immunization potential. Soluble immune mediators including complement factors were present in the patient plasma immunoprecipitates, but not in the allogeneic control immunoprecipitates. The results support the theory that disturbed erythrocyte aging during storage of erythrocyte concentrates contributes to transfusion-induced alloantibody and autoantibody formation. PMID:22879923

Dinkla, Sip; Novotny, Vera M. J.; Joosten, Irma; Bosman, Giel J. C. G. M.



Cutaneous presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia as unique extramedullar involvement in a patient with normal peripheral blood lymphocyte count (monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis).  


Skin infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is very rare and almost all reported cases occur in advanced stage. We report a patient with no relevant past medical history who presented with cutaneous erythematous plaques. A punch biopsy showed typical CLL morphologic and immunophenotypic features. Subsequent studies revealed a normal lymphocyte count in peripheral blood, and there was no evidence of lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Flow cytometry demonstrated a clonal B-cell population both in the bone marrow and peripheral blood (1.60 × 10(9)/l) with a CLL phenotype, but it did not fulfill required criteria for CLL diagnosis. Without cutaneous involvement, this case should be classified as monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis. PMID:23639136

Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José-Luis; Fuente, María-José; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández-Figueras, Maria-Teresa; Juncà, Jordi; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Ariza, Aurelio



Dynamics of Hemoglobin in Human Erythrocytes and in Solution: Influence of Viscosity Studied by Ultrafast  

E-print Network

-independent dynamics. Although the HbCO dynamics are the same in the red blood cell and in the equivalent aqueousDynamics of Hemoglobin in Human Erythrocytes and in Solution: Influence of Viscosity StudiedCO) inside living human erythrocytes (red blood cells), in liquid solutions, and in a glassy matrix. A method

Fayer, Michael D.


Effects of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean on blood glucose and lipid concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We divided patients into two groups and fed them, respectively, a basal diet (control group) and a basal diet with 69 g/d of soybean (soybean group) for 4 weeks. Pills with roasted soybean powder were provided to the soybean supplementation group three times a day. Macronutrients intake except dietary fiber was similar between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in dietary intakes or body weight before and after the supplementation. Energy composition ratio of C:F:P was 65:19:16 in the control group, 64:20:16 in the soybean group. The blood parameters of subjects before supplementation, such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HbA(1)C were not different between the two groups. After supplementation, fasting blood glucose (p<0.001), postprandial glucose level (p<0.001) and serum triglyceride level (p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the soybean group in comparison with the control group. The total cholesterol level was not significantly different between the control and the supplemented group after 4 weeks of treatment. TBARS levels of the soybean group were not significantly different from those of the control group. The activities of catalase (p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05) were significantly higher in the soybean group compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that soybean supplementation would be helpful to control blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic patients. Also, soybean showed an antioxidant activity that may contribute to enhance the effect of antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to protection against oxidative damage in type 2 DM patients. Soybean may have potential use in the disease management of patients with DM. PMID:20126600

Chang, Ji Ho; Kim, Min Sun; Kim, Tae Wha; Lee, Sang Sun



[The changes in complete blood count in patients treated with sunitinib malate for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma].  


Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancies. For stage I - III RCC surgery is the primary treatment. Systemic therapy is used in the patients with disseminated disease (stage IV). Sunitinib malate is commonly used in the patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) rated as 'low' or 'intermediate' risk according to the Motzer scale. Treatment with sunitinib malate is associated with myelotoxicity. To assess its clinical significance we conducted a pilot study in a group of 10 patients. We noticed a gradual decrease in the mean haemoglobin level during subsequent treatment cycles. Alternations in the platelet count were of no clinical significance. Episodes of the neutropenia were noticed in the study group. In some patients neutrophil count decreased to the level that put them at risk of the infectious complications. PMID:24455830

Kucharz, Jakub; Micha?owska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna; Streb, Joanna; Kuzniewski, Marek; Herman, Roman M; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof



Effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic signals.  


A theoretical model examining the effects of erythrocyte oxygenation on optoacoustic (OA) signals is presented. Each erythrocyte is considered as a fluid sphere and its optical absorption is defined by its oxygen saturation state. The OA field generated by a cell is computed by solving the wave equation in the frequency domain with appropriate boundary conditions. The resultant field from many cells is simulated by summing the pressure waves emitted by individual cells. A Monte Carlo algorithm generates 2-D spatially random distributions of oxygenated and deoxygenated erythrocytes. Oxygen saturation levels of oxygenated cells a assumed to be 100% and 0% for deoxygenated cells. The OA signal amplitude decreases monotonically for the 700-nm laser source and increases monotonically for 1000 nm optical radiation when blood oxygen saturation varies from 0 to 100%. An approximately sixfold decrease and fivefold increase of the OA signal amplitude were computed at those wavelengths, respectively. The OA spectral power in the low-frequency range (<10 MHz) and in the very high-frequency range (>100 MHz) decreases for 700 nm and increases for 1000 nm with increasing blood oxygen saturation. This model provides a theoretical framework to study the erythrocyte oxygenation-dependent OA signals. PMID:22112105

Saha, Ratan K; Kolios, Michael C



An autologous falciparum vaccine using the erythrocyte's band 3 molecule.  


Protection against the serious complications of falciparum malaria is provided to people with the minor forms of hematological conditions such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia and as a result natural selection has increased their incidence in malaria endemic areas. The explanation for this has thus far not been determined but experimental evidence that is now available suggest an explanation that also has therapeutic implications. The hypothesis presented suggests that the erythrocytes of these blood disorders experience premature senescence and are then eliminated by the same process that normally disposes of senescent erythrocytes. Erythrocytes express approximately one million widely dispersed band 3 molecules on their surface but when these erythrocytes age they form band 3 clusters that are recognized by the immune system which results in their elimination. In addition to senescent erythrocytes, both sickle and falciparum infected erythrocytes also display these clusters suggesting that band 3 antibodies contribute to their erythrocytes removal. Supporting band 3's involvement in falciparum erythrocyte elimination are the facts that band 3 specific antibodies are elevated in falciparum endemic areas and the documentation that the falciparum erythrocytes displaying these clusters are rapidly phagocytized. Both sickle and falciparum infected erythrocytes adhere to endothelium and band 3 antibodies and adhesive band 3 peptides block this adhesion. This proves that the band 3 molecule is responsible for at least some of the endothelial adhesion and implies that band 3 antibodies are active in eliminating falciparum infected erythrocytes. It is proposed that the band 3 peptides could be used to develop a vaccine to reduce the lethality of falciparum infections. A conjugate vaccine using these peptides in early infancy may allow those infants to survive a falciparum infection and develop comprehensive natural immunity to the local endemic parasite. PMID:19926227

Kennedy, James Randall



Ribavirin induced anaemia: the effect of vitamin D supplementation on erythropoietin and erythrocyte indices in normal Wistar rat  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To measure the effect of vitamin D3 (VitD) supplementation on erythrocyte indices, serum and kidney erythropoietin (EPO) in normal rats treated with Pegylated interferon-? (Peg-INF-?) and ribavirin (RBV). Materials and methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided equally into 8 groups. ‘Control’; ‘P’: only received Peg-INF-?; ‘PD’: Peg-INF-?/VitD; ‘PR’: Peg-INF-?/RBV; ‘PRD’: Peg-INF-?/RBV/VitD; ‘R’: only received RBV; ‘RD’: RBV/VitD and ‘VitD’: only received vitamin D3. Peg-INF-?-2a was injected subcutaneously (6 µg/rat/week) for 4 weeks. RBV (4 mg/rat/day) and VitD (500 IU/rat/day) were given orally for 5 weeks. Blood samples were collected to measure erythrocyte indices and serum 25(OH) vitamin D. EPO was measured in serum samples and kidney specimens by ELISA. Results: Peg-INF-? alone did not affect the RBCs count, haemoglobin, serum and kidney EPO compared to control (P > 0.05). RBV significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin and EPO levels in kidney and serum, either individually (R group) or combined with Peg-INF-? (PR group), compared to ‘Control’ and ‘P’ groups. VitD prevented the development of anaemia and significantly increased the concentrations of EPO at serum and kidney levels in the ‘RD’ and ‘PRD’ groups compared to ‘R’ and ‘PR’ groups. There was a significant positive correlation between blood levels of VitD with serum and kidney EPO, Red cell count and haemoglobin concentrations. Conclusion: VitD could have a potential beneficial role in the prevention of ribavirin-induced anaemia by promoting endogenous EPO. Further studies are needed to explore the role of vitamin D in the prevention of ribavirin associated anaemia.

Refaat, Bassem; Ashour, Tariq Helal; El-Shemi, Adel Galal



Identification of mutagens by frequency analysis of micronuclear normochromic erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the frequency of polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in mammalian bone marrow is a rapid and simple test used at the stage of detection of potential mutagens and carcinogens. Reports have recently been published that normochromic erythrocytes with micronuclei may accumulate in the peripheral blood of mice exposed repeatedly to chemical mutagens. The authors of these reports recommend that this modified micronuclear test be used for the intravital detection of mutagens. To assess the potential of this method for investigating the effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic pollutants occurring in drinking water, the authors of this paper compared the frequency of mature normochromic erythrocytes and young polychromatophilic erythrocytes with micronuclei in the peripheral blood as well as the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow cells of mice who were given cyclophosphamide, a model mutagen, with their drinking water.

Zhurkov, V.S.; Rossner, P.; Pastorkova, A.; Feldt, E.G.



New insights into the role of erythrocytes in thrombus formation.  


The role of erythrocytes in thrombus formation has previously been regarded as passive by their influence on rheology. Erythrocytes are known, due to their abundance and size, to push platelets to the vascular wall (laminar shearing). This results in an increased platelet delivery at the vascular wall enabling platelets to seal off a vascular damage preventing excessive blood loss. Recently, there is new evidence for erythrocytes to influence thrombus formation in multiple ways besides their effect on rheology. Several groups have shown that besides platelets, erythrocytes are the main suppliers of phosphatidylserine-exposing membranes needed for coagulation resulting in fibrin formation. In addition, our group has found that the intercellular adhesion molecule 4-?IIb?3 interaction mediates erythrocyte-platelet interaction in flowing blood. By inhibiting this interaction, we found decreased thrombin formation and decreased incorporation of erythrocytes into a thrombus. This review will provide more in-detail information of existing and new hypotheses regarding the role of erythrocytes in thrombus formation. PMID:24356930

Du, Vivian X; Huskens, Dana; Maas, Coen; Al Dieri, Raed; de Groot, Philip G; de Laat, Bas



Erythrocyte membrane ATPase and calcium pumping activities in porcine malignant hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

To investigate possible abnormalities in erythrocyte membrane enzyme activities in the pharmacogenetic disorder MH, membrane ATPase activities have been examined in erythrocyte ghosts prepared from red blood cells of MHS and normal swine. While no differences were noted in Mg2+-ATPase activities, the (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity of MHS erythrocyte ghosts was less than that of normal ghosts. Ca2+-ATPase activity exhibited low- and high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites in both types of erythrocyte ghost. While the Km for Ca2+ was greater for normal than for MHS erythrocyte ghosts at the high-affinity Ca2+-binding site, the reverse was true at the low-affinity Ca2+-binding site. Irrespective of the type of calcium binding site occupied, the Vmax for normal erythrocyte ghost Ca2+-ATPase activity was greater than that for MHS ghosts. In the presence of calmodulin, there was now no difference between MHS and normal erythrocyte ghosts in either the Km for Ca2+ or the Vmax of the Ca2+-ATPase activity. To determine if the calcium pumping activity of intact MHS and normal pig erythrocytes differed, calcium efflux from the /sup 45/Ca-loaded erythrocytes was determined; this activity was significantly greater for MHS than for normal erythrocytes. Thus, the present study confirms that there are abnormalities in the membranes of MHS pig red blood cells. However, we conclude that these abnormalities are unlikely to result in an impaired ability of MHS erythrocytes to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration.

Thatte, H.S.; Mickelson, J.R.; Addis, P.B.; Louis, C.F.



Aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease depending on different glucose concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease comparing to practically healthy persons and patients with coronary heart disease combined with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus depending on different glucose concentration in unguentums of blood incubates with the help of computer microphotometer - visual analyzer was studied. Two-phase behavior of erythrocytes size changing of practically healthy persons depending on glucose concentration in an incubation medium and instability erythrocyte systems of a whole blood to the influence of high glucose concentration were revealed. Influence of high glucose concentration on aggregation ability of erythrocytes of patients with coronary heart disease and its combination with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus was revealed.

Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.



Peripheral Erythrocytes Decrease upon Specific Respiratory Challenge with Grass Pollen Allergen in Sensitized Mice and in Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). Methods and Results BALB/c mice (n?=?20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n?=?10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n?=?10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n?=?42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Conclusion Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate for hypoxia is a possible explanation for these findings. PMID:24466205

Schmutz, Rene; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlbock, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, Rene; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika



Crazy Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's count shapes and animals! Let's go to the farm to do some Apple Counting. Then let's have some Counting Fun with shapes and animals. Afterward let's grab a fishing pole and do some Fishy Counting! ...

Terch, Ms.



RBC Barcoding Allows for the Study of Erythrocyte Population Dynamics and P. falciparum Merozoite Invasion  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum invasion of host erythrocytes is essential for the propagation of the blood stage of malaria infection. Additionally, the brief extracellular merozoite stage of P. falciparum represents one of the rare windows during which the parasite is directly exposed to the host immune response. Therefore, efficient invasion of the host erythrocyte is necessary not only for productive host erythrocyte infection, but also for evasion of the immune response. Host traits, such as hemoglobinopathies and differential expression of erythrocyte invasion ligands, can protect individuals from malaria by impeding parasite erythrocyte invasion. Here we combine RBC barcoding with flow cytometry to study P. falciparum invasion. This novel high-throughput method allows for the (i) direct comparison of P. falciparum invasion into different erythrocyte populations and (ii) assessment of the impact of changing erythrocyte population dynamics on P. falciparum invasion. PMID:24984000

Clark, Martha A.; Goheen, Morgan M.; Spidale, Nicholas A.; Kasthuri, Raj S.; Fulford, Anthony; Cerami, Carla



RBC barcoding allows for the study of erythrocyte population dynamics and P. falciparum merozoite invasion.  


Plasmodium falciparum invasion of host erythrocytes is essential for the propagation of the blood stage of malaria infection. Additionally, the brief extracellular merozoite stage of P. falciparum represents one of the rare windows during which the parasite is directly exposed to the host immune response. Therefore, efficient invasion of the host erythrocyte is necessary not only for productive host erythrocyte infection, but also for evasion of the immune response. Host traits, such as hemoglobinopathies and differential expression of erythrocyte invasion ligands, can protect individuals from malaria by impeding parasite erythrocyte invasion. Here we combine RBC barcoding with flow cytometry to study P. falciparum invasion. This novel high-throughput method allows for the (i) direct comparison of P. falciparum invasion into different erythrocyte populations and (ii) assessment of the impact of changing erythrocyte population dynamics on P. falciparum invasion. PMID:24984000

Clark, Martha A; Goheen, Morgan M; Spidale, Nicholas A; Kasthuri, Raj S; Fulford, Anthony; Cerami, Carla



Micronucleated Erythrocytes as an Index of Cytogenetic Damage in Humans: Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Splenectomized Subjects1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocytes containing micronuclei serve as an indicator of genotoxic exposure in splenectomized individuals. Micronucleated erythrocytes, derived from cytogenetically damaged RBC precursors, are not selectively removed from peripheral blood in individuals who lack splenic function. The relationship between micronucleated cell frequencies and demo graphic, environmental, and dietary factors was examined in 44 subjects with previous splenectomy due to trauma. Their micronucleated

Daniel F. Smith; James T. MacGregor; Robert A. Hiatt; N. Kim Hooper; Carol M. Wehr; Beverly Peters; Lynn R. Goldman; Leslie A. Yuan; Philip A. Smith; Charles E. Becker


Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia



Erythrocyte maturation in neonatal dwarf and landrace kids.  


The morphology of the erythrocyte cell series was investigated in external jugular vein blood samples from Dwarf and Danish Landrace goats aged from one day to 12 months. Three erythrocytic cell types were observed in neonates after supravital staining with new methylene blue. The first type were macrocytes which were stained uniformly dark to muddy blue. They formed the majority of the erythrocytic cells at birth and were categorized as diffusely basophilic chromatophilic erythrocytes. The second type were punctate and aggregated reticulocytes, and the third type were mature erythrocytes. The size ranges of the three erythrocytic cells were 4.2-5.6, 4.9-6.3 and 2.8-3.5 microns diameter respectively in the Dwarf kids and 5.6-9.7, 4.2-9.0 and 3.8-4.2 microns respectively in the Landrace kids during the first week of life. Romanowsky-stained blood smears from neonatal kids were characterized by anisocytosis and poikilocytosis in which polychromatophilic macrocytes were numerous, but reticulocytes were not clearly identifiable. The ranges of erythrocyte diameters in Romanowsky-stained neonatal blood films were 4.4-5.8 (5.2 +/- 0.39) and 4.1-6.7 (5.1 +/- 0.67) microns in Dwarf and Landrace kids respectively, decreasing to 3.0 +/- 0.15 and 3.3 +/- 0.13 microns in the two broods respectively by 12 months of age. The numbers of diffusely basophilic polychromatophilic erythrocytes and punctate/aggregated reticulocytes diminished with age and they were not observed in 1-2-month-old kids. PMID:1715622

Mbassa, G K; Poulsen, J S



Sequential changes in bronchoalveolar cytology after autologous blood inoculation.  


Six horses, free of recent exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), each had 8 bronchial segments inoculated with 40 ml of autologous blood lavaged on Days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 after inoculation. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analysed, and total leucocyte counts and differential cell percentages determined. Statistical analysis of the differences between the 8 post inoculation and 1 pre-inoculation (control) lavage sites demonstrated an early neutrophilic response, rising from < 5% of alveolar leucocytes to 10% by 24-48 h post inoculation. As this response waned, macrophage numbers increased and persisted at mildly elevated levels for the remainder of the experiment. Small numbers of erythrophagocytes were observed prior to 3 days post inoculation, but their numbers increased 10-fold by Day 10. In the first 3 days, blood was observed endoscopically streaming from inoculated lung regions, suggesting that mucociliary clearance is a major mechanism of early erythrocyte clearance. However, both free and phagocytosed whole erythrocytes were recovered in lavages 14 days after inoculation with small numbers of erythrocytes still present at 21 days. We conclude that intrapulmonary blood provokes a mild, but prolonged inflammatory reaction and that the removal of alveolar haemorrhage is dependent on a combination of mucociliary clearance and phagocytic mechanisms. Erythrophagocytosis is slow to commence and the removal of blood prolonged, suggesting that horses in fast work, sufficient to induce EIPH, are unlikely to recover fully if intervals between strenuous work are less than 14 days. PMID:10659236

McKane, S A; Slocombe, R F



Erythrocyte hemodynamics in stenotic microvessels: A numerical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a two-dimensional numerical investigation of deformation and motion of erythrocytes in stenotic microvessels using the immersed boundary-fictitious domain method. The erythrocytes were modeled as biconcave-shaped closed membranes filled with cytoplasm. We studied the biophysical characteristics of human erythrocytes traversing constricted microchannels with the narrowest cross-sectional diameter as small as 3 ?m. The effects of essential parameters, namely, stenosis severity, shape of the erythrocytes, and erythrocyte membrane stiffness, were simulated and analyzed in this study. Moreover, simulations were performed to discuss conditions associated with the shape transitions of the cells along with the relative effects of radial position and initial orientation of erythrocytes, membrane stiffness, and plasma environments. The simulation results were compared with existing experiment findings whenever possible, and the physical insights obtained were discussed. The proposed model successfully simulated rheological behaviors of erythrocytes in microscale flow and thus is applicable to a large class of problems involving fluid flow with complex geometry and fluid-cell interactions. Our study would be helpful for further understanding of pathology of malaria and some other blood disorders.

Wang, T.; Xing, Z. W.



Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exercise for students will allow them to simultaneously observe lipid peroxidation and consequent hemolysis of rat erythrocytes and the effect of sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, on these processes. It will also demonstrate a protective action of antioxidants, the therapeutically used N-acetylcysteine and albumins present in plasma.

Wlodek, Lidia; Kusior, Dorota



[The influence of melatonin and epithalon on blood leukocyte count and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in rats under different lighting conditions during ontogenesis].  


The effect of pineal body hormone melatonin and synthetic tetrapeptide epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) under different light conditions on leucocytes differential count in rats were investigated. It has been established that melatonin and epithalon decrease the level of blood leucocytes and relative content of band neutrophils in 12 months rats which was higher in the constant light more than in other photoperiod. The melatonin prevents age-specific decreasing blood lymphocytes level in standard photoperiod (12 h light/12 h darkness). Contrary to melatonin, epithalon significantly reduces the number of lymphocytes and increases the number of neutrophils in some age period. The leucocytes alkaline phosphatase activity was increased during aging. Constant light in compare with other light conditions promotes early increasing of alkaline phosphatase activity (at 12 months), associated with accelerated development of pathological process in organism. The melatonin and epithalon adjacency effect on increasing of alkaline phosphatase activity under the standard as well as natural light condition demonstrate homeostatic character of geroprotectors action furthermore depend on leucocytes functional status. PMID:19432172

Uzenbaeva, L B; Vinogradova, I A; Golubeva, A G; Niuppieva, M G; Iliukha, V A



Stimulation of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by methyldopa.  


Methyldopa is used for treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Side effects of methyldopa include anemia, which could result from decreased formation or accelerated death of circulating erythrocytes. Several drugs cause anemia by triggering of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling, the latter leading to phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of erythrocyte membrane scrambling include increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and ceramide. Phosphatidylserine-exposing cells are rapidly cleared from circulating blood. The present study explored whether eryptosis could be triggered by methyldopa. Erythrocytes from healthy volunteers were exposed to methyldopa, and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin A5 binding), cell volume (forward scatter), [Ca(2+)](i) (Fluo3-dependent fluorescence), and ceramide formation (anti-ceramide-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody) were determined by flow cytometry. Methyldopa (6 microg/ml) did not increase [Ca(2+)](i) but led to stimulation of ceramide formation resulting in significant phosphatidylserine exposure and, at higher concentrations, to cell shrinkage. Methyldopa further decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio, pointing to oxidative stress. The scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly blunted methyldopa-induced eryptosis. Clearance of erythrocytes from circulating blood was significantly accelerated by treatment with methyldopa. The present observations disclose a novel action of methyldopa, which may well contribute to drug-induced anemia. PMID:18772603

Mahmud, Hasan; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian



[The dynamics of the ectoparasite count and the protein level in the blood serum of infested carp under experimental conditions].  


Carps of one and two years age used for laboratory experiments were collected in winter time. 7 groups of carps of one year age were examined each 10th day during 70 days and 5 groups of two years age were examined each 15 days during 75 days. In carps of one year age the increase of different parasites was observed in different time: Dactylogyrus extensus--after 40 and 70 days, Icthyophthirius multifiliis--after 50 days, Trichodina sp.--after 60 days. In carps of two years age the increase of all parasite groups observed after 45 days, extremely great number of D. extensus was recorded after 60-70 days. Contents of proteins in a blood plasma of both age groups of carps is reliably decreased when the number of parasites is increased. Fluctuations of parasite abundance on the body and gills and some morphophysiological indices in carps of one year age in a control and in conditions of starvation were examined. PMID:10206854

Kurovskaia, L Ia



Flavin adenine dinucleotide concentration in erythrocytes with normal and deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The concentration of flavin adenine dinuclcotide (FAD) in G6PD deficient erythrocytes was approximately 1 1\\/2 times higher than in normal red blood cells. Probably, there is a causal relationship between the elevation of FAD and the increased activity of glutathione reductase in G6PD deficient erythrocytes.

G. Flatz; F. Simmersbach



A new approach for measuring the erythrocyte life span with a nonradioisotope.  


The possibility of substituting a nonradioactive isotope of chromium for 51Cr was studied. Blood, from five dogs with varying erythrocyte life spans, was labeled with 50Cr and 51Cr and transfused autologously. Erythrocyte-bound 50Cr was determined by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry and 51Cr by measuring radioactivity. Erythrocyte life span determination derived from the two isotopes did not differ significantly. Our results suggest that 50Cr can provide a nonradioactive alternative to 51Cr for labeling erythrocytes for life span studies. PMID:2758685

Dever, M; Smith, J E; Hausler, D W



[The noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes, leukocytes and erythrocytes].  


The article considers the noninvasive technique of analysis of aggregation activity of thrombocytes and formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic-thrombocytic aggregates and some particular indicators of hemostasis system. The speckle-analysis of characteristics of coherent light dispersion from surface of erythrocytes moving in artificially isolated vessel section. The study established high correlation ratio between light dispersion index and spontaneous ADP-, adrenalin- and collagen-induced aggregation of thrombocytes, formation of leukocytic-erythrocytic and thrombocytic-erythrocytic aggregations. The established facts permits to consider that analysis noninvasive technique makes it possible to estimate approximately the aggregation activity of blood corpuscles. PMID:23984549

Kuznik, B I; Fa?n, I A; Kaminski?, A V; Maksimova, O G; Kustovskaia, E M; Bogdanova, Iu V; Zhdanovich, N G; Rodnina, O S; Khasanova, N V



Insect erythrocyte agglutinins. In vitro opsonization experiments with Clitumnus extradentatus and Periplaneta americana haemocytes.  

PubMed Central

The effect of naturally occurring haemagglutinins on the in vitro phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes by the blood cells (haemocytes) of Clitumnus extradentatus and Periplaneta americana was studied. The results showed that the haemagglutinins in both species failed to act as opsonins. Indeed, in some instances, incubation of erythrocytes in haemolymph resulted in less avid ingestion as compared with the saline-incubated controls. This reduced phagocytosis was probably caused by the clumping of erythrocytes on the haemocyte monolayers, leaving fewer single red cells available for uptake. The possible roles of these erythrocyte agglutinins in the host defence systems of insects are discussed. Images Figures 1-3 Figures 6-7 PMID:7000682

Rowley, A F; Ratcliffe, N A



Diagnostic Usefulness of White Blood Cell and Absolute Neutrophil Count for Postoperative Infection after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Using Allograft and Demineralized Bone Matrix  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We investigated normative temporal levels of white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in uncomplicated anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using allograft and demineralized bone matrix (DBM). Overview of Literature No study has investigated the diagnostic usefulness of WBC and ANC for postoperative infection following ACDF using allograft and DBM. Methods Blood samples of 85 patients, who underwent one or two-level ACDF, were obtained and evaluated before surgery and on the first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, thirtieth, and ninetieth postoperative days. No infection was found in all patients for at least one year follow-up period. Results Mean WBC and ANC values increased significantly and reached peak levels on the first postoperative day. The peaked levels rapidly decreased but still remained elevated above the preoperative levels on the third postoperative day. The levels returned close to the preoperative levels on the fifth postoperative day. The mean WBC and ANC values did not get out of their normal reference ranges throughout the follow-up periods. One-level and two-level ACDF exhibited a similar course of postoperative changes in WBC and ANC values and no significant difference in mean levels of WBC and ANC throughout the follow-up periods. Conclusions Uncomplicated ACDF using allograft and DBM showed normal values of WBC and ANC during the early postoperative period. Therefore, significant abnormal values of WBC and ANC at an early postoperative period suggest the possibility of the development of acute postoperative infection after ACDF using allograft and DBM. PMID:24066211

Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Young-Yul; Ahn, Chi Young



Identification of human erythrocyte cytosolic proteins associated with plasma membrane during thermal stress.  


The influence of thermal stress on the association between human erythrocyte membranes and cytosolic proteins was studied by exposing erythrocyte suspensions and whole blood to different elevated temperatures. Membranes and cytosolic proteins from unheated and heat-stressed erythrocytes were analyzed by electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometric identification. Four major (carbonic anhydrase I, carbonic anhydrase II, peroxiredoxin VI, flavin reductase) and some minor (heat shock protein 90?, heat shock protein 70, ?-enolase, peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase A) cytosolic proteins were found to be associated with the erythrocyte membrane in response to in vitro thermal stress. Unlike the above proteins, catalase and peroxiredoxin II were associated with membranes from unheated erythrocytes, and their content increased in the membrane following heat stress. The heat-induced association of cytosolic proteins was restricted to the Triton shells (membrane skeleton/cytoskeleton). Similar results were observed when Triton shells derived from unheated erythrocyte membranes were incubated with an unheated erythrocyte cytosolic fraction at elevated temperatures. This is a first report on the association of cytosolic catalase, ?-enolase, peroxiredoxin VI, peroxiredoxin II and peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase A to the membrane or membrane skeleton of erythrocytes under heat stress. From these results, it is concluded that specific cytosolic proteins are translocated to the membrane in human erythrocytes exposed to heat stress and they may play a novel role as erythrocyte membrane protectors under stress by stabilizing the membrane skeleton through their interactions with skeletal proteins. PMID:23774970

Sharma, Savita; Zingde, Surekha M; Gokhale, Sadashiv M



An algorithm for utilizing peripheral blood CD34 count as a predictor of the need for plerixafor in autologous stem cell mobilization--cost-effectiveness analysis.  


Certain patients who receive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (AHSC) collection fail to mobilize well enough to proceed with transplant. When plerixafor is used with GCSF, the likelihood of achieving the CD34? stem cell target in fewer collections is higher; plerixafor use in all patients is unlikely to be cost-effective. This study retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of utilizing a peripheral blood CD34? stem cell count (PBCD34) ?8/µL on day 4 of GCSF-based AHSC mobilization as a threshold for plerixafor administration, and compared the efficacy of collection and cost analysis using historical controls. All patients in the study cohort reached their CD34? targets in ?3 collections. Significantly more patients who received plerixafor + GCSF versus GCSF alone reached their CD34? target in one collection (P = 0.045); however, there were no significant differences in the number of collections or in cumulative product yields. The historical cohort had 10.3% mobilization failures; the number of collections per patient needed to reach the target was significantly higher in the historical cohort versus study cohort (P = 0.001) as was the number of patients requiring more than one collection to reach their target (P = 0.023). However, the average cost per patient was also significantly higher in the study cohort (P = 0.025). Further refinement of the algorithm may reduce the difference in cost between the two mobilization strategies. PMID:23426644

Abusin, Ghada A; Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Gingrich, Roger D; Silverman, Margarida D; Zamba, Gideon K D; Schlueter, Annette J



[The red blood picture in male nutria in the post-natal period].  


Blood was sampled by heart puncture from healthy male coypus of ten age categories (from 1 to 300 days). The basic haematological values of the red blood picture were determined in these samples. including the erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit reading, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. The summarized mathematico-statistical characteristics were calculated from the values obtained in each group and the significance of differences was determined by the analysis of variance at significance levels of P = 0.01 and P = 0.05. PMID:6808751

Jelínek, P; Glásrová, M



Erythrocyte-derived sphingosine-1-phosphate stabilizes basal hydraulic conductivity and solute permeability in rat microvessels.  


Exogenous sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator in blood, attenuates acute microvascular permeability increases via receptor S1P1 to stabilize the endothelium. To evaluate the contribution of erythrocytes as an endogenous source of S1P to the regulation of basal permeability, we measured permeability coefficients in intact individually perfused venular microvessels of rat mesentery. This strategy also enabled the contributions of other endogenous S1P sources to be evaluated. Apparent permeability coefficients (P(S)) to albumin and ?-lactalbumin and the hydraulic conductivity of mesenteric microvessels were measured in the presence or absence of rat erythrocytes or rat erythrocyte-conditioned perfusate. Rat erythrocytes added to the perfusate were the principal source of S1P in these microvessels. Basal P(S) to albumin was stable and typical of blood-perfused microvessels (mean 0.5 × 10(-6) cm/s) when erythrocytes or erythrocyte-conditioned perfusates were present. When they were absent, P(S) to albumin or ?-lactalbumin increased up to 40-fold (over 10 min). When exogenous S1P was added to perfusates, permeability returned to levels comparable with those seen in the presence of erythrocytes. Addition of SEW 2871, an agonist specific for S1P1, in the absence of red blood cells reduced P(S)(BSA) (40-fold reduction) toward basal. The specific S1P1 receptor antagonist (W-146) reversed the stabilizing action of erythrocytes and increased permeability (27-fold increase) in a manner similar to that seen in the absence of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are a primary source of S1P that maintains normal venular microvessel permeability. Absence of erythrocytes or conditioned perfusate in in vivo and in vitro models of endothelial barriers elevates basal permeability. PMID:22865384

Curry, F E; Clark, J F; Adamson, R H



An iron stable isotope comparison between human erythrocytes and plasma.  


We present precise iron stable isotope ratios measured by multicollector-ICP mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) of human red blood cells (erythrocytes) and blood plasma from 12 healthy male adults taken during a clinical study. The accurate determination of stable isotope ratios in plasma first required substantial method development work, as minor iron amounts in plasma had to be separated from a large organic matrix prior to mass-spectrometric analysis to avoid spectroscopic interferences and shifts in the mass spectrometer's mass-bias. The (56)Fe/(54)Fe ratio in erythrocytes, expressed as permil difference from the "IRMM-014" iron reference standard (?(56/54)Fe), ranges from -3.1‰ to -2.2‰, a range typical for male Caucasian adults. The individual subject erythrocyte iron isotope composition can be regarded as uniform over the 21 days investigated, as variations (±0.059 to ±0.15‰) are mostly within the analytical precision of reference materials. In plasma, ?(56/54)Fe values measured in two different laboratories range from -3.0‰ to -2.0‰, and are on average 0.24‰ higher than those in erythrocytes. However, this difference is barely resolvable within one standard deviation of the differences (0.22‰). Taking into account the possible contamination due to hemolysis (iron concentrations are only 0.4 to 2 ppm in plasma compared to approx. 480 ppm in erythrocytes), we model the pure plasma ?(56/54)Fe to be on average 0.4‰ higher than that in erythrocytes. Hence, the plasma iron isotope signature lies between that of the liver and that of erythrocytes. This difference can be explained by redox processes involved during cycling of iron between transferrin and ferritin. PMID:25017012

von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Oelze, Marcus; Schmid, Dietmar G; van Zuilen, Kirsten; Gschwind, Hans-Peter; Slade, Alan J; Stitah, Sylvie; Kaufmann, Daniel; Swart, Piet



Decrease in erythrocyte survival in Theileria sergenti-infected calves determined by non-radioactive chromium labelling method.  


Pathogenesis of anemia in the calves infected with Theileria sergenti was investigated from the viewpoint of erythrocyte survival decrease in the circulating blood. For investigation of erythrocyte survival a method of erythrocyte labelling with non-radioactive chromium (50Cr) was utilized. It was found that (1) the erythrocyte survival decreased markedly in the T. sergenti-infected calves compared with that in the uninfected calves; the survival rate of 25.7% for infected calves and 86.0% for uninfected ones on the fourth day after re-introduction of the labelled erythrocytes into the original donors, and that (2) the survival of non-parasitized erythrocytes in the infected calves was also decreased, which indicates no obvious relationship between parasitism and decrease in survival of erythrocytes. PMID:1832027

Yagi, Y; Ito, N; Kunugiyama, I



Hemolytic anemias and erythrocyte enzymopathies.  


The human erythrocyte generates high-energy adenosine triphosphate by anaerobic glycolysis and cycles oxidized and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate by the aerobic pentose phosphate shunt pathway. Certain enzymopathies of the pentose phosphate shunt are associated with hemolysis resulting from oxidative denaturation of hemoglobin. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, an X-chromosome-linked disorder, is the prototype of these diseases and is genetically and clinically polymorphic. Six enzymopathies of anaerobic glycolysis cause hemolytic anemia; lactate dehydrogenase deficiency does not. In 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase deficiency, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is greatly reduced and asymptomatic polycythemia is noted. Pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase deficiency, an enzymopathy of nucleotide metabolism, is characterized by intracellular accumulations of pyrimidine-containing nucleotides, marked basophilic stippling on the stained blood film, splenomegaly, and hemolysis. Lead inhibits the nucleotidase and an identical syndrome occurs during severe lead poisoning. Hemolysis also accompanies an unusual enzymopathy characterized by a 40- to 70-fold increase (not decrease) in adenosine deaminase activity. PMID:2990276

Valentine, W N; Tanaka, K R; Paglia, D E



Molecular basis for erythrocyte shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolated plasma membrane of the human erythrocytes displays the same shape and shape transformations as the intact cells. It is therefore generally believed that the plasma membrane plays a dominant role in determining erythrocyte shape. The plasma membrane consists of a fluid lipid bilayer to the surface of which is attached a protein skeleton. The two halves of the

A. Elgsaeter; A. Mikkelsen



Detection of Theileria equi in spleen and blood of asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses.  


This study aimed to determine whether asymptomatic horses naturally infected with Theileria equi retain infected erythrocytes in the spleen and whether the presence of the hemoparasite in this organ is associated with parasitemia. We collected samples from 25 adult horses without clinical signs of any disease. From each animal, we collected whole blood samples from the jugular vein and a splenic puncture blood sample. All samples were submited to blood cell counts and detection of Theileria or Babesia. DNA extraction and PCR were performed in all samples for identification of piroplasm infection (T. equi and B. caballi). From the 25 horses evaluated for piroplasm detection by PCR, seven horses (28%) were positive in jugular vein blood but negative in splenic blood samples, five horses (20%) were positive in splenic blood samples but negative in jugular vein blood samples, and 13 horses (52%) were positive in both jugular vein and splenic blood samples. The hematological evaluation revealed anemia in 13 of 25 (52%) infected horses, lymphopenia in five (20%), neutrophilia in two (8%), neutropenia in one (4%), and thrombocytopenia in one (4%) infected horse. The present study demonstrated that several (20%) of the asymptomatic piroplasm carrier horses did not show parasitemia, but show infected erythrocytes in the spleen. PMID:23666659

Ribeiro, Isabel B; Câmara, Antônio Carlos L; Bittencourt, Marta V; Marçola, Tatiana G; Paludo, Giane R; Soto-Blanco, Benito



Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.  


This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes. PMID:23353616

Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding



Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.  


Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis. PMID:21301875

Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E



Erythrocyte PAF-acetylhydrolase activity in various stages of chronic kidney disease: Effect of long-term therapy with erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte PAF-acetylhydrolase activity in various stages of chronic kidney disease: Effect of long-term therapy with erythropoietin.BackgroundErythrocytes represent an important component of the antioxidant capacity of blood, comprising, in particular, intracellular enzymes, including platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). We evaluated the erythrocyte PAF-AH and Gpx activities in various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further investigated whether




Counting Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The web site provides instructions for making counting books. Suggestions for using the completed books for counting one at a time, skip-counting, fractions and introducing addition and subtraction are given. Children should be able to write the numbers from 1 to 10 before beginning this activity.



Effects of Corynebacterium parvum and BCG therapy on immune parameters in patients with disseminated melanoma a sequential study over 28 days. I. Changes in blood counts, serum immunoglobulins and lymphoid cell populations.  

PubMed Central

The effects of a single immunization of melanoma patients with BCG or C. parvum on the blood counts, serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphoid subpopulations were followed by multiple assays over 28 days. C. parvum produced a decrease in the white cell count, lymphocyte count and lymphoid T and sIg+ cell numbers, which recovered within 1 week; BCG did not produce such a marked depression. Both agents were associated with increases in T cell numbers and lymphocyte PHA blastogenesis after the first week; these declined to pre-immunization values by 3-4 weeks. The sIg-bearing cell subpopulation also increased after BCG. Different methods of expression the results were compared and the difficulties of immunological monitoring are discussed. PMID:428146

Thatcher, N; Swindell, R; Crowther, D



Changes in platelet count and related parameters in SART-stressed mice and the action of administered neurotropin.  


In order to hematologically characterize SART-stressed (repeated cold-stressed) animals, which are regarded as model animals of clinical dysautonomia, general hematological analyses were performed in mice subjected to various types of stress. SART-stressed mice showed significant increases in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and specific gravity of whole blood, no change in leukocyte count and a marked decrease in platelet count. Among the above changes, the decreased platelet count was particularly characteristic of SART-stressed mice. Splenectomy failed to inhibit the SART stress-induced thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow megakaryocyte counts increased following the stress. The bleeding time of SART-stressed mice was more than double that of normal mice. Consecutive administrations of Neurotropin, a sedative analgesic, completely blocked the alterations in platelet count, megakaryocyte count and bleeding time in SART-stressed mice without producing any effect in unstressed mice. From the present results, it is suggested that SART-stressed mice may be characterized by thrombocytopenia, which is not attributable to enhanced function of the spleen or suppressed platelet production in the bone marrow. Moreover, Neurotropin appears to be effective for moderating SART stress. PMID:3184566

Hata, T; Kawabata, A; Kita, T; Itoh, E; Nishimura, Y



Skip Counting With Counting Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 12-minute video Stephanie Latimer's kindergarten students develop strategies for counting collections of objects. They group objects, skip count, and record their results. The resource includes reflection questions for teacher discussion.



Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells in high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamagnetic orientation of blood cells has been investigated in static high magnetic fields. The anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility Deltachi of erythrocytes and blood platelets are determined. Deltachi of blood platelets is 1.5 times larger than that of erythrocytes. The contribution of microtubules to the Deltachi of platelets is also discussed.

A. Yamagashi; T. Takeuchi; T. Hagashi; M. Date



A Unique Feature of Iron Loss via Close Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to Host Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency anemia is an extra-stomach disease experienced in H. pylori carriers. Individuals with type A blood are more prone to suffering from H. pylori infection than other individuals. To clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying H. pylori-associated anemia, we collected erythrocytes from A, B, O, and AB blood donors and analyzed morphology, the number of erythrocytes with H. pylori colonies attached to them, and iron contents in erythrocytes and H. pylori (NCTC11637 and SS1 strains) by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation soft X-ray imaging. The number of type A erythrocytes with H. pylori attached to them was significantly higher than that of other erythrocytes (P<0.05). Far more iron distribution was observed in H. pylori bacteria using dual energy analysis near the iron L2, 3 edges by soft X-ray imaging. Iron content was significantly reduced in host erythrocytes after 4 hours of exposure to H. pylori. H. pylori are able to adhere more strongly to type A erythrocytes, and this is related to iron shift from the host to the bacteria. This may explain the reasons for refractory iron deficiency anemia and elevated susceptibility to H. pylori infection in individuals with type A blood. PMID:23185604

Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Zhi; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Bingya; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Qiulan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan



Erythrocyte G Protein as a Novel Target for Malarial Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains a serious health problem because resistance develops to all currently used drugs when their parasite targets mutate. Novel antimalarial drug targets are urgently needed to reduce global morbidity and mortality. Our prior results suggested that inhibiting erythrocyte Gs signaling blocked invasion by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Methods and Findings We investigated the erythrocyte guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gs as a novel antimalarial target. Erythrocyte “ghosts” loaded with a Gs peptide designed to block Gs interaction with its receptors, were blocked in ?-adrenergic agonist-induced signaling. This finding directly demonstrates that erythrocyte Gs is functional and that propranolol, an antagonist of G protein–coupled ?-adrenergic receptors, dampens Gs activity in erythrocytes. We subsequently used the ghost system to directly link inhibition of host Gs to parasite entry. In addition, we discovered that ghosts loaded with the peptide were inhibited in intracellular parasite maturation. Propranolol also inhibited blood-stage parasite growth, as did other ?2-antagonists. ?-blocker growth inhibition appeared to be due to delay in the terminal schizont stage. When used in combination with existing antimalarials in cell culture, propranolol reduced the 50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations for existing drugs against P. falciparum by 5- to 10-fold and was also effective in reducing drug dose in animal models of infection. Conclusions Together these data establish that, in addition to invasion, erythrocyte G protein signaling is needed for intracellular parasite proliferation and thus may present a novel antimalarial target. The results provide proof of the concept that erythrocyte Gs antagonism offers a novel strategy to fight infection and that it has potential to be used to develop combination therapies with existing antimalarials. PMID:17194200

Murphy, Sean C; Harrison, Travis; Hamm, Heidi E; Lomasney, Jon W; Mohandas, Narla; Haldar, Kasturi



Eosinophil count - absolute  


... on the spot to stop bleeding. In the lab, the blood is placed on a microscope slide. A stain is added to the sample. This causes eosinophils to show up as orange-red granules. The technician then counts how many eosinophils are present per ...


Erythrocyte membrane ATPases in diabetes: effect of dikanut (Irvingia gabonensis).  


The levels of the three ATPases found in the erythrocyte membrane of diabetic patients were significantly lower than normal subjects. The distribution of the enzymes was also different. Na+,K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase reflected the status of blood glucose more than Ca2+-ATPase. The ratio between two of the ATPases was sensitive to glycemic response. When dikanut, a viscous preparation, was fed to diabetics for 4 weeks, blood glucose became normal and the activities of the three ATPases increased significantly. The ratio among the enzymes also approached that of normal subjects. A relationship was found between the blood glucose level and erythrocyte membrane ATPases which, if linked to insulin binding or level, may provide a rapid inexpensive assay in diabetes research. PMID:3026798

Adamson, I; Okafor, C; Abu-Bakare, A



Characterization of the complement sensitivity of calcium loaded human erythrocytes.  


A deficiency of membrane proteins having a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is characteristic of the erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and is currently believed to be the basis for the enhanced susceptibility to lysis by activated complement observed in these cells. Our recent observation that GPI-anchored proteins are preferentially lost into membrane vesicles shed from normal erythrocytes after calcium loading led us to examine the hypothesis that the remnant erythrocytes might also have increased sensitivity to complement-mediated hemolysis. Indeed, red blood cells treated in such a manner became more sensitive to lysis by antibody and complement or to lysis initiated by activated cobra venom factor complexes (CoFBb). As a consequence of membrane vesiculation, the erythrocytes lost up to approximately 50% of their immunoreactive decay-accelerating factor and 25% to 30% of their immunoreactive membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL). Closer examination of the defect responsible for the marked increase in sensitivity to CoFBb-initiated hemolysis seen in calcium-loaded erythrocytes showed that a complex combination of factors produced the defect. These included a decrease in both functional and immunoreactive MIRL and depletion of intracellular potassium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These results suggest the possibility that loss of DAF and MIRL via membrane vesiculation, as well as decreases in intracellular potassium and/or ATP, might contribute to the phenotype of PNH erythrocytes. Further, normal or pathologic red blood cells might develop a PNH-like defect after membrane vesiculation if sufficient decreases in potassium and ATP also occurred. PMID:1720041

Test, S T; Bütikofer, P; Yee, M C; Kuypers, F A; Lubin, B



Oxidative damages in erythrocytes of patients with metabolic syndrome.  


The aim of the study was to estimate the changes caused by oxidative stress in structure and function of membrane of erythrocytes from patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). The study involved 85 patients with MS before pharmacological treatment and 75 healthy volunteers as a control group. Cholesterol level, lipid peroxidation, glutathione level (GSH), and antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes were investigated. The damage to erythrocyte proteins was also indicated by means of activity of ATPase (total and Na(+),K(+) ATPase) and thiol group level. The membrane fluidity of erythrocytes was estimated by the fluorescent method. The cholesterol concentration and the level of lipid peroxidation were significantly higher, whereas the concentration of proteins thiol groups decreased in the patient group. ATPase and GSH peroxidase activities diminished compared to those in the control group. There were no differences in either catalase or superoxide dismutase activities. The membrane fluidity was lower in erythrocytes from patients with MS than in the ones from control group. These results show changes in red blood cells of patients with MS as a consequence of a higher concentration of cholesterol in the membrane and an increased oxidative stress. PMID:23516039

Ziobro, A; Duchnowicz, P; Mulik, A; Koter-Michalak, M; Broncel, M



Eicosanoid synthesis by purified thrombocytes and erythrocytes from warm- and cold-acclimated American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana).  


Amphibian blood plays an important role in eicosanoid synthesis. Although clotting frog blood produces eicosanoids, the cellular source of prostaglandins and thromboxanes in bullfrog blood is unknown. Thromboxane (TX)B2 synthesis from purified thrombocytes was affected by 30-day cold-acclimation at 5 degrees, but not PGE2 or leukotriene (LT) synthesis. Although no cyclooxygenase activity has been found in human erythrocytes, frog erythrocytes were capable of forming cyclooxygenase products, but the amounts were lower than those produced by thrombocytes. Additionally, there was no effect of cold exposure on eicosanoid production by isolated erythrocytes. Similar to some mammalian nucleated white blood cells, nucleated bullfrog thrombocytes and erythrocytes produced leukotrienes. The production of eicosanoids by thrombocytes was stimulated by A23187 and thrombin. Erythrocytes were stimulated by A23187. Control synthesis by erythrocytes and thrombocytes was inhibited by 5 microM indomethacin (cyclooxygenase pathway) or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (5-lipoxygenase pathway) and cyclooxygenase products were increased in the presence of nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Thrombin stimulation of eicosanoid production by thrombocytes was inhibited when the inhibitors were present prior to the final centrifugation of the cell isolation. The results suggest that cold exposure can affect eicosanoid synthesis in thrombocytes, but not erythrocytes, and that thrombocytes are a major source of eicosanoids in bullfrogs. The production of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase products by nucleated erythrocytes and thrombocytes suggests a role for these compounds in hemostasis and inflammatory responses in these animals. PMID:9126474

Wang, X; Herman, C A



Studies on in vitro effect of free fatty acids on water content and osmotic fragility of rabbit (lepus cuniculus) erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of free fatty acids in the blood on osmotic fragility and water content of erythrocytes when combined with hyperthermia were investigated. The isotonic buffer, containing the fatty acid, was added to the erythrocyte suspension to a final concentration of 200?M\\/L. The samples were kept for one hour in an incubator at 37 °C or 42 °C. The osmotic

Hiroshi Kogawa; Noriko Yabushita; Toshifumi Nakajima; Katsuhiro Kageyama



The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.



Characterizing osmotic lysis kinetics under microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing for erythrocyte fragility studies.  


The biomechanics of erythrocytes, determined by the membrane integrity and cytoskeletal structure, provides critical information on diseases such as diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and sickle cell anemia. Here we demonstrate a simple microfluidic tool for examining erythrocyte fragility based on characterizing osmotic lysis kinetics. Hydrodynamic focusing is used for generating rapid dilution of the buffer and producing lysis of erythrocytes during their flow. The lysis kinetics are tracked by monitoring the release of intracellular contents from cells via recording the light intensity of erythrocytes at various locations in the channel. Such release profile reflects sensitively the changes in erythrocyte fragility induced by chemical, heating, and glucose treatment. Our tool provides a simple approach for probing red blood cell fragility in both basic research and clinical settings. PMID:23047457

Zhan, Yihong; Loufakis, Despina Nelie; Bao, Ning; Lu, Chang



Genotoxic evaluation of pirfenidone using erythrocyte rodent micronucleus assay.  


Pirfenidone is a non-steroidal antifibrotic compound that has been proposed in clinical protocols and experimental studies as a pharmacological treatment for fibroproliferative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxicity or cytotoxicity of three doses of pirfenidone using the micronuclei test in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rodent models. Pirfenidone was administered orally to Balb-C mice for 3 days, and also was administered topically to hairless Sprague Dawley rats during the final stage of gestation. Mice were sampled every 24 h over the course of 6 days; pregnant rats were sampled every 24 h during the last 6 days of gestation, and pups were sampled at birth. Blood smears were analyzed and the frequencies of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNEs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and the proportion of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), were recorded in samples from mice, pregnant rats and rat neonates. Increases in MN frequencies (p<0.03) were noted only in the positive control groups. No genotoxic effects or decreased PCE values were observed neither in newborn rats transplacentally exposed to pirfenidone, or in two adult rodent models when pirfenidone was administered orally or topically. PMID:22683486

Alcántar-Díaz, Blanca E; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M; Zamora-Perez, Ana L; González-Cuevas, Jaime; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Bertha A; Sánchez-Parada, María Guadalupe; García-Bañuelos, Jesús J; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan



QUARTERLY Communication Antioxidant status in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis children  

E-print Network

of cystic fibrosis children were studied in order to estimate the severity of their deficiency. Our results point to increased susceptibility of erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis subjects to oxidative injury and indicate that the antioxidant status of patients should be carefully monitored. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent genetic disease affecting Caucasian populations. In cystic fibrosis, as a result of chronic pulmonary infections and digestive malabsorption, an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and their inactivation by protective systems is observed [1, 2]. It is commonly accepted that some plasma as well as erythrocyte biomarkers serve for the evaluation involved in the total antioxidant capacity of blood. Several studies demonstrated lower values of total radical-trapping antioxidants parameters (TRAP) in CF patients than in healthy subjects, the lower values being accompanied by low concentration of vitamin E, A and ?-carotene in plasma [3, 4]. Only a few informations are available on antioxidants in erythrocytes of children with cystic fibrosis. A low level of vitamin E was previously reported by Peters & Kelly [5] and Laskowska-Klita et al. [6]. Studies of Benabdeslam et al. [4] and Niki et al. [7] indicated that oxidation processes in erythrocytes and their membranes due to oxidative stress may result in haemolysis. Therefore some markers of the antioxidant defence system of red blood cells were studied to estimate its deficiency in the population of CF children treated at our Institute.

Teresa Laskowska-klita


The unexpected effect of PEGylated gold nanoparticles on the primary function of erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers.Polyethylene glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEGylated AuNPs) have been widely used as nanocarriers for the delivery of various drugs. However, little attention has been paid to whether the PEGylated AuNPs could affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which is the main cellular component in the blood. In the current study, we show that both the deformability and oxygen-delivering ability of erythrocytes are decreased when treated with PEGyalted AuNPs of various sizes, which can be attributed to the interaction between PEGylated AuNPs and erythrocyte membranes. It is observed that the PEGylated AuNPs could also induce the aggregation of band-3 and the ATP decrease of erythrocytes. In addition, the PEGylated AuNPs can accelerate the loss of CD47 on erythrocyte membranes, possibly enhancing the senescent process of erythrocytes and the following clearance by SIRP?-expressing leukocytes in bloodstream. The results suggested that PEGylated AuNPs have the potential to affect the primary function of human erythrocytes, which should be considered when using them as drug carriers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01857e

He, Zeng; Liu, Jiaxin; Du, Libo



Measurement of erythrocyte volumes in splenectomized horses and sham-operated horses at rest and during maximal exercise.  


Erythrocyte volumes of thoroughbred horses were measured. The volumes of splenectomized horses and sham-operated horses 2 hr after injection of 50Cr-tagged erythrocytes (at rest) and during maximal exercise were measured using the non-radioactive isotope 50Cr. Because splenic erythrocytes are released into circulation during exercise, it was estimated that the erythrocyte volumes of the sham-operated horses during maximal exercise are larger than those of the horses at rest. However, the erythrocyte volumes of the sham-operated horses at rest were about equal to those during maximal exercise. In the splenectomized horses, furthermore, erythrocyte volumes at rest and those at exercise were nearly equal. From these results, blood stored in the equine spleen is gradually mixed with circulating blood, and it was clarified that the phenomenon was completed within 2 hr. Although it is basically impossible to measure the circulating erythrocyte volume at rest using the erythrocyte tagged method, we observed that it is possible to measure the total erythrocyte volume using the 50Cr method. Also, the plasma volumes of the splenectomized horses during maximal exercise were found to be slightly smaller than those at rest. On the other hand, in the sham-operated horses, the plasma was decreased by a large quantity after maximal exercise. Therefore, it was suggested that the spleen participates in the phenomenon involving the disappearance of plasma from circulation due to exercise. PMID:9342694

Kunugiyama, I; Ito, N; Narizuka, M; Kataoka, S; Furukawa, Y; Hiraga, A; Kai, M; Kubo, K



Resistance of erythrocytes from brown trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) affected by ulcerative dermal necrosis syndrome.  


In the present work we evaluated the effect of ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN) syndrome on resistance of erythrocytes to haemolytic agents and lipid peroxidation level in the blood from brown trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.). Results showed that lipid peroxidation increased in erythrocytes, as evidenced by high thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Compared to control group, the resistance of erythrocytes to haemolytic agents was significantly lower in UDN-positive fish. Besides, UDN increased the percent of hemolysated erythrocytes subjected to the hydrochloric acid, urea and hydrogen peroxide. Results showed that UDN led to an oxidative stress in erythrocytes able to induce enhanced lipid peroxidation level, as suggested by TBARS level and decrease of erythrocytes resistance to haemolytic agents. PMID:21957739

Kurhalyuk, N; Tkachenko, H; Pa?czy?ska, K



Intracellular free calcium concentration and calcium transport in human erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers  

SciTech Connect

Erythrocytes are the route of lead distribution to organs and tissues. The effect of lead on calcium homeostasis in human erythrocytes and other excitable cells is not known. In the present work we studied the effect of lead intoxication on the uptake and efflux (measured as (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity) of calcium were studied in erythrocytes obtained from lead-exposed workers. Blood samples were taken from 15 workers exposed to lead (blood lead concentration 74.4 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/dl) and 15 non-exposed workers (9.9 {+-} 2 {mu}g/dl). In erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers, the intracellular free calcium was 79 {+-} 13 nM, a significantly higher concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.01) than the one detected in control (30 {+-} 9 nM). The enhanced intracellular free calcium was associated with a higher osmotic fragility and with important modifications in erythrocytes shape. The high intracellular free calcium in lead-exposed workers was also related to a 100% increase in calcium incorporation and to 50% reduction of (Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+})-ATPase activity. Lipid peroxidation was 1.7-fold higher in erythrocytes of lead-exposed workers as compared with control. The alteration on calcium equilibrium in erythrocytes is discussed in light of the toxicological effects in lead-exposed workers.

Quintanar-Escorza, M.A. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Gonzalez-Martinez, M.T. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Navarro, L. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico); Maldonado, M. [CIATEC, A.C. (Mexico); Arevalo, B. [Medical Center Medic Unit 1 Bajio, IMSS, Leon Gto. (Mexico); Calderon-Salinas, J.V. [Department of Biochemistry, CINVESTAV-IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico City 07000 (Mexico)]. E-mail:



Erythrocyte survival in normal mice and in mice with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia  

PubMed Central

Erythrocyte survival has been studied in a strain of mice which develop autoimmune haemolytic anaemia in adult life (NZB/B1), and also in CBA and C57B1 mice, using one or both of two radioactive isotope labels, 51Cr and 32P. Erythrocyte survival is customarily expressed as the half-life but this is unsatisfactory for purposes of statistical comparison and we have used instead a parameter `?' which represents the slope of the line obtained when: log(Counts per unit haemoglobin on day t)/(Counts per unit haemoglobin on day 0) is plotted against time. Young NZB/B1 mice yield values of ? intermediate between those obtained in CBA and C57B1 mice, and may reasonably be judged to show normal erythrocyte survival. On the other hand, in older NZB/B1 mice which are strongly Coombs positive and show reticulocytosis and anaemia, erythrocyte survival is greatly shortened. The survival of erythrocytes transfused to NZB/B1 recipients from isogeneic donors was found to be similar to that of the recipient's own erythrocytes, irrespective of whether or not the donor was Coombs positive or showed other evidence of haemolytic activity. The values of ? obtained in NZB/B1 mice were essentially the same with both labels; in CBA mice, however, a significant difference was observed. PMID:5915102

Lindsey, E. S.; Donaldson, G. W. K.; Woodruff, M. F. A.



Mannose-Binding Lectin Is a Disease Modifier in Clinical Malaria and May Function as Opsonin for Plasmodium falciparum- Infected Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Variant alleles in the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene (mbl2) causing low levels of functional MBL are associated with susceptibility to different infections and are common in areas where malaria is endemic. Therefore, we investigated whether MBL variant alleles in 551 children from Ghana were associated with the occurrence and outcome parameters of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and asked whether MBL may function as an opsonin for P. falciparum. No difference in MBL genotype frequency was observed between infected and noninfected children or between children with cerebral malaria and/or severe malarial anemia and children with uncomplicated malaria. However, patients with complicated malaria who were homozygous for MBL variant alleles had significantly higher parasite counts and lower blood glucose levels than their MBL-competent counterparts. Distinct calcium-dependent binding of MBL to the membrane of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which could be inhibited by mannose, was observed. Further characterization revealed that MBL reacted with a P. falciparum glycoprotein identical to the 78-kDa glucose-regulated stress protein of P. falciparum. MBL seems to be a disease modifier in clinical malaria and to function as an opsonin for erythrocytes invaded by P. falciparum and may thus be involved in sequestration of the parasite, which in turn may explain the association between homozygosity for MBL variant alleles and high parasite counts. PMID:12933871

Garred, Peter; Nielsen, Morten A.; Kurtzhals, J?rgen A.L.; Malhotra, Rajneesh; Madsen, Hans O.; Goka, Bamenla Q.; Akanmori, Bartholomew D.; Sim, Robert B.; Hviid, Lars



Nucleotypic effects without nuclei: Genome size and erythrocyte size in mammals  

E-print Network

Previously reported haploid genome sizes (C-values) and erythrocyte sizes (measured as mean dry diameters) were compared for 67 species of mammals representing 31 families and 16 orders. Measurements on erythrocytes of four species of bats were also included in the study. Erythrocyte size was significantly positively correlated with genome size at each of the specific, generic, familial, and ordinal levels, with the relationship becoming much stronger following the exclusion of the order Artiodactyla, a group unique among mammals in terms of red blood cell morphology.

unknown authors



Enhanced suicidal death of erythrocytes from gene-targeted mice lacking the Cl-/HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE1.  


Genetic defects of anion exchanger 1 (AE1) may lead to spherocytic erythrocyte morphology, severe hemolytic anemia, and/or cation leak. In normal erythrocytes, osmotic shock, Cl(-) removal, and energy depletion activate Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels with Ca(2+)-induced suicidal erythrocyte death, i.e., surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, cell shrinkage, and membrane blebbing, all features typical for apoptosis of nucleated cells. The present experiments explored whether AE1 deficiency favors suicidal erythrocyte death. Peripheral blood erythrocyte numbers were significantly smaller in gene-targeted mice lacking AE1 (AE1(-/-) mice) than in their wild-type littermates (AE1(+/+) mice) despite increased percentages of reticulocytes (AE1(-/-): 49%, AE1(+/+): 2%), an indicator of enhanced erythropoiesis. Annexin binding, reflecting phosphatidylserine exposure, was significantly larger in AE1(-/-)erythrocytes/reticulocytes ( approximately 10%) than in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes ( approximately 1%). Osmotic shock (addition of 400 mM sucrose), Cl(-) removal (replacement with gluconate), or energy depletion (removal of glucose) led to significantly stronger annexin binding in AE1(-/-) erythrocytes/reticulocytes than in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes. The increase of annexin binding following exposure to the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 muM) was, however, similar in AE1(-/-) and in AE1(+/+) erythrocytes. Fluo3 fluorescence revealed markedly increased cytosolic Ca(2+) permeability in AE1(-/-) erythrocytes/reticulocytes. Clearance of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled erythrocytes/reticulocytes from circulating blood was more rapid in AE1(-/-) mice than in AE1(+/+) mice and was accelerated by ionomycin treatment in both genotypes. In conclusion, lack of AE1 is associated with enhanced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent scrambling of cell membrane phospholipids. PMID:17251326

Akel, Ahmad; Wagner, Carsten A; Kovacikova, Jana; Kasinathan, Ravi S; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Koka, Saisudha; Alper, Seth L; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Wieder, Thomas; Huber, Stephan M; Lang, Florian



In vivo decline of methotrexate and methotrexate polyglutamates in age-fractionated erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methotrexate (MTX) accumulates in erythrocytes (ery) during weekly MTX administration, and the ery-MTX concentration reaches a steady state after 4–6 weeks. In order to study MTX accumulation and metabolism to polyglutamate derivatives in different age populations of red blood cells, we took erythrocytes from 12 children with ALL who were receiving maintenance treatment with MTX and 6-MP and separated them

Henrik Schrøder; Karsten Fogh; Troels Herlin



Physiologically aged red blood cells undergo erythrophagocytosis in vivo but not in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The lifespan of red blood cells is terminated when macrophages remove senescent red blood cells by erythrophagocytosis. This puts macrophages at the center of systemic iron recycling in addition to their functions in tissue remodeling and innate immunity. Thus far, erythrophagocytosis has been studied by evaluating phagocytosis of erythrocytes that were damaged to mimic senescence. These studies have demonstrated that acquisition of some specific individual senescence markers can trigger erythrophagocytosis by macrophages, but we hypothesized that the mechanism of erythrophagocytosis of such damaged erythrocytes might differ from erythrophagocytosis of physiologically aged erythrocytes. Design and Methods To test this hypothesis we generated an erythrocyte population highly enriched in senescent erythrocytes by a hypertransfusion procedure in mice. Various erythrocyte-aging signals were analyzed and erythrophagocytosis was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Results The large cohort of senescent erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice carried numerous aging signals identical to those of senescent erythrocytes from control mice. Phagocytosis of fluorescently-labeled erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice injected into untreated mice was much higher than phagocytosis of labeled erythrocytes from control mice. However, neither erythrocytes from hypertransfused mice, nor those from control mice were phagocytosed in vitro by primary macrophage cultures, even though these cultures were able to phagocytose oxidatively damaged erythrocytes. Conclusions The large senescent erythrocyte population found in hypertransfused mice mimics physiologically aged erythrocytes. For effective erythrophagocytosis of these senescent erythrocytes, macrophages depend on some features of the intact phagocytosing tissue for support. PMID:22331264

Gottlieb, Yehonatan; Topaz, Orit; Cohen, Lyora A.; Yakov, Liat David; Haber, Tom; Morgenstern, Abigail; Weiss, Avital; Chait Berman, Karen; Fibach, Eitan; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.



Reticulocyte count  


... red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn known as erythroblastosis fetalis Kidney disease, with increased production of a hormone called erythropoietin ...


Erythrocyte Stiffness during Morphological Remodeling Induced by Carbon Ion Radiation  

PubMed Central

The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR) is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy) or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy) for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy). The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-?1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study provides a new strategy for enhancing the assessment of the curative effects and safety of clinical radiotherapy, as well as reducing adverse effects. PMID:25401336

Zhang, Baoping; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng



Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about money and how to count coins. We need to learn about coins so we can pay for things we need to buy. These activities will help you practice counting money. Remember to record your learning as you work! Coin Paper We have been learning about coins. Listen to the coin song to remember the names of U.S. coins. U.S. Coin Song Before we can count coins, we need to know the names of the different coins and how much each coin is worth. Click the link below to review ...




Optical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell patient  

E-print Network

. 1. Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) or sickle cell anemia is an inherited autosomal bloodOptical measurement of biomechanical properties of individual erythrocytes from a sickle cell July 2012 Available online 20 July 2012 Keywords: Sickle cell disease Red blood cell Cell biomechanics

Dao, Ming


Regular Article Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer and  

E-print Network

, and sickle cell anemia (Popel and Johnson, 2005).The underlying mechanism of RBC aggregation is still underRegular Article Effects of erythrocyte deformability and aggregation on the cell free layer February 2009 Keywords: Red blood cells Blood flows Cell free layer Microcirculation Hemodynamics

Popel, Aleksander S.


[Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].  


The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield. PMID:24611298

Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassi?, A B



Counting carbohydrates  


Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into a sugar ... sugar better if they can count how many carbohydrates they eat. Your dietitian will teach you a ...


Clock Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice telling time. Review clock counting with the interactive clock. Now match the clocks. Move over the hour clock to see if you chose correctly. Click the arrows to match the dragon clock to the written time. ...

Mcduffee, Ms.



HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA Erythrocytes premature  

E-print Network

LABORATORY FINDINGS · M:E ratio decreased · Increased Reticulocytes · Nucleated RBC in peripheral blood, Venous Thrombosis, Infection, and Bone Marrow Hyperplasia · Ham Test #12;9/16/2013 6 HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA · Normocytic, Normochromic Anemia · Jaundice · Gallstones · Transfusions, Splenectomy #12;9/16/2013 7 IMMUNE



PubMed Central

Disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (Na2EDTA) is a powerful anticoagulant for blood. It preserves the cellular elements of the blood better than the anticoagulants commonly used. It is practically atoxic and almost completely excreted. Blood preserved with the disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate is useful for transfusion after storage of three to four weeks. The addition of glucose and raffinose increases the survival time of the erythrocytes for from four to six weeks. The disodium calcium complex may be used for the preservation of whole blood. It is completely atoxic. Ethyl alcohol-saline-sugar solutions preserve erythrocytes for at least 150 days; they are excellent preservatives for the agglutinogens. Whole blood preserved with glycerin-raffinose-glucose may be frozen at —20° C. for at least two months, and probably for a longer period, without excessive hemolysis after thawing. PMID:13190434

Proescher, Frederick; Nolan, Jean



Choral Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a whole group, have students chant the counting sequence starting with one to thirty, using the pointer to follow the number sequence. Over time, increase the range to one to fifty and then one to one hundred. Eventually have a student take over the job of pointing out the numbers in the sequence. Highlight the multiples of ten using a marker or a colored screen and have students chant the counting sequence by 10s. This should be done daily.

Mathematics, Illustrative



Image processing for automated erythrocyte classification.  


Digital image processing and pattern recognition techniques were applied to determine the feasibility of a natural n-space subgrouping of normal and abnormal peripheral blood erythrocytes into well separated categories. The data consisted of 325 digitized red cells from 11 different cell classes. The analysis resulted in five features: (a) size, (b) roundness, (c) spicularity, (d) eccentricity and (e) central gray level distribution. These features separated the data into six distinct condensed subgroups of red cells. Each subgroup consisted of morphologically similar cells: (a) macrocytes, (b) normocytes, (c) schistocytes, acanthocytes and burr cells, (d) microcytes and spherocytes, (e) elliptocytes, sickle cells and pencil forms and (f) target cells. The concept of a quantitative "red cell differential" was introduced, utilizing these subgroup definitions to establish subpopulations of red cells, with quantifiable indices for the diagnosis of anemia, at the specimen level. PMID:1254916

Bacus, J W; Belanger, M G; Aggarwal, R K; Trobaugh, F E



[The creation of artificial blood and the lessons of physiology for practical medicine].  


Nowadays the attempts to create the oxygen carrying blood substitutes ("artificial blood") based on the hemoglobin solution, have not met with success. This is accounted for by the fact that human blood hemoglobin efficiently fulfill the function of the gas transport in an organism only if it is included into an erythrocyte. The role of erythrocytes in the respiratory function of the blood is considered in this review. The newest methods are given of creating the "artificial blood" with the help of recombinant hemoglobin, the artificial erythrocytes and of obtaining the normal erythrocytes beyond an organism. PMID:9019920

Ivanov, K P



CD41-T-Cell Counts, Spontaneous Apoptosis, and Fas Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Obtained from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1Infected Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with the lowest CD41-cell numbers (0 to 99\\/ml; n 5 20) showed the highest frequency of apoptosis: 22.4% 6 2.7% (mean 6 standard error) versus 13.8% 6 1.2% and 12.7% 6 1.4% among peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with 100 to 499 CD41 cells\\/ml (n 5 19) and >500 CD41 cells\\/m l(



The effect of bromfenvinphos and its impurities on human erythrocyte.  


Bromfenvinphos - (E,Z)-O,O-diethyl-O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-bromovinyl] phosphate (BFVF) is the insecticide elaborated in Poland, which has been used against Varroa destructor causing honey bees disease called as varroosis. The substances that are formed as a result of bromfenvinphos synthesis are dihydro-bromfenvinphos (O,O-diethyl O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)vinyl] phosphate); dibromo-bromfenvinphos (O,O-diethyl O-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,2-dibromovinyl] phosphate); 2,4-dichlorophenacyl bromide; 2,4-dichlorophenacylidene bromide and 2,4-dichlorophenacylidyne bromide. In this work, we evaluated the effect of these compounds on hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation (met-Hb formation) in human erythrocytes. Moreover, the changes in the size (FSC-A) and the shape (SSC-A) of red blood cells were assessed using flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. It was proven that bromfenvinphos at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 250 ?M during 1h incubation did not change the parameters examined in human erythrocytes. Similarly, most of bromfenvinphos impurities did not increase hemolysis and methemoglobin level nor changed the size and shape of the erythrocytes. The exception was dibromo-bromfenvinphos, which changed the FSC-A and SSC-A parameters, as well as 2,4-dichlorophenacyl bromide which induced hemolysis, increased the level of met-Hb and changed erythrocytes morphology. PMID:21115092

Szatkowska, Bozena; Bukowska, Bozena; Huras, Bogumi?a



Osmotic fragility of drug carrier erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Erythrocytes have been proposed as biogradable cellular carriers for drugs. Potentials of this therapeutic approach are organ-specific targeting, protection and prolonged in vivo function of the encapsulated drugs. Previous studies demonstrated the advantage of a hypo-osmotic dialysis procedure for macromolecule loading resulting in cells that are closely similar to normal erythrocytes. Osmotic fragility of unloaded and loaded “carrier” erythrocytes

U. Sprandel; N. Zöllner



Purinoceptor signaling in malaria-infected erythrocytes.  


Human erythrocytes are endowed with ATP release pathways and metabotropic and ionotropic purinoceptors. This review summarizes the pivotal function of purinergic signaling in erythrocyte control of vascular tone, in hemolytic septicemia, and in malaria. In malaria, the intraerythrocytic parasite exploits the purinergic signaling of its host to adapt the erythrocyte to its requirements. PMID:22580091

Huber, Stephan M



Changes in the concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium and of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate during a period of aerobic training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical exercise appears to affect both blood magnesium status and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration. Concentrations of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium (ErMg and PlMg) and erythrocyte 2,3-DPG were measured three times over a period of 2 months in a group of 11 athletes who were training for a marathon. The concentration of 2,3-DPG was found to be significantly increased at the

A. Resina; M. Brettoni; L. Gatteschi; P. Galvan; F. Orsi; M. G. Rubenni



White Blood Cell Count and Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic Stroke and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease in African American and White Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

) had 1.9 times the risk of incident coronary heart disease (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 3.09), 1.9 times the risk of incident ischemic stroke (95% CI: 1.03, 3.34), and 2.3 times the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (95% CI: 1.38, 3.72) as their counterparts in the lowest quartile of WBC count (<4,800 cells\\/mm 3 ). These associations were similar

Chong Do Lee; Aaron R. Folsom; F. Javier Nieto; Lloyd E. Chambless; Eyal Shahar; Douglas A. Wolfe


The Cell Adhesion Molecule "CAR" and Sialic Acid on Human Erythrocytes Influence Adenovirus In Vivo Biodistribution  

PubMed Central

Although it has been known for 50 years that adenoviruses (Ads) interact with erythrocytes ex vivo, the molecular and structural basis for this interaction, which has been serendipitously exploited for diagnostic tests, is unknown. In this study, we characterized the interaction between erythrocytes and unrelated Ad serotypes, human 5 (HAd5) and 37 (HAd37), and canine 2 (CAV-2). While these serotypes agglutinate human erythrocytes, they use different receptors, have different tropisms and/or infect different species. Using molecular, biochemical, structural and transgenic animal-based analyses, we found that the primary erythrocyte interaction domain for HAd37 is its sialic acid binding site, while CAV-2 binding depends on at least three factors: electrostatic interactions, sialic acid binding and, unexpectedly, binding to the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) on human erythrocytes. We show that the presence of CAR on erythrocytes leads to prolonged in vivo blood half-life and significantly reduced liver infection when a CAR-tropic Ad is injected intravenously. This study provides i) a molecular and structural rationale for Ad–erythrocyte interactions, ii) a basis to improve vector-mediated gene transfer and iii) a mechanism that may explain the biodistribution and pathogenic inconsistencies found between human and animal models. PMID:19119424

Wodrich, Harald; Billet, Olivier; Perreau, Matthieu; Hippert, Claire; Mennechet, Franck; Schoehn, Guy; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Dreja, Hanna; Ibanes, Sandy; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; Wang, Jennifer P.; Finberg, Robert W.; Cusack, Stephen; Kremer, Eric J.



FT-IR spectrometry utilization for determining changes in erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the hypothesis that FT-IR spectrometry was useful for determining oxidative stress damage on erythrocytes. Endurance-trained subjects performed a standardized endurance-training session at 75% of maximal oxygen consumption each week over 19 consecutive weeks. Capillary blood samples were taken before and after test-sessions and plasma and erythrocytes were separately analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Exercise-induced change in plasma concentrations and erythrocyte IR absorptivities (vC-Hn of fatty acyl moieties, vC=O and ?N-H of proteins, vP=O of phospholipids, vCOO- of amino-acids, and vC-O of lactate) were monitored and compared to training level. First training weeks induced normalization of plasma concentration changes during exercise (unchanged for glucose, moderately increased for lactate, high increases for triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty acids) while erythrocyte phospholipids alteration remained elevated (P < 0.05). Further, training reduced the exercise-induced erythrocyte lactate content increase (vC-O; P < 0.05) and phospholipids alteration (vC-Hn and vP=O; P < 0.05) during exercise. These changes paralleled the lowering of exercise-induced hemoconcentration (P < 0.05) and plasma lactate concentration increase during exercise (P < 0.05). These correlated changes between plasma and erythrocyte parameters suggest that hemoconcentration and lactate acidosis (plasmatic and intracellular) are important factors contributing to reduce erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress during chronic endurance training.

Petibois, Cyril; Deleris, Gdrard Y. R.



Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis associated with prosthetic heart valve replacement: rheological study of erythrocyte modifications.  


The implantation of a prosthetic heart valve (HVP) in patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) is rare, and the changes in the structure and deformability of erythrocytes that follow implantation in these patients have been poorly described. In the present study, the erythrocytes in HS and HE patients with mechanical HVP were compared to the erythrocytes in patients with only congenital membrane defects, in terms of biochemical modifications and rheological behaviour. Integral and cytoskeletal erythrocyte membrane proteins were studied, and blood viscosity (shear rate/shear stress ratio), aggregation ratio [eta(1 s(-1))/eta(200 s(-1))], and red cell visco-elasticity were determined. Valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis worsened anaemia and resulted in a change in haemolysis, from sub-clinical to evident. The rheological investigation of erythrocytes from HS patients confirmed the characteristic increased viscosity and aggregation ratio and the decreased deformability. The rheological behaviour of erythrocytes from patients with HVP showed a decrease in viscosity and an increase in elastic modulus. In these patients, the prosthesis seems to have induced traumatic damage to the erythrocyte membrane, leading to fragmentation and lysis, which in turn modified rheological parameters. The biochemical and rheological investigation allowed us to understand the clinical and haematological pictures of the patients and to describe the role played by different factors in haemolytic anaemia. PMID:19308658

Caprari, Patrizia; Tarzia, Anna; Mojoli, Giorgio; Cianciulli, Paolo; Mannella, Emilio; Martorana, Maria Cristina



Increased erythrocyte antioxidant status protects against smoking induced hemolysis in moderate smokers.  


Cigarette smoking is common in societies worldwide and has been identified as injurious to human health. Human red blood cells are important targets for electrophilic and oxidant foreign compounds. In the present study, the possible role of antioxidant status on smoking-induced erythrocyte hemolysis of smokers was studied. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol and phospholipids were determined. Further, nitrite/nitrate levels (NO(2)/NO(3)) in both plasma and erythrocyte lysate were measured. Results showed increased plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels in smokers. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were also increased with reduced glutathione (GSH) level in smokers. No significant change was observed in smokers red cell hemolysis and cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio compared to controls. Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation was positively correlated with SOD (r = 0.482, p < 0.01) and GPx (r = 0.368, p < 0.018) in smokers. Increased levels of nitrite/nitrate and antioxidant status of erythrocytes might be playing a crucial role in protecting red cell from free radical damage induced by cigarette smoke. PMID:21262864

Pannuru, Padmavathi; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy; Kindinti, Rameswara Reddy; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula



Effect of sterol esters on lipid composition and antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemic rats.  


Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of coronary heart disease. Erythrocyte membrane is affected during hypercholesterolemia. The effect of EPA-DHA rich sterol ester and ALA rich sterol ester on erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and changes in antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane were studied. Erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility of the membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities was analyzed. Osmotic fragility data suggested that the erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemia was relatively more fragile than that of the normal rats' membrane which could be reversed with the addition of sterol esters in the diet. The increased plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats could also be lowered by the sterol ester administration. There was also marked changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities of the erythrocyte membrane. Antioxidant enzyme levels decreased in the membrane of the hypercholesterolemic subjects were increased with the treatment of the sterol esters. The antioxidative activity of ALA rich sterol ester was better in comparison to EPA-DHA rich sterol ester. In conclusion, rat erythrocytes appear to be deformed and became more fragile in cholesterol rich blood. This deformity and fragility was partially reversed by sterol esters by virtue of their ability to lower the extent of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24770475

Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua



Fluoxetine Induced Suicidal Erythrocyte Death  

PubMed Central

The antidepressant fluoxetine inhibits ceramide producing acid sphingomyelinase. Ceramide is in turn known to trigger eryptosis the suicidal death of erythrocytes characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Ceramide is effective through sensitizing the erythrocytes to the pro-eryptotic effect of increased cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i). In nucleated cells, fluoxetine could either inhibit or stimulate suicidal death or apoptosis. The present study tested whether fluoxetine influences eryptosis. To this end cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release and [Ca2+]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence intensity. As a result, a 48 h exposure of erythrocytes to fluoxetine (?25 µM) significantly decreased forward scatter, increased annexin V binding and enhanced [Ca2+]i. The effect on annexin V binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, fluoxetine stimulates eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity. PMID:23860350

Jilani, Kashif; Enkel, Sigrid; Bissinger, Rosi; Almilaji, Ahmad; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian



Anaemia and Erythrocyte Transketolase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythrocyte transketolase activity is raised in megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency and inversely related to haemoglobin concentration. It si usually normal in cases of megaloblastic anaemia due to folate deficiency though sufficient exceptions occur to invalidate the use of red cell transketolase assay in differentiation of vitamin B12 from folate deficiency.There is no evidence that altered thiamine metabolism

D. G. Wells; V. Marks



Cross method for analysis of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and aggregation coefficient in medical diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Method of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) measurement is non-specific one. The ESR are tightly correlated to increase or decrease of aggregation coefficient (N). The variations of N could happen due to two main reasons: either changes in concentration of plasma proteins (first of all of fibrinogen) or changes of erythrocyte membrane characteristics (surface charge, transmembrane potential). The cross-method of ESR analysis has been proposed, using blood samples from patient and healthy donor of the same ABO blood groups and Rh-factors. The hematocrit (Ho)-ESR dependencies were measured in four variants: (1) patient's erythrocytes in patient's plasma; (2) patient's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (3) donor's erythrocytes in donor's plasma; (4) donor's erythrocytes in patient's plasma. On presenting the ESR data for more than 100 patients with different bone marrow disorders after chemotherapy in the coordinates Ho-ESR three conventional zones could be marked out: high-ESR zone, medium zone and zone of low level of Ho. Proposed cross-method allows to estimate which of the two aforementioned reasons results in ESR variation. Some patients revealed not only changed fibrinogen level but additional changes in membrane affinity to fibrinogen. The modificated ESR cross-method opens us some new capacities in medical diagnostics.

Yamaikina, Irene V.; Furmanchuk, Dmitryi A.



Erythrocytes-mediated metabolic activation of cyclophosphamide in yeast mutagenicity test.  


The degree of conversion of cyclophosphamide (CP) into mutagenic intermediates was studied using mouse erythrocytes as the metabolic activation system. The amount of mutagenic intermediates produced was measured indirectly in terms of induced frequencies of mitotic recombination, mitotic gene conversion, and reverse mutation in the diploid D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the absence of S9 microsomal fraction or erythrocytes, CP did not induce any genetic response. In the presence of erythrocytes, on the other hand, CP clearly induced increases in the three genetic endpoints. The responses, however, were lower than those observed with the S9 activation system. The activating principle seems to be the oxyhemoglobin. In fact, neither p-nitroanisole O-demethylase activity nor genotoxic responses performed with red-blood cells from uninduced and PB-induced mice indicate that (possible) water-soluble forms of cytochrome P-450 were responsible for the activation of CP by erythrocytes. PMID:2866604

Corsi, C; Paolini, M; Galli, A; Bronzetti, G; Cantelli Forti, G



Counting Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this iOS app students practice counting U.S. coins by matching the value, making the total, telling how much, and creating their own values. Students drag coins onto a digital mat or enter values with a keypad to complete the tasks, and then receive feedback.

K12, Inc.



Counting Circles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have students stand and form a circle facing in toward each other. Select a counting sequence to be practiced with no more than 8-10 numbers in the sequence. Have the students start counting around the circle one by one until the last number in the sequence is reached. When the last number is reached all students clap and that student is out and sits down on the floor in the middle of the circle. Start the counting sequence over again until another student reaches the number at the end of the sequence; everyone claps and that student sits in the center with the first student. Continue repeating the sequence until only one child is left standing and the rest are seated in the center of the circle. For example: for the counting sequence 1-10: the first student says "one," the next student says "two" and so on until the 10th students gets to "ten" at this point everyone claps and the tenth child sits in the center of the circle. The eleventh student starts over with "one" and so on.

Mathematics, Illustrative



Ultrasonic Backscattering from Suspended Erythrocytes: Dependence on Frequency and Size.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonic scattering properties of blood have been intensively investigated since the echo signal from red blood cells carries abundant diagnostic information for the study of blood flow and blood properties in the vessels. Recently, ultrasound of frequency higher than 20 MHz has been implemented in intravascular imaging to obtain better images of the vessel wall. In this research measurements were extended to 30 MHz to better understand the effect of blood on the operation of these intravascular devices. The experimentally measured backscatter of saline suspended porcine erythrocytes for frequency up to 30 MHz agrees very well with the theoretical analysis which indicate that Rayleigh scattering is still valid below this frequency. The analysis utilize the T-matrix method to calculate the backscattering cross section of an erythrocyte modeled as a fluid sphere, disk, and biconcave disk. Measurements on the backscattering coefficients of porcine, bovine, and lamb erythrocytes reveal that the backscatter has a square dependence on cell volume. The cell size dependent backscatter is also analyzed via a continuum approach. It is found that the echo intensity of high frequency ultrasound suffers greatly from the attenuation. The dilemma may be solved by using a spherically focused transducer. An analysis of the focused beam reflected from a perfect planar reflector leads to the modification of the standard substitution method for the backscatter measurement since the "image source" theory is found to be inappropriate for the focused beam. Reflection of the focused beam near the focal point is described based on Huygens' principle. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the backscatter is dependent upon the position of the scatterer and the geometry of the transducer if a focused beam is used. Since ultrasound velocity information is needed for scattering measurements, an innovative method for measuring the acoustic speed and the attenuation coefficient without the knowledge of the thickness of a biological specimen is developed which may provide more accurate results for the measurement of backscattering coefficient.

Kuo, Ihyuan


Synthesis of Hemoglobin AIc and Related Minor Hemoglobins by Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Factors that influence hemoglobin (Hb)AIc synthesis by intact erythrocytes were studied in vitro. After incubation cells were lysed, and hemoglobins were separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide slab gels and quantitated by microdensitometry. HbAIc increased with time, glucose concentrations (5-500 mM), and incubation temperature (4°-37°C). Low temperatures allowed prolonged incubations with minimal hemolysis. At 4°C HbAIc increased linearly with time for 6 wk; after incubation at the highest glucose concentration, HbAIc comprised 50% of total hemoglobin. Insulin (1 and 0.1 mU/ml) did not affect HbAIc synthesis in vitro. In addition to glucose, galactose and mannose, but not fructose, served as precursors to HbAIc. A good substrate for hexokinase (2-deoxyglucose) and a poor hexokinase substrate (3-O-methylglucose), were better precursors for HbAIc synthesis than glucose, suggesting that enzymatic phosphorylation of glucose is not required for HbAIc synthesis. Autoradiography after erythrocyte incubation with 32P-phosphate showed incorporation of radioactivity into HbAIa1 and AIa2, but not HbAIb, AIc, or A. Acetylated HbA, generated during incubation with acetylsalicylate, migrated anodal to HbAIc and clearly separated from it. Erythrocytes from patients with insulinopenic diabetes mellitus synthesized HbAIc at the same rate as controls when incubated with identical glucose concentrations. Likewise, the rate of HbAIc synthesis by erythrocytes from patients with cystic fibrosis and congenital spherocytosis paralleled controls. When erythrocytes from cord blood and from HbC and sickle cell anemia patients were incubated with elevated concentrations of glucose, fetal Hb, HbC, and sickle Hb decreased, whereas hemoglobins focusing at isoelectric points near those expected for the corresponding glycosylated derivatives appeared in proportionately increased amounts. Images PMID:36412

Spicer, Kenneth M.; Allen, Robert C.; Hallett, David; Buse, Maria G.



Erythrocyte deformability in macrocytosis determined by means of ektacytometry techniques.  


There is little information regarding the behaviour of red blood cell deformability in macrocytosis. We have determined in 114 patients with macrocytosis (MCV > 97 fL) and in 115 age and sex-matched subjects with normocytosis (VCM < 97 fL) erythrocyte deformability by means of ektacytometric techniques (Rheodyn SSD) measuring the erythrocyte elongation index (EEI) at 12, 30 and 60 Pa. Patients with macrocytosis showed statistically higher EEI at all the shear stresses tested when compared with controls (p < 0.001). When patients with macrocytosis were classified according to their main diagnosis as hepatic or renal disease, HIV and miscellaneous, 66.7%, 41.7%, 36.7% and 33.3% of patients, respectively, showed a EEI 60 higher than 61.8% (mean value of the control group + 2 SD). Linear regression analysis demonstrates that MCV, bilirubin, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase were the main variables influencing EEI 60. An increased surface/volume ratio of the red blood cells may be the main cause related with a higher erythrocyte deformability in a relevant percentage of macrocytosis. Further research is required to confirm our findings by designing case-control pathology-specific studies. PMID:20571227

Vayá, Amparo; Bonet, Elena; Romagnoli, Marco; Nuñez, Cornelio; Todoli, Jose



Influence of NO-Containing Gas Flow on Various Parameters of Energy Metabolism in Erythrocytes.  


We studied the influence of NO-containing gas phase on some parameters of energy metabolism in human erythrocytes. Whole blood samples were aerated with gas flows from the Plazon instrument (NO concentrations 800 and 80 ppm) and from the experimental generator (75 ppm). Activity of lactate dehydrogenase in direct and reverse reactions, lactate level, and a number of derived coefficients were estimated. Treatment of blood with 800 ppm NO inhibited erythrocyte energy metabolism, and its 10-fold dilution attenuated the effect. The use of ROS-free gas flow containing 75 ppm of NO promoted optimization of the process under investigation. PMID:25403392

Martusevich, A K; Solov'yova, A G; Peretyagin, S P; Karelin, V I; Selemir, V D



Maturation of Plasmodium falciparum in multiply infected erythrocytes and the potential role in malaria pathogenesis.  


Erythrocytes containing two or more parasites, referred to here as multiply infected erythrocytes (MIEs), are common in the blood of humans infected by Plasmodium falciparum. It is necessary to study these cells closely because the excess numbers of parasites they contain suggest that they could be overloaded with virulence factors. Here, microscopic examinations of blood smears from patients showed that up to seven merozoites can successfully invade an erythrocyte and mature to ring stage. However, in vitro culture showed that only up to three parasites can mature to late schizont stage. These observations were made by culturing the parasites in erythrocytes containing hemoglobin AA (HbAA), HbAS, and HbSS. Biochemical analysis of saponin-concentrated culture suggests that more hemozoin is produced in a MIE than in a singly infected erythrocyte (SIE). Studies have shown that ingestion of excessive hemozoin destroys monocytes and neutrophils, which could impair the immune system. Cultured parasites were also examined by transmission electron microscopy, and it was found that the quantity of knobs was dramatically increased on the membranes of erythrocytes containing multiple schizonts, compared to those containing only one schizont. Knobs contain, among other things, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) complex which mediates sequestration and promotes severe malaria. These findings suggest that P. falciparum increases its virulence by producing MIEs. On sexual life cycle of the parasite, microphotographs are presented in this report showing, for the first time, that two gametocytes can develop in one erythrocyte; they are referred to here as twin gametocytes. It is not known whether they can infect mosquitoes. PMID:25120031

Orjih, Augustine U



Quantitation of protein 3 content of circulating erythrocytes at the single-cell level  

SciTech Connect

The density and size of human erythrocytes has been roughly correlated with cell age, with the denser and smaller cells being older. Observations of this type have led to a hypothesis that the membranes of circulating erythrocytes are dynamic with respect to composition and that material is lost from the membrane during cell maturation and circulation. In this study, flow cytofluorimetry was used to investigate the distribution of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (protein 3) in heterogeneous samples of circulating red cells. We verified that protein 3 can be specifically and quantitatively labeled in intact human erythrocytes with eosin-5-maleimide, a luminescent probe. Individual cells were accordingly analyzed for size by forward light scattering and for protein 3 content by quantitation of eosin fluorescence. Initial results indicated that the smallest erythrocytes had a protein 3 content equal to that of the largest circulating erythrocytes. This result was independently verified by light scatter-activated cell sorting; direct measurement of cell diameters by microscopy verified that the cell sizes of erythrocytes showing the 10% greatest and 10% smallest light-scattering signal were indeed distinct. Independent analysis of the size-sorted erythrocytes for protein 3 content was accomplished by gel electrophoresis of stroma from 150,000 large and small erythrocytes. Quantitative scanning densitometry of silver-stained gels of prepared stroma showed that protein 3 content of each set of fractionated cells was equal and did not vary as a function of cell size. Taken in combination with the reported correlation between increasing red blood cell age and decreasing cell size, these results indicate that any loss of membranous material during the cell aging process is not random.

Jennings, L.K.; Brown, L.K.; Dockter, M.E.



Piezo1 plays a role in erythrocyte volume homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Mechanosensitivity is an inherent property of virtually all cell types, allowing them to sense and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Stretch-activated ion channels represent a class of mechanosensitive proteins which allow cells to respond rapidly to changes in membrane tension; however their identity has remained elusive. The piezo genes have recently been identified as a family of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels. We set out to determine the role of piezo1 during zebrafish development. Here we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of piezo1 impairs erythrocyte survival without affecting hematopoiesis or differentiation. Our results demonstrate that piezo1 is involved in erythrocyte volume homeostasis, disruption of which results in swelling/lysis of red blood cells and consequent anemia. PMID:23872304

Faucherre, Adele; Kissa, Karima; Nargeot, Joel; Mangoni, Matteo E.; Jopling, Chris



Electronic measurement of erythrocyte volume and volume heterogeneity in horses during erythrocyte regeneration associated with experimental anemias.  


Anemia was induced in three groups of horses by moderate or severe acute hemorrhage, or by acetyl phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis (Groups I, II, and III, respectively). Serial hemograms were done on a multichannel automated blood cell counter with histogram capability. Changes in hematocrit, mean cell volume, erythrocyte number, red cell distribution width (RDW), and standard deviation of erythrocyte volume were examined over time. Significant increases in mean cell volume were first detectable by days 17, 20, and 14 and reached maximum by days 43, 41, and 29, in Groups I, II, and III, respectively (P less than 0.05). Increased mean cell volume was interpreted as reflecting accelerated erythrocyte regeneration; however, not all horses with accelerated regeneration had changes in mean cell volume. Estimated erythrocyte production rate correlated poorly with hematocrit nadir and change in mean cell volume (r = 0.37 and r = 0.36, respectively, P greater than 0.05). In some horses effective regeneration occurs without development of macrocytosis. Mean cell volume remained increased after other parameters returned to control values, suggesting that mean cell volume values may provide retrospective evidence of altered erythrocyte turnover. Anisocytosis as indicated by significant increases in the standard deviation was greatest during the early part of the regenerative response, reaching maximum values on days 30, 28, and 21 in Groups I, II, and III, respectively, and began to decrease as homogeneous repopulation with macrocytes occurred. Red cell distribution width increased significantly only in severe hemorrhage and hemolysis groups, reaching mean maximum values of 24.3 on day 20 and of 26.4 on day 21 in Groups II and III, respectively (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3811130

Radin, M J; Eubank, M C; Weiser, M G



[Methods for detection and characterization of mechanical resistance of erythrocytes in healthy men (review of literature)].  


Published reports on methods for evaluation of erythrocyte rheology and mechanical resistance are reviewed. The processes running in red blood cells under the effect of mechanical factors are described. An original method for studies of vibration resistance of erythrocytes is proposed. It allows evaluation of the erythrocyte hemolysis, aggregation, and fragmentation. The method consists in combined vibroexposure of whole capillary blood in vitro (including blood collected under conditions of redistribution of erythropoiesis after exercise) and differentiated cytometry by conductometric hematological scintillators with plotting a histogram of erythrocyte distribution by volume. The method was used by many scientists who obtained different results in examinations of normal subjects. This disagreement of results of different studies is explained by numerous causes, some of which can hardly be taken into consideration. The authors attempted to standardize the method and normal (reference) values. The method is sensitive to various factors (even low intensive) affecting the erythrocyte population and allows the detection of diseases at the preclinical stage and evaluation of the degree of subject's training. PMID:12085705

Seleznev, A V; Nenashev, A A; Kondurtsev, V A




Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody reacting against syngeneic mouse erythrocytes could not be elicited (by rat erythrocytes) in athymie nude mice. Rat antigen preparations from heart, muscle, testes, brain erythrocyte ghosts and foetal material failed to elicit detectable autoantibody reactivity against mouse erythrocytes, even though all these preparations (other than brain and foetal) induced a reduction in half life of syngeneic murine erythrocytes in

D Keast; C Calagero



Effect of nitazoxanide on erythrocytes.  


Nitazoxanide, a drug effective against a variety of pathogens, triggers apoptosis and is thus considered to be employed against malignancy. Similar to nucleated cells, erythrocytes may undergo an apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the cell membrane with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) -activity ([Ca(2+) ]i ). The Ca(2+) -sensitivity of eryptosis is increased by ceramide. This study explored whether nitazoxanide triggers eryptosis. [Ca(2+) ]i was estimated from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin-V-binding, ceramide abundance utilizing fluorescent antibodies and haemolysis from haemoglobin release. A 48-hr exposure to nitazoxanide (1-50 ?g/ml) did not significantly modify [Ca(2+) ]i but significantly increased ceramide formation, decreased forward scatter (?10 ?g/ml), increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding erythrocytes (?10 ?g/ml) and, at higher concentrations (?20 ?g/ml), stimulated haemolysis. The stimulation of annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the absence of calcium. Nitazoxanide thus stimulates eryptosis, an effect in part due to ceramide formation. PMID:24215285

Arnold, Markus; Lang, Elisabeth; Modicano, Paola; Bissinger, Rosi; Faggio, Caterina; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian



Zinc and cadmium plasma and erythrocyte levels in prostatic carcinoma, BPH, urological malignancies, and inflammations.  


Zinc and cadmium in both serum and erythrocytes from patients with prostatic carcinoma of different histologies, BPH, other urological tumors, and pyelonephritis were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The variance of the results obtained was very high for each group. No significant differences in the Zn or Cd concentration in either the blood plasma or the erythrocytes could be found between any of the different groups of patients. There were also no trends to be seen in the concentrations of these elements in human blood over a period of months. We conclude that the concentration of Zn and Cd in serum or erythrocytes are not an index for the diagnosis or therapy of prostatic carcinoma, BPH, urological malignancy, or inflammations. PMID:2418432

Feustel, A; Wennrich, R



The effects of anti-epileptic drugs on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II isozymes.  


Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme which plays a role in various homeostatic mechanisms, such as acid-base balance and electrolyte secretion in a various tissues. This study was aimed at determining and comparing possible alterations in activity of this enzyme caused by the use of old (Carbamazepine, Phenytoin Sodium, Sodium Valproate) and new (Levetiracetam, Pregabalin, Gabapentin, Oxcarbazepine) anti-epileptic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the volunteers. The blood samples were centrifuged to separate plasma and erythrocyte package. Hemolysate was prepared from the red cells. CA I and II were purified from human erythrocytes by a simple one step procedure using Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-sulfonamide affinity column. CA I and II isozymes were treated with some anti-epileptic drugs, then the inhibition or activation of enzyme determined. The results of this study show that Levetiracetam is the most effective inhibitor for human erythrocytes carbonic anhydrase compared with the other anti-epileptic drugs. PMID:25101791

Koç, Emine Rabia; Erken, Gülten; Bilen, Cigdem; Sackes, Zubeyde; Gencer, Nahit



Effects of cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of acute and chronic cold stress on glutathione and related enzymes in rat erythrocytes were investigated. Blood from both cold-acclimated (CA) and cold-adapted (CG) rats had significantly lower concentrations of glutathione than blood from control animals. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased significantly in CA rats and tended to rise in CG rats. Activity of glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes was inconsistent in that it tended to increase in CA rats but decreased significantly in CG rats. The results may imply that CG rats suffered deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, there were marked decreases in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in acutely cold-exposed rats in conjunction with unchanged levels of glutathione. In all treatments the state of riboflavin metabolism was estimated to be adequate, since no increases were observed in the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient.

Ohno, Hideki; Kondo, Takahito; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Tagami, Sei-Ichi; Kuroshima, Akihiro; Kawakami, Yoshikazu



Effects of Daflon 500 mg* on haemoconcentration and alterations of white blood cell count elicited by the upright position in anaesthetized dogs.  


In the passive upright position, arterial and venous pressures in the human feet increase capillary pressure which leads to the filtration of fluid from the circulating plasma into the tissues of the feet. Loss of fluid concentrates both red cells and plasma so that the haematrocrit and plasma protein concentration of venous blood leaving the feet greatly exceed their mean values in the circulation. To study this phenomenon in animals, we used Beagle dogs in upright position. In blood of saphenous vein, red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration have been studied. As in human (Moyses et al. Haemoconcentration and accumulation of white cells in the feet during venous stasis. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 1987;5:311-20) red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration increase in upright position. The increases in red cells, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration were higher and levels were greater after 2 hours when compared to the corresponding values after 1 hour. Daflon 500 mg, a micronized purified flavonoidic fraction, (200 mg/kg-1 per os) administered 20 minutes before upright position, significantly reduced these increases. This model might be a suitable model to test drugs interfering with venous stasis. PMID:8919260

Delbarre, B; Delbarre, G; Pillion, G; Calinon, F



Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: copy numbers, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose concentrations.  


The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either Mycoplasma haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' (Group HM: 3 cats) or 'Candidatus M. turicensis' (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs' testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated measures experiment with significance set as P<0.05. Cats in Group TU had significantly lower blood copy numbers than cats in Group HF (P<0.001) and HM (P<0.001). All Group HF cats developed anaemia (often severe), macrocytosis and evidence of erythrocyte-bound antibodies whereas Groups HM and TU cats did not. Group HF had significantly lower PCVs, haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts, and significantly higher mean cell volumes, than Groups HM and TU. In Group HF, erythrocyte-bound antibodies reactive at 4 degrees C (both IgM and IgG) appeared between 8 and 22 DPI and persisted for two to four weeks, whereas those reactive at 37 degrees C (primarily IgG) appeared between 22 and 29 DPI and persisted for one to five weeks. In most cats antibodies appeared after the fall in haemoglobin started. Although Group TU had significantly lower glucose concentrations than Groups HF (P=0.006) and HM (P=0.027), mean blood glucose concentrations remained within the reference range in all groups. This study demonstrates that M. haemofelis infection, in contrast to 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis' infection, can result in a severe macrocytic anaemia and the development of cold and warm reactive erythrocyte-bound antibodies. PMID:19615832

Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Knowles, Toby G; Day, Michael J; Helps, Chris R



The Erythrocyte Ghost Is a Perfect Osmometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The osmotic swelling of intact erythrocytes in hypotonic solu- tions was measured using microhematocrit tubes, Van Allen tubes, and a calibrated Coulter counter. In agreement with earlier workers the intact cells did not behave as perfect osmometers, the cells swelling less than predicted by the Boyle-van't Hoff law. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from fresh intact erythrocytes by one-step hemolysis in




The Effects of Xenobiotics on Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Methemoglobin formation was observed when erythrocytes were incubated with xenobiotics such as hydroxylamines or phenols, other metabolites resulting from the interaction of these compounds with erythrocytes being reactive free radicals derived from the respective xenobiotic, and a ferryl-heme oxo-complex.2.Steady-state levels of these reaction products depended on the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane for the various methemoglobin (MetHb) generators and the

Hans Nohl; Klaus Stolze



Biodiversity Counts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive collection of activities from the American Museum of Natural History offers middle school students "an exciting and creative context for involving students in the scientific process while introducing them to the rich diversity and beauty of their local ecosystem." Lesson plans, Web-based interactive activities, useful Web links, profiles of AMNH scientists and staff, and other features help students inventory and analyze the plants and arthropods found in their own neighborhoods. All activities address national science standards, and have been "field tested" in schools around the nation. Biodiversity Counts even has students develop their own exhibitions for their findings -- a great way to build science communication skills.



Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K. [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India); Das, Mukul [Food Toxicology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, PO Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001 (India)], E-mail:



Quantitation of malaria parasite-erythrocyte cell-cell interactions using optical tweezers.  


Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion has been studied intensively, but our cellular understanding has been limited by the fact that it occurs very rapidly: invasion is generally complete within 1 min, and shortly thereafter the merozoites, at least in in vitro culture, lose their invasive capacity. The rapid nature of the process, and hence the narrow time window in which measurements can be taken, have limited the tools available to quantitate invasion. Here we employ optical tweezers to study individual invasion events for what we believe is the first time, showing that newly released P. falciparum merozoites, delivered via optical tweezers to a target erythrocyte, retain their ability to invade. Even spent merozoites, which had lost the ability to invade, retain the ability to adhere to erythrocytes, and furthermore can still induce transient local membrane deformations in the erythrocyte membrane. We use this technology to measure the strength of the adhesive force between merozoites and erythrocytes, and to probe the cellular mode of action of known invasion inhibitory treatments. These data add to our understanding of the erythrocyte-merozoite interactions that occur during invasion, and demonstrate the power of optical tweezers technologies in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. PMID:25140419

Crick, Alex J; Theron, Michel; Tiffert, Teresa; Lew, Virgilio L; Cicuta, Pietro; Rayner, Julian C



Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies.  


Invasion of host erythrocytes is essential to the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites and development of the pathology of malaria. The stages of erythrocyte invasion, including initial contact, apical reorientation, junction formation, and active invagination, are directed by coordinated release of specialized apical organelles and their parasite protein contents. Among these proteins, and central to invasion by all species, are two parasite protein families, the reticulocyte-binding protein homologue (RH) and erythrocyte-binding like proteins, which mediate host-parasite interactions. RH5 from Plasmodium falciparum (PfRH5) is the only member of either family demonstrated to be necessary for erythrocyte invasion in all tested strains, through its interaction with the erythrocyte surface protein basigin (also known as CD147 and EMMPRIN). Antibodies targeting PfRH5 or basigin efficiently block parasite invasion in vitro, making PfRH5 an excellent vaccine candidate. Here we present crystal structures of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and two distinct inhibitory antibodies. PfRH5 adopts a novel fold in which two three-helical bundles come together in a kite-like architecture, presenting binding sites for basigin and inhibitory antibodies at one tip. This provides the first structural insight into erythrocyte binding by the Plasmodium RH protein family and identifies novel inhibitory epitopes to guide design of a new generation of vaccines against the blood-stage parasite. PMID:25132548

Wright, Katherine E; Hjerrild, Kathryn A; Bartlett, Jonathan; Douglas, Alexander D; Jin, Jing; Brown, Rebecca E; Illingworth, Joseph J; Ashfield, Rebecca; Clemmensen, Stine B; de Jongh, Willem A; Draper, Simon J; Higgins, Matthew K



Potassium bromate causes cell lysis and induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.  


In the present study, we have studied the effect of KBrO3 on human erythrocytes under in vitro conditions. Erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy nonsmoking volunteers and incubated with different concentrations of KBrO3 at 37°C for 60 min. This resulted in marked hemolysis in a KBrO3 -concentration dependent manner. Lysates were prepared from KBrO3 -treated and control erythrocytes and assayed for various parameters. KBrO3 treatment caused significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide levels, and decrease in total sulfhydryl content, which indicates induction of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes. Methemoglobin levels and methemoglobin reductase activity were significantly increased while the total antioxidant power of lysates was greatly reduced upon KBrO3 treatment. Intracellular production of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of erythrocytes to KBrO3 also caused decrease in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase whereas the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase were increased. These results show that KBrO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes through the generation of reactive oxygen species and alters the cellular antioxidant defense system. PMID:22012894

Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Amani, Samreen; Mahmood, Riaz



A conserved domain targets exported PHISTb family proteins to the periphery of Plasmodium infected erythrocytes.  


During blood-stage infection, malaria parasites export numerous proteins to the host erythrocyte. The Poly-Helical Interspersed Sub-Telomeric (PHIST) proteins are an exported family that share a common 'PRESAN' domain, and include numerous members in Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi. In P. falciparum, PHIST proteins have been implicated in protein trafficking and intercellular communication. A number of PHIST proteins are essential for parasite survival. Here, we identify nine members of the PHISTb sub-class of PHIST proteins, including one protein known to be essential for parasite survival, that localise to the erythrocyte periphery. These proteins have solubility characteristics consistent with their association with the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Together, an extended PRESAN domain, comprising the PRESAN domain and preceding sequence, form a novel targeting-domain that is sufficient to localise a protein to the erythrocyte periphery. We validate the role of this domain in RESA, thus identifying a cytoskeleton-binding domain in RESA that functions independently of its known spectrin-binding domain. Our data suggest that some PHISTb proteins may act as cross-linkers of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. We also show for the first time that peripherally-localised PHISTb proteins are encoded in genomes of P. knowlesi and vivax indicating a conserved role for the extended PRESAN domain of these proteins in targeting to the erythrocyte periphery. PMID:25106850

Tarr, Sarah J; Moon, Robert W; Hardege, Iris; Osborne, Andrew R



Guidelines for transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates and premature infants. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.  

PubMed Central

The transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates and premature infants is common and should be minimized through a reduction in the number of blood samples taken for laboratory tests. The risks to patients have been minimized with current blood-banking techniques, although neonates and premature infants may require special consideration. The indications for transfusion of erythrocytes to neonates include the presence of shock, a loss of 10% or more of the blood volume within 72 hours when further blood sampling is expected, a hemoglobin level of less than 130 g/L in neonates with cardio-respiratory disease who require increased oxygen-carrying capacity, and a hemoglobin level of less than 80 to 100 g/L in neonates with tachypnea, tachycardia, recurrent apnea, poor feeding or failure to gain weight. The attending physician should consider these indications along with clinical judgement to ensure safe and effective erythrocyte transfusion. PMID:1458420



[Peripheral blood stem cell collection from ABO incompatible allogeneic donors and its effect in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].  


The study was aimed to evaluate the yield of the COBE Spectra blood cell separator with auto-peripheral blood stem cell program for collection of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBHSC) from HLA-matched ABO-incompatible allogeneic PBHSC donor, and observe the safety and effect of allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-PBHSCT) without removal of erythrocytes and plasma. PBHSC from 28 allogeneic donors were collected by COBE Spectra blood cell separator with auto-peripheral blood hematopoiEtic stem cell (auto-PBHSCT) program. Control group included 15 HLA-matched patients who received allo-PBHSCT with ABO-compatible grafts. The amount of PBHSC was harvested and the parameter was modified according to the hematocrit and mononuclear cell (MNC) counts of donors. The nucleated cell count, proportion of MNC, number of CD34(+) cells were detected, and reconstitution status of hematopoietic function and time for change into donor's blood group were observed. The results showed that the nucleated cell count proportion of MNC and number of CD34(+) cells showed no significant difference between groups of ABO incompatible and compatible (p > 0.05). All their hematopoietic functions were reconstituted. Between the ABO incompatibility and the compatible groups, the time of neutrophil and platelet recovery was not significantly different (p > 0.05), In ABO blood major incompatible and the compatible groups, the recovery of erythropoiesis were significantly delayed (p < 0.01). The blood type of 18 patients in ABO incompatible group was turned into donor's blood type successfully at 35-139 days after transplantation. It is concluded that major ABO incompatibility did not affect the erythropoiesis reconstitution in HLA matched allo-HSCT. the major incompatibility may be a main reason of erythropoietic delay. PMID:22040979

Xu, Wei; Zhu, Mei; Li, Yan-Ping; Bian, Mao-Hong; Wei, Yu-Zhi; Xia, Xue; Zhang, Xun-Shan



Red blood cell microparticles and blood group antigens: an analysis by flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Background The storage of blood induces the formation of erythrocytes-derived microparticles. Their pathogenic role in blood transfusion is not known so far, especially the risk to trigger alloantibody production in the recipient. This work aims to study the expression of clinically significant blood group antigens on the surface of red blood cells microparticles. Material and methods Red blood cells contained in erythrocyte concentrates were stained with specific antibodies directed against blood group antigens and routinely used in immunohematology practice. After inducing erythrocytes vesiculation with calcium ionophore, the presence of blood group antigens was analysed by flow cytometry. Results The expression of several blood group antigens from the RH, KEL, JK, FY, MNS, LE and LU systems was detected on erythrocyte microparticles. The presence of M (MNS1), N (MNS2) and s (MNS4) antigens could not be demonstrated by flow cytometry, despite that glycophorin A and B were identified on microparticles using anti-CD235a and anti-MNS3. Discussion We conclude that blood group antigens are localized on erythrocytes-derived microparticles and probably keep their immunogenicity because of their capacity to bind specific antibody. Selective segregation process during vesiculation or their ability to elicit an immune response in vivo has to be tested by further studies. PMID:22890266

Canellini, Giorgia; Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Crettaz, David; Lion, Niels; Tissot, Jean-Daniel



Fatty acids of erythrocyte membrane in acute pancreatitis patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids during severe and mild acute pancreatitis (AP) of alcoholic and nonalcoholic etiology. METHODS: All consecutive patients with a diagnosis of AP and onset of the disease within the last 72 h admitted to the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences between June and December 2007 were included. According to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scale, the patients were subdivided into the mild (APACHE II score < 7, n = 22) and severe (APACHE II score ? 7, n = 17) AP groups. Healthy individuals (n = 26) were enrolled as controls. Blood samples were collected from patients on admission to the hospital. Fatty acids (FAs) were extracted from erythrocyte phospholipids and expressed as percentages of the total FAs present in the chromatogram. The concentrations of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in erythrocytes. RESULTS: We found an increase in the percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FAs, a decrease in the percentages of total polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids of AP patients compared with healthy controls. Palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1n7cis), arachidonic (C20:4n6), docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6n3), and docosapentaenoic (DPA, C22:5n3) acids were the major contributing factors. A decrease in the peroxidation and unsaturation indexes in AP patients as well as the severe and mild AP groups as compared with controls was observed. The concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the mild AP group were lower than in the control group. In severe AP of nonalcoholic etiology, the percentages of arachidic (C20:0) and arachidonic (C20:4n6) acids were decreased as compared with the control group. The patients with mild AP of nonalcoholic etiology had the increased percentages of total saturated FAs and gama linoleic acid (C18:3n6) and the decreased percentages of elaidic (C18:1n9t), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3), DPA (C22:5n3), DHA (C22:6n3) as well as total and n-3 PUFAs in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids. CONCLUSION: The composition of FAs in erythrocyte membranes is altered during AP. These changes are likely to be associated with alcohol consumption, inflammatory processes, and oxidative stress. PMID:24039361

Kuliaviene, Irma; Gulbinas, Antanas; Cremers, Johannes; Pundzius, Juozas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Jansen, Eugene



Cultivation of Theileria. II. Attempts to cultivate erythrocytic stages of Theileria mutans.  


Blood from calves with a parasitaemia of Theileria mutans was cultivated in vitro in various ways. No significant increase in the percentage of infected red cells was observed, but the percentage of dividing forms of the parasite rose sharply during the first two days of incubation. The conditions of the cultures were apparently unsuitable for the invasion of erythrocytes. PMID:6428032

van de Scheur, H C; Jongejan, F; Franssen, F F; Perié, N M; Uilenberg, G



Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers  

E-print Network

Article Quantitation of Malaria Parasite-Erythrocyte Cell-Cell Interactions Using Optical Tweezers falciparum merozoites is an essential step for parasite survival and hence the pathogenesis of malaria in unraveling the blood-stage biology of malaria. BACKGROUND Most cases of severe and fatal malaria in humans

Cicuta, Pietro


Erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in wild and caged fish ( Liza aurata) along an environmental mercury contamination gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laranjo basin (Aveiro, Portugal) has been subjected to mercury contamination from a chlor-alkali plant, presenting a well-described mercury gradient. This study aims the assessment of mercury genotoxicity in this area by measuring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency in the mullet Liza aurata, and its relation with total mercury concentration (Hgt) in blood. Wild fish were seasonally analysed, and, complementarily, fish

S. Guilherme; M. Válega; M. E. Pereira; M. A. Santos; M. Pacheco



Hydroxylamine Treatment Increases Glutathione-Protein and Protein-Protein Binding in Human Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxylamine is a direct-acting hematotoxic agent leading to hemolytic anemia in animals and man. The effect of hydroxylamine on the morphology, sulfhydryl status and membrane skeletal proteins of human erythrocytes were studied. Loss of reduced glutathione (GSH) from the red blood cells was directly proportional to the hydroxylamine concentration used. This loss of GSH was larger than the sum of

Anita A. M. G. Spooren; Chris T. A. Evelo


Dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of glucose concentration in human organism is an important diagnostic characteristic for it's parameters correlate significantly with the severity of metabolic, vessel and perfusion disorders. 36 patients with stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes were involved in this study. All of them were men in age range of 45-59 years old. 7 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (aged from 49 to 59 years old) form the group of compare. Control group (n = 5) was of practically healthy men in comparable age. To all patients intravenous glucose solution (40%) in standard loading dose was injected. Capillary and vein blood samples were withdrawn before, and 5, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after glucose load. At these time points blood pressure and glucose concentration were measured. In prepared blood smears shape, deformability and sizes of erythrocytes, quantity and degree of shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were studied. Received data were approximated by polynomial of high degree to receive concentration function of studied parameters, which first derivative elucidate velocity characteristics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease and practically healthy persons. Received data show principle differences in dynamics of morphofunctional erythrocyte properties during intravenous glucose injection in patients with coronary heart disease as a possible mechanism of coronary blood flow destabilization.

Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.



A microfluidic platform to isolate avian erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria parasites based  

E-print Network

A microfluidic platform to isolate avian erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium gallinaceum malaria to isolate and study avian red blood cells (RBCs) infected to various degrees by the malaria parasite on the surface of the malaria infected avian RBC (miaRBCs) as biomarkers for diagnosis. A glass substrate

Tang, William C


Hydroxylamine Treatment Increases Glutathione-Protein and Protein-Protein Binding in Human Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Hydroxylamine is a direct-acting hematotoxic agent leading to hemolytic anemia in animals and man. The effect of hydroxylamine on the morphology, sulfhydryl status and membrane skeletal proteins of human erythrocytes were studied. Loss of reduced glutathione (GSH) from the red blood cells was directly proportional to the hydroxylamine concentration used. This loss of GSH was larger than the sum

Anita A. M. G. Spooren; Chris T. A. Evelo



Measurement of erythrocyte lipids, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and osmotic fragility in cervical cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Our aim was to examine the structural integrity of red blood cells in cervical cancer patients by measuring the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), antioxidant status, cholesterol\\/phospholipid (C\\/P) molar ratio, enzyme activity and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. Methods: This study has been conducted on 32 adult female cervical cancer patients and an equal number of age- and

K. Kolanjiappan; S. Manoharan; M. Kayalvizhi



Molecularly based analysis of deformation of spectrin network and human erythrocyte  

E-print Network

-level constitutive laws. These formulations are shown to be consistent with the predictions of continuum level models red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes have been topics of research for decades for a variety molecules and proteins (e.g., [16]); 2) large deformation stretching of whole RBCs with picoNewton level

Dao, Ming



EPA Science Inventory

A human in vivo somatic cell assay based on the enumeration of variant erythrocytes lacking expression of an allelic form of the Cell-surface sialoglycoprotein, glycophorin A, was applied to the study of blood samples from patients obtained prior to, during, and following chemoth...


A method for evaluation of membrane permeability for water by the erythrocyte osmotic deformability profiles.  


We developed a method for evaluation of membrane permeability for water based on the analysis of osmotic permeability profiles of red blood cells. Deformability of completely spherulated erythrocytes changed in a dose-dependent manner during formation of artificial water pores (by nystatin) and blocking (by HgCl2) of the existing ones. PMID:24915951

Katyukhin, L N



Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens  

E-print Network

Thyroid hormones and antibody response to sheep erythrocytes of dwarf and normal chickens selected, and plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on antibody titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The greatest for the booster challenge as well. Separation of lines and dwarf-normal genotypes for plasma thyroid hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


On the cellular autoimmune mechanism for eliminating erythrocytes normally and under extreme influences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of an autoimmune cellular mechanism for destroying erythrocytes on the basis of results of experiments in vivo is demonstrated in the blood and the organs. This mechanism is made up of a population of immunocompetent killer-lymphocytes which originates in the bone marrow and the thymus, and which is manifested in the local hemolysis effect.

Pukhova, Y. I.; Terskov, I. A.; Anikina, A. Y.; Shashkin, A. V.



HIV1 Fusion Inhibitor Peptides Enfuvirtide and T-1249 Interact with Erythrocyte and Lymphocyte Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enfuvirtide and T-1249 are two HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptides that bind to gp41 and prevent its fusogenic conformation, inhibiting viral entry into host cells. Previous studies established the relative preferences of these peptides for membrane model systems of defined lipid compositions. We aimed to understand the interaction of these peptides with the membranes of erythrocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Pedro M. Matos; Miguel A. R. B. Castanho; Nuno C. Santos; Linqi Zhang



Micronucleated Erythrocytes in Newborn Rats Exposed to Raltegravir Placental Transfer  

PubMed Central

The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60?mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10?mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5?ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Vazquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, Maria de Lourdes



Characterization of membrane and cytosolic proteins of erythrocytes.  


With the aim of studying a wide cohort of erythrocyte samples in a clinical setting, this chapter details a novel approach that allows the analysis of both human cytosolic and membrane sub-proteomes. Despite their simple structure, the high content of hemoglobin present in the red blood cells (RBCs) makes their proteome analysis enormously difficult. Careful investigation of different strategies for isolation of the membrane and cytosolic fractions from erythrocytes and their influence on proteome profiling by 2-DE was carried out, paying particular attention to hemoglobin removal. As result, a simple, quick, and satisfactory approach for hemoglobin depletion of erythrocyte cells based on HemogloBind™ reagent is shown here to satisfactorily analyze the cytosolic sub-proteome by 2-DE without major interference. For membrane proteome, a novel combined strategy based on hypotonic lysis isolation and further purification on minicolumns is described, allowing detection of high-molecular-weight proteins (i.e., spectrin, ankyrin) and well-resolved 2-DE patterns. The analysis of the membrane fraction by nano-LC coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer results in the identification of a total of 188 unique proteins. PMID:23585085

Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Zubiri, Irene; Posada-Ayala, Maria; Vivanco, Fernando



Micronucleated erythrocytes in newborn rats exposed to raltegravir placental transfer.  


The use of raltegravir in treating HIV/AIDS has been proposed due to its effectiveness in suppressing high loads of HIV RNA in pregnant women, thus preventing infection of the fetus. However, administration of raltegravir during pregnancy produces a compound which is transferred to high concentrations to the offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate the transplacental genotoxic effect of raltegravir in newborn rats. We evaluated the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), and polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in the peripheral blood samples of the offspring of Wistar rats treated 6 days before birth with oral administration of raltegravir. The animals were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: raltegravir at doses of 15, 30, or 60 mg/day, cyclophosphamide 10 mg/kg (positive control), or 0.5 ml of sterile water (negative control). In addition, the effect of these drugs on the weight and height of newborns was assessed. There were no differences in the number of MNE, MNPCE, and PCE, and a slight decrease in the weight and height was observed in the offspring of the rat mothers treated with raltegravir. Genotoxicity studies are required in pregnant women to determine the risk of using raltegravir to the fetuses. PMID:24977162

Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam; Coronado-Medina, Damharis Elizabeth; Gómez-Meda, Belinda Claudia; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés



Age related alterations of adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane.  


The aim of the study was the investigation of age-related functional alterations of adrenoreceptors and the effect of agonist and antagonist drugs on age related adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane. The impact of isopropanol and propanol on functional activity ?- adrenergic receptors in red blood cell membrane were studied in 50 practically healthy men--volunteers. (I group--75-89 years old, II group--22-30 years old). The EPR signals S1 and S2 were registered in red blood cell membrane samples after incubation with isopropanol and propanol respectively. It was found that decreasing sensitivity (functional activity) of red blood cells membrane adrenoreceptors comes with aging (S1olderythrocyte could be a new therapeutic marker in the treatment different diseases. PMID:21778543

Lomsadze, G; Khetsuriani, R; Arabuli, M; Intskirveli, N; Sanikidze, T



Encapsulation of rhodanese and organic thiosulfonates by mouse erythrocytes.  


A series of organic thiosulfonates were synthesized and studied as sulfur donor substrates for rhodanese encapsulated within murine carrier erythrocytes. Previous studies have indicated that resealed erythrocytes containing rhodanese (CRBC) and sodium thiosulfate can rapidly metabolize cyanide to the less toxic thiocyanate. This thiosulfate-rhodanese system was very efficacious as a new conceptual approach to antagonize cyanide intoxication both in vitro and in vivo. However, its potential is restricted because of the limited availability of thiosulfate due to its poor permeability through RBC membrane. Present studies suggest that there are advantages in using alternative sulfur donors, i.e., organic thiosulfonates in this rhodanese-containing resealed erythrocyte system, since these compounds have higher lipid solubility than inorganic thiosulfates and can readily penetrate the red blood cell membrane. Therefore, this system could provide a virtually unlimited amount of sulfur donor to the encapsulated rhodanese even if the substrates are in solution outside the cells. Moreover, the rhodanese reaction rate of any of these organic thiosulfonates is much faster than the rate observed with the classic cyanide antidote, sodium thiosulfate. This CRBC system will continue to detoxify cyanide even when these encapsulated sulfur donors are depleted, as the lipid soluble organic thiosulfonate outside the cells will diffuse past the membrane into the cell to replenish the sulfur donor. The encapsulation efficiency for rhodanese is about 30%, and the velocity of the rhodanese reaction increases linearly with the volume of enzyme-laden erythrocytes. Similarly, reaction velocity increases linearly with substrate concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7958565

Petrikovics, I; Pei, L; McGuinn, W D; Cannon, E P; Way, J L



Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.



Changes in mu opioid receptors and rheological properties of erythrocytes among opioid abusers.  


Opioids, reported originally to bind to specific receptors in the brain, now also appear to bind to receptors on blood cells. The high prevalence of anemia among chronic opioid users leads us to propose that chronic opiate use results in elevated mu opioid receptor levels on human erythrocytes and that these receptor changes may affect erythrocyte membrane properties. Blood samples from 17 opioid-dependent subjects (based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition or DSM-IV) and 15 drug-free controls were assayed for mu opioid receptors on erythrocytes using a flow cytometry immunoassay. Deformability and the hydration status of erythrocytes were studied by ektacytometry. Data were analyzed by independent t-tests, tests of correlation, chi square and cluster analyses. As expected, the percentage of erythrocytes from opioid-dependent subjects with opioid receptors (opioid receptor levels) was significantly higher (47.4 +/- 38.3%) than controls (22.8 +/- 30.1%) (t = 2.01, df = 30, p < 0.05). Also, the opioid-dependent patients showed a wide variation in the percentage of erythrocytes bearing opioid receptors and data analyses of these patients showed two strongly defined clusters. One subgroup consisted of nine individuals with very high receptor levels (mean = 81.5%) while the other had eight patients with low receptor levels (mean = 9.1%) that were not significantly different than the receptor levels of controls. Ektacytometry of opioid dependent patients with high opioid receptor levels showed changes in rheological parameters of erythrocytes, such as deformability index and cellular hydration. For example, a positive correlation was observed between opioid receptor levels and deformability indices among opioid-dependent patients (r = 0.74, p < 0.005). Our findings indicate that the mu opioid receptor is present on human erythrocytes, although with considerable variation in receptor levels, and that the levels of this receptor are significantly elevated with chronic opioid exposure. Moreover, erythrocytes with high opioid receptor levels from chronic opiate users seem to have high deformability. This study may offer clues to the biological properties of peripheral blood cells that may be mediated by mu opioid receptors and lead to a better understanding of some of the clinical effects of opioid use. PMID:12006216

Zeiger, Allen R; Patkar, Ashwin A; Fitzgerald, Raina; Lundy, Allan; Ballas, Samir K; Weinstein, Stephen P



Thalassemic erythrocytes release microparticles loaded with hemichromes by redox activation of p72Syk kinase  

PubMed Central

High counts of circulating microparticles, originated from the membrane of abnormal erythrocytes, have been associated with increased thrombotic risk in hemolytic disorders. Our studies indicate that in thalassemia intermedia patients the number of circulating microparticles correlates with the capability of the thalassemic erythrocytes to release microparticles. The microparticles are characteristically loaded with hemichromes formed by denatured ?-chains. This finding was substantiated by the positive correlation observed in thalassemia intermedia patients between the amount of hemichromes measured in erythrocytes, their capability to release microparticles and the levels of plasma hemichromes. We observed that hemichromes, following their binding to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3, induce the formation of disulfide band 3 dimers that are subsequently phosphorylated by p72Syk kinase. Phosphorylation of oxidized band 3 appears to be relevant for the formation of large hemichromes/band 3 clusters that, in turn, induce local membrane instability and the release of microparticles. Proteomic analysis of microparticles released from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes indicated that, besides hemichromes and clustered band 3, the microparticles contain a characteristic set of proteins that includes catalase, heat shock protein 70, peroxiredoxin 2 and carbonic anhydrase. High amounts of immunoglobulins and C3 have also been found to be associated with microparticles, accounting for their intense phagocytosis. The effect of p72Syk kinase inhibitors on the release of microparticles from thalassemia intermedia erythrocytes may indicate new perspectives for controlling the release of circulating microparticles in hemolytic anemias. PMID:24038029

Ferru, Emanuela; Pantaleo, Antonella; Carta, Franco; Mannu, Franca; Khadjavi, Amina; Gallo, Valentina; Ronzoni, Luisa; Graziadei, Giovanna; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Turrini, Francesco



Population study of erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR) was determined in a group of 87 prisoners from northern Thailand (65 with normal, 22 with deficient erythrocyte G-6-PD) without and with added FAD. The amount of stimulation by FAD was inversely related to the original activity suggesting that FAD stimulation in vivo is one of the main determinants of GR activity. 4

Gebhard Flatz



The erythrocyte acid phosphatase isoenzyme distribution among the negroid population of Rhodesia.  


The value of the erythrocyte acid phosphatase isoenzyme system as a method for blood typing in forensic science in Rhodesia has been evaluated. Three hundred and three blood samples from negroid people were examined. The high incidence of the B phenotype (72%) results in a poor division of the population using this system. The R allele which has been found in other negroid peoples also occurs in the Rhodesian population. PMID:447153

Kobus, H J; Fowler, J C



[Blood preservation. Bacteriological, immunohematological, hematological and hemorrheological studies].  


The knowledge of erythrocyte viability during blood bank storage period has been a major problem for transfusional practice. This problem must be considered by taking into account blood flowing properties which are directly related to the rheological properties of erythrocytes. The aim of this work was to perform an interdisciplinary study of the modifications induced in erythrocyte properties during 29 days storage of whole blood in a blood bank. Three samples of venous blood collected from healthy adults in plastic bags, anticoagulated with ACD (citric acid, citrate, dextrose) and stored at 4 degrees C were studied. Rheological properties (deformability, membrane elasticity and surface viscosity), immunohematological conditions (antigenicity) of erythrocytes, haematological index variation and bacteriological cultures of blood were weekly analysed. Rheological studies were performed using the Erythrodeformeter, a polymicroviscosimeter (paper filter) and erythrocyte filtration through polycarbonate membranes of 5 microns pore diameter. Impairment of membrane rheological properties, loss of antigenicity and decreases of Ht, Hb, MCHC and MHC were observed. Bacteriological cultures gave always negative results. The studies performed showed significant alterations of erythrocyte rheological parameters. It becomes evident that such modifications would influence the erythrocyte mechanical behavior in microcirculation and impair the in vivo viability of the transfused red cells. PMID:9577185

Rasia, R J; Valverde, J; García Rosasco, M



Studies on blood eosinophils. II. Patients with L?ffler's cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed Central

Studies were done on blood eosinophils from four patients with raised blood eosinophil counts and heart failure. In three of the patients cardiological studies demonstrated the distinctive endocardial lesions and restrictive cardiomyopathy of Löffler's endocarditis and endomyocardial fibrosis. The fourth patient died with similar symptoms and signs. In blood films it was found that all four had more than 1 X 10(9) eosinophils per litre which were vacuolated and contained reduced numbers of crystalloid granules which were also shown to have ultrastructural changes. Unlike eosinophils from normal individuals the patients' eosinophils possessed receptors for rabbit IgG-coated erythrocytes and actively phagocytosed erythrocytes coated with rabbit IgG or human C3b. It is concluded that in these patients, a large proportion of the circulating eosinophils had developed characteristics of mature or stimulated eosinophils. This enabled them to respond to soluble substances in the bloodstream by forming endocytic vacuoles which led to degranulation of the crystalloid granules. These studies, taken in conjunction with other recent work in this field, support the concept that the restrictive cardiomyopathy of hypereosinophilic states, including Löffler's endocarditis and endomyocardial fibrosis, is a result of prolonged release of products from degranulated eosinophils while they are in the circulation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 2c FIG. 3 PMID:939049

Spry, C J; Tai, P C



Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples

Laia Quirós; Xavier Ruiz; Carolina Sanpera; Lluis Jover; Benjamin Piña



Erythrocyte survival in children as studied by labeling with stable 50Cr.  


The survival of 50Cr- and 51Cr-labeled autologous and/or homologous erythrocytes was compared simultaneously in eight pediatric patients and one adult. 50Cr, a stable, nonradioactive nuclide, had values comparable to those of standard radioactive 51Cr labeling. The data also demonstrated the capability of 50Cr-51Cr labeling to reveal differences in survival between two populations of erythrocytes monitored simultaneously in the same individual. The technique permitted the use of the nonradioactive isotope in volumes of blood that are appropriate for the pediatric age group. PMID:984005

Glomski, C A; Pillay, K K; Macdougall, L G



AMPD3-deficient mice exhibit increased erythrocyte ATP levels but anemia not improved due to PK deficiency.  


AMP deaminase (AMPD) catalyzes AMP to IMP and plays an important role in energy charge and nucleotide metabolism. Human AMPD3 deficiency is a type of erythrocyte-specific enzyme deficiency found in individuals without clinical symptoms, although an increased level of ATP in erythrocytes has been reported. To better understand the physiological and pathological roles of AMPD3 deficiency, we established a line of AMPD3-deficient [A3(-/-)] mice. No AMPD activity and a high level of ATP were observed in erythrocytes of these mice, similar to human RBC-AMPD3 deficiency, while other characteristics were unremarkable. Next, we created AMPD3 and pyruvate kinase (PK) double-deficient [PKA(-/-,-/-)] mice by mating A3(-/-) mice with CBA-Pk-1slc/Pk-1slc mice [PK(-/-)], a spontaneous PK-deficient strain showing hemolytic anemia. In PKA(-/-,-/-) mice, the level of ATP in red blood cells was increased 1.5 times as compared to PK(-/-) mice, although hemolytic anemia in those animals was not improved. In addition, we observed osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in A3(-/-) mice under fasting conditions. In contrast, the ATP level in erythrocytes was elevated in A3(-/-) mice as compared to the control. In conclusion, AMPD3 deficiency increases the level of ATP in erythrocytes, but does not improve anemia due to PK deficiency and leads to erythrocyte dysfunction. PMID:23078545

Cheng, Jidong; Morisaki, Hiroko; Toyama, Keiko; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Morisaki, Takayuki



Nucleic acid distribution pattern in avian erythrocytes and mammalian lymphocytes: comparative studies by fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging analytical techniques.  


Nucleated erythrocytes of healthy domestic chicken and ducks, and lymphocytes of healthy Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated for nucleic acid distribution pattern, employing light and fluorescence microscopy procedures, as well as digital imaging analytical methods. The results demonstrate a unique organization of nuclear DNA of mature chicken and duck erythrocytes, as well as immature duck erythrocytes, as delineated spherical nuclear bodies that mostly corresponded with euchromatin zones of the cells in routine Wright-stain blood smears. The nuclear DNA of the rat lymphocytes, on the other hand, was observed as a more diffuse green fluorescing nuclear areas, with punctate variably-sized diffuse areas of RNA red fluorescence. RNA red color fluorescence was also evident in the narrow cytoplasm of the lymphocytes, especially in large lymphocytes, in comparison with the cytoplasm of the mature avian erythrocytes that completely lacked any nucleic acid fluorescence. Nuclear RNA fluorescence was lacking in the mature chicken erythrocytes, compared with those of the mature and immature duck erythrocytes as well as lymphocytes of both avian and rats blood. The significance of these findings lies in the establishment of normal benchmarks for the nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acid pattern in eukaryotic cells. These normal benchmarks become valuable in rapid diagnostic situations associated with pathologies, such as the presence of viral nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies that can alter the nucleic acid pattern of the host cells, and in conditions of cellular abnormal protein aggregations. Variability of cellular nucleic acid pattern can also aid in prognostic assessments of neoplastic conditions. PMID:18448142

Isitor, G N; Asgarali, Z; Pouching, K



Estimation of serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations in the New Zealand adult population within a background of voluntary folic acid fortification.  


National data on the blood folate status of New Zealand adults is lacking. The objective of this study was to describe the blood folate status and examine the predictors of blood folate status in a national sample of adults from New Zealand, a country with voluntary folic acid fortification. The 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey was a nationwide multistage systematic random cross-sectional survey. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were measured by microbiologic assay. The survey included 4721 participants aged ?15 y, 3359 of whom provided a nonfasting blood sample. Biochemical folate status was measured in 3277 participants. The median serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 23 and 809 nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency, defined as plasma folate <6.8 nmol/L or erythrocyte folate <305 nmol/L, was 2%. Having breakfast daily compared with never eating breakfast was associated with 53% higher serum and 25% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations; consumers of fortified yeast extract spread had 17% higher serum and 14% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations than nonconsumers; daily users of folate-containing supplements compared with nonusers had 48% higher serum and 28% higher erythrocyte folate concentrations. The prevalence of biochemical folate deficiency in New Zealand adults is low. Participants who ate breakfast more frequently, consumed folate-fortified yeast, or used a daily folate supplement had higher blood folate concentrations. PMID:24174623

Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Brown, Rachel C; Parnell, Winsome; Skeaff, C Murray




PubMed Central

A method was described for the partial purification of beta galactosidase and beta glucosaminidase from Clostridium tertium culture supernatants. Treatment of erythrocytes with preparations containing both enzymes decreases their ability to react with anti-I cold agglutinins, and with Type XIV antipneumococcal horse serum. Erythrocytes of blood group A1 are altered more rapidly and extensively than are group O cells. The enzymatic treatment of stroma results in a decrease in ability to absorb anti-I agglutinins and the release of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine as monosaccharides. The data suggest that these two sugars may be structural units of the erythrocyte I determinant, but no direct evidence is available. PMID:14074383

Marcus, Donald M.; Kabat, Elvin A.; Rosenfield, Richard E.





A method was described for the partial purification of beta galactosidase and beta glucosaminidase from Clostridium tertium culture supernatants. Treatment of erythrocytes with preparations containing both enzymes decreases their ability to react with anti-I cold agglutinins, and with Type XIV antipneumococcal horse serum. Erythrocytes of blood group A(1) are altered more rapidly and extensively than are group O cells. The enzymatic treatment of stroma results in a decrease in ability to absorb anti-I agglutinins and the release of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine as monosaccharides. The data suggest that these two sugars may be structural units of the erythrocyte I determinant, but no direct evidence is available. PMID:14074383




High blood pressure tests (image)  


Routine lab tests are recommended before beginning treatment of high blood pressure to determine organ or tissue damage or other risk factors. These lab tests include urinalysis, blood cell count, ...


[The genetic markers and morphology of erythrocytes in the clinical manifestation of chronic obstructive bronchitis].  


The aim of the study was to investigate genetic characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) using classic biochemical markers, their contribution to the development and course of the disease, and morphological peculiarities of erythrocytes in these patients. The subjects were 60 COB patients and 50 practically healthy people; their serum samples were studied. The following classic biochemical markers were investigated: haptoglobin; transferrin; C3 compliment component; group-specific component; ABO blood systems and Rh-factor. Erythrocytometry of blood smears was performed upon admission and before discharge. The study evaluated the contribution of heredity to the forming of COB and established specific genetic markers of predisposition to the development of COB and certain features of its clinical course; the condition of peripheral blood erythrocytes in COB patients was studied. PMID:16512391

Kuz'mina, O A; Afanas'ev, Iu I; Churnosov, M I



Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.



Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))



Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and ?-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6–26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., “positive controls”), and healthy controls (i.e., “negative controls”). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane ?-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and ?-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef



The Functional Significance of the Rho/Rho-Kinase Pathway in Human Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Erythrocyte deformability, which can be influenced by various intracellular signaling mechanisms, such as nitric oxide, cAMP, cGMP, and protein kinases, is the most important physiological factor providing the blood flow in microcirculation. However, the functional significance of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway, which contributes cell shape changes and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, has yet to be explored in erythrocytes. Therefore, we examined the influence of several activators and inhibitors of Rho/Rho-kinase signaling on human erythrocyte deformability. Materials and Methods: RhoA and ROCK-2 proteins were studied by western blotting. Influences of 2 Rho-kinase inhibitors, fasudil and Y-27632 (both 10-7 to 10-4 M), on erythrocyte deformability was determined by ektacytometer at various shear stresses (0-30 Pa) in the presence or absence of a known Rho activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 10-5 to 5x10-5 M, 1-15 min). Results: LPA incubation reduced deformability with concomitant RhoA-GTP inhibition. Y-27632 and fasudil also decreased deformability, but had no effect on LPA-induced reduction of deformability. Rho inhibitor C3 had no effect on RhoA activation. Reduction in RhoA activation was induced by sub-hemolytic mechanical stress. Conclusion: Our findings may indicate that the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway could contribute to the regulation of deformability of human erythrocytes. PMID:25035675

Tiftik, R. Nalan; Baskurt, Oguz K.; Kul, Seval; Buyukafsar, Kansu



Interaction of curcumin nanoformulations with human plasma proteins and erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies report curcumin nanoformulation(s) based on polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), ?-cyclodextrin, cellulose, nanogel, and dendrimers to have anticancer potential. However, no comparative data are currently available for the interaction of curcumin nanoformulations with blood proteins and erythrocytes. The objective of this study was to examine the interaction of curcumin nanoformulations with cancer cells, serum proteins, and human red blood cells, and to assess their potential application for in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. Methods The cellular uptake of curcumin nanoformulations was assessed by measuring curcumin levels in cancer cells using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. Protein interaction studies were conducted using particle size analysis, zeta potential, and Western blot techniques. Curcumin nanoformulations were incubated with human red blood cells to evaluate their acute toxicity and hemocompatibility. Results Cellular uptake of curcumin nanoformulations by cancer cells demonstrated preferential uptake versus free curcumin. Particle sizes and zeta potentials of curucumin nanoformulations were varied after human serum albumin adsorption. A remarkable capacity of the dendrimer curcumin nanoformulation to bind to plasma protein was observed, while the other formulations showed minimal binding capacity. Dendrimer curcumin nanoformulations also showed higher toxicity to red blood cells compared with the other curcumin nanoformulations. Conclusion PLGA and nanogel curcumin nanoformulations appear to be very compatible with erythrocytes and have low serum protein binding characteristics, which suggests that they may be suitable for application in the treatment of malignancy. These findings advance our understanding of the characteristics of curcumin nanoformulations, a necessary component in harnessing and implementing improved in vivo effects of curcumin. PMID:22128249

Yallapu, Murali Mohan; Ebeling, Mara C; Chauhan, Neeraj; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C



Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss  

SciTech Connect

Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13, range 3.6-10.3 Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29, 1.2-14 comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31, 5.3-8.6 The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39, 2.08-39.35 Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.




EPA Science Inventory

Ozone has been reported to produce a variety of extrapulmonary effects including changes in the specific activity of some erythrocyte enzymes. Buckley et al. (1975) reported statistically significant extrapulmonary changes in a number of human volunteers experimentally exposed to...


Superoxide dismutase activity decreases during erythrocyte aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Superoxide dismutase activity was determined by the adrenalin method in bovine erythrocytes separated according to age. Progressive loss of the enzyme activity was found, down to ca 65% of that of the youngest cells.

G. Bartosz; Ch. Tannert; R. Fried; W. Leyko



Erythrocyte disorders in the perinatal period.  


Anemia is a commonly encountered problem in the fetal and neonatal period, and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Intrinsic disorders of the erythrocyte, such as the hemoglobinopathies, enzyme deficiencies, and membrane defects are common causes of neonatal anemia. Genetic diseases that lead to decreased erythrocyte production, such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, and Congential Dyserythropoietic Anemia, are rare causes of perinatal anemia, but are important to recognize as they are often associated with other congenital abnormalities and require specialized treatment. This review focuses on the perinatal presentation and management of intrinsic erythrocyte disorders, as well as on the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions leading to erythrocyte underproduction. PMID:17825683

Steiner, Laurie A; Gallagher, Patrick G



Inhibition of erythrocyte “apoptosis” by catecholamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic shock, oxidative stress and Cl? removal activate a non-selective Ca2+-permeable cation conductance in human erythrocytes. The entry of Ca2+ leads to activation of a scramblase with subsequent exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Phosphatidylserine\\u000a mediates binding to phosphatidylserine receptors on macrophages which engulf and degrade phosphatidylserine exposing cells.\\u000a Moreover, phosphatidylserine exposure may lead to adherence of erythrocytes to

Philipp A. Lang; Daniela S. Kempe; Ahmad Akel; Barbara A. Klarl; Kerstin Eisele; Marlies Podolski; Tobias Hermle; Olivier M. Niemoeller; Philipp Attanasio; Stephan M. Huber; Thomas Wieder; Florian Lang; Christophe Duranton



Deformability analysis of sickle blood using ektacytometry.  


Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by decreased erythrocyte deformability, microvessel occlusion and severe painful infarctions of different organs. Ektacytometry of SCD red blood cells (RBC) is made difficult by the presence of rigid, poorly-deformable irreversibly sickled cells (ISC) that do not align with the fluid shear field and distort the elliptical diffraction pattern seen with normal RBC. In operation, the computer software fits an outline to the diffraction pattern, then reports an elongation index (EI) at each shear stress based on the length and width of the fitted ellipse: EI=(length-width)/(length+width). Using a commercial ektacytometer (LORCA, Mechatronics Instruments, The Netherlands) we have approached the problem of ellipse fitting in two ways: (1) altering the height of the diffraction image on a computer monitor using an aperture within the camera lens; (2) altering the light intensity level (gray level) used by the software to fit the image to an elliptical shape. Neither of these methods affected deformability results (elongation index-shear stress relations) for normal RBC but did markedly affect results for SCD erythrocytes: (1) decreasing image height by 15% and 30% increased EI at moderate to high stresses; (2) progressively increasing the light level increased EI over a wide range of stresses. Fitting data obtained at different image heights using the Lineweaver-Burke routine yielded percentage ISC results in good agreement with microscopic cell counting. We suggest that these two relatively simple approaches allow minimizing artifacts due to the presence of rigid discs or ISC and also suggest the need for additional studies to evaluate the physiological relevance of deformability data obtained via these methods. PMID:24898336

Rabai, Miklos; Detterich, Jon A; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Hernandez, Tatiana M; Toth, Kalman; Meiselman, Herbert J; Wood, John C



WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  


... occur with bacterial infection, leukemia , myelodysplastic disorders, or myeloproliferative neoplasms , for example. Some immature cells that may be ... g., autoimmune disorders , immune deficiency) Leukemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Myeloproliferative neoplasms Some diseases trigger a response by the immune ...


Low white blood cell count and cancer  


... blisters. Pain in your stomach area. A very bad headache or one that does not go away. ... pdf/neutropenia.pdf. Accessed July 29, 2013. Managing chemotherapy side effects. Nation Cancer Institute Web site. http:// ...


Blood Lipids, Infection, and Inflammatory Markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets. Methods We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20–84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and village region. Results Most of the Tsimane (60%) carried at least one parasite species, averaging 1.3 species per person. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were below the U.S. norms and varied inversely with markers of infection and inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin (Ig) E and eosinophil count. Although no relationship of parasite load to blood-C was found, there was an association between anemia and parasite prevalence. Conclusions We conclude that the highly infected environment of the Tsimane is related to low levels of blood total-C, HDL-C, and LDL-C. This may suggest a potential reason why arterial disease is largely absent in the Tsimane. PMID:20721985

Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Kim, Jung KI; Winking, Jeff; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Finch, Caleb E.



In vitro effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on blood: a quantitative and morphologic analysis.  


Use of the Neodymium: yttrium -aluminum -garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to recanalize stenosed arteries may require delivery of the beam through blood. To assess the degree of hemolysis and debris formation, 54 samples of citrated whole blood were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation of varying powers (10, 20 and 30 watts) and duration (1, 2.5 and 5 seconds). Compared to control samples which were not subjected to laser light, there was no significant decrease in hematocrit (41 to 40.5 +/- 5%), hemoglobin concentration (13.8 to 13.8 +/- .06 g/1OO ml), or increase in "free" hemoglobin concentration. Debris weight (from .45 +/- .002 to .45 +/- .002 mg), as well as the white blood cell count, was also not significantly changed (from 5,400 to 5,200 +/- 240 WBC/cm). Light microscopy examination of debris from samples of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma subjected to the laser at 30 watts for five seconds failed to demonstrate the presence of membrane denaturation of blood elements, as compared with the morphologic changes observed in whole blood samples exposed to a "hot tip" rather than Nd:YAG laser radiation. Nd:YAG laser can be used intravascularly without fear of hemolysis or debris "micro-embolization" up to a power of 30 watts for five seconds. PMID:3228540

Borrero, E; Rosenthal, D; Otis, J B



Characterization of erythrocytic indices and serum iron values in healthy llamas.  


An electronic particle counter with attached particle-size analyzer was configured to directly determine concentration, mean cell volume, and volume distribution of erythrocytes in llama blood. Blood from 38 healthy llamas was used to characterize erythrocytic measurements and serum iron values for this species. Volume distribution curves for llama erythrocytes were similar in shape to those of other species. These curves had a unimodal, symmetric shape with a tail skewed to the right. Reference ranges for directly measured mean cell volume, erythrocyte concentration, hemoglobin concentration, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were 21 to 28 fl, 11.3 x to 17.5 x 10(6) cells/microliters, 12.8 to 17.6 g/dl, and 43.2 to 46.6 g/dl, respectively. Reference ranges for serum iron concentration, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were determined to be 70 to 148 micrograms/dl, 230 to 370 micrograms/dl, and 22 to 50%, respectively. PMID:1456519

Weiser, M G; Fettman, M J; Van Houten, D; Johnson, L; Garry, F



End products of lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes in Alzheimer's disease.  


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by oxidative stress in the brain. Because the brain tissue is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is prone to the free radical attack resulting in lipid peroxidation. Intermediates of lipid peroxidation may diffuse from the primary site, cross the blood-brain barrier and modify erythrocyte membranes in the bloodstream. We exposed isolated erythrocyte membranes from patients with AD and the control group to in vitro free radical damage and monitored the accumulation of the end products of lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs), by fluorescence spectroscopy. LFPs were analyzed by means of tridimensional and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The levels of LFP formed during in vitro peroxidation were significantly higher in erythrocyte membranes from patients with AD compared with the control group. Furthermore, the chemical composition of LFP in AD was different from the control group. The analysis of the specific modifications of erythrocyte membranes in AD is of great medical importance regarding the need of a diagnostic blood biomarker. PMID:22161584

Skoumalová, Alice; Mádlová, Pavla; Topinková, Eva



Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.


Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.  


This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices. PMID:24292848

Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev



Influence of aluminium on erythropoiesis, iron metabolism and some functional characteristics of erythrocytes in rats.  


The increased aluminium (Al) levels in serum of patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis are associated with impaired erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The long term Al loading of rats (20 to 90 days) has similar effect. Data are still lacking about the effects after short-term aluminium treatment. The 7 day's treatment with Al2(SO4)3 in a dose 67.5 mg/kg b. w., i. m. m. significantly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, incorporation of 59Fe in newly formed erythrocytes and increased reticulocytes in absolute and relative counts. We observed a mild degree hypochromic, ferropenic, microcytic anemia and polychromazia in the available macrocytes. The immature erythroblasts were predominant forms in the erythroblastogram while the number of mature erythroblasts was decreased. Index of maturation of erythroblasts was lower, indicating inhibited erythroblast maturation. Plasma iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation and 59Fe absorption in the experimental group were significantly decreased. Spontaneous and mechanical hemolysis of erythrocytes were lower while erythrocyte deformability was increased. Obviously, Al treatment inhibits erythropoiesis and iron metabolism, probably hinders hemoglobin synthesis and erythroid cell maturation but does not affect the studied functional characteristics of mature erythrocytes negatively. PMID:10347617

Ganchev, T; Dyankov, E; Zacharieva, R; Pachalieva, I; Velikova, M; Kavaldjieva, B



Conductometric study of erythrocytes during centrifugation. I. Size distribution of erythrocytes.  


Sedimentation of hardened erythrocytes in a centrifugal field was studied by time recording of the current chamber in the longitudinal and the transversal directions relative to the cells' movement. The results clearly indicate the existence of an erythrocyte concentration profile during centrifugation. The rates of both longitudinal and transversal current alteration increase with centripetal acceleration and with falling cell concentration. The pellet formed from hardened cells represents virtually incompressible body. It is shown that erythrocyte shape affects the pellet conductivity. Analysis of the data using the modified Stokes' law enables calculation of the cell size distribution. The modal size of macrocytes, normal erythrocytes and two samples of microcytes thus measured was 3.40, 3.01, 2.63 and 2.83 microns, respectively. These data demonstrate that conductometric analysis is useful for investigating abnormalities in erythrocyte size. PMID:7766697

Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N



Neutrophil-mediated oxidation of erythrocyte peroxiredoxin 2 as a potential marker of oxidative stress in inflammation.  


Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is an abundant thiol protein in erythrocytes. It is oxidized readily on exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and provides antioxidant protection by cycling between its reduced and disulfide-bonded forms. To test whether Prx2 oxidation could occur in pathological situations where neutrophils are activated, we exposed human erythrocytes to stimulated neutrophils and measured Prx2 oxidation by immunoblotting of nonreducing gels. With phorbol myristate acetate, lipopolysaccharide or Staphylococcus aureus Prx2 dimer increased from <5% to up to 100% depending on neutrophil number and incubation time. Studies with inhibitors and myeloperoxidase-deficient neutrophils showed that H2O2 generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase was responsible. Prx2 oxidation was detected at erythrocyte:neutrophil ratios found in blood and reversed over time as the oxidative burst subsided. Acidotic conditions also increased erythrocyte Prx2 oxidation. In a mouse model of endotoxemia induced by lipopolysaccharide, oxidized Prx2 increased transiently from <1 to 15%, then reverted to baseline by 24 h. No increase was seen in mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity. These results indicate that erythrocyte Prx2 scavenges H2O2 produced during inflammation. Oxidized erythrocyte Prx2 could be a sensitive real-time marker of systemic neutrophil activation and an early indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23603832

Bayer, Simone B; Maghzal, Ghassan; Stocker, Roland; Hampton, Mark B; Winterbourn, Christine C



Binding of a new vinca alkaloid derivative, S12363, to human plasma proteins and platelets. Usefulness of an erythrocyte partitioning technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of S12363 with human plasma proteins have been investigatedin vitro by an erythrocyte partitioning technique that allows a quantitative estimation of the plasma and erythrocytes binding. S12363 was 85–95% plasma-bound and 97–98% blood-bound. The main binding protein in plasma was alpha-acid glycoprotein, with a binding constant of 0.6·106 M-1, accounting for 70% of total S12363 in plasma. Owing

Saïk Urien; Gérard Bastian; Catherine Lucas; Jean-Pierre Bizzari; Jean-Paul Tillement



Coenzyme Q 10 in plasma and erythrocytes: comparison of antioxidant levels in healthy probands after oral supplementation and in patients suffering from sickle cell anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The membrane-associated antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or ubiquinone-10 is frequently measured in serum or plasma. However, little is known about the total contents or redox status of CoQ10 in blood cells. Methods: We have developed a method for determination of CoQ10 in erythrocytes. Total CoQ10 in erythrocytes was compared to the amounts of ubiquinone-10 and ubihydroquinone-10 in plasma using

Petra Niklowitz; Thomas Menke; Thomas Wiesel; Ertan Mayatepek; Johannes Zschocke; Jürgen G Okun; Werner Andler



LIN28A Expression Reduces Sickling of Cultured Human Erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) has therapeutic importance for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and the beta-thalassemias. It was recently reported that increased expression of LIN28 proteins or decreased expression of its target let-7 miRNAs enhances HbF levels in cultured primary human erythroblasts from adult healthy donors. Here LIN28A effects were studied further using erythrocytes cultured from peripheral blood progenitor cells of pediatric subjects with SCD. Transgenic expression of LIN28A was accomplished by lentiviral transduction in CD34(+) sickle cells cultivated ex vivo in serum-free medium. LIN28A over-expression (LIN28A-OE) increased HbF, reduced beta (sickle)-globin, and strongly suppressed all members of the let-7 family of miRNAs. LIN28A-OE did not affect erythroblast differentiation or prevent enucleation, but it significantly reduced or ameliorated the sickling morphologies of the enucleated erythrocytes. PMID:25188417

de Vasconcellos, Jaira F.; Fasano, Ross M.; Lee, Y. Terry; Kaushal, Megha; Byrnes, Colleen; Meier, Emily R.; Anderson, Molly; Rabel, Antoinette; Braylan, Raul; Stroncek, David F.; Miller, Jeffery L.



Influence of hot environments on some blood variables of sheep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-two Polwarth sheep of ages up to 1 year were observed under temperatures varying from 10.5 to 46.5°C. The following blood cell counts were made: erythrocyte (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), eosinophil (EOS), neutrophil (NEU), lymphocyte (LYM) and monocyte (MON). Other traits measured were: haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HT), blood glucose (GLU) and serum protein (PROT). Multivariate analysis of variance was used and the results showed a significant ( P<0.001) effect for the interaction of shearing and temperature treatment. Under temperatures >25°C, sheep presented a decrease of RBC, WBC, HB and HT, these differences being greater in the shorn than in the unshorn animals. Unshorn animals presented higher variations in EOS, NEU, LYM, MON and GLU. Blood glucose increased under high temperatures in the shorn animals (from 56.36±0.65 mg/100 ml to 60.52±0.69 mg/100 ml) as in the unshorn animals (from 54.72±0.74 mg/100 ml to 57.56±0.77 mg/100 ml).

Gomes da Silva, Roberto; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus J. R.; Silva Sobrinho, Américo G.



Distribution of actin of the human erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton after interaction with radiographic contrast media.  


A type-dependent chemotoxic effect of radiographic contrast media on erythrocytes and endothelial cells was reported several times. While mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear the cellular reactions e.g. echinocyte formation in erythrocytes and the buckling of endothelial cells coincided with deterioration of capillary perfusion (in patients with coronary artery disease) and tissue oxygen tension (in the myocardium of pigs). Whether the shape changes in erythrocytes coincide with changes in the arrangement of actin, the core of the actin-spectrin cytoskeletal network and possible actor in membrane stresses and deformation is not known until now. To get specific informations actin was stained using two different staining methods (antibodies to ?-actin staining oligomeric G-actin and polymeric F-actin and Phalloidin-Rhodamin staining polymeric F-actin only). In addition, an advanced version of confocal laser scanning microscopes was used enabling the display of the actin arrangement near substrate surfaces. Blood smears were produced after erythrocyte suspension in autologous plasma or in two different plasma/RCM mixtures. In this study an even homogenous distribution of fine grained globular actin in the normal human erythrocyte could be demonstrated. After suspension of erythrocytes in a plasma/Iodixanol mixture an increased number of membrane protrusions appeared densely filled with intensely stained actin similar to cells suspended in autologous plasma, however, there in less numbers. Suspension in Iopromide, in contrast, induced a complete reorganization of the cytoskeletal actin: the fine grained globular actin distribution disappeared and only few, long and thick actin filaments bundled and possibly polymerized appeared, instead, shown here for the first time. PMID:24113505

Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Krüger, A; Wenzel, F; Mrowietz, C; Jung, F



Modeling blood flow in pulmonary capillary networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Understanding the mechanisms of perfusion in pulmonary capillary networks is essential for understanding gas exchange between\\u000a air and blood. A two-phase-fluid model was developed to investigate mechanisms of blood perfusion and distribution of erythrocytes\\u000a in the capillary of the lung. Rheological investigation of the model fluid was performed showing non-Newtonian behavior of\\u000a the model. The flow around red blood cell

S. Weber; M. Bonfantini; K. Schirrmann; U. Kertzscher; K. Affeld


Decreased Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Erythrocytes and Leukocytes in Fanconi’s Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined in the erythrocytes and leukocytes of 5 patients with Fanconi’s anemia (FA) and 1 with atypical Fanconi’s anemia without any hematological disorder. SOD activity was decreased in the blood cells of the patients with Fanconi’s anemia, but was normal in the atypical patient. The influence of SOD on the chromosome aberrations and hematological disorder

Kazunori Yoshimitsu; Yohnosuke Kobayashi; Tomofusa Usui



[The control mechanisms of the electrokinetic properties of human erythrocytes in emotional stress].  


A study was made of the influence of psycho-emotional strain, experienced by students when taking examinations, on the erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility (EPM). It has been shown that students under psycho-emotional strain the mean value of EPM remains the same, but changes were observed in the form of EPM distribution, while estimated by asymmetry and excession coefficients. Similar results were obtained when adrenalin was added to the blood. PMID:8669133

Matiushichev, V B; Shamratova, V G; Gutsaeva, D R



Antigenic variation of parasite-derived antigens on the surface of Babesia bovis-infected erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

The hemoparasite Babesia bovis antigenically alters the bovine erythrocyte membrane surface by expression of isolate-specific, parasite-derived polypeptides. To determine whether antigenic variation also occurred on the infected erythrocyte surface, a calf was infected once with parasitized erythrocytes carrying the C9.1 clonal line of B. bovis. In vitro cultures then were established periodically from the peripheral blood and analyzed with sequentially collected sera from the same animal. The surface reactivity of infected erythrocytes cultured from the infected animal varied over time, on the basis of reactivity in live cell immunofluorescence, surface immunoprecipitation, and panning assays. Subclones C8 and H10, established from day 41 cultures, were analyzed immunochemically. A loss of immunoreactivity was observed in antigens corresponding to the 113- and 128-kDa parasite-derived antigens of clone C9.1, demonstrating epitopic variation in these antigens; the immunochemical recognition of these antigens paralleled the results of live cell immunofluorescence and panning assays. Concomitant size polymorphism suggested polypeptide structural variation of these antigens as well. Calves infected by inoculation of infected blood or by injection of cloned parasites from in vitro cultures rapidly developed antibodies which cross-reacted among the clonal variant lines, suggesting the presence of common as well as unique epitopes. These results demonstrate that antigenic variation occurs on the surface of B. bovis-infected erythrocytes and that the parasite-derived antigens of 113 and 128 kDa compose at least a part of the antigens undergoing variation. Images PMID:8262654

Allred, D R; Cinque, R M; Lane, T J; Ahrens, K P



Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

Kocan, R.M.



Clinical, haematological and biochemical responses of sheep undergoing autologous blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, haematological and biochemical responses to autologous blood transfusion and the feasibility of this practice in sheep. Thus, we used eight male, 8?months old sheep, weighing on average 30?kg, from which 15?mL/kg of whole blood was collected and stored in CPDA-1 bags. Blood samples were refrigerated for 8?days and subsequently re-infused. The clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated before blood collection and reinfusion, after 10 minutes of collection and reinfusion, after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 hours after collection and reinfusion. Results With respect to clinical parameters, we observed a decrease in heart rate after 24, 48 and 196 hours from reinfusion compared to basal values (p?erythrocyte counts showed a significant decrease (p?blood collection. PMID:22607611



Erythrocytic and leukocytic responses to cadmium poisoning in freshwater fish, Puntius conchonius Ham  

SciTech Connect

Chronically sublethal concentrations of cadmium caused conspicuous hematological anomalies in the cyprinid fish, Puntius conchonius. Exposure to 0.63 and 0.84 mg/liter cadmium chloride (1/20 and 1/15 of 96-hr LC/sub 50/) induced morphological aberrations in mature erythrocytes including cytoplasmic vacuolation, hypochromia, deterioration of cellular membrane, basophilic stippling of cytoplasm, clumping of chromatin material and extrusion of nuclei, and schistocytosis. Anomalous basophils and monocytes were also encountered though less frequently. Decreased erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values were also associated with chronic cadmium poisoning. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume increased (30 days) but mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration showed no obvious change. A significant thrombocytopenia (90 days), elevated small lymphocyte and basophil populations, and a mild neutropenia were manifested in the cadmium-exposed fish. Large lymphocytes were not significantly affected.

Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C.



Metabolism of acetylcholine in human erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the possible role of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase in the maintenance of membrane phospholipid content and membrane fluidity, experiments were performed to monitor the activity of the enzyme and follow the fate of one of its hydrolytic products, choline. Intact human erythrocytes were incubated with acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C). The incubation resulted in the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to acetate and choline; the reaction was catalyzed by membrane acetylcholinesterase. The studies demonstrate the further metabolism of choline. Experiments were carried out to determine rate of hydrolysis of acetylcholine, uptake of choline, identification of intracellular metabolites of choline, and identification of radiolabeled membrane components. Erythrocytes at a 25% hematocrit were incubated in an isoosmotic bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4, containing glucose, adenosine, streptomycin and penicillin with 0.3 {mu}Ci of acetylcholine (choline methyl-{sup 14}C), for 24 hours. Aliquots of the erythrocyte suspension were taken throughout for analysis. Erythrocytes were washed free of excess substrate, lysed, and the hemolysate was extracted for choline and its metabolites. Blank samples containing incubation buffer and radiolabeled acetylcholine only, and erythrocyte hemolysate extracts were analyzed for choline content, the difference between blank samples and hemolysate extracts was the amount of choline originating from acetylcholine and attributable to acetylcholinesterase activity. The conversion of choline to {sup 14}C-betaine is noted after several minutes of incubation; at 30 minutes, more than 80% of {sup 14}C-choline is taken up and after several hours, detectable levels of radiolabeled S-adenosylmethionine were present in the hemolysate extract.

Chapman, E.S.



Python erythrocytes are resistant to ?-hemolysin from Escherichia coli.  


?-Hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli lyses mammalian erythrocytes by creating nonselective cation pores in the membrane. Pore insertion triggers ATP release and subsequent P2X receptor and pannexin channel activation. Blockage of either P2X receptors or pannexin channels reduces HlyA-induced hemolysis. We found that erythrocytes from Python regius and Python molurus are remarkably resistant to HlyA-induced hemolysis compared to human and Trachemys scripta erythrocytes. HlyA concentrations that induced maximal hemolysis of human erythrocytes did not affect python erythrocytes, but increasing the HlyA concentration 40-fold did induce hemolysis. Python erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress than human erythrocytes, but osmotic stress tolerance per se did not confer HlyA resistance. Erythrocytes from T. scripta, which showed higher osmotic resistance than python erythrocytes, were as susceptible to HlyA as human erythrocytes. Therefore, we tested whether python erythrocytes lack the purinergic signalling known to amplify HlyA-induced hemolysis in human erythrocytes. P. regius erythrocytes increased intracellular Ca²? concentration and reduced cell volume when exposed to 3 mM ATP, indicating the presence of a P2X?-like receptor. In addition, scavenging extracellular ATP or blocking P2 receptors or pannexin channels reduced the HlyA-induced hemolysis. We tested whether the low HlyA sensitivity resulted from low affinity of HlyA to the python erythrocyte membrane. We found comparable incorporation of HlyA into human and python erythrocyte membranes. Taken together, the remarkable HlyA resistance of python erythrocytes was not explained by increased osmotic resistance, lack of purinergic hemolysis amplification, or differences in HlyA affinity. PMID:22064954

Larsen, Casper K; Skals, Marianne; Wang, Tobias; Cheema, Muhammad U; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A



Membrane-Wrapping Contributions to Malaria Parasite Invasion of the Human Erythrocyte  

PubMed Central

The blood stage malaria parasite, the merozoite, has a small window of opportunity during which it must successfully target and invade a human erythrocyte. The process of invasion is nonetheless remarkably rapid. To date, mechanistic models of invasion have focused predominantly on the parasite actomyosin motor contribution to the energetics of entry. Here, we have conducted a numerical analysis using dimensions for an archetypal merozoite to predict the respective contributions of the host-parasite interactions to invasion, in particular the role of membrane wrapping. Our theoretical modeling demonstrates that erythrocyte membrane wrapping alone, as a function of merozoite adhesive and shape properties, is sufficient to entirely account for the first key step of the invasion process, that of merozoite reorientation to its apex and tight adhesive linkage between the two cells. Next, parasite-induced reorganization of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and release of parasite-derived membrane can also account for a considerable energetic portion of actual invasion itself, through membrane wrapping. Thus, contrary to the prevailing dogma, wrapping by the erythrocyte combined with parasite-derived membrane release can markedly reduce the expected contributions of the merozoite actomyosin motor to invasion. We therefore propose that invasion is a balance between parasite and host cell contributions, evolved toward maximal efficient use of biophysical forces between the two cells. PMID:24988340

Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Satchwell, Timothy J.; Hanssen, Eric; Zuccala, Elizabeth S.; Riglar, David T.; Toye, Ashley M.; Betz, Timo; Baum, Jake; Gompper, Gerhard



Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Hongxia [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Chen, Yong [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Xun [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ma, Shuyuan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ye, Hongyan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai, Jiye, E-mail: [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)



Estimation of cell membrane properties and erythrocyte red-ox balance in patients with metabolic syndrome.  


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with occurrence of the many cardiovascular risk factors such as atherogenic dyslipidemia, visceral fat distribution, arterial hypertension and pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory status. In our study the effect of disorders that appear in MS on red-ox balance and erythrocyte cell membrane properties were estimated. The study comprised 50 patients with diagnosed MS and in 25 healthy subjects. Content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity were estimated in red blood cells. Moreover, conformation status of membrane proteins, membrane fluidity and osmotic fragility were evaluated. MS was found to manifest: (1) the increase of the concentration of TBARS in erythrocytes with no statistically significant differences in antioxidant enzymes activity, (2) disorders in the structure of erythrocyte cytoskeleton proteins, (3) the increase in membrane lipids fluidity at the depth of 5th and 12th carbon atom of fatty acid hydrocarbon chain and significantly decreased fluidity at the depth of 16th carbon atom, (4) increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility. PMID:23053998

Kowalczyk, Edward; Kowalski, Jan; B?aszczyk, Jan; Gwo?dzi?ski, ?ukasz; Cie?wierz, Julita; Sienkiewicz, Monika



Membrane solubilization in erythrocytes as a measure of radiation exposure to fast neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane solubilization and osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes irradiated in vivo with fast neutron fluences ranging from to using a source were measured instantaneously using a light scattering technique. The solubilization of erythrocyte membrane by a non-ionic detergent, octylglucoside (OG), was found to exhibit a two stage transition from vesicular form to mixed micellar form in the range of detergent concentrations 1.5-7.8 mM. The coexistence phase, vesicular/mixed micellar, was shifted towards higher detergent concentrations with increase in the neutron fluence, indicating increasing membrane resistance to the detergent and hence change in the natural membrane permeation properties. The technique shows an adequate sensitivity in detecting membrane damage in erythrocytes and has potential as a biophysical marker of radiation exposure. The osmotic fragility of irradiated erythrocytes shows a decreasing trend with increasing irradiation fluence measured directly and two weeks post-irradiation. Blood films photographed two weeks post-irradiation show developed elliptocytosis and crenated cell anaemia.

Soltan Monem, A.; Ali, Fadel M.; Al-thani, Noura J. J.; Ali, Samira A.



Structural and dynamic states of actin in the erythrocyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the nucleotide tightly associated with isolated erythrocyte cytoskeletons shows it to be ADP, rather then ATP. This confirms that at least a major part of the erythrocyte actin is in the F-form. A re-evaluation of the stoichiometry of spectrin and actin in the erythrocyte (taking account of a gross difference between the color responses of the two proteins




Osmotic Equilibria in Human Erythrocytes Studied by Immersion Refractometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data are presented on volume-osmotic pressure relationships at equilibrium in human erythrocytes. The inadequacy of previous theoretical treatments of the subject is pointed out and a new theoretical approach is presented. The refractive index of the erythrocyte gives a direct measure of its solid concentration, and the volume is estimated as the reciprocal of concentration. The erythrocyte volume was

D. A. T. Dick; Leah M. Lowenstein



Tissues distribution of heavy metals and erythrocytes antioxidant status in rats exposed to Nigerian bonny light crude oil.  


The harmful effects of folkloric uses of Nigerian bonny light crude oil (BLCO) in ailments management may outweigh the expected beneficial effects. We investigated the levels of heavy metal concentrations in the tissues as well as the effect of BLCO on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes of rats after oral exposure to 0, 200 and 800 mg/kg BLCO for 7 days. Analysis of heavy metal concentrations in BLCO showed that Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu > Ni. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the tissues is blood-Fe > Pb >Zn whereas Cu and Ni levels were not affected; Liver-Ni > Zn > Fe > Cu > Pb and Testes-Ni > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe. The order of concentration of the metals in the tissues is as follows: iron-blood > liver > testes; zinc-liver > blood > testes; lead-blood > liver > testes; copper-testes > liver > blood; nickel-liver > testes > blood. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes of erythrocytes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner with significant elevation in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels, whereas glutathione level was not significantly decreased in BLCO-treated animals. Collectively, the results showed that BLCO induces oxidative damage to erythrocytes of rats. PMID:22082827

Adedara, Isaac A; Ebokaiwe, Azubike P; Farombi, Ebenezer O



The Big Pumpkin Count.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny



ABO System Dependence Of Erythrocyte Crenation By Low Power He-Ne Laser Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of erythrocytes of different ABO groups, diluted in normal saline, were irradiated with high concentrated low power He-Ne Laser beam during 30 minutes. By microscopic observations made every 5 minutes the crenation time history of the irradiated red cells were determined. Assuming the crenation to have two sequential steps, experimental data of the rate constants for each of two steps of each blood sample were calculated. All these parameters and crenation-time history curves appear different and characteristic for each group of ABO-System. Further work to verify detected sensibility changes in inmunohematological reactions with Laser treated red blood cells is under progress.

Rasia, Rodolfo J.; Martinelli, Cristina; Valverde de Rasia, Juana R.



Dropout Count Procedural Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual outlines the procedure for counting dropouts from the Nevada schools. The State Department of Education instituted a new dropout counting procedure to its student accounting system in January 1988 as part of its response to recommendations of a task force on at-risk youth. The count is taken from each secondary school and includes…

Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City. Planning, Research and Evaluation Branch.


All about Carbohydrate Counting  


All About Carbohydrate Counting American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? ©2009 by the American Diabetes Association, ... much to eat. Toolkit No. 14 What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan ...


Effect of phosphatidylcholine chlorohydrins on human erythrocytes.  


Hypochlorite generated in vivo under pathological conditions is a known oxidant and chlorinating agent, able to react with proteins and lipids, which affects the stability of biological membranes. Reaction with unsaturated fatty acyl chains in glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine results in the formation of chlorohydrins. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chlorohydrins formed by the reaction of hypochlorite with 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonylphosphatidylcholine on biophysical properties of bilayers and their effects on human erythrocytes. Using electrospray mass spectrometry we observed complete conversion of the lipids into chlorohydrins, which resulted in a decrease in the rotational correlation time and an increase in the order parameter of liposomes. Unilamellar chlorohydrin liposomes had a lower permeation coefficient for calcein than liposomes made of parent lipids. Flow cytometry demonstrated fast incorporation of uni and multilamellar chlorohydrin liposomes labeled with NBD-phosphatidylethanolamine into erythrocytes. This effect was accompanied by changes in erythrocyte shape (echinocyte formation) and aggregation. Similar but less pronounced effects were noticed for parent lipids only after longer incubation. Chlorohydrins showed also a stronger hemolytic action, proportional to the lipid:erythrocyte ratio. These results are important for understanding the effects of HOCl on mammalian cells, such as might occur in inflammatory pathology. PMID:20513376

Robaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Greig, Fiona H; Pitt, Andrew R; Spickett, Corinne M; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Soszy?ski, Miros?aw



Epizootiology of Erythrocytic Inclusion Body Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were infected artificially with the virus that causes erythrocytic inclusion body syndrome (EIBS). A specific and consistent time course of infection was demonstrated for inclusion body number and hematocrit values. At 12°C, the inclusions appeared approximately 11 d postinjection and were most common near day 21. Hematocrit values were lowest at day 28. By day 30,

S. C. Piacentini; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer



Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.



Persistent macrocytosis assessed by erythrocyte subpopulation analysis following erythrocyte regeneration in cats.  


Serial erythrocyte volume distribution curves were used to characterize changes in erythrocyte subpopulations following the induction of Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats. Macrocytes produced in response to hemolysis were observed after loss of reticulum. After recovery from hemolysis, a gradual reduction in mean cell size resulted from a combination of macrocyte remodeling and production of normocytic cells. The mean apparent prehemolysis half-survival time for chromium-51-labeled erythrocytes was 13.7 days. There were two components to the posthemolysis survival curve. An initial accelerated loss of label was due to either destruction of posthemolysis macrocytes or loss of cell contents associated with remodeling. The second survival curve component reflected an increased mean apparent half-survival time of 20.2 days. After correction for isotope elution, the latter component reflected cohort-like labeling of relatively young erythrocytes having normal survival for the duration of the experiment. At the beginning for this latter component, 42% of the erythrocytes were macrocytic (mean of 3.3 x 10(6) macrocytes/microliter). Since the number of macrocytes gradually declined during the period of normal survival, it was concluded that these cells entered the normocytic size range. Recognition of persistent macrocytosis is important in the concept of the regenerative response and should be considered in the interpretation of erythrocyte volume distribution curves. PMID:7093520

Weiser, M G; Kociba, G J



Erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns in dogs with atopic dermatitis and healthy dogs in the same household  

PubMed Central

Abstract Recent studies have indicated that dogs with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) may have a disorder of fatty acid metabolism: possibly low or absent activity of ?6-desaturase or ?5-desaturase, or both. To clarify this possibility, we examined the erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid patterns of 8 dogs with CAD and their 8 healthy housemates. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Willemse; other causes of dermatitis were excluded clinically and by appropriate tests. Erythrocyte ghosts were prepared from blood samples. Membrane lipids were extracted and separated by thin-layer chromatography. From plasma and lipid fractions, fatty acid content was determined by gas chromatography. In erythrocytes, but not in plasma, we observed significant differences in the fatty acid pattern that suggested a reduction in the n6 fatty acid products of the ?6- and ?5-desaturases in dogs with atopic dermatitis when compared with healthy housemates. PMID:16850941

Zimmermann, Annett; Guck, Thomas; Oechtering, Gerhard



A synthetic polycation, a copolymer of 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazole iodide with maleic acid diethyl ester, increases passive ionic permeability in erythrocyte membranes modified by fatty acids.  


The effect of the synthetic polycation VMII-DEMA (a potential antiheparin agent) on the ion transport through erythrocyte membranes was studied using ion-selective electrodes. We found that the passive ionic permeability of erythrocyte membranes in the presence of VMII-DEMA noticeably increased after the pretreatment of erythrocytes with long-chain fatty acids. When used separately, neither polycation nor fatty acids changed the membrane permeability at the same concentrations. The efficiency of the combined action of the polycation and fatty acids correlated with the length of the fatty acid (C9-C18) and the number of double bonds in it. The fatty acids C12:0, C13:0 and C18:2 were the most efficient. We suggest that in pathologies accompanied with deteriorations in lipid metabolism, polycations used for the correction of blood coagulation may damage the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:10024972

Glazunova, O O; Korepanova, E A; Efimov, V S; Smirnov, A I; Vladimirov YuA



Sequential processing of merozoite surface proteins during and after erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum.  


Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria disease during the asexual blood stages of infection when merozoites invade erythrocytes and replicate. Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) are proposed to play a role in the initial binding of merozoites to erythrocytes, but precise roles remain undefined. Based on electron microscopy studies of invading Plasmodium merozoites, it is proposed that the majority of MSPs are cleaved and shed from the surface during invasion, perhaps to release receptor-ligand interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that there is not universal cleavage of MSPs during invasion. Instead, there is sequential and coordinated cleavage and shedding of proteins, indicating a diversity of roles for surface proteins during and after invasion. While MSP1 and peripheral surface proteins such as MSP3, MSP7, serine repeat antigen 4 (SERA4), and SERA5 are cleaved and shed at the tight junction between the invading merozoite and erythrocyte, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins MSP2 and MSP4 are carried into the erythrocyte without detectable processing. Following invasion, MSP2 rapidly degrades within 10 min, whereas MSP4 is maintained for hours. This suggests that while some proteins that are shed upon invasion may have roles in initial contact steps, others function during invasion and are then rapidly degraded, whereas others are internalized for roles during intraerythrocytic development. Interestingly, anti-MSP2 antibodies did not inhibit invasion and instead were carried into erythrocytes and maintained for approximately 20 h without inhibiting parasite development. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of invasion and knowledge to advance the development of new drugs and vaccines against malaria. PMID:24218484

Boyle, Michelle J; Langer, Christine; Chan, Jo-Anne; Hodder, Anthony N; Coppel, Ross L; Anders, Robin F; Beeson, James G



Decreased oxygen transfer capacity of erythrocytes as a cause of 5-fluorouracil related ischemia.  


Various mechanisms have been proposed to account for chemotherapy related ischemia, but none of them can explain the available clinical data. In order to explore the possibility that the decreased ability of erythrocytes to deliver oxygen to the heart could be responsible for cardiotoxicity, we have performed an ex vivo and in vivo study of the effects of cisplatin/5-FU on erythrocytes, using a variety of biophysical techniques. Combining EPR and microscopy it was concluded that both cardiotoxic 5-FU and non-cardiotoxic cisplatin have similar effects on the erythrocyte membrane, thus eliminating those changes as a potential source of cardiotoxicity. On the contrary, 31P-NMR and polarography showed that the effects of these cytostatics on the intracellular milieu differ significantly. 5-FU provoked a pronounced decrease of the O2 level in blood and affected the metabolism of phosphate compounds, while cisplatin had no such effects. When combined these two drugs showed synergistic effects, which matches the higher frequency of cardiotoxicity of the combination relative to the sole application of 5-FU. Preliminary results acquired on blood of patients receiving cisplatin/5-FU therapy verified observations obtained ex vivo. These results open a possibility of applying NMR in preclinical trials of new drugs in order to predict their ischemic potential. PMID:19127237

Spasojevi?, Ivan; Jeli?, Svetislav; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Baci?, Goran



Effects of vitamin E supplementation on blood antioxidants levels in patients with Behçet’s disease 1 1 Abbreviations: ASO, anti-streptolysin-o; BD, Behçet’s disease; CRP, C reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; GSH, reduced glutathione; GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase; Lp (a), lipoprotein a; MDA, malondialdehyde; RBC, red blood cells; RF, rheumatoid factor; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SOD, superoxide dismutase; WBC, white blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behçet’s disease (BD) is known for many years, yet its etiology remains unknown. In BD, the increased production of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils may reduce concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in plasma and red blood cells (RBC). Vitamin E is an important fat soluble antioxidant and its role on antioxidant parameters of BD is unclear. The study

Ibrahim Kökçam; Mustafa Naz?ro?lu



Blood conservation techniques: where to begin.  


Blood conservation techniques are used to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. One of the most important blood conservation techniques is the optimization of blood counts prior to invasive procedures with anticipated blood loss. Infusion nurses need to understand the importance of treating patients who require the use of parenteral iron to attempt to optimize their blood counts before procedures. Infusion nurses provide a vital link to patient safety and treatment. This article will also discuss other methods of blood conservation frequently used to protect a scarce resource and reduce inappropriate transfusions. PMID:24006113

Stover, John C; Broomer, Bob W



Turnover of erythrocyte and platelet glycoprotein amino sugars in carbohydrate-fed rats  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this investigation was to study the rate of degradation of amino sugars of platelets and erythrocyte membranes of rats kept on carbohydrate diets, using starch and sucrose. /sup 3/H-Glucosamine hydrochloride injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 200 microCu per rat, 1, 2, and 3 days before sacrifice, was used as the label. Replacement of starch equivalent to 40% of the calorific value of the diet by sucrose is shown to significantly change the halfrenewal time of the amino sugars of rat erythrocyte membranes. Investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the amino sugars of the blood cells can be used to assess the effect of food on metabolic and adaptive processes in man.

Gapparov, M.M.; Nikol'skaya, G.V.; Sokolov, A.I.



Erythrocyte swelling and membrane hole formation in hypotonic media as studied by conductometry.  


Hypoosmotic swelling of erythrocytes and the formation of membrane holes were studied by measuring the dc conductance (G). In accordance with the theoretical predictions, these processes are manifested by a decrease in G followed by its increase. Thus, unlike the conventional osmotic fragility test, the proposed methodological approach allows investigations of both the kinetics of swelling and the erythrocyte fragility. It is shown that the initial rate of swelling and the equilibrium size of the cells are affected by the tonicity of a hypotonic solution and the membrane rheological properties. Because the rupture of biological membranes is a stochastic process, a time-dependent increase in the conductance follows an integral distribution function of the membrane lifetime. The main conclusion which stems from reported results is that information about rheological properties of red blood cell (RBC) membranes and the resistivity of RBCs to a certain osmotic shock may be extracted from conductance signals. PMID:23343529

Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Hatskelzon, L; Kozlov, V; Levi, I; Meyerstein, N



He-Ne laser radiation effects on the membrane of human erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low level He-Ne laser radiation (633 nm) is currently used as an aiming beam in carbon dioxide laser surgery. However no systematic study was published yet concerning the interaction of He-Ne laser radiation with blood cells and tissues under surgery. In view of this, in the present paper, several methods were used to follow up the changes in the properties of the human erythrocyte membrane during and/or following the low level exposures to He-Ne laser beam compatible with those currently used in laser surgery (3 mW beam power, 2 mm beam diameter). It was found that no significant modification of membrane permeability to hemoglobin is obvious after short irradiation (up to 30 minutes) while osmotic fragility and membrane fluidity is increased (more in young than in old erythrocytes) even at these irradiation times.

Kovacs, Eugenia; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Savopol, Tudor; Pologea-Moraru, Roxana; Serafetinides, Alexander A.



Red Blood Cell Microparticles: Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Summary Microparticles are small phospholipid vesicles of less than 1 µm released into the blood flow by various types of cells such as endothelial, platelet, white or red blood cells. They are involved in many biological and physiological processes including hemostasis. In addition, an elevated number of microparticles in the blood is observed in various pathological situations. In the context of transfusion, erythrocyte-derived microparticles are found in red blood cell concentrates. Their role is not elucidated, and they are considered as a type of storage lesion. The purpose of this review is to present recent data showing that erythrocyte-derived microparticles most likely play a role in transfusion medicine and could cause transfusion complications. PMID:23801926

Rubin, Olivier; Canellini, Giorgia; Delobel, Julien; Lion, Niels; Tissot, Jean-Daniel



Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase: A quantitative analysis  

PubMed Central

A large loss of blood during hemorrhage can result in profound shock, a state of hypotension associated with hemodynamic abnormalities. One of the hypotheses to account for this collapse of homeostasis is that the production of nitric oxide (NO), a gas molecule that dilates blood vessels, is significantly impaired during hemorrhage, resulting in a mismatch between O2 delivery and the metabolic activity in the tissues. NO can be released from multiple sources in the vasculature. Recent studies have shown that erythrocytes express functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), which potentially serves as an intraluminal NO source. NO delivery from this source is complex: Erythrocytes are not only NO producers but also act as potent sinks because of the high affinity of NO for hemoglobin. To test our hypothesis that the loss of erythrocytic NOS3 during hemorrhage contributes to NO deficiency-related shock, we have constructed a multicellular computational model that simulates NO production and transport to allow us to quantify the loss of NO under different hemorrhagic conditions. Our model shows that: (1) during mild hemorrhage and subsequent hemodilution (hematocrit >30%), NO from this intraluminal source is only slightly decreased in the vascular smooth muscle, but the NO level is significantly reduced under severe hemorrhagic conditions (hematocrit <30%); (2) whether a significant amount of NO from this source can be delivered to vascular smooth muscle is strongly dependent on the existence of a protective mechanism for NO delivery; (3) if the expression level of NOS3 on erythrocytes is similar to that on endothelial cells, we estimate ~13 pM NO at the vascular smooth muscle from this source when such a protective mechanism is involved. This study provides a basis for detailed studies to characterize the impairment of NO release pathways during hemorrhage and yield important insights for the development of resuscitation methods. PMID:19285090

Chen, Kejing; Pittman, Roland N.; Popel, Aleksander S.



Multiscale Simulation of Erythrocyte Membrane  

PubMed Central

To quantitatively predict the mechanical response and mechanically induced remodeling of red blood cells, we developed a multiscale method to correlate distributions of internal stress with overall cell deformation. This method consists of three models at different length scales: in the complete cell level the membrane is modeled as two distinct layers of continuum shells using finite element method (Level III), in which the skeleton-bilayer interactions are depicted as a slide in the lateral (i.e. in-plane) direction (caused by the mobility of the skeleton-bilayer pinning points) and a normal contact force; the constitutive laws of the inner layer (the protein skeleton) are obtained from a molecular-based model (Level II); the mechanical properties of the spectrin (Sp, a key component of the skeleton), including its folding/unfolding reactions, are obtained with a stress-strain model (Level I). Model verification is achieved through comparisons with existing numerical and experimental studies in terms of the resting shape of the cell as well as cell deformations induced by micropipettes and optical tweezers. Detailed distributions of the interaction force between the lipid bilayer and the skeleton that may cause their dissociation and lead to phenomena such as vesiculation are predicted. Specifically, our model predicts correlation between the occurrence of Sp unfolding and increase in the mechanical load upon individual skeleton-bilayer pinning points. Finally a simulation of the necking process after skeleton-bilayer dissociation, a precursor of vesiculation, is conducted. PMID:20365767

Peng, Zhangli; Asaro, Robert J.; Zhu, Qiang



Clipart ETC: Counting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains over 630 clipart images that can be used for counting. There are Florida-themed flash cards for numbers 0 - 10 offered in English, Spanish, and bilingual options. Illustrations of hands depicting finger counting in both American style (beginning with the index finger) and European style (beginning with the thumb) are available. There are also images of 3-dimensional designs made of cubes and illustrations of bundles of sticks and dominoes for teaching skip-counting, addition, and place value.

Etc, Florida C.



Use of blood and blood products.  


It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria, hemoglobinuria, collapse, apnea, and opisthotonos. Intravenous epinephrine HCl 1:1000 can be administered (0.2 to 0.5 mL) intravenously or (4 to 5 mL) intramuscularly (preferable) if clinical signs are severe. Pretreatment with antipyretics and slowing the administration rate may decrease the febrile response. Blood or plasma administered too rapidly will also result in signs of cardiovascular overload, acute heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension and edema. Furosemide and slower administration of blood or plasma should alleviate this problem. Administration rates have been suggested starting from 10 mL/kg/hr; faster rates may be necessary in peracute hemorrhage. Plasma should be administered when failure of absorption of passive maternal antibody has occurred or when protein-loosing enteropathy or nephropathy results in a total protein of less than 3 g/dL or less than 1.5 g albumin/dL. Plasma can be stored at household freezer temperatures (-15 to -20 degrees C) for a year; coagulation factors will be destroyed after 2 to 4 months when stored in this manner. To maintain viability of coagulation factors, plasma must be stored at -80 degrees C for less than 12 months. When administering plasma, a blood donor set with a built-in filter should always be used. When bovine plasma is thawed, precipitants form in the plasma and infusion of these microaggregates may result in fatal reactions in the recipient. PMID:10573816

Hunt, E; Wood, B



Effect of road transport stress on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) of healthy young adult Nigerians during the harmattan season.  


Road transportation and harmattan season have been reported to be stressful to live stock species. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of two and half hours of road transportation on the erythrocyte osmotic fragility of 23 healthy young adults Nigerians (15 males and 8 females) during the harmattan season. After an overnight fast, venous blood was collected from each subject for the determination of serum cortisol, glucose concentration and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The subjects were then transported at a speed of 65-75Km/h covering a distance of 180km. Thereafter venous blood was again collected (within 10 minutes) for the determination of serum cortisol concentration, glucose concentration and erythrocyte osmotic fragility using standard methods. There was a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in percent haemolysis recorded at Nacl concentration of 0.50% after transportation. There was also significant decrease (P < 0.001) in percent haemolysis at Nacl concentration of 0.60 and 0.70% in the male subject after road transportation as compared to values obtained before transportation. There was a statically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the serum concentrations of cortisols in the subjects before and after road transportation. The results of this study indicated that road transportation was stressful to the subjects and measurement of erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) could be used as a biomarker of stress in humans. PMID:23652230

Olorunshola, K V; Eze, K O; Achie, L N



Spin probe clustering in human erythrocyte ghosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A model has been developed for 5-nitroxide stearate, I(12,3), distribution in human erythrocyte ghosts which accurately predicts ESR spectral alterations observed with increased probe\\/total lipid (P\\/L) at 37°C. This spin probe occupies a class of high-affinity, noninteracting sites at low loading. Saturation occurs with increasing probe concentration, and, at higher loading, the probe inserts itself at initially dilute sites

Larry M. Gordon; Frank D. Looney; Cyril C. Curtain



Intraindividual Stability of Human Erythrocyte Cholinesterase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Erythrocyte cholinesterase (RBC-ChE) ac- tivities serve as useful and sensitive biomarkers to monitor exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting sub- stances, such as chemical warfare nerve agents and pesticides. Although the interindividual variation of RBC-ChE is well characterized, the magnitude of intra- individual variation for RBC-ChE remains controver- sial. An accurate measure of intraindividual variation is critical for establishing the appropriate frequency

Lee J. Lefkowitz