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Sample records for blood fluke exploitation

  1. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  2. New Genus of Blood Fluke (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from Malaysian Freshwater Turtles (Geoemydidae) and its Phylogenetic Position Within Schistosomatoidea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jackson R; Platt, Thomas R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-08-01

    :  Baracktrema obamai n. gen., n. sp. infects the lung of geoemydid turtles (black marsh turtle, Siebenrockiella crassicollis [type host] and southeast Asian box turtle, Cuora amboinensis ) in the Malaysian states of Perak, Perlis, and Selangor. Baracktrema and Unicaecum Stunkard, 1925 are the only accepted turtle blood fluke genera having the combination of a single cecum, single testis, oviducal seminal receptacle, and uterine pouch. Baracktrema differs from Unicaecum by having a thread-like body approximately 30-50× longer than wide and post-cecal terminal genitalia. Unicaecum has a body approximately 8-12× longer than wide and terminal genitalia that are anterior to the distal end of the cecum. The new genus further differs from all other accepted turtle blood fluke genera by having a cecum that is highly convoluted for its entire length, a spindle-shaped ovary between the cirrus sac and testis, a uterine pouch that loops around the primary vitelline collecting duct, a Laurer's canal, and a dorsal common genital pore. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) revealed, with high nodal support and as predicted by morphology, that Baracktrema and Unicaecum share a recent common ancestor and form a clade sister to the freshwater turtle blood flukes of Spirorchis, paraphyletic Spirhapalum, and Vasotrema and that, collectively, these flukes were sister to all other tetrapod blood flukes (Hapalorhynchus + Griphobilharzia plus the marine turtle blood flukes and schistosomes). Pending a forthcoming emended morphological diagnosis of the family, the clade including Spirorchis spp., paraphyletic Spirhapalum, Vasotrema, Baracktrema, and Unicaecum is a likely placeholder for "Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921 " (type genus Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 ; type species Spirorchis innominatus Ward, 1921 ). The present study comprises the 17th blood fluke known to infect geoemydid turtles and the first proposal of a new genus of

  3. Tracking the fate of iron in early development of human blood flukes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Malcolm K; McManus, Donald P; Sivadorai, Padma; Glanfield, Amber; Moertel, Luke; Belli, Sabina I; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2007-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an important trace element found in nearly all organisms, and is used as a cofactor in many biological reactions. One role for Fe in some invertebrates is in stabilization of extracellular matrices. The human blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum, is responsible for significant human disease in developing and tropical nations. Disease in humans arises from host immunological reaction to parasite eggs that lodge in tissues. Schistosomes require Fe for development in their hosts, and store abundant Fe in vitelline (eggshell-forming) cells of the female system. The understanding of Fe metabolism and functionality are aspects of its biology that may be exploited in future therapeutics. The biology of Fe stores in vitelline cells of S. japonicum was investigated to illuminate possible functions of this element in early development of these parasites. Vitelline Fe is stored in yolk ferritin that is upregulated in females and is also expressed at low levels in egg-stages and adult males. Laser microdissection microscopy, coupled with reverse transcriptase- and real time-PCR amplification of schistosome ferritin sequences, confirmed that the vitelline cells are the likely progenitor cells of yolk ferritin. Assessment of Fe concentrations in whole male and whole female adult worms, eggs and purified eggshells by colorimetric assays and mass spectroscopy demonstrated higher levels of Fe in the female parasite, but also high levels of the element in whole parasite eggs and purified eggshell. Qualitative energy dispersive spectroscopy of purified eggshells, revealed that Fe is abundant in the eggshell, the matrix of which is composed of heavily cross-linked eggshell precursor proteins. Thus, vitelline stores of Fe are implicated in eggshell cross-linking in platyhelminths. These observations emphasise the importance of Fe in schistosome metabolism and egg formation and suggest new avenues for disruption of egg formation in these pathogenic parasites. PMID:17556009

  4. Co-dispersal of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum and Homo sapiens in the Neolithic Age.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingbo; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Su, Jing; Feng, Zheng; McManus, Donald P; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jin, Li; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of human infectious diseases is of considerable public health and biomedical interest. Little is known about the relationship between the distribution of ancient parasites and that of their human hosts. Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major species of schistosome blood flukes causing the disease of schistosomiasis in humans. The parasite is prevalent in East and Southeast Asia, including the People's Republic of China, the Philippines and Indonesia. We studied the co-expansion of S. japonicum and its human definitive host. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences showed that S. japonicum radiated from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to the mountainous areas of China, Japan and Southeast Asia. In addition, the parasite experienced two population expansions during the Neolithic agriculture era, coinciding with human migration and population growth. The data indicate that the advent of rice planting likely played a key role in the spread of schistosomiasis in Asia. Moreover, the presence of different subspecies of Oncomelania hupensis intermediate host snails in different localities in Asia allowed S. japonicum to survive in new rice-planting areas, and concurrently drove the intraspecies divergence of the parasite. PMID:26686813

  5. Co-dispersal of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum and Homo sapiens in the Neolithic Age

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mingbo; Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Su, Jing; Feng, Zheng; McManus, Donald P.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Jin, Li; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of human infectious diseases is of considerable public health and biomedical interest. Little is known about the relationship between the distribution of ancient parasites and that of their human hosts. Schistosoma japonicum is one of the three major species of schistosome blood flukes causing the disease of schistosomiasis in humans. The parasite is prevalent in East and Southeast Asia, including the People’s Republic of China, the Philippines and Indonesia. We studied the co-expansion of S. japonicum and its human definitive host. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences showed that S. japonicum radiated from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to the mountainous areas of China, Japan and Southeast Asia. In addition, the parasite experienced two population expansions during the Neolithic agriculture era, coinciding with human migration and population growth. The data indicate that the advent of rice planting likely played a key role in the spread of schistosomiasis in Asia. Moreover, the presence of different subspecies of Oncomelania hupensis intermediate host snails in different localities in Asia allowed S. japonicum to survive in new rice-planting areas, and concurrently drove the intraspecies divergence of the parasite. PMID:26686813

  6. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. PMID:27208886

  7. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fajtová, Pavla; Štefanić, Saša; Hradilek, Martin; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jílková, Adéla; Ulrychová, Lenka; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Mareš, Michael; Horn, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that infects over 240 million people worldwide, and for which there is a need to identify new targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Our research is focused on Schistosoma mansoni prolyl oligopeptidase (SmPOP) from the serine peptidase family S9, which has not been investigated in detail in trematodes. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that SmPOP is expressed in adult worms and schistosomula in an enzymatically active form. By immunofluorescence microscopy, SmPOP is localized in the tegument and parenchyma of both developmental stages. Recombinant SmPOP was produced in Escherichia coli and its active site specificity investigated using synthetic substrate and inhibitor libraries, and by homology modeling. SmPOP is a true oligopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide (but not protein) substrates with a strict specificity for Pro at P1. The inhibition profile is analogous to those for mammalian POPs. Both the recombinant enzyme and live worms cleave host vasoregulatory, proline-containing hormones such as angiotensin I and bradykinin. Finally, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of SmPOP that induce deleterious phenotypes in cultured schistosomes. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first localization and functional analysis of SmPOP together with chemical tools for measuring its activity. We briefly discuss the notion that SmPOP, operating at the host-parasite interface to cleave host bioactive peptides, may contribute to the survival of the parasite. If substantiated, SmPOP could be a new target for the development of anti-schistosomal drugs. PMID:26039195

  8. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E.; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production. PMID:26871705

  9. MicroRNAs Are Involved in the Regulation of Ovary Development in the Pathogenic Blood Fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lihui; Zhao, Jiangping; Wang, Jianbin; Hu, Chao; Peng, Jinbiao; Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Liu, Juntao; Lin, Jiaojiao; Jin, Youxin; Davis, Richard E; Cheng, Guofeng

    2016-02-01

    Schistosomes, blood flukes, are an important global public health concern. Paired adult female schistosomes produce large numbers of eggs that are primarily responsible for the disease pathology and critical for dissemination. Consequently, understanding schistosome sexual maturation and egg production may open novel perspectives for intervening with these processes to prevent clinical symptoms and to interrupt the life-cycle of these blood-flukes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of many biological processes including development, cell proliferation, metabolism, and signal transduction. Here, we report on the identification of Schistosoma japonicum miRNAs using small RNA deep sequencing in the key stages of male-female pairing, gametogenesis, and egg production. We identified 38 miRNAs, including 10 previously unknown miRNAs. Eighteen of the miRNAs were differentially expressed between male and female schistosomes and during different stages of sexual maturation. We identified 30 potential target genes for 16 of the S. japonicum miRNAs using antibody-based pull-down assays and bioinformatic analyses. We further validated some of these target genes using either in vitro luciferase assays or in vivo miRNA suppression experiments. Notably, suppression of the female enriched miRNAs bantam and miR-31 led to morphological alteration of ovaries in female schistosomes. These findings uncover key roles for specific miRNAs in schistosome sexual maturation and egg production. PMID:26871705

  10. Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23071694

  11. Cytokine/Chemokine Secretion and Proteomic Identification of Upregulated Annexin A1 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Cocultured with the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini

    PubMed Central

    Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Porntip; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cytokine/chemokine secretions and alteration of protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cocultured with adult liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini) for 6 to 24 h. PBMC-derived proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the cytokines/chemokines in the supernatant were assessed using a cytokine array. Exposure to O. viverrini induced increases in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, costimulating protein, adhesion molecules, and chemotactic chemokines relative to untreated controls. In contrast, secretion of the CD40 ligand, interleukin 16, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β decreased. Proteomic analysis revealed that expression of 48 proteins was significantly altered in PBMCs stimulated with O. viverrini. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) was selected for further study, and immunoblotting showed upregulation of ANXA1 expression in PBMCs after 12 and 24 h coculture with liver flukes. In an in vivo study, transcription and translation of ANXA1 significantly increased in livers of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at 21 days and from 3 months onwards compared to normal controls. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed that ANXA1 was present not only in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells but also in the cytoplasm of cholangiocytes, which are in close contact with the parasite and its excretory/secretory products in the biliary system. Expression of ANXA1 increased with time concomitant with bile duct enlargement, bile duct formation, and epithelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, several cytokines/chemokines secreted by PBMCs and upregulation of ANXA1 in PBMCs and biliary epithelial cells might have a role in host defense against O. viverrini infection and tissue resolution of inflammation. PMID:24614660

  12. Where are the South American freshwater turtle blood flukes (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae)? The first morphological and molecular analysis of spirorchiid cercariae from freshwater snails in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; de Melo, Alan Lane; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes belonging to the family Spirorchiidae are blood parasites mainly of turtles with a worldwide distribution. These flukes were recently reported in some marine turtles from South America, where the occurrence of spirorchiids in freshwater definitive and intermediate hosts is so far unknown. In the present study, three morphotypes of brevifurcate apharyngeate distome cercariae found in freshwater molluscs from an urban reservoir in Brazil were used for morphological and molecular (nuclear 28S rDNA) evaluation. Two morphotypes of cercariae, probably congeneric species, were found in 12/17,465 specimens of Biomphalaria spp. and differ from each other by body size and sequences (0.1%). They present morphology similar to North American freshwater spirorchiids (Spirorchis spp.), however surprisingly molecular data reveals that these lineages are more closely related to marine spirorchiids. A third species found in 2/777 Pomacea sp. differs morphologically from all previously described spirorchiid cercariae and genetically from spirorchiids with available sequences (16-19%), grouping in the phylogenetic tree with freshwater North American species. This is the first report of freshwater spirorchiids in South America and the first molecular confirmation of the involvement of a caenogastropod in the life cycle of spirorchiids. PMID:26253761

  13. Discovery of intermediate hosts for two species of blood flukes Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola forsteri (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) infecting Pacific bluefin tuna in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Shin, Sang Phil; Honryo, Tomoki; Uchida, Hiro'omi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) are important pathogens of farmed finfish around the world. Among them, Cardicola spp. infecting farmed tuna are considered to be serious threats to tuna farming and have received tremendous attention. We conducted periodical samplings at a tuna farming site in Japan between January and May, 2015 to determine the life cycle of Cardicola spp. We collected over 4700 terebellid polychaetes from ropes, floats and frames of tuna culture cages and found nearly 400 infected worms. Sporocysts and cercariae found in Nicolea gracilibranchis were genetically identified as Cardicola orientalis by 28S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequences. This was the first discovery of the intermediate host for this parasite species. Infection prevalence and the abundance of N. gracilibranchis significantly varied between sampling points and the highest number of infected terebellids were collected from ropes. We also demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that asexual stages found in a single Amphitrite sp. (Terebellidae) and adult worms isolated from farmed juvenile tuna were Cardicola forsteri. This is the first report of C. forsteri in Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) Thunnus orientalis in Japan. Our results demonstrated that all three species of Cardicola orientalis, C. forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis exist in Japanese farmed PBTs and that they all use terebellid polychaetes as the intermediate hosts. PMID:26571413

  14. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of epipelagic lamniforms: redescription of Hyperandrotrema cetorhini from basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and description of a new congener from shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) off Alabama.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Ruiz, Carlos F; Curran, Stephen S; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    We emend the original generic diagnosis for Hyperandrotrema Maillard and Ktari, 1978 , and redescribe its type species Hyperandrotrema cetorhini Maillard and Ktari, 1978 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912), based on the holotype and 2 paratypes collected from the heart of basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). We also describe Hyperandrotrema walterboegeri Orélis-Ribeiro and Bullard n. sp. based on light and scanning electron microscopy of 6 adult specimens collected from the heart of a shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810) captured from Viosca Knoll (29°11.70'N, 88°33.32'W; 123 km southwest of Dauphin Island, Alabama), northern Gulf of Mexico. Hyperandrotrema spp. infect lamniforms and differ from all other nominal aporocotylids at least by having a ventrolateral field of robust C-shaped spines (rather than transverse rows of minute, shaft-like spines), an inverse U-shaped intestine with extremely elongate ceca terminating near the level of the excretory bladder, and a common genital pore that comprises the dorsal opening of a common genital atrium. Adults of the new species exceeded 12 mm in total length, making them the largest of the nominal fish blood flukes. The new species further differs from H. cetorhini by the combination of having an adult body that is 7-8 times longer than wide, large midbody tegumental spines measuring 25-38 μm long × 10-12 μm wide, a long vas deferens 4-5% of the body length, a testis 9-11 times longer than wide, and a large ootype 105-150 μm long × 85-105 μm wide. This is the first report of Hyperandrotrema from the Gulf of Mexico and the second aporocotylid species reported from an epipelagic elasmobranch. Our results demonstrate that ecologically related (epipelagic, marine) and phylogenetically related (Lamniformes) definitive hosts are infected by morphologically similar (congeneric) fish blood flukes. PMID:23597211

  15. Lipid peroxidation and etheno DNA adducts in white blood cells of liver fluke-infected patients: protection by plasma alpha-tocopherol and praziquantel.

    PubMed

    Dechakhamphu, Somkid; Pinlaor, Somchai; Sitthithaworn, Paiboon; Nair, Jagadeesan; Bartsch, Helmut; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a strong risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma. To clarify the involvement of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage, etheno (epsilon)-DNA adducts (epsilondA, epsilondC) in WBC and plasma alpha-tocopherol were measured in samples collected from O. viverrini-infected Thai patients (n = 50) and healthy noninfected volunteers (n = 20). epsilondA and epsilondC levels were three to five times higher (P < 0.001) in infected patients than in controls; O. viverrini infection also increased two to three times in the plasma inflammatory indicators, 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite. Mean plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were two times lower in patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Two months after a single dose to infected patients of the antiparasitic drug praziquantel, epsilondA and epsilondC levels in WBC were decreased to control level (P < 0.03); plasma 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, nitrate/nitrite, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were concomitantly lowered. epsilondA and epsilondC levels in WBC were positively correlated with plasma 8-isoprostane, malondialdehyde, and nitrate/nitrite levels and ALP activity, whereas plasma alpha-tocopherol levels showed inverse correlations. We conclude that chronic O.viverrini infection induces an accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived DNA damage through oxidative/nitrative stress, which is lowered by the plasma alpha-tocopherol and by antiparasitic drug therapy. Etheno adducts in WBC and urine should be explored as a risk marker for opisthorchiasis-related cholangiocarcinoma, and to assess the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20056652

  16. Understanding and exploiting nanoparticles' intimacy with the blood vessel and blood.

    PubMed

    Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Tay, Chor Yong; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Leong, David Tai

    2015-11-21

    While the blood vessel is seldom the target tissue, almost all nanomedicine will interact with blood vessels and blood at some point of time along its life cycle in the human body regardless of their intended destination. Despite its importance, many bionanotechnologists do not feature endothelial cells (ECs), the blood vessel cells, or consider blood effects in their studies. Including blood vessel cells in the study can greatly increase our understanding of the behavior of any given nanomedicine at the tissue of interest or to understand side effects that may occur in vivo. In this review, we will first describe the diversity of EC types found in the human body and their unique behaviors and possibly how these important differences can implicate nanomedicine behavior. Subsequently, we will discuss about the protein corona derived from blood with foci on the physiochemical aspects of nanoparticles (NPs) that dictate the protein corona characteristics. We would also discuss about how NPs characteristics can affect uptake by the endothelium. Subsequently, mechanisms of how NPs could cross the endothelium to access the tissue of interest. Throughout the paper, we will share some novel nanomedicine related ideas and insights that were derived from the understanding of the NPs' interaction with the ECs. This review will inspire more exciting nanotechnologies that had accounted for the complexities of the real human body. PMID:26239875

  17. Diversity and ancestry of flatworms infecting blood of nontetrapod craniates "fishes".

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    We herein review all published molecular studies (life history, taxonomy, and phylogeny) and summarize all GenBank sequences and primer sets for the "fish blood flukes". Further, by analysing new and all available sequence data for the partial D1-D2 domains of 28S from 83 blood fluke taxa, we explore the evolutionary expansion of flatworm parasitism in the blood of craniates. Based on this analysis, the blood flukes infecting marine bony fishes (Euteleostei) are monophyletic. The clade comprising the chondrichthyan blood fluke plus the marine euteleost blood flukes is the sister group to tetrapod blood flukes (spirorchiids and schistosomes). The innominate blood fluke cercariae from freshwater gastropods were monophyletic and sister to the clade comprising spirorchiids and schistosomes, but low nodal support indicated that they may represent a distinct blood fluke lineage with phylogenetic affinities also to fish blood flukes. Blood flukes that utilize gastropod intermediate hosts were monophyletic (unidentified gastropod cercariae+tetrapod blood flukes) and those utilizing bivalves and polychaetes were monophyletic (marine fish blood flukes). Low or no taxon sampling among blood flukes of basal fish lineages and primary division freshwater fish lineages are significant data gaps needing closure. We also note that no record of an infection exists in a hagfish (Myxiniformes), lamprey (Petromyzontiformes), or nontetrapod sarcopterygiian, i.e., coelacanth (Coelacanthimorpha) or lungfish (Dipnoi). The present phylogenetic analysis reiterated support for monophyly of Schistosomatidae and paraphyly of spirorchiids, with the blood flukes of freshwater turtles basal to those of marine turtles and schistosomes. PMID:24928179

  18. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

    PubMed

    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru. PMID:26373332

  19. Identification of the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi, in GB livestock: possible implications for liver fluke diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D K; Roberts, L C P; Lean, N; Zadoks, R N; Sargison, N D; Skuce, P J

    2013-07-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is common in many parts of Great Britain. To detect liver fluke infection and to assess whether fasciolicide treatment has been successful, the faecal egg count (FEC) and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) are widely used. Rumen fluke is also increasingly reported from Great Britain, but its species identity is yet to be determined. Liver fluke and rumen fluke eggs are morphologically similar, which may lead to erroneous diagnoses of liver fluke infection or treatment failure. As an alternative to FEC, a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) can be used. The potential for this test to cross-react with rumen fluke species from Great Britain has not been evaluated. Rumen fluke specimens from cattle and sheep in Scotland were identified to species level using DNA sequencing of the ITS-2 region. Subsequently, rumen and liver fluke obtained from naturally co-infected sheep were subjected to immunohistochemistry using antibodies from a commercially available cELISA kit for F. hepatica. Finally, faecal samples from naturally co-infected sheep flocks were examined by FEC and cELISA. Rumen fluke from imported and home-bred cattle and sheep in Scotland belonged to the species Calicophoron daubneyi, rather than Paramphistomum cervi, the species presumed to be most common in Great Britain. Intense staining of the gastrodermis was observed in F. hepatica but cross-reactivity with C. daubneyi was not seen. Faecal samples that contained rumen fluke eggs but not liver fluke eggs were all negative by cELISA. We conclude that C. daubneyi is the most common rumen fluke of domestic ruminants in Scotland and that cELISA reduction testing may be a valuable alternative to FECRT in herds or flocks that are co-infected with liver and rumen fluke. PMID:23411375

  20. Identity of rumen fluke in deer.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

    2014-11-01

    As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

  1. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of elopomorphs: emendation of Paracardicoloides, supplemental observations of Paracardicoloides yamagutii, and a new genus and species from ladyfish, Elops saurus, (Elopiformes: Elopidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-06-01

    Monotypic Paracardicoloides Martin, 1974 is emended based on supplemental observations of 2 voucher specimens of Paracardicoloides yamagutii Martin, 1974 . Features of the anterior sucker, esophagus, and intestine as well as the male and female genitalia previously attributed to, or omitted from the diagnosis and description of, this fluke are resolved and further detailed herein. The holotype of P. yamagutii, originally deposited in the Allan Hancock Parasitology Collection, apparently has been lost, and Queensland Museum voucher G222650 is designated as the neotype. Elopicola nolancribbi n. gen., n. sp. infects the ladyfish, Elops saurus , (Elopiformes: Elopidae) in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. The new genus resembles Paracardicoloides by having the combination of a bowl-shaped anterior sucker, inverse U-shaped intestine, short posterior ceca, post-cecal ovary, pre-ovarian ootype, compact uterus, and prominent excretory arms and vesicle. It differs from Paracardicoloides by lacking robust tegumental body spines and by having a single testis, post-testicular ovary, and primarily post-testicular uterus. The present study is the first confirmed report of an aporocotylid infecting a member of Elopiformes as well as the first report of an infection in an elopomorph outside of Australia and New Zealand or in marine waters. PMID:24467621

  2. Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis exploits the formation of new blood vessels for its dissemination.

    PubMed

    Polena, Helena; Boudou, Frédéric; Tilleul, Sylvain; Dubois-Colas, Nicolas; Lecointe, Cécile; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Pelizzola, Mattia; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Charles, Patricia; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Rasolofo, Voahangy; Gicquel, Brigitte; Tailleux, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the airborne pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis spreads within the lung and leaves its primary niche to colonize other organs, thus inducing extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB) in humans, remains poorly understood. Herein, we used a transcriptomic approach to investigate the host cell gene expression profile in M. tuberculosis-infected human macrophages (ΜΦ). We identified 33 genes, encoding proteins involved in angiogenesis, for which the expression was significantly modified during infection, and we show that the potent angiogenic factor VEGF is secreted by M. tuberculosis-infected ΜΦ, in an RD1-dependent manner. In vivo these factors promote the formation of blood vessels in murine models of the disease. Inhibiting angiogenesis, via VEGF inactivation, abolished mycobacterial spread from the infection site. In accordance with our in vitro and in vivo results, we show that the level of VEGF in TB patients is elevated and that endothelial progenitor cells are mobilized from the bone marrow. These results strongly strengthen the most recent data suggesting that mycobacteria take advantage of the formation of new blood vessels to disseminate. PMID:27616470

  4. Quality and exploitation of umbilical cord blood for cell therapy: Are we beyond our capabilities?

    PubMed

    Roura, Santiago; Pujal, Josep Maria; Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing interest in identifying novel stem cell sources for application in emerging cell therapies. In this context, umbilical cord blood (UCB) shows great promise in multiple clinical settings. The number of UCB banks has therefore increased worldwide, with the objective of preserving potentially life-saving cells that are usually discarded after birth. After a rather long and costly processing procedure, the resultant UCB-derived cell products are cryopreserved until transplantation to patients. However, in many cases, only a small proportion of administered cells engraft successfully. Thus, can we do any better regarding current UCB-based therapeutic approaches? Here we discuss concerns about the use of UCB that are not critically pondered by researchers, clinicians, and banking services, including wasting samples with small volumes and the need for more reliable quality and functional controls to ensure the biological activity of stem cells and subsequent engraftment and treatment efficacy. Finally, we appeal for collaborative agreements between research institutions and UCB banks in order to redirect currently discarded small-volume UCB units for basic and clinical research purposes. Developmental Dynamics 245:710-717, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27043849

  5. Development of Experimental Vaccines Against Liver Flukes.

    PubMed

    Yap, Huan Yong; Smooker, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of experimental vaccines have been developed against liver flukes in the past. However, there has yet to be the development of a commercial livestock vaccine. Reasons for this may be multiple, and include the lack of identification of the best antigen(s), or the immune response induced by those antigens not being appropriate in either magnitude or polarity (and therefore not protective). Cathepsin proteases are the major component of the excretory/secretory (ES) material of liver flukes in all stages of their life cycle in the definitive host and are the primary antigens of interest for the vaccine development in many studies. Hence, this chapter presents the methodologies of using cathepsin proteases as targeted antigens in recombinant protein and DNA vaccine development to engender protective immune responses against fasciolosis.First, the experimental vaccines developed in the past and the criteria of an effective vaccine for fasciolosis are briefly reviewed. Then flowcharts for recombinant protein vaccine and DNA vaccine development are presented, followed by the detailed materials and methodologies. PMID:27076295

  6. A scanning electron microscope study on the route of entry of clorsulon into the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out in vitro to determine the roles of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica in the uptake of the flukicidal drug, clorsulon. Changes to the two surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). The gastrodermal surface remained normal and few changes to the tegumental surface were observed. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. The gastrodermal surface was severely disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface were evident, but the changes were not severe. More severe swelling of the tegument was observed in the third experiment, in which flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. The gastrodermal surface was badly disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Taking the results of the three experiments together, the gastrodermal surface was more affected than the tegument and the greatest disruption to the two surfaces was seen when both routes of entry were available to the fluke. The data support a previous study which indicated that entry of clorsulon into the fluke in vivo is principally by the oral ingestion of drug bound to the red blood cells. PMID:15592937

  7. Molecular phylogenetic identification of Fasciola flukes in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Devkota, Bhuminand; Rana, Hari B; Devkota, Shiva P; Humagain, Sudeep K; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-12-01

    Eighty-one Fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in Nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and for their phylogenetic relation with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. Sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic Fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica. All of the aspermic flukes displayed the Fh/Fg type in ITS1, which was predominant in aspermic Fasciola sp. from China, and most (60 flukes) displayed the Fsp-ND1-N1 haplotype in the nad1, which had an identical nucleotide sequence to the major haplotype (Fg-C2) of the aspermic flukes from China. These results suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. was introduced into Nepal from China. Furthermore, the results of the diversity indices, neutrality indices, and median-joining network analysis with reference haplotypes from Asian countries suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. rapidly expanded its distribution. In contrasts, F. gigantica displayed 10 nad1 haplotypes, which showed higher population diversity indices than the haplotypes of aspermic flukes, indicating that the F. gigantica population was clearly distributed in Nepal earlier than the aspermic Fasciola population. Although the F. gigantica haplotypes from Nepal formed a star-like phylogeny consisting of a main founder haplotype (Fg-ND1-N1), together with some F. gigantica haplotypes from Myanmar and Thailand, the Nepal population differed genetically from F. gigantica populations of neighboring countries as each country had distinct founder haplotype(s). PMID:25025757

  8. Human consumption of rumen flukes of cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, P C; Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Goswami, A; Raquib, M; Kakati, P

    2014-01-01

    The practice of eating rumen flukes of cattle by a section of people living in Meghalaya, a north eastern State of India, is reported in this communication. Economically backward, some rural people belonging to Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, and Karbi tribes of Christian and Nepali communities who eat beef are accustomed to consuming cooked flukes during breakfast, meals, and also along with rice beer or alcohol. Inspection of the rumens of cattle during slaughter indicated a prevalence of flukes belonging to Cotylophoron, Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax, and Fischoederius genera in 74% cases, and their collection from rumen ranged approximately from 50 g to 600 g. Biochemical analysis of flukes found 12.60% total protein, 0.78% fat, and 0.87% ash on fresh weight basis. High prevalence of flukes, easy visualization in rumen, their bulk collection, presence of nutritive value, absence of any ill effect, and lack of imminent danger of transmissibility are believed to be the rationales influencing their consumption by people. It is suggested that dietary benefits obtained from flukes might contribute to the energy transfer and inclusion in the food web. PMID:24964650

  9. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of stingrays (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae): Orchispirium heterovitellatum from Himantura imbricata in the Bay of Bengal and a new genus and species of Aporocotylidae from Dasyatis sabina in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A; Jensen, Kirsten

    2008-12-01

    We redescribe Orchispirium heterovitellatum based on the holotype and 3 original voucher specimens collected from the mesenteric blood vessels of scaly whiprays Himantura imbricata (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) (as Dasyatis imbricatus) captured in the western Bay of Bengal off Waltair, India. We emend the diagnosis of Orchispirium to include anterior sucker present, testis looping, cirrus sac enveloping large internal seminal vesicle, oviducal seminal receptacle present, and metraterm short and thin-walled. We describe Myliobaticola richardheardi n. gen., n. sp. based on live observations, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy of adult specimens collected from between the cardiac trabeculae of Atlantic stingrays Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur, 1824) captured in Mississippi Sound (type locality), Mississippi, and Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The new species has a minute, aspinous body lacking lateral tubercles; an aspinous and eversible anterior sucker lacking a peduncle; a posterior esophageal swelling; an inverse U-shaped intestine; smooth ceca terminating in the anterior body half; a looping testis lacking lobes; a cirrus sac enveloping a large internal seminal vesicle; a medial and primarily post-testicular ovary; an oviducal seminal receptacle; a postgonadal uterus flanking the internal seminal vesicle; a short and thin-walled metraterm; and a common genital pore. It lacks a pharynx and Laurer's canal. No other named aporocotylids infect a member of cohort Batoidea or have the combination of an aspinous body, an aspinous anterior sucker, a posterior esophageal swelling, an inverse U-shaped intestine, a looping testis, a cirrus sac enveloping a large internal seminal vesicle, and a common genital pore; these observations indicate that O. heterovitellatum and M. richardheardi are closely related. The discovery of a second species representing a second genus of Aporocotylidae in diamond stingrays (Dasyatidae) suggests that Batoidea is an undersampled host group

  10. Amplification of D22S283 as a favorable prognostic indicator in liver fluke related cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thanasai, Jongkonnee; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Jearanaikoon, Patcharee; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Khuntikeo, Narong; Sripa, Banchob; Miwa, Masanao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the DNA copy number of target genes NF2, TIMP3, ST13, TOB2, BIK, and TP and the reference microsatellite markers D22S283, D22S423, and D22S274 mapped on 22q12-qter in liver fluke related cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and define its correlation with clinical parameters. METHODS: Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used for determining allelic imbalances in 65 liver fluke related CCA tissues. Statistical correlations between allelic imbalances and clinicopathological parameters, i.e. age, sex, tumor stage, histological type, blood vessel invasion, nerve invasion and lymphatic invasion were evaluated by means of the χ2 test. Cox regression analysis was used for determining patient’s survival. RESULTS: Amplifications of the TP (22q13.33), TOB2 (22q13.2-13.31), D22S283 (22q12.3), TIMP3 (22q12.3) and NF2 (22q12.2) were found in 35 (53.8%), 28 (43.1%), 27 (41.5%), 24 (36.9%), and 24 (36.9%), respectively. Losses at the D22S423 (22q13.1-13.2) and BIK (22q13.31) were detected in 26 (40%) and 23 (35.4%), respectively. Significant correlations were observed between lymphatic invasion and allelic losses of BIK (P = 0.025) and D22S283 (P = 0.041). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed D22S283 amplification as an independent predictor of good prognosis (P = 0.006, death hazard ratio = 0.411, 95% CI = 0.217-0.779) and blood vessel invasion as an independent poor prognostic factor (P = 0.042, death hazard ratio = 1.911, 95% CI = 1.022-3.571) in CCA patients. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the involvement of gene amplification and deletion on chromosome 22q in liver fluke related CCA. This is the first report of D22S283 amplification as an independent indicator of favorable prognosis in liver fluke related CCA. PMID:16865775

  11. The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus: biology, epidemiology and carcinogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is a member of the triad of epidemiologically important liver fluke species belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae and the major agent causing opisthorchiasis over a vast territory, covering Russia, Kazakhstan and several European countries. The similarity between the diseases caused by O. felineus and other liver flukes, O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, in clinical manifestations and course suggests that the scenarios of their development and, possibly, complications have much in common. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified O. viverrini and C. sinensis as group 1 agents and the major factors inducing cholangiocarcinoma in endemic regions. However, a carcinogenic potential of O. felineus is poorly studied. This review characterizes O. felineus, briefs the epidemiological situation in Western Siberia, the world's largest opisthorchiasis focus, and assesses the carcinogenic potential of this liver fluke. The review is based on a comprehensive analysis of the published medical data on opisthorchiasis and its complications in Western Siberia. Results of performed analysis reflect the actual epidemiological situation in opisthorchiasis focus and suggest an association of this disease with bile duct cancer. PMID:26740360

  12. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

    PubMed Central

    Correia da Costa, José M.; Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria J.; Botelho, Mónica C.; Sripa, Banchob; Santos, Lúcio L.; Santos, Júlio H.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g., oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc.) metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of O. viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e., urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture. PMID:25566326

  13. Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Skjaervold, Nils K.; Östling, Dan; Hjelme, Dag R.; Spigset, Olav; Lyng, Oddveig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals developed a mildly diabetic state from streptozotocin pretreatment. They were steadily brought within the blood glucose target range of 4.5–6.0 mmol/L in 21 to 121 min and kept within that range for 128 to 238 min (hypoglycemic values varied from 2.9 to 51.1 min). The study confirmed our hypotheses regarding the feasibility of this new principle for blood glucose control, and the algorithm was constantly improved during the study to produce the best results in the last animals. The main obstacles were the drift of the IvS-1 sensor and problems with the calibration procedure, which calls for an improvement in the sensor stability before this method can be applied fully in new studies in animals and humans. PMID:24369461

  14. Apoptosis of cholangiocytes modulated by thioredoxin of carcinogenic liver fluke.

    PubMed

    Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Mann, Victoria H; Popratiloff, Anastas; Laha, Thewarach; Pimenta, Rafael N; Cochran, Christina J; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Chronic infection with the food-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, frequently induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma. Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Vietnam, where eating undercooked freshwater fish carrying the juvenile stage of this pathogen leads to human infection. Because inhibition of apoptosis facilitates carcinogenesis, this study investigated modulation by thioredoxin from O. viverrini of apoptosis of bile duct epithelial cells, cholangiocytes. Cells of a cholangiocyte line were incubated with the parasite enzyme after which they were exposed hydrogen peroxide. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis was monitored using flow cytometry, growth in real time and imaging of living cells using laser confocal microscopy. Immunolocalization revealed liver fluke thioredoxin within cholangiocytes. Cells exposed to thioredoxin downregulated apoptotic genes in the mitogen activated protein kinases pathway and upregulated anti-apoptosis-related genes including apoptosis signaling kinase 1, caspase 9, caspase 8, caspase 3, survivin and others. Western blots of immunoprecipitates of cell lysates revealed binding of thioredoxin to apoptosis signaling kinase 1. Together the findings indicated that thioredoxin from O. viverrini inhibited oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of bile duct epithelial cells, which supports a role for this liver fluke oxidoreductase in opisthorchiasis-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:26007234

  15. Preparation, transportation mechanisms and brain-targeting evaluation in vivo of a chemical delivery system exploiting the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Tuo, Jue; Xie, Yanqi; Huang, Meihong; Huang, Min; Pi, Rongbiao; Hu, Haiyan

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, specific transportation mechanisms on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are extensively employed for brain-targeted drug delivery via colloidal nanocarriers. However, in this study, we purposed to exploit the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2)-mediated transportation on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier to enhance central nervous system penetration of the highly hydrophilic ibuprofen (IBU) by synthesizing a SVCT2-targeted chemical delivery system (CDS), ibuprofen-C6-O-ascorbic acid (IAA). The physicochemical parameters of IAA were determined, and the transporter-mediated transportation mechanism of IAA was explored on a BBB monolayer mode. The overall brain targeting effect of IAA was assayed on mice by measuring the biodistribution of IBU after i.v. administration and calculating the pharmacokinetic parameters and targeting indexes. Results showed that lipophilicity and solubility of IAA was conspicuously improved compared with IBU. At the physiological pH, IAA was stable while in brain homogenates it was easily degraded. Transport studies on the BBB monolayer mode revealed that IAA displayed higher transepithelial permeability than IBU via SVCT2. The biodistribution study in vivo demonstrated that the overall targeting efficiency of IAA was 1.77-fold greater than that of the IBU. In conclusion, the synthetic IAA might be a promising brain-targeted CDS for smuggling small-molecule hydrophilic pharmaceuticals into the brain. PMID:24815906

  16. Fasciola hepatica: development of the tegument of normal and gamma-irradiated flukes during infection in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Burden, D J; Bland, A P; Hughes, D L; Hammet, N C

    1983-02-01

    Rats and mice were infected with either normal metacercariae or metacercariae gamma-irradiated at 3 krad. or 4 krad. Flukes were recovered at various times after infection and their teguments examined using a transmission electron microscope. In normal flukes, the secretory granules T0, T1 and T2 were all seen during tegumental development. The teguments of flukes from mice developed faster than the corresponding teguments in rats. T0 granules were present from day 0 to day 10 post-infection (p.i.) in mouse flukes and from day 0 to day 14 p.i. in rat flukes. T1 granules first appeared in mouse flukes by day 4 p.i. but not until day 8 p.i. in rat flukes. T2 granules were seen in mouse flukes 2 days p.i. but not before 6 days p.i. in rat flukes. gamma-Irradiation at 4 krad prevented normal tegumental development in flukes from both rats and mice. T0 granules were present at all times in flukes from either host. T1 granules were produced in mouse flukes but their appearance was delayed until day 6 p.i. No significant production of T2 granules occurred in flukes from either host. Parasite survival was also affected by gamma-irradiation and none of the flukes reached maturity. Flukes from rats died between 10 and 21 days p.i. and flukes from mice died between 14 and 28 days p.i. gamma-Irradiation of metacercariae at 3 krad. had an extremely variable effect on subsequent tegumental development in both rats and mice. Some flukes developed normally, some showed development associated with gamma-irradiation at 4 krad, whilst some showed intermediate development. PMID:6835695

  17. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  18. Fasciola hepatica: a technique for the study of gut penetration by juvenile flukes.

    PubMed

    Burden, D J; Bland, A P; Hughes, D L; Hammet, N C

    1981-10-01

    A method using light and electron microscopes is described which is suitable for the examination of gut penetration by juvenile Fasciola hepatica. It involved the ligation of small sections of the small intestine of rats and the introduction of artificially excysted flukes into these gut loops. By restricting the area of infection in this way it was possible to either recover flukes from the gut lumen or to prepare ultrathin sections for electron microscopy of flukes penetrating the gut wall. In addition, flukes were recovered from the body cavity at various times after preparation of loops in resistant and naive rats. It was found that more flukes reached the body cavity in naive rats than in resistant rats, demonstrating a resistance to infection in the gut loops of sensitized rats. PMID:7329714

  19. Ultrastructural observations on oral ingestion and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2005-02-01

    Three experiments have been carried out in vitro to determine the effect of oral and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon on the fine structure of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica. Changes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). Limited swelling of the basal infolds was observed in the tegumental syncytium. Swollen mitochondria were present in the syncytium, the underlying tegumental cells and in the gastrodermal cells. Swelling and vesiculation of the cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (ger) was evident in the gastrodermal cells, together with a reduction in secretory activity. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. There was severe swelling of the basal infolds in the tegumental syncytium and swelling of mitochondria in the syncytium, tegumental cells and gastrodermal cells. In the tegumental cells there was a decrease in the number of Golgi complexes as well. A number of changes were evident in the gastrodermal cells: swelling of the ger cisternae, an increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, a reduction in the number of secretory bodies and disruption of the lamellae projecting from the surface of the cells. In the third experiment, flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. There was severe swelling of the basal infolds in the tegumental syncytium and large autophagic vacuoles were present. Swollen mitochondria were a feature of the tegument, tegumental cells and gastrodermal cells, as were swollen cisternae of ger in the tegumental and gastrodermal cells. Fewer Golgi complexes were observed in the tegumental cells and in

  20. Gill trematodes (flukes) in wild-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Goulding, David R; Blankenship-Paris, Terry L; Lewbart, Gregory A; Myers, Page H; Demianenko, Tracy K; Clark, James A; Forsythe, Diane B

    2004-03-01

    Three wild caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) on an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved protocol were found dead within 2 days after being received. The fish were housed in two separate aquaria. Aquarium water was evaluated, and pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite levels were within acceptable parameters. Several remaining fish appeared to be slow-moving and were presented for necropsy. Multiple, scattered, ulcerated skin lesions (diameter, 1 to 5 mm) were noted at necropsy and were cultured. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Wet-mount samples of the gills revealed multiple cysts at the gill margins, each containing a motile organism. No other gill parasites were detected. A diagnosis of trematodiasis was made. The cysts were identified as encysted metacercariae of a digenetic trematode. We surmise that the large numbers of gill flukes combined with the stress of recent shipment likely caused the observed morbidity and mortality. PMID:15053506

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  2. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    PubMed

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case. PMID:27309299

  3. Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes.

    PubMed

    Taira, N; Yoshifuji, H; Boray, J C

    1997-07-01

    Mice were successfully infected with metacercariae of the Japanese Fasciola sp., resulting in the recovery of a mean number of 110 live immature flukes per mouse 4-5 days after inoculation. Twenty-four mice were then inoculated orally, each with a mean number of 68 freshly recovered immature flukes. The livers of 7 of the 24 recipient mice showed migratory lesions of capsular and subcapsular granulomatous infiltration and 2 of those mice also had haemorrhagic lesions. The lesions were typical of those caused by active migration of early immature flukes. However, no flukes were found in the livers of the recipient mice at necropsy when the flukes were aged 14 weeks. In another experiment, 10 piglets were given fresh livers of mice harbouring approximately 2000 live immature flukes aged 3-7 days. Two additional piglets were inoculated with 2000 metacercariae of Fasciola. All pigs were killed when the flukes were 14 days old. Granulomatous lesions were present in all pigs, except in those that were given livers containing flukes aged 7 days. The lesions were localized, forming well-defined foci, different from the typical migratory lesions normally observed in mouse or sheep liver at the early stage of fluke migration. From the 10 pigs given livers, 65 live flukes were recovered at necropsy, 0.29% of the estimated number of immature flukes given. From the 2 pigs which received 2000 metacercariae each, a total of 198 flukes were recovered (5%). The results of the experiments suggest that humans consuming raw liver dishes prepared from fresh livers infected with immature Fasciola spp. could become infected with liver fluke. PMID:9279579

  4. The role of evolutionary biology in research and control of liver flukes in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Echaubard, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Mallory, Frank F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2016-09-01

    Stimulated largely by the availability of new technology, biomedical research at the molecular-level and chemical-based control approaches arguably dominate the field of infectious diseases. Along with this, the proximate view of disease etiology predominates to the exclusion of the ultimate, evolutionary biology-based, causation perspective. Yet, historically and up to today, research in evolutionary biology has provided much of the foundation for understanding the mechanisms underlying disease transmission dynamics, virulence, and the design of effective integrated control strategies. Here we review the state of knowledge regarding the biology of Asian liver Fluke-host relationship, parasitology, phylodynamics, drug-based interventions and liver Fluke-related cancer etiology from an evolutionary biology perspective. We consider how evolutionary principles, mechanisms and research methods could help refine our understanding of clinical disease associated with infection by Liver Flukes as well as their transmission dynamics. We identify a series of questions for an evolutionary biology research agenda for the liver Fluke that should contribute to an increased understanding of liver Fluke-associated diseases. Finally, we describe an integrative evolutionary medicine approach to liver Fluke prevention and control highlighting the need to better contextualize interventions within a broader human health and sustainable development framework. PMID:27197053

  5. Simulating the Risk of Liver Fluke Infection using a Mechanistic Hydro-epidemiological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, Ludovica; Dunne, Toby; Rose, Hannah; Walker, Josephine; Morgan, Eric; Vickerman, Peter; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite found in livestock and responsible for considerable economic losses throughout the world. Risk of infection is strongly influenced by climatic and hydrological conditions, which characterise the host environment for parasite development and transmission. Despite on-going control efforts, increases in fluke outbreaks have been reported in recent years in the UK, and have been often attributed to climate change. Currently used fluke risk models are based on empirical relationships derived between historical climate and incidence data. However, hydro-climate conditions are becoming increasingly non-stationary due to climate change and direct anthropogenic impacts such as land use change, making empirical models unsuitable for simulating future risk. In this study we introduce a mechanistic hydro-epidemiological model for Liver Fluke, which explicitly simulates habitat suitability for disease development in space and time, representing the parasite life cycle in connection with key environmental conditions. The model is used to assess patterns of Liver Fluke risk for two catchments in the UK under current and potential future climate conditions. Comparisons are made with a widely used empirical model employing different datasets, including data from regional veterinary laboratories. Results suggest that mechanistic models can achieve adequate predictive ability and support adaptive fluke control strategies under climate change scenarios.

  6. Fasciola hepatica: morphological effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke.

    PubMed

    Meaney, M; Allister, J; McKinstry, B; McLaughlin, K; Brennan, G P; Forbes, A B; Fairweather, I

    2006-10-01

    A study has been carried out to investigate the morphological effects of half-strength triclabendazole (TCBZ), half-strength clorsulon, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 microg/ml), clorsulon (5 microg/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in vivo experiment, rats were dosed with TCBZ (6.25 mg/kg body weight), clorsulon (5 mg/kg body weight), or a combination of the two drugs and flukes recovered after 48 h. Surface changes to the flukes were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment with the combination of drugs produced greater disruption to the flukes than the individual drugs at half-strength, both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption to the tegument of the flukes induced by the individual drugs at half-strength was relatively minor and less than that caused by the drugs at full-strength. The results suggest that there are additive effects between TCBZ and clorsulon, which may be indicative of synergy: the use of drug combinations would be of value in the treatment of triclabendazole-resistant fluke. PMID:16896655

  7. Observations on the biology, epidemiology and economic relevance of rumen flukes (Paramphistomidae) in cattle kept in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Sargison, Neil; Francis, Emily; Davison, Chloe; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian; Mazeri, Stella

    2016-03-30

    There is concern about the probable recent introduction, increased prevalence and potential economic impact of rumen fluke infection of United Kingdom cattle. A study of 339 cattle slaughtered in a Scottish red meat abattoir was undertaken with the aims of describing the prevalence and geographical distribution of rumen fluke infection, estimating its effect on production, and evaluating faecal egg counts (FECs) as a tool to diagnose infection in live animals and study the epidemiology of the disease. The overall proportion of cattle consigned to the abattoir from northern United Kingdom with rumen fluke infection in the forestomachs was 0.29. Rumen flukes were distributed predominantly in the cranial sac of the rumen and adjacent to the reticular groove. Overall, a mean of 213 and median of 44 rumen flukes was identified in the forestomachs of rumen fluke-positive cattle. The mean and median FECs of animals were 26.01 and 5.20 eggs per gram (epg), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean FECs per rumen fluke of 0.08 and 0.13epg during summer/autumn and winter sampling periods, respectively. The overall correlation between rumen fluke FECs and the number of flukes in the forestomach was high, albeit lower in the summer/autumn than in the winter period. The sensitivities of rumen fluke FECs for the identification of flukes in the forestomach during the summer/autumn and winter sampling periods were 0.65 and 0.85, respectively. These results will aid in the interpretation of rumen fluke FECs when monitoring cattle health and production and studying the parasite's epidemiology in a temperate environment, thereby informing rational, precise and sustainable disease control. PMID:26921033

  8. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  9. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yeneneh, Asressa; Kebede, Hassen; Fentahun, Tewodros; Chanie, Mersha

    2012-01-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39) and Fogera breed (n=345) of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83%) followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%), and Schistosomosis (9.89%). The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97%) than Fogera breed (44.35%). However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection. PMID:25653752

  10. The Sigma Class Glutathione Transferase from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    LaCourse, E. James; Perally, Samirah; Morphew, Russell M.; Moxon, Joseph V.; Prescott, Mark; Dowling, David J.; O'Neill, Sandra M.; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Hoey, Elizabeth; Zafra, Rafael; Buffoni, Leandro; Pérez Arévalo, José; Brophy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver fluke infection of livestock causes economic losses of over US$ 3 billion worldwide per annum. The disease is increasing in livestock worldwide and is a re-emerging human disease. There are currently no commercial vaccines, and only one drug with significant efficacy against adult worms and juveniles. A liver fluke vaccine is deemed essential as short-lived chemotherapy, which is prone to resistance, is an unsustainable option in both developed and developing countries. Protein superfamilies have provided a number of leading liver fluke vaccine candidates. A new form of glutathione transferase (GST) family, Sigma class GST, closely related to a leading Schistosome vaccine candidate (Sm28), has previously been revealed by proteomics in the liver fluke but not functionally characterised. Methodology/Principal Findings In this manuscript we show that a purified recombinant form of the F. hepatica Sigma class GST possesses prostaglandin synthase activity and influences activity of host immune cells. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting have shown the protein is present near the surface of the fluke and expressed in eggs and newly excysted juveniles, and present in the excretory/secretory fraction of adults. We have assessed the potential to use F. hepatica Sigma class GST as a vaccine in a goat-based vaccine trial. No significant reduction of worm burden was found but we show significant reduction in the pathology normally associated with liver fluke infection. Conclusions/Significance We have shown that F. hepatica Sigma class GST has likely multi-functional roles in the host-parasite interaction from general detoxification and bile acid sequestration to PGD synthase activity. PMID:22666515

  11. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Mulvenna, Jason P.; Krause, Lutz; Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is a fish-borne trematode endemic in East Asia. Following ingestion, the flukes locate to the biliary treȩ where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The mechanisms by which O. viverrini infection culminates in CCA remain unknown. An unexplored aspect is its influence on the host microbiome. In the hamster, infection with this pathogen reliably leads to CCA. Genomic DNAs of microbiota from colorectal contents and bile of hamsters and from whole O. viverrini were examined in this model of fluke-induced CCA. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of variable regions 7–9 of prokaryotic 16S ribosomal DNA. Of ∼1 million sequences, 536,009 with useable reads were assignable to 29,776 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and, in turn, to 20 phyla and 273 genera of Bacteria or Archaea. Microbial community analyses revealed that fluke infection perturbed the gastrointestinal tract microbiome, increasing Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, while decreasing Porphyromonadaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Eubacteriaceae (P≤0.05). More than 60 OTUs were detected in the biliary system, which confirmed bacteriobilia and a noteworthy community of microbes associated with the parasites. The fluke-associated microorganisms included potential pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae and Listeriaceae and others, including Cyanobacteria and Deinococci, usually found in external environments. Given that opisthorchiasis is distinguished from other helminth infections by a robust inflammatory phenotype with conspicuously elevated IL-6, and that inflammation of the biliary system leads to periductal fibrosis, which is a precursor of CCA, the flukes and their microbiota may together drive this distinctive immune response.—Plieskatt, J. L., Raksawan, D., Mulvenna, J. P., Krause, L., Sripa, B., Bethony, J. M., Brindley, P. J. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini

  12. Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.

    PubMed

    Colorni, A; Diamant, A

    2005-06-01

    Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:16060271

  13. Efficacy of two formulations of albendazole against liver flukes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Craig, T M; Qureshi, T; Miller, D K; Wade, C G; Rogers, J A

    1992-07-01

    Albendazole (10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered as a drench suspension or as a feed additive to 24 cattle with naturally acquired infections of Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna. Cattle were euthanatized 16 to 30 days after treatment, and the number of viable flukes was counted. Viable F hepatica and F magna were decreased by 91.4% and 70.6% for drench administration and by 82.9% and 71.9% for the feed additive treatment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 formulations in decreasing viable fluke numbers, compared with untreated controls. PMID:1497187

  14. Effects of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in Thai women with liver fluke infestation: results after six months

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Richard A.; Assawasena, Vinich; Chalpati, Sopon; Taewtong, Dilok

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the three-monthly injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on liver and lipid function was assessed in Thai women with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infestation, DMPA administration being started in the immediate postpartum period. Immediate postpartum IUD and sterilization acceptors with fluke infestation were recruited as a comparison (control) group for the fluke-positiv DMPA acceptors. Comparable groups of fluke-negative acceptors were recruited in an area of Thailand free of liver fluke transmission. Results are presented for the first 6 follow-up months for 170 DMPA and 177 control fluke-positive subjects and for 153 DMPA and 150 control fluke-negative subjects. Small and similar increases occurred in each of the four groups for alanine amino transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin levels while aspartate amino transferase levels changed less in the DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. None of the subjects in either DMPA group had clearly abnormal results in these tests at 6 months. Alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were markedly lower in each group at 6 months than in the puerperal specimens. There was a greater decrease in triglycerides levels in both DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. However, the decrease in the alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels was greater only in the fluke-positive DMPA group than in the fluke-positive control group. None of these biochemical results were related to differences in age, parity, or lactation status between the groups. The results indicate that DMPA did not cause any early deleterious effects in the metabolic factors studied in women with liver fluke infestation. PMID:302157

  15. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface. PMID:27043709

  16. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface. PMID:27043709

  17. A model to assess the efficacy of vaccines for control of liver fluke infection.

    PubMed

    Turner, Joanne; Howell, Alison; McCann, Cathy; Caminade, Cyril; Bowers, Roger G; Williams, Diana; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, common liver fluke, infects cattle and sheep causing disease and production losses costing approximately $3billion annually. Current control relies on drugs designed to kill the parasite. However, resistance is evident worldwide and widespread in some areas. Work towards a vaccine has identified several antigens of F. hepatica that show partial efficacy in terms of reducing worm burden and egg output. A critical question is what level of efficacy is required for such a vaccine to be useful? We have created the first mathematical model to assess the effectiveness of liver fluke vaccines under simulated field conditions. The model describes development of fluke within a group of animals and includes heterogeneity in host susceptibility, seasonal exposure to metacercariae and seasonal changes in temperature affecting metacercarial survival. Our analysis suggests that the potential vaccine candidates could reduce total fluke burden and egg output by up to 43% and 99%, respectively, on average under field conditions. It also suggests that for a vaccine to be effective, it must protect at least 90% of animals for the whole season. In conclusion, novel, partial, vaccines could contribute substantially towards fasciolosis control, reducing usage of anthelmintics and thus delaying the spread of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:27009747

  18. Fasciola hepatica: antibody coating of juvenile flukes in the intestinal lumen of resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Burden, D J; Hughes, D L; Hammet, N C

    1982-01-01

    Newly excysted juvenile Fasciola hepatica, when placed in isolated loops of intestine prepared in previously infected rats, acquired a surface covering of rat immunoglobulin. IgG, IgA, IgE and IgM were all involved. This immunoglobulin coating was sloughed off when the flukes were maintained in vitro for three hours. PMID:7045997

  19. Fasciola hepatica: ultrastructural effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke.

    PubMed

    Meaney, M; Allister, J; McKinstry, B; McLaughlin, K; Brennan, G P; Forbes, A B; Fairweather, I

    2007-04-01

    A study has been carried out to investigate the ultrastructural effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) at half-normal concentration, clorsulon at half-normal concentration, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 microg/ml), clorsulon (5 microg/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in vivo experiment, rats were dosed with TCBZ (5 mg/kg body weight), clorsulon (5 mg/kg body weight), or a combination of the two drugs, and flukes recovered after 48 h. Fine structural changes within the tegumental syncytium and tegumental cells were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the combination of drugs produced greater disruption to the flukes than the individual drugs at half-normal concentrations, both in vivo and in vitro; also than TCBZ.SO at normal concentration in vitro. The changes observed aid in the understanding of the gross changes to the tegumental surface described previously (Meaney M, Allister J, McKinstry B, McLaughlin K, Brennan GP, Forbes AB, Fairweather I. Parasitol Res 99:609-621, 2006). The results indicate that there are additive effects between TCBZ and clorsulon and suggest that the use of drug combinations would be of value in the treatment of TCBZ-resistant fluke. PMID:17180691

  20. A model to assess the efficacy of vaccines for control of liver fluke infection

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Joanne; Howell, Alison; McCann, Cathy; Caminade, Cyril; Bowers, Roger G.; Williams, Diana; Baylis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, common liver fluke, infects cattle and sheep causing disease and production losses costing approximately $3billion annually. Current control relies on drugs designed to kill the parasite. However, resistance is evident worldwide and widespread in some areas. Work towards a vaccine has identified several antigens of F. hepatica that show partial efficacy in terms of reducing worm burden and egg output. A critical question is what level of efficacy is required for such a vaccine to be useful? We have created the first mathematical model to assess the effectiveness of liver fluke vaccines under simulated field conditions. The model describes development of fluke within a group of animals and includes heterogeneity in host susceptibility, seasonal exposure to metacercariae and seasonal changes in temperature affecting metacercarial survival. Our analysis suggests that the potential vaccine candidates could reduce total fluke burden and egg output by up to 43% and 99%, respectively, on average under field conditions. It also suggests that for a vaccine to be effective, it must protect at least 90% of animals for the whole season. In conclusion, novel, partial, vaccines could contribute substantially towards fasciolosis control, reducing usage of anthelmintics and thus delaying the spread of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:27009747

  1. Behavioral Modification Regarding Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma with a Health Belief Model Using Integrated Learning.

    PubMed

    Phatisena, Panida; Eaksanti, Tawatchai; Wichantuk, Pitsanee; Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to modify behavior regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention in Chumphuang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand through integrated learning. A total of 180 participants were included through purposive selection of high-risk scores on verbal screening. Participants attended the health education program which applied the health belief model included family based, knowledge station based, academic merit based and community based learning. Data were collected using a questionnaire composed of 4 parts: 1) personal information, 2) knowledge, 3) perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, 4) practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention. The result revealed that the majority were female (79.9%), age ≥60 years old (33.2%), primary school educational level (76.1%), and agricultural occupation (70.1%). The mean scores of knowledge, perception, and practice to liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, before participated the integrative learning were low, moderate, and low, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers, and practice regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention, were higher with statistical significance after participation in the integrated learning. This finding indicates that health education programs may successfully modify health behavior in the rural communities. Therefore they may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas. PMID:27356708

  2. Association between Liver Fluke Infection and Hepatobiliary Pathological Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Jiang, Shi-chen; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide information about the role of liver fluke infection as a risk factor for hepatobiliary pathological changes and promote awareness among the people living in endemic areas, a systematic review and meta-analysis based on published studies was conducted to examine the association between liver fluke infection and hepatobiliary pathological changes. Methods Relevant original literature was searched in multiple literature databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, Clinical Evidence, Trip Database, Clinical Trials, Current Controlled Trials, Web of Science, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, and the Wanfang academic journal full-text database. Studies were selected based on strict screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tests of heterogeneity, sensitivity and publication bias were performed with the Review Manager software, version 5.3, and meta-regression analyses were performed with the Stata software, version 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and used to evaluate the risk of hepatobiliary pathological changes resulting from liver fluke infection. Linear trend analyses were conducted to determine the dose-response relationship using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. Result A total of 36 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between liver fluke infection and cholangitis or cholecystitis (RR: 7.80, P<0.001; OR: 15.98, P<0.001), cholelithiasis (RR: 2.42, P = 0.03; OR: 4.96, P = 0.03), hepatocellular carcinoma (OR: 4.69, P<0.001) and cholangiocarcinoma (RR: 10.43, P<0.001; OR: 4.37, P<0.001). In addition, heavier infection was significantly associated with higher incidence of hepatobiliary pathological changes (P<0.05). However, cirrhosis was not significantly associated with liver fluke infection (RR: 3.50, P = 0.06; OR: 5.79, P = 0.08). The statistical

  3. Health Behavior Regarding Liver Flukes among Rural People in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Painsing, Sirinapa; Sripong, Anan; Vensontia, Orramon; Pengsaa, Prasit; Kompor, Pontip; Kootanavanichapong, Nusorn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in Thailand particularly in northeast and north regions where have been reported the highest of cholangiocarcinoma. Active surveillance is required, therefore a cross-sectional surveyed was conducted in Nong Bunnak sub-district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. A total of 367 participants were selected by multistage sampling from 5 villages located near natural water resources. Participants completed a predesigned questionnaire containing behavior questions regarding liver fluke disease, covering reliability and validity knowledge (Kuder-Richardon-20) = 0.80, attitude and practice (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) = 0.82 and 0.79, respectively. Descriptive statistics included frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations. The majority of the participants were female (58.3%), age group between 21-30 years old (42.5%), with primary school education (59.9%), occupation in agriculture (38.1%), and married (80.9%). They had past histories of raw fish consumption (88.3%), stool examination (1.4%), anti-parasite medication used (4.6%). Heads of villages, village health volunteers, television, and village newstations were the main sources for disease information. Participants had a moderate level of behavior regarding liver fluke disease. The mean scored of knowledge regarding liver fluke life cycle, transmission, severities, treatment, prevention and control was 10.9 (SD=0.5), most of them had a moderate level, 95.1%. The mean score for attitude regarding liver fluke prevention and control was 45.7 (SD=9.7), and for practice was 30.6 (SD=10.5). Participants had a moderate level of attitude and practice, 94.5% and 47.7, respectively. This study indicates that health education is required in this community including stool examination for liver fluke as further active surveillance screening. PMID:27221904

  4. The Indian Athlete: Exploiting or Exploited?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Michael A.

    It is the purpose of this paper to examine the nineteenth century Canadian Indian lacrosse player to determine whether or not he was exploited by his European counterparts, and if so, the manner in which this exploitation occurred. Caucasian lacrosse enthusiasts sought to promote "their" game by arranging for Indian demonstrations to be staged…

  5. Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.

    PubMed

    Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

    2014-12-01

    Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke. PMID:23721954

  6. Fasciola hepatica: attempts to immunise rats and mice with metabolic and somatic antigens derived from juvenile flukes.

    PubMed

    Burden, D J; Harness, E; Hammet, N C

    1982-02-01

    Attempts were made to vaccinate rats and mice against Fasciola hepatica using either somatic or metabolic antigens derived from juvenile flukes between 10 and 16 days old. None of the regimes tried induced a good resistance to subsequent infection, though metabolic antigens derived from 13-14-day-old flukes when injected subcutaneously into rats with adjuvant did produce some protection to challenge. PMID:7201201

  7. The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini –multiple pathways to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J.; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Smout, Michael J; Mairiang, Eimorn; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer. Here we review the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and the association of O. viverrini infection and bile duct cancer, focusing on the molecular parallels between wound healing, chronic inflammation and cancer development. We review a schema for human disease progression from fluke infection, chronic opisthorchiasis, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis, and present a rationale for biomarker discovery to facilitate early intervention. We conclude by addressing post-genomic advances with a view to developing new control strategies to combat this infectious cancer. PMID:22947297

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of triclabendazole response in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Chemale, Gustavo; Perally, Samirah; LaCourse, E James; Prescott, Mark C; Jones, Laura M; Ward, Deborah; Meaney, Myles; Hoey, Elizabeth; Brennan, Gerard P; Fairweather, Ian; Trudgett, Alan; Brophy, Peter M

    2010-10-01

    Control of Fasciola hepatica infections of livestock in the absence of vaccines depends largely on the chemical triclabendazole (TCBZ) because it is effective against immature and adult parasites. Overdependence on a single drug and improper application is considered a significant factor in increasing global reports of fluke resistant to TCBZ. The mode(s) of action and biological target(s) of TCBZ are not confirmed, delaying detection and the monitoring of early TCBZ resistance. In this study, to further understand liver fluke response to TCBZ, the soluble proteomes of TCBZ-resistant and TCBZ-susceptible isolates of F. hepatica were compared with and without in vitro exposure to the metabolically active form of the parent drug triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Gel image analysis revealed proteins displaying altered synthesis patterns and responses both between isolates and under TCBZ-SO exposure. These proteins were identified by mass spectrometry supported by a F. hepatica expressed sequence tag (EST) data set. The TCBZ responding proteins were grouped into three categories; structural proteins, energy metabolism proteins, and "stress" response proteins. This single proteomic investigation supported the reductionist experiments from many laboratories that collectively suggest TCBZ has a range of effects on liver fluke metabolism. Proteomics highlighted differences in the innate proteome profile of different fluke isolates that may influence future therapy and diagnostics design. Two of the TCBZ responding proteins, a glutathione transferase and a fatty acid binding protein, were cloned, produced as recombinants, and both found to bind TCBZ-SO at physiologically relevant concentrations, which may indicate a role in TCBZ metabolism and resistance. PMID:20726552

  9. Untangling the Complexity of Liver Fluke Infection and Cholangiocarcinoma in NE Thailand Through Transdisciplinary Learning.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A D; Echaubard, P; Lee, Y T; Chuah, C J; Wilcox, B A; Grundy-Warr, C; Sithithaworn, P; Petney, T N; Laithevewat, L; Ong, X; Andrews, R H; Ismail, T; Sripa, B; Khuntikeo, N; Poonpon, K; Tungtang, P; Tuamsuk, K

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates how a transdisciplinary learning approach provided new insights for explaining persistent Opisthorchis viverrini infection in northern Thailand, as well as elucidating problems of focusing solely on the parasite as a means of addressing high prevalence of cholangiocarcinoma. Researchers from diverse backgrounds collaborated to design an investigative homestay program for 72 Singaporean and Thai university students in five northeast Thai villages. The students explored how liver fluke infection and potential cholangiocarcinoma development are influenced by local landscape dynamics, aquatic ecology, livelihoods, food culture and health education. Qualitative fieldwork was guided daily by the researchers in a collaborative, co-learning process that led to viewing this health issue as a complex system, influenced by interlinked multidimensional factors. Our transdisciplinary experience has led us to believe that an incomplete understanding of these linkages may reduce the efficacy of interventions. Further, viewing liver fluke infection and cholangiocarcinoma as the same issue is inadvisable. Although O. viverrini infection is an established risk factor for the development of cholangiocarcinoma, multiple factors are known to influence the likelihood of acquiring either. Understanding the importance of the current livelihood transition, landscape modification and the resulting mismatch between local cultures and new socio-ecological settings on cholangiocarcinoma initiation and liver fluke transmission is of critical importance as it may help readjust our view of the respective role of O. viverrini and other socioeconomic risk factors in cholangiocarcinoma etiology and refine intervention strategies. As demonstrated in this study, transdisciplinary approaches have the potential to yield more nuanced perspectives to complex diseases than research that focuses on specific aspects of their epidemiology. They may therefore be valuable when designing

  10. Proteomic profile of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails upon infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini

    PubMed Central

    Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Tesana, Smarn; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Grams, Rudi; Loukas, Alex; Sotillo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos acts as the first intermediate host for the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, the major cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in Northeast Thailand. The undisputed link between CCA and O. viverrini infection has precipitated efforts to understand the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions with a view to ultimately developing new control strategies to combat this carcinogenic infection. To date most effort has focused on the interactions between the parasite and its human host, and little is known about the molecular relationships between the liver fluke and its snail intermediate host. In the present study we analyse the protein expression changes in different tissues of B. siamensis goniomphalos induced by infection with larval O. viverrini using iTRAQ labelling technology. We show that O. viverrini infection downregulates the expression of oxidoreductases and catalytic enzymes, while stress-related and motor proteins are upregulated. The present work could serve as a basis for future studies on the proteins implicated in the susceptibility/resistance of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini, as well as studies on other pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of various parasitic flukes that infect humans. PMID:25284051

  11. Identification of lead chemotherapeutic agents from medicinal plants against blood flukes and whipworms

    PubMed Central

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul R.; Pearson, Mark S.; Smout, Michael J.; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and trichuriasis are two of the most common neglected tropical diseases (NTD) that affect almost a billion people worldwide. There is only a limited number of effective drugs to combat these NTD. Medicinal plants are a viable source of parasiticides. In this study, we have investigated six of the 19 phytochemicals isolated from two Bhutanese medicinal plants, Corydalis crispa and Pleurospermum amabile, for their anthelmintic properties. We used the xWORM technique and Scanning Electron Microscope-based imaging to determine the activity of the compounds. Of the six compounds tested, isomyristicin and bergapten showed significant anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris with bergapten being the most efficacious compound one against both parasites (S. mansoni IC50 = 8.6 μg/mL and T. muris IC50 = 10.6 μg/mL) and also against the schistosomulum stage of S. mansoni. These two compounds induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. The efficacy against multiple phylogenetically distinct parasites and different life stages, especially the schistosomulum where praziquantel is ineffective, makes isomyristicin and bergapten novel scaffolds for broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug development that could be used for the control of helminths infecting humans and animals. PMID:27572696

  12. Identification of lead chemotherapeutic agents from medicinal plants against blood flukes and whipworms.

    PubMed

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Giacomin, Paul R; Pearson, Mark S; Smout, Michael J; Loukas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and trichuriasis are two of the most common neglected tropical diseases (NTD) that affect almost a billion people worldwide. There is only a limited number of effective drugs to combat these NTD. Medicinal plants are a viable source of parasiticides. In this study, we have investigated six of the 19 phytochemicals isolated from two Bhutanese medicinal plants, Corydalis crispa and Pleurospermum amabile, for their anthelmintic properties. We used the xWORM technique and Scanning Electron Microscope-based imaging to determine the activity of the compounds. Of the six compounds tested, isomyristicin and bergapten showed significant anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris with bergapten being the most efficacious compound one against both parasites (S. mansoni IC50 = 8.6 μg/mL and T. muris IC50 = 10.6 μg/mL) and also against the schistosomulum stage of S. mansoni. These two compounds induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. The efficacy against multiple phylogenetically distinct parasites and different life stages, especially the schistosomulum where praziquantel is ineffective, makes isomyristicin and bergapten novel scaffolds for broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug development that could be used for the control of helminths infecting humans and animals. PMID:27572696

  13. Reducing the future threat from (liver) fluke: realistic prospect or quixotic fantasy?

    PubMed

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-08-01

    The liver fluke remains an economically significant parasite of livestock and is emerging as an important zoonotic infection of humans. The incidence of the disease has increased in the last few years, as a possible consequence of changes to the World's climate. Future predictions suggest that this trend is likely to continue. Allied to the changing pattern of disease, reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) have appeared in the literature, although they do not all represent genuine cases of resistance. Nevertheless, any reports of resistance are a concern, because triclabendazole is the only drug that has high activity against the migratory and damaging juvenile stages of infection. How to deal with the twin problems (of increasing incidence and drug resistance) is the overall theme of the session on "Trematodes: Fasciola hepatica epidemiology and control" and of this review to introduce the session. Greater knowledge of fluke epidemiology and population genetics will highlight those regions where surveillance is most required and indicate how quickly resistant populations of fluke may arise. Models of disease risk are becoming increasingly sophisticated and precise, with more refined data analysis programmes and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data. Recent improvements have been made in our understanding of the action of triclabendazole and the ways in which flukes have become resistant to it. While microtubules are the most likely target for drug action, tubulin mutations do not seem to be involved in the resistance mechanism. Rather, upregulation of drug uptake and metabolism processes appear to be more important and the data relating to them will be discussed. The information may help in the design of new treatment strategies or pinpoint potential molecular markers for monitoring fluke populations. Advances in the identification of novel targets for drugs and vaccines will be made by the various "-omics" technologies that are now being applied to

  14. Human infections with liver and minute intestinal flukes in Guangxi, China: analysis by DNA sequencing, ultrasonography, and immunoaffinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Zhang, Hongman; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming; Eom, Keeseon S

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was determined by surveying inhabitants of Hengxuan, Fusui, and Shanglin villages which were known to be endemic for liver flukes in Guangxi, China in May 2010. A total of 718 people were examined for helminth eggs by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique, ultrasonography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and DNA sequencing. The overall egg positive rate was found to be 59.6% (28.0-70.6%) that included mixed infections with liver and intestinal flukes. Cases showing higher than 20,000 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were detected between 1.3% and 16.2%. Ultrasonographic findings exhibited overall 28.2% (72 of 255 cases) dilatation rate of the intrahepatic bile duct. Clonorchis sinensis infection was detected serologically in 88.3% (38 of 43 cases) among C. sinensis egg positive subjects by the immunoaffinity chromatography using a specific antigen for C. sinensis. For differential diagnosis of the liver and intestinal flukes, more precise PCR and nucleotide sequencing for copro-DNA were performed for 46 egg positive cases. Mixed infections with C. sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai were detected in 8 of 46 egg positive cases, whereas 29 specimens were positive for Haplorchis taichui. Ultrasonographic findings and immunoaffinity chromatography results showed usefulness, even in a limited way, in figuring out of the liver fluke endemicity. PMID:23230343

  15. Secreted cysteine proteases of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini: regulation of cathepsin F activation by autocatalysis and trans-processing by cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Laha, Thewarach; To, Joyce; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Dalton, John P.; Robinson, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Opisthorchis viverrini is an important helminth pathogen of humans that is endemic in Thailand and Laos. Adult flukes reside within host bile ducts and feed on epithelial tissue and blood cells. Chronic opisthorchiasis is associated with severe hepatobiliary diseases such as cholangiocarcinoma. Here we report that adult O. viverrini secrete two major cysteine proteases: cathepsin F (Ov-CF-1) and cathepsin B1 (Ov-CB-1). Ov-CF-1 is secreted as an inactive zymogen that auto-catalytically processes and activates to a mature enzyme at pH 4.5 via an intermolecular cleavage at the prosegment-mature domain junction. Ov-CB-1 is also secreted as a zymogen but, in contrast to Ov-CF-1, is fully active against peptide and macromolecular substrates despite retaining the N-terminal prosegment. The active Ov-CB-1 zymogen was capable of trans-activating Ov-CF-1 by proteolytic removal of its prosegment at pH 5.5, a pH at which the Ov-CF-1 zymogen cannot auto-catalytically activate. Both cathepsins hydrolyse human haemoglobin but their combined action more efficiently degrades haemoglobin to smaller peptides than each enzyme alone. Ov-CF-1 degraded extracellular matrix proteins more effectively than Ov-CB-1 at physiological pH. We propose that Ov-CB-1 regulates Ov-CF-1 activity and that both enzymes work together to degrade host tissue contributing to the development of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20070308

  16. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus

    PubMed Central

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Vavilin, Valentin A.; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  17. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    PubMed

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Vavilin, Valentin A; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2015-12-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  18. Economic and production consequences of liver fluke disease in double-muscled fattening cattle.

    PubMed

    Genicot, B; Mouligneau, F; Lekeux, P

    1991-05-01

    The frequency of liver fluke disease in fattening units was determined by the analysis of random faeces samples issued from 1,513 Belgian White Blue bulls aged from 5 to 7 months and weighing from 200 to 300 kg. 12.5% of the investigated bulls were positive for liver fluke disease. These bulls were spread over 56.5% of the investigated fattening units. Furthermore the infestation rate varied from 0 to 33.3% inside the fattening units. In order to assess the economic consequences of bovine fascioliasis in double-muscled cattle and the beneficial effects of a treatment against such a disease, a trial including 30 Belgian White Blue bulls, weighing 365 +/- 9 kg and aged from 10 to 12 months, was conducted in a selected fattening unit. On the basis of faecal examinations, the 30 animals were subdivided in negative (group A; n = 10) and positive animals (n = 20) for fascioliasis, the latter being either treated with nitroxinil (group B; n = 10) or not (group C; n = 10) on day 0 of this trial which was conducted during 75 days. The daily body gains in group C (1.661 +/- 0.140 kg) were significantly lower than those in group A (1.975 +/- 0.120 kg). On the other hand there was no significant difference between the daily body gains registered in group B (1.960 +/- 0.085 kg) and A. The estimated financial loss, due to flukes and accounted on a 75 day-period, averaged 2,748 Belgian Francs per bull in group C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1858458

  19. Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes

  20. [Studies on the molluscicidal and cercariacidal effects of various pesticides in liver fluke

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Man

    1965-12-01

    Clonorchiasis for which no specific therapy is available has been recognized as one of the serious public health problems in terms of waste of human productivity in Korea today and an urgent consideration must be given to its prevention and control. For past several years, the author has been finding that the infection rate of liver fluke in fish from the Kum-Ho river which has long been recognized as the world's notorious prevalent area of the disease, has been decreasing gradually. Here the author formulated the hypothesis that the decreasing of infection rate might be influenced by the common use of pesticide in plants along the river. Basing this hypothesis, the effective use of pesticide may contribute to the control of the disease by cutting the life cycle of liver fluke. To test above hypothesis, molluscicidal effect on Parafossarulus manchouricus and cercariacidal effect of various pesticides in liver fluke have been determined and the following results were obtained. 1. In molluscicidal effect, the most potent agent in low concentration was Bayer 73 which is 3 to 70 times stronger than other pesticides. When compared with NaPCP which has been widely used for the eradication of Onchomelania, Bayer 73 shows 5 to 10 times stronger effect. The order of pesticide in molluscicidal effect was: Bayer 73, Nicotin, NaPCP, Sevin, Parathion, Copper sulfate and Lindane. 2. In cercariacidal effect, the most potent agent was Parathion which had 2 to 5 times stronger effect than Bayer 73 or NaPCP. The order of pesticide in the cercariacidal effect was: Parathion, Bayer73, NaPCP, Lindane, Nicotin,Sevin, and Copper sulfate. 3. By applying the common used concentration of pesticides considering the toxicity to plants, Bayer 73 is most potent in molluscicidal effect and then Nicotin, NaPCP, Copper sulfate, Sevin, Parathion and Lindane in order. In cercariacidal effect, Parathion is the most potent and NaPCP, Bayer 73, Lindane, and Copper sulfate are followed. 4. Considering

  1. Evaluation of the comparative efficacy of a moxidectin plus triclabendazole pour-on solution against adult and immature liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, in cattle.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Thomas; Bartram, David; Van Brussel, Leen; Bo, Liu; Scott-Baird, Emer; Rugg, Douglas

    2012-10-26

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pour-on solution containing moxidectin plus triclabendazole (MOX plus TCBZ) against immature and adult stages of the liver fluke in cattle and compare the efficacy with other commercially available preparations. To this end, 104 male Holstein-Friesian calves aged between 3 and 4 months, were randomly allocated to 13 groups of eight animals each, and infected with approximately 500 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. One group remained untreated, four groups were treated with MOX plus TCBZ at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg, four other groups were treated with ivermectin (IVM) plus clorsulon injectable at a dose rate of 0.02 mL/kg, and the remaining four groups were treated with IVM plus closantel pour-on at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg. Each treatment was applied to one of the groups at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the experimental infection. At necropsy (99-102 days after infection), all untreated animals were infected with a minimum of 30 flukes. The MOX plus TCBZ treated animals had significantly (P<0.0001) lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals at all time points after treatment. Efficacy against 8-week old and adult flukes was >99.5%. For 6-week old immature fluke, the efficacy was 98.0% and for 4-week old immature fluke the efficacy was 90.9%. The IVM plus closantel pour-on treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult and 8-week old flukes (P<0.0001), and for 6-week old flukes (P=0.002). The efficacy was 26.8%, 68.2%, 90.6% and 99.3% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively. The IVM plus clorsulon treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult (P<0.0001) and 8-week old (P<0.05) flukes. The efficacy was 29.7%, 43.4%, 53.2% and 99.2% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively

  2. Fasciola hepatica: Histological changes in the somatic and reproductive tissues of liver fluke following closantel treatment of experimentally-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Scarcella, S; Hanna, R E B; Brennan, G P; Solana, H; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-15

    Lambs infected with the Cullompton isolate of Fasciola hepatica were treated orally or subcutaneously with 10mg/kg of closantel at 16 weeks post-infection. Adult flukes were recovered from the liver of individual animals at 12h, 24h, or 36h post-treatment. The flukes were processed for histological analysis. In general, degenerative changes in the reproductive and somatic tissues were progressive, and were most marked in flukes exposed to closantel in vivo for 36h. However, flukes from a 12h subcutaneously-treated lamb showed marked deterioration of the testis, possibly because a portion of the dose has been delivered intravenously. Fewer intact eggs were seen in the uterus of flukes exposed to closantel for longer times (whether administered subcutaneously or orally to the host). The most conspicuous closantel-induced effect in flukes from treated hosts was progressive damage to the tegumental syncytium. While the flukes from 24h-treated hosts showed relatively minor damage to limited areas of the syncytium, towards the posterior end, the flukes from 36h-treated hosts (and flukes from the lamb that putatively received intravenous dosage) had lost large areas of the surface syncytium from the posterior end and dorsal surface, although the syncytium over the anterior end and the anterior ventral surface was largely spared. In areas where the syncytium had sloughed, the underlying structures such as the vitelline follicles, gut profiles and testis profiles, showed marked degeneration and breakdown. Other changes included cell depletion and early stage apoptosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. This study establishes a model for histological changes in closantel-sensitive F. hepatica exposed to closantel in vivo. Histopathological studies could be complementary to the efficacy controlled test for for closantel resistance in fluke populations. PMID:26790736

  3. Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Secretes Extracellular Vesicles That Promote Cholangiocytes to Adopt a Tumorigenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Sotillo, Javier; Smout, Michael; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Jones, Malcolm K.; Johnson, Michael S.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Potriquet, Jeremy; Laohaviroj, Marut; Mulvenna, Jason; Brindley, Paul J.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background. Throughout Asia, there is an unprecedented link between cholangiocarcinoma and infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Multiple processes, including chronic inflammation and secretion of parasite proteins into the biliary epithelium, drive infection toward cancer. Until now, the mechanism and effects of parasite protein entry into cholangiocytes was unknown. Methods. Various microscopy techniques were used to identify O. viverrini extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their internalization by human cholangiocytes. Using mass spectrometry we characterized the EV proteome and associated changes in cholangiocytes after EV uptake, and we detected EV proteins in bile of infected hamsters and humans. Cholangiocyte proliferation and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion was measured to assess the impact of EV internalization. Results. EVs were identified in fluke culture medium and bile specimens from infected hosts. EVs internalized by cholangiocytes drove cell proliferation and IL-6 secretion and induced changes in protein expression associated with endocytosis, wound repair, and cancer. Antibodies to an O. viverrini tetraspanin blocked EV uptake and IL-6 secretion by cholangiocytes. Conclusions. This is the first time that EVs from a multicellular pathogen have been identified in host tissues. Our findings imply a role for O. viverrini EVs in pathogenesis and highlight an approach to vaccine development for this infectious cancer. PMID:25985904

  4. Metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics in giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna).

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Vokřál, Ivan; Kašný, Martin; Rejšková, Lenka; Zajíčková, Markéta; Lamka, Jiří; Skálová, Lenka; Lecová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    1. Giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna is a dangerous parasite, which infects herbivores. It was imported to Europe from North America and started to spread. Benzimidazoles like albendazole, mebendazole, triclabendazole and salicylanilides closantel and rafoxanide are the most used anthelmintics to control fascioloidosis. However their effect might be altered via drug-metabolizing enzymes of this parasite. 2. The aim of our study was to determine the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes in F. magna and the metabolism of above mentioned anthelmintics. 3. Activities of several oxidative, reductive and conjugative enzymes towards various model xenobiotic substrates were found in F. magna subcellular fractions. 4. Subcellular fractions from F. magna oxidized albendazole to its sulphoxide metabolite and reduced mebendazole to hydroxyl-mebendazole. Under ex vivo conditions, only very-low concentrations of these compounds were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. 5. The results indicate that the giant liver fluke possesses the active xenobiotic-metabolizing system. The overexpression of this system may play an important role in parasite resistance against these anthelmintics. PMID:26153440

  5. Molecular expression and enzymatic characterization of thioredoxin from the carcinogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.

    PubMed

    Suttiprapa, Sutas; Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for years. Defense against oxidative damage can be mediated through glutathione and/or thioredoxin utilizing systems. Here, we report the molecular expression and biochemical characterization of a thioredoxin (Trx) from O. viverrini. O. viverrini Trx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 105 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 11.63 kDa. The predicted protein has similarity to previously characterized thioredoxins with 26-51% identity. Recombinant O. viverrini Trx (Ov-Trx-1) was expressed as soluble protein in E. coli. The recombinant protein showed insulin reduction activity and supported the enzymatic function of O. viverrini thioredoxin peroxidase. Expression of Ov-Trx-1 at mRNA and protein levels was observed in all obtainable developmental stages of the liver fluke. Ov-Trx-1 was also detected in excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunohistochemistry, Ov-Trx-1 was expressed in nearly all parasite tissue excepted ovary and mature sperms. Interestingly, Ov-Trx-1 was observed in the infected biliary epithelium but not in normal bile ducts. These results suggest that Ov-Trx-1 is essential for the parasite throughout the life cycle. In the host-parasite interaction aspect, Ov-Trx-1 may support thioredoxin peroxidase in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation. PMID:21740981

  6. Risk biomarkers for assessment and chemoprevention of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yongvanit, Puangrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Loilome, Watcharin

    2014-05-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov), is the major risk factor of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeastern Thailand. Our approach focuses on genetic progression and molecular changes in the carcinogenic pathway of liver fluke-associated CCA aimed at assessing patients at risk of CCA and using chemoprevention as the secondary cancer prevention to reduce the incidence of CCA. This review summarizes altered gene expressions, biomolecules and their modification, i.e. DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, oxysterols and fibrotic markers in hamster- and human-CCA. Potential risk biomarker(s) and chemopreventive agent(s) criteria and selection were based on results from experimental and epidemiological studies identifying hepatobiliary disease, including CCA. Laboratory results reveal that oxidative stress induced by Ov infection leads to bimolecular damage, tissue remodeling especially periductal fibrosis and alteration of gene expressions, which could be involved in all steps of CCA carcinogenesis. Some of these molecules are reported to change their levels in opisthorchiasis, periductal fibrosis diagnosed by ultrasonography and CCA. Chemoprevention in experimental CCA tumorigenesis is discussed. These multiple risk biomarkers could now be explored for screening including chemopreventive intervention of subjects living in endemic areas where the prevalence of opisthorchiasis remains high. PMID:24408859

  7. Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle.

    PubMed

    Elitok, Bülent; Elitok, Ozgül Mukaddes; Kabu, Mustafa

    2006-02-18

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica in the feces. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into five groups of 10 cattle and treatments were as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control (CONT), Group 2 was treated orally with ABZ at 12 mg/kg, Group 3 was treated orally with RFX at 10 mg/kg, Group 4 received TRC orally at 12 mg/kg and Group 5 received CLS administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg. On day 0 (inclusion day), individual fecal samples were collected on days 0 (inclusion day), 7, 14, 28 and 56, after treatment. The drug efficacy was assessed as a percentage of the egg or fluke reduction and body weight gain relative to the untreated control. The results in the study showed a mean reduction of egg counts by 66.7%, 68.2%, 78% and 84.2% in Groups 2-5, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that CLS is a highly effective compound for the treatment of F. hepatica in cattle under these field conditions. PMID:16289862

  8. In vitro screening of Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Conyza canadensis against liver flukes.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Andeela; Kanwal, Rabia; Ullah Qureshi, Rahamat; Riaz Chaudhry, Farhana

    2015-09-01

    Aim of present study was to screen medicinal plants for flukicidal activity in vitro to develop alternative sources of treatment for trematodes infection. For this purpose, crude methanolic extracts (CME) of Cymbopogn jwarancusa and Conyza canadensis were prepared and live adult flukes viz; Fasciola gigantica, and Paramphistomum cervi isolated from liver and bile ducts of slaughtered buffalo were subjected to different drug concentrations as well as positive and negative control. Motility inhibition and paralysis leading to the death of parasites was considered as flukicidal activity of plants extracts. The results revealed that CME of C. jwarancusa and C. canadensis showed significant (P<0.05) flukicidal activity compared to positive control. Also there was a significant effect of different concentrations (P<0.05) and exposure of time on the flukes (P<0.05). Furthermore, ED50 for C. jwarancusa and C. canadensis against F. gigantica were 13.1 and 41.4 mg/ml, respectively. In the case of P. cervi, it was 10.8 and 29.0 mg/ml. It can be concluded that both tested plants showed greater flukicidal activity as compared to positive control with Albendazole till the 8(th) hr. These potent plants needs further studies invivo to elucidate their mode of action. PMID:26695200

  9. Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the Reproductive Organs and Differential Effects of Triclabendazole on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Fluke Isolates and on Flukes from Selected Field Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the findings of a series of studies in which the histological changes, induced in the reproductive system of Fasciola hepatica following treatment of the ovine host with the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ), were examined. A detailed description of the normal macroscopic arrangement and histological features of the testes, ovary, vitelline tissue, Mehlis’ gland and uterus is provided to aid recognition of the drug-induced lesions, and to provide a basic model to inform similar toxicological studies on F. hepatica in the future. The production of spermatozoa and egg components represents the main energy consuming activity of the adult fluke. Thus the reproductive organs, with their high turnover of cells and secretory products, are uniquely sensitive to metabolic inhibition and sub-cellular disorganisation induced by extraneous toxic compounds. The flukes chosen for study were derived from TCBZ-sensitive (TCBZ-S) and TCBZ-resistant (TCBZ-R) isolates, the status of which had previously been proven in controlled clinical trials. For comparison, flukes collected from flocks where TCBZ resistance had been diagnosed by coprological methods, and from a dairy farm with no history of TCBZ use, were also examined. The macroscopic arrangement of the reproductive system in flukes was studied using catechol/carmine stained whole mounts, and the histology of the main organs was examined using conventional haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Validation of apoptosis in the fluke sections was carried out using an in situ hybridisation method designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks. In TCBZ-S flukes exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 24–96 h in vivo, but not in TCBZ-R flukes, those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles), were found to display progressive loss of cell content. This was due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or effete products

  10. Bovine and ovine rumen fluke in Ireland-Prevalence, risk factors and species identity based on passive veterinary surveillance and abattoir findings.

    PubMed

    Toolan, Dónal P; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Sheehan, Maresa; Skuce, Philip J; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of rumen fluke, the incidence of clinical paramphistomosis and the trematode's species identity were studied in cattle and sheep in the Republic of Ireland using passive veterinary surveillance (faecal examination and necropsy results; 2010-2013) and abattoir data. Based on faecal examination, the prevalence of rumen fluke was higher in cattle than in sheep. Rumen fluke prevalence in cattle and sheep fluctuated over the year and in most years (2011-2013), prevalence was higher in winter (December-February) than in summer (June-August). For 3 of 4 years studied, there was no correlation between monthly prevalence of rumen fluke and prevalence of liver fluke as estimated by faecal examination. At sample level, joint occurrence of rumen fluke and liver fluke was 1.1-2.0 times more common than would be expected under the assumption of independence. Based on necropsy data, a spike in deaths attributed to paramphistomosis was observed in 2012, when rainfall was unusually high. This spike in mortality was not accompanied by a spike in faecal prevalence, emphasizing that the incidence of disease, which is due to high burdens of juvenile rumen fluke in the gut, is not correlated with prevalence of infection, which is measured by faecal examination and reflects presence of adult fluke in the rumen. At slaughter, 52% of 518 cattle from 101 herds were positive for rumen fluke, compared to 14% of 158 sheep. Prevalence in cattle was higher than reported in most studies from mainland Europe and varied by animal category, age, sex, abattoir visit and location (county) of farm from which the animal was submitted for slaughter, but in multivariate analysis, only sampling month and county were significantly associated with detection of rumen fluke. The identity of rumen fluke in cattle and sheep was confirmed as Calicophoron daubneyi. Although C. daubneyi is thought to share an intermediate host snail with Fasciola hepatica, the differences in prevalence between host

  11. Eye fluke infection status in Baltic cod, Gadus morhua, after three decades and their use as ecological indicators.

    PubMed

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Marana, Moonika H; Skov, Jakob; Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Sindberg, Diana; Mundeling, Mai; Overgaard, Bettina C; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    Eye flukes of the genus Diplostomum were recorded with a prevalence of 7.4% and a mean intensity of 11.9 (range 1-75) parasites per fish in eye lenses of a total of 188 Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, sampled in the Southeastern Baltic Sea from March 2013 to February 2014. A slight decrease of infection level, among the fish with body length ranging from 30 to 89.5 cm, was found when data were compared to a corresponding survey in the 1980s. Due to imprecise species identification of eye flukes based on morphometric analyses we present, as a baseline for further studies, rDNA sequences from a subsample of 19 eye flukes based on sequencing of a part of 18S, ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 and part of 28S. We discuss the use of eye fluke recordings in Baltic cod as an environmental indicator due to the dependence of the parasite's life cycle on biotic (occurrence of snail and bird hosts) and abiotic (temperature and salinity) parameters. PMID:26204178

  12. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization.

    PubMed

    Lemetayer, Julie D; Snead, Elizabeth C; Starrak, Greg S; Wagner, Brent A

    2016-06-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  13. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  14. Effect of gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infections on weight gain and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Loyacano, A F; Williams, J C; Gurie, J; DeRosa, A A

    2002-08-01

    Spring born, crossbred beef heifers (n=372) were utilized over four years to measure reductions in body weights, reproductive performance and calf weights caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (primarily Ostertagia ostertagi) and the bovine liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and to differentiate losses attributable to each type of parasitism. Each year, weaned heifers were allotted to one of the four treatment regimens: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated for nematodes; Group 3, treated for liver fluke; and Group 4, treated for both nematodes and liver fluke. Nematodes were controlled with subcutaneous injections of either ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) or doramectin (Dectomax, Pfizer), both at the recommended dose of 200 ug/kg bodyweight. Clorsulon (Curatrem, Merial) drench was given at the recommended rate of 7 mg/kg bodyweight to control flukes. Treatments and fecal collections were initiated at allotment each year and were repeated at 28-84-day intervals until palpation for pregnancy diagnosis. Open heifers were removed from the study at this time. Treatment dates were based on expected length of treatment efficacy, the stage of growth of the heifers and the seasonal risk of infection by the parasites. Pregnant females were pooled and received their assigned treatments prior to their calving and breeding seasons and remained together until their calves were weaned. Heifers treated for nematode infections were heavier and had higher condition scores (P<0.01) than untreated control heifers at initiation of breeding, and maintained that difference through pregnancy diagnosis. Liver fluke infection did not affect heifer gains or condition scores prior to palpation (P<0.01). At palpation, heifers treated for both forms of parasitism had the highest condition scores and weight gains (P<0.01), and also higher pregnancy rates than control heifers and heifers treated for nematodes only (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates for heifers treated for flukes only were not

  15. The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a Reservoir for Species of Helicobacter

    PubMed Central

    Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Chomvarin, Chariya; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Chamgramol, Yaowalux; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

    2016-01-01

    There has been a strong, positive correlation between opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma and infection with Helicobacter. Here a rodent model of human infection with Opisthorchis viverrini was utilized to further investigate relationships of apparent co-infections with O. viverrini and H. pylori. A total of 150 hamsters were assigned to five groups: i) Control hamsters not infected with O. viverrini; ii) O. viverrini-infected hamsters; iii) non-O. viverrini infected hamsters treated with antibiotics (ABx); iv) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated with ABx; and v) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated both with ABx and praziquantel (PZQ). Stomach, gallbladder, liver, colonic tissue, colorectal feces and O. viverrini worms were collected and the presence of species of Helicobacter determined by PCR-based approaches. In addition, O. viverrini worms were cultured in vitro with and without ABx for four weeks, after which the presence of Helicobacter spp. was determined. In situ localization of H. pylori and Helicobacter-like species was performed using a combination of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in O. viverrini-infected hamsters was significantly higher than that of O. viverrini-uninfected hamsters (p≤0.001). Interestingly, O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated with ABx and PZQ (to remove the flukes) had a significantly lower frequency of H. pylori than either O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated only with ABx or O. viverrini-infected hamsters, respectively (p≤0.001). Quantitative RT-PCR strongly confirmed the correlation between intensity H. pylori infection and the presence of liver fluke infection. In vitro, H. pylori could be detected in the O. viverrini worms cultured with ABx over four weeks. In situ localization revealed H. pylori and other Helicobacter-like bacteria in worm gut. The findings indicate that the liver fluke O. viverrini in the biliary tree of the hamsters harbors H. pylori and

  16. Characteristics and molecular phylogeny of Fasciola flukes from Bangladesh, determined based on spermatogenesis and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Shoriki, Takuya; Katakura, Ken; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to precisely discriminate Fasciola spp. based on DNA sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. We collected 150 adult flukes from the bile ducts of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats from six different regions of Bangladesh. Spermatogenic status was determined by analyzing stained seminal vesicles. The ITS1 types were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The nad1 haplotypes were identified based on PCR and direct sequencing and analyzed phylogenetically by comparing with nad1 haplotypes of Fasciola spp. from other Asian countries. Of the 127 aspermic flukes, 98 were identified as Fg type in ITS1, whereas 29 were identified as Fh/Fg type, indicating a combination of ITS1 sequences of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. All the 127 aspermic flukes showed Fsp-NDI-Bd11 in nad1 haplotype with nucleotide sequences identical to aspermic Fasciola sp. from Asian countries. Further, 20 spermic flukes were identified as F. gigantica based on their spermatogenic status and Fg type in ITS1. F. gigantica population was thought to be introduced into Bangladesh considerably earlier than the aspermic Fasciola sp. because 11 haplotypes with high haplotype diversity were detected from the F. gigantica population. However, three flukes from Bangladesh could not be precisely identified, because their spermatogenic status, ITS1 types, and nad1 haplotypes were ambiguous. Therefore, developing a robust method to distinguish aspermic Fasciola sp. from other Fasciola species is necessary in the future. PMID:24781019

  17. Efficacy of treatment of cattle for liver fluke at housing: influence of differences in flukicidal activity against juvenile Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Forbes, A B; Reddick, D; Stear, M J

    2015-03-28

    Flukicides are commonly administered at housing to cattle that have grazed fluke-infected pastures or that have been purchased from endemic areas. The choice of product is determined by numerous factors, one of which is the stages of Fasciola hepatica that are killed. Flukicides can be categorised into three main groups: (A) those that kill all juvenile stages and adults; (B) those that kill juveniles from six to eight weeks of age and adults and (C) those that kill adults only. This study was conducted on a commercial beef farm in Scotland and was designed to compare the efficacy of flukicides from each of these three classes in terms of their effects on faecal egg output, coproantigen and liveweight gain. The majority of animals in the untreated control group were positive for coproantigen, fluke eggs or both throughout the study duration of 16 weeks. Egg reappearance interval following housing treatment was eight weeks for clorsulon and 13 weeks for nitroxynil, though patent infections in both groups developed in only a small minority of animals; no fluke eggs were recovered from cattle treated with triclabendazole. Coproantigen was detected four weeks before the reappearance of fluke eggs in the dung. Animals treated with flukicides had significantly fewer faecal samples positive for eggs (P<0.006) and coproantigen (P<0.05) following treatment compared with the controls. Despite differences in the efficacy profiles among the flukicide-treated groups, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth rates among any of the four treatment groups. There was, however, a significant negative association (P<0.001) between fluke positivity at housing and subsequent growth performance, irrespective of treatment group. PMID:25549916

  18. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  19. Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis): epidemiology, economic impact and public health significance.

    PubMed

    Saleha, A A

    1991-12-01

    Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) is an important parasitic disease found worldwide affecting sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo, as well as other domestic ruminants. The common causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica which require various species of Lymnaea, fresh water snails, as their intermediate hosts. The epidemiology of the disease and its prevalence in Malaysia is mentioned briefly. The disease causes considerable impact on the economy of the livestock industry. The economic losses consist of costs of anthelmintics, drenches, labor, liver condemnation at meat inspection; and losses in production due to mortality, reduction in meat, milk and wool production; and reduction in growth rate, fertility and draught power. The disease also has public health significance, causing human fascioliasis and "halzoun". PMID:1822928

  20. Pathological changes in cattle naturally infected by Calicophoron daubneyi adult flukes.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Miguel; Pérez, Valentín; Benavides, Julio; González-Lanza, M Camino; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Fernández, Miguel; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Ferreras, M Carmen

    2015-04-30

    Local host response and parasite distribution were studied in the forestomachs, abomasum, duodenum and regional lymph nodes of cattle suffering from bovine paramphistomosis. The parasites were found attached, by its ventral sucker, to small conical papillae of the rumen and reticulum. Affected papillae, showed morphological changes denoted by very narrow stalks and expanded heads. Histologically, these changes were characterized by epithelial acanthosis-hyperkeratosis of the epithelium. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was often related with the epithelial changes, although it was also found in the duodenal mucosa and submucosa. These cells were arranged as aggregates or follicles but sparse infiltration of eosinophils, globule leukocytes, mast cells or macrophages was also observed in the lamina propria. Tissue damage and inflammatory reaction were more severe in the ruminal atrium, where the largest number of flukes and affected papillae were observed. In contrast, lesions in the ruminal dorsal sac were absent or mild. Statistical correlation between lesion severity and parasite burden was confirmed. PMID:25801360

  1. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  2. Risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal fluke infections in Lao PDR, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Ki, Moran; Eom, Keeseon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal fluke (Ov/MIF) in Lao People's Democratic Republic according to different regions and evaluate the effect of ingestion of raw freshwater fish on the infection. Demographic data, behavioral data, and symptoms were obtained, and the Kato-Katz method was used for the diagnosis of Ov/MIF. In total, 3,046 individuals were enrolled. The risk factors associated with acquisition of Ov/MIF were raw fish consumption and province. Khong Island showed the highest prevalence (odds ratio = 80.1, 95% confidence interval = 47.9-133.9, P < 0.001) compared with other districts, and raw fish consumption was related to Ov/MIF infection. Administration of praziquantel to entire populations, education (avoiding consumption of raw food dishes and improved hygiene), and access to clean water and sanitation should be considered. PMID:24980495

  3. Fasciola hepatica - monitoring the milky way? The use of tank milk for liver fluke monitoring in dairy herds as base for treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Duscher, Ruth; Duscher, Georg; Hofer, Johannes; Tichy, Alexander; Prosl, Heinrich; Joachim, Anja

    2011-06-10

    In this study 595 lactating cows originating from 31 carinthian farms were investigated in accordance of liver fluke infection using individual and tank milk as well as individual blood and faecal samples. Two commercial ELISAs were used to test the milk and blood serum, and the results were compared with coproscopy and a commercial copro-antigen ELISA. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and two-graph operating characteristics (TG ROC) of tank milk results were conducted based on the individual milk to determine the minimum reliable in-herd antibody prevalence for the predominant condition in the investigation area. In 17.8% of the examined individuals located in 64.5% of the farms eggs were detected by coproscopy. The copro-antigen ELISA delivered 13.4% positive individuals from 54.8% of the farms. The milk ELISAs showed 42.7% (Euroclone) and 44.2% (Pourquier) positive cows on 90.3% of the farms. The blood samples were positive in 43% (Euroclone) and 45.2% (Pourquier) of the individuals from 90.3% to 96.8% of the herds, respectively. Based on the milk and the blood an average in-herd prevalence of 30-45% can be assumed. The serum and milk samples delivered correlating results with kappa values between 0.94 and 0.97, whereas the coproscopy and copro-antigen ELISA did not correlate well with the ELISA results. The two different ELISA tests highly correlated on individual and on herd level. Both showed a reliable minimum in-herd prevalence of ∼20%, meaning that one fifth of the individuals in a herd have to be positive to obtain a positive bulk tank milk result. In the investigated area a higher in-herd prevalence is expected, therefore the tank milk is useful as a monitoring tool and can be used as a basis for intervention strategies. PMID:21334811

  4. Wherefrom and whereabouts of an alien: the American liver fluke Fascioloides magna in Austria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Gaub, Larissa; Feix, Anna Sophia; Haider, Michaela; Walochnik, Julia; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Prosl, Heinrich

    2014-04-01

    The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna, an invasive species originating from North America, was recorded in Austria in the wild for the first time in 2000. Since then, various data concerning the epidemiology in snail intermediate hosts and cervid final hosts have been reported. Galba truncatula acts as snail intermediate host, and red deer, roe deer and fallow deer act as final hosts. G. truncatula is abundant throughout the region, especially along muddy shores of slow-flowing branches of the river system. Prevalence in deer (20-100 %) is much higher than in snails (0.03-0.2 %). Despite medical treatment of parts of the deer population, the parasite has successfully established itself on both sides of the Danube floodplain environments southeast of Vienna. Genetic analysis revealed that the infection of Austrian deer populations apparently originated from foci in the Czech Republic or from populations of Danube tributaries. Areas adjacent southwards, which will soon be joined through wildlife crossings, have not yet evidenced F. magna. Nonetheless, these environments are inhabited by host snails and deer and therefore constitute suitable habitats for F. magna. Invading alien parasites not only threaten native individual hosts but also influence host populations, thus potentially also modifying parasite communities and interactions. The host range of F. magna includes a variety of potential hosts, notably other Lymnaeidae as potential intermediate hosts and various ungulates, including sheep and cattle, as final hosts. Because eradication after medical treatment was unsuccessful, and due to the risk of further spread of the parasite into unaffected regions, enhanced control strategies need to be developed. We recommend assessment of introduction pathways and dispersal, continuous monitoring of host abundance and distribution and the prevalence of flukes in intermediate and final hosts, as well as coordinated and concerted actions with neighbouring countries

  5. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF LIVER FLUKE (FASCIOLOIDES MAGNA) INFECTION IN FALLOW DEER (DAMA DAMA) IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Trailović, Saša M; Marinković, Darko; Kulišić, Zoran

    2016-04-28

    Giant liver fluke ( Fascioloides magna ) infection is an important health problem of cervids in southeastern Europe. We measured the prevalence and intensity of infection with F. magna in a fenced area near the Danube River in the South Bačka District of Serbia. Parasitologic, pathomorphologic, and histopathologic examinations were conducted from November 2007 to February 2008, beginning with a population of 127 adult fallow deer ( Dama dama ). After a positive diagnosis, therapy with triclabendazole-medicated corn was applied. Deer were treated at four baiting stations, using medicated feed providing triclabendazole at an estimated dose of 10-14 mg/kg of body weight per deer. Treatment lasted for 7 d in early February 2008 and an additional 7 d 2 wk later. For the complete success of pharmacotherapy it was necessary to prevent any contact of deer with the snail intermediate host ( Galba truncatula ). Intervention in the habitat, removing grass and low vegetation, and draining ponds reduces the possibility of contact. Six months after the treatment, livers of hunted deer were reddish, with fibrous tracks; pigmentation and cysts in the parenchyma were surrounded by a fibrous capsule and their fecal samples contained no eggs of F. magna . Over the following years, livers of hunted deer were negative, and the last control cull in March 2015 confirmed complete absence of infection. We reconfirmed the presence of giant liver flukes in fallow deer in Serbia, apparently the result of natural spread across the Danube from Hungary and Croatia. We also report that the treatment of deer with triclabendazole-medicated corn is an effective method for administration of therapeutic doses of drug in semicaptive deer. Interventions in the environment are necessary to prevent recontact of deer with habitats used by the snail intermediate host, and enable the success of the therapy. PMID:26967130

  6. Transcriptome analysis of the adult rumen fluke Paramphistomum cervi following next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Vijayata; Garg, Sweta; Chourasia, Reetika; Hasnani, J J; Patel, P V; Shah, Tejas M; Bhatt, Vaibhav D; Mohapatra, Amitbikram; Blake, Damer P; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-10-01

    Rumen flukes are parasitic trematodes (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of major socioeconomic importance in many countries. Key representatives, such as Paramphistomum cervi, can cause "Rumen fluke disease" or paramphistomosis and undermine economic animal productivity and welfare. P. cervi is primarily a problem in sheep, goat and buffalo production as a consequence of reduced weight gain and milk production, clinical disease or death. Recent technological advances in genomics and bioinformatics now provide unique opportunities for the identification and pre-validation of drug targets and vaccines through improved understanding of the biology of pathogens such as P. cervi and their relationship with their hosts at the molecular level. Here, we report next generation transcriptome sequencing analysis for P. cervi. RNAseq libraries were generated from RNA extracted from 15 adult P. cervi parasites sampled from each of three different host species (sheep, goat and buffalo) and a reference transcriptome was generated by assembly of all Ion Torrent PGM sequencing data. Raw reads (7,433,721 in total) were initially filtered for host nucleotide contamination and ribosomal RNAs and the remaining reads were assembled into 43,753 high confidence transcript contigs. In excess of 50% of the assembled transcripts were annotated with domain- or protein sequence similarity derived functional information. The reference adult P. cervi transcriptome will serve as a basis for future work on the biology of this important parasite. Using the widely investigated trematode virulence factor and vaccine candidate Cathepsin L as an example, the epitope GPISIAINA was found to be conserved in P. cervi isolated from three different host species supporting its candidacy for vaccine development and illustrating the utility of the adult P. cervi transcriptome. PMID:26049095

  7. Genetic diversity of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis from Russia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chelomina, Galina N; Tatonova, Yulia V; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ngo, Ha Duy

    2014-10-01

    Clonorchiasis is a parasitic disease of high public health importance in many countries in southeastern Asia and is caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, the genetic structure and demographic history of its populations has not been sufficiently studied throughout the geographic range of the species and available data are based mainly on partial gene sequencing. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of the complete 1560 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence for geographically isolated C. sinensis populations in Russia and Vietnam, to our knowledge for the first time. The results demonstrated low nucleotide and high haplotype differentiation within and between the two compared regions and a clear geographical vector for the distribution of genetic diversity patterns among the studied populations. These results suggest a deep local adaptation of the parasite to its environment including intermediate hosts and the existence of gene flow across the species' range. Additionally, we have predicted an amino acid substitution in the functional site of the COX1 protein among the Vietnamese populations, which were reported to be difficult to treat with praziquantel. The haplotype networks consisted of several region-specific phylogenetic lineages, the formation of which could have occurred during the most extensive penultimate glaciations in the Pleistocene Epoch. The patterns of genetic diversity and demographics are consistent with population growth of the liver fluke in the late Pleistocene following the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating the lack of a population bottleneck during the recent past in the species' history. The data obtained have important implications for understanding the phylogeography of C. sinensis, its host-parasite interactions, the ability of this parasite to evolve drug resistance, and the epidemiology of clonorchiasis under global climate change. PMID:25123068

  8. [Child sexual exploitation].

    PubMed

    Cabello, María F; Castaldi, Paula D; Cataldo, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Child Sexual Exploitation is a complex phenomenon in our country and the world; it dates back to an ancient past but it has a very recent conceptualization and specific approach. This article proposes a tour through this process as well as some inputs for its categorization, the attention to the affected subjects by the very design of public policies taken from a concrete institutional experience. PMID:19812796

  9. Epidemiological survey on the infection of intestinal flukes in residents of Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Lee, Dong-Min; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kim, In-Sang; Hwang, Eun-Jung; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2010-06-01

    Infection status of intestinal flukes was investigated in residents of Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 1,257 fecal samples of residents were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and Kato-Katz thick smear method. Helminth eggs were detected from 95 (7.6%) residents, and eggs of heterophyid flukes and Clonorchis sinensis were found from 62 (4.9%) and 40 (3.2%) cases, respectively. The larger heterophyid eggs, somewhat dark-brown in color and 37.7 x 21.5 microm in average size, and found in 32 (2.6%) out of 62 egg positive cases of heterophyid flukes. To confirm the adult flukes, we performed worm recovery from 12 cases after praziquantel treatment and purgation with MgSO(4). A total of 1,281 adult flukes, assigned to 7 species, were recovered from 9 cooperative cases. Heterophyes nocens (total 981 specimens) was collected from 9 cases, Stictodora fuscata (80) from 7, Gymnophalloides seoi (75) from 5, Pygidiopsis summa (140) from 3, Stellantchasmus falcatus (3) from 2, and Stictodora lari and Acanthotrema felis (each 1 worm) from 1 case each. The intrauterine eggs of S. fuscata collected from the recovered worm were identical with the larger heterophyid eggs detected in the stool examination. By the present study, it was confirmed that A. felis is a new intestinal fluke infecting humans, and residents in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do are infected with variable species of intestinal trematodes. PMID:20585529

  10. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

    2012-04-01

    The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

  11. Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

  12. Multisensor staring exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Michael L.

    2008-04-01

    The focus of this paper is on the exploitation of new staring sensors to address the urban surveillance challenge and help combat the war on terror. A staring sensor visualization environment, known as the Data Table, will be presented which integrates staring sensors with close-in sensors, such as small UAVs, building mounted sensors, and unattended ground sensors (UGS). There are several staring sensors in development, but two in particular will be highlighted in this paper - NightStare and the Gotcha Radar, both under development by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL).

  13. Molecular evidence shows that the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is the predominant Fasciola species in ruminants from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, U; van Paridon, B; Shabbir, M Z; Shafee, M; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Gilleard, J

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. It has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. There are two Fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may misidentify putative intermediate or hybrid forms. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA of liver flukes collected from multiple species of hosts from seven localities in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan, to determine the distribution of these two species. All 46 flukes processed in this study, collected from seven sites, showed the rDNA ITS-2 genotype corresponding to F. gigantica, contradicting previous reports, based on adult and egg morphology, that both species are present in Pakistan, with F. hepatica being the more common. PMID:25758445

  14. A retrospective survey of liver flukes in livestock based on abattoir data in Kermanshah, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Safavi, Ehsan Allah Afshari

    2016-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried from 2008 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of liver flukes in ruminants slaughtered at the abattoir of Kermanshah province, west of Iran. A total of 663,633 animals slaughtered in the 5-year period and totally 1.95 % of livers were condemned due to liver flukes. Fasciolosis were responsible for 0.8, 0.7 and 1.5 % of liver condemnations, whereas 1, 0.8 and 1 % of liver were condemned because of Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in the sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. A significant difference in the prevalence of liver flukes were observed among studied animals (p < 0.001) and the highest and lowest prevalence were detected in cattle and goats, respectively. Data showed significant seasonal pattern for distomatosis in sheep and goat (p < 0.001). Liver condemnations due to fasciolosis were prevalent in sheep and goats and cattle slaughtered during winter, summer and autumn, respectively, whereas dicrocoeliosis were common in autumn season for sheep and cattle and in winter for goats. This survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of these potentially important parasitic infections in the region. PMID:27605816

  15. Moving target exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bruce L.; Grayson, Timothy P.

    1998-08-01

    The understanding of maneuvering forces is invaluable to the warfighter, as it enhances understanding of enemy force structure and disposition, provides cues to potential enemy actions, and expedites targeting of time critical targets. Airborne ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radars are a class of highly-effective, all-weather, wide-area senors that aid in the surveillance of these moving ground vehicles. Unfortunately conventional GMTI radars are incapable of identifying individual vehicles, and techniques for exploiting information imbedded within GMTI radar reports are limited. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Moving Target Exploitation (MTE) program is working to mitigate these deficiencies by developing, integrating, and evaluating a suite of automated and semi-automated technologies to classify moving targets and units, and to provide indications of their activities. These techniques include: aid in the interpretation of GMTI data to provide moving force structure analysis, automatic tracking of thousands of moving ground vehicles, 1-D target classification based upon high-range- resolution (HRR) radar profiles, and 2-D target classification based upon moving target imaging (MTIm) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This paper shall present the MTE concept and motivation and provide an overview of results to date.

  16. Multilevel fusion exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Perry C.; Dasarathy, Belur V.; McCullough, Claire L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a project that was sponsored by the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) to develop, test, and demonstrate sensor fusion algorithms for target recognition. The purpose of the project was to exploit the use of sensor fusion at all levels (signal, feature, and decision levels) and all combinations to improve target recognition capability against tactical ballistic missile (TBM) targets. These algorithms were trained with simulated radar signatures to accurately recognize selected TBM targets. The simulated signatures represent measurements made by two radars (S-band and X- band) with the targets at a variety of aspect and roll angles. Two tests were conducted: one with simulated signatures collected at angles different from those in the training database and one using actual test data. The test results demonstrate a high degree of recognition accuracy. This paper describes the training and testing techniques used; shows the fusion strategy employed; and illustrates the advantages of exploiting multi-level fusion.

  17. Population-Based Intervention for Liver Fluke Prevention and Control in Meuang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kompor, Pontip; Muang Karn, Rattikarn; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Photipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Phong Paew, Somkiat; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Phatisena, Tanida; Eaksanti, Thawatchai; Joosiri, Apinya; Polsripradistdist, Poowadol; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is still a major health problem in rural communities of Thailand. Infection is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is found frequently in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of health intervention in the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and CCA. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were completed health intervention comprising 4 stations; 1, VDO clip of moving adult worm of liver fluke; 2, poster of life cycle of liver fluke; 3, microscopy with adult and egg liver fluke; and 4, brochure with the knowledge of liver fluke containing infection, signs, symptoms, related disease, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control. Pre-and-post-test questionnaires were utilized to collect data from all participants. Students paired t-tests were used to analyze differences between before and after participation in the health intervention. Knowledge (mean difference=-7.48, t=-51.241, 95% CI, -7.77, -7.19, p-value =0.001), attitude (mean difference=-9.07, t=-9.818, 95% CI=-10.9, -7.24, p-value=0.001), and practice (mean difference=-2.04, t=-2.688, 95% CI=-3.55, -0.53, p-value=0.008), changed between before and after time points with statistical significance. Community rules were concluded regarding: (1) cooked cyprinoid fish consumption; (2) stop under cooked cyprinoid fish by household cooker; (3) cooked food consumption; (4) hygienic defecation; (5) corrected knowledge campaign close to each household; (6) organizing a village food safety club; (7) and annual health check including stool examination featuring monitoring by village health volunteers and local public health officers. The results indicates that the present health intervention program was effective and easy to understand, with low cost and taking only a short time. Therefore, this program may

  18. Raw Fish Consuming Behavior Related to Liver Fluke Infection among Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chavengkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Pontip; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Pothipim, Mali; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is a health problem in rural communities of Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate raw fish consuming behavior related to liver fluke infection among the population at risk for opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Meuang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast Thailand, between June and October 2015. Participants were screened for CCA, and samples who had a high score of CCA risk were purposively selected. A predesigned questionnaire was utilized to collect the data from all participants. X2-test was used for analysis of associations between demographic data and raw fish consumption. The results revealed that participants had past histories of stool examination (33.0%), liver fluke infection (21.0%), praziquantel use (24.0%), raw fish consumption (78.0%), relatives family consuming raw fish (73.0%), and relatives family with CCA (3.0%). Participants consumed several dished related to liver fluke infection, mainly raw fermented fish (13.0%), under smoked catfish (5.00%), raw pickled fish (4.00%), and raw spicy minced fish salad (3.00%). The most common types of cyprinoid fish were Barbodes gonionotus (39%), Hampala dispar (38%), Puntius brevis (37%), Cyclocheilichthys armatus (33%), Puntioplites proctozysron (32%), and Luciosoma bleekeri (30%), respectively. Participants had a low level of knowledge (mean=3.79, SD=0.74), moderate attitude (mean=7.31, SD=7.31) and practice (mean=38.64, SD=6.95) regarding liver fluke prevention and control. Demographic variables like age (>36 years old; X2-test=17.794, p-value=0.001), education (primary school; X2-test=18.952, p-value=0.001), marital status (married; X2-test=12.399, p-value=0.002), and income (<5,000 baht; X2-test=27.757, p-value=0.015) were significantly associated with raw fish consumption. This result indicates that the population had risk consumption for liver

  19. Biotechnological exploitation of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Doris; Zedler, Julie A Z; Rajakumar, Priscilla D; Martinez, Erick M Ramos; Riseley, Anthony; Włodarczyk, Artur; Purton, Saul; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Howe, Christopher J; Jensen, Poul Erik; Robinson, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae are a diverse group of single-cell photosynthetic organisms that include cyanobacteria and a wide range of eukaryotic algae. A number of microalgae contain high-value compounds such as oils, colorants, and polysaccharides, which are used by the food additive, oil, and cosmetic industries, among others. They offer the potential for rapid growth under photoautotrophic conditions, and they can grow in a wide range of habitats. More recently, the development of genetic tools means that a number of species can be transformed and hence used as cell factories for the production of high-value chemicals or recombinant proteins. In this article, we review exploitation use of microalgae with a special emphasis on genetic engineering approaches to develop cell factories, and the use of synthetic ecology approaches to maximize productivity. We discuss the success stories in these areas, the hurdles that need to be overcome, and the potential for expanding the industry in general. PMID:26400987

  20. Exploiting Endocytosis for Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Akinc, Akin; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways. A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature. We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes. This topic is an area of active research, motivated by the recognition that an improved understanding of how nanomaterials interact at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism level will lead to the design of better nanomedicines in the future. Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit. Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field. PMID:24186069

  1. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  2. Image exploitation for MISAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.

    2007-04-01

    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  3. Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taraschewski, H.

    1984-03-01

    Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

  4. Sequencing and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome from the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Gao, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Duan, Hong; Yue, Dong-Mei; Fu, Xue; Su, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Chun-Ren

    2016-01-15

    The trematode Eurytrema pancreaticum is a parasite of ruminant pancreatic and bile ducts, and also occasionally infects humans, causing eurytremiasis. In spite of it being a common fluke of cattle and sheep in endemic regions, little is known about the genomic resources of the parasite. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of E. pancreaticum. It is 15,031 bp in size, and encodes 36 genes: 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. The E. pancreaticum mt gene order is the same as that of Dicrocoelium chinensis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and all genes are transcribed in the same direction. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference shows that E. pancreaticum is closely related to D. chinensis and other members of the family Dicrocoeliidae with strong posterior probability support. The E. pancreaticum mt genome should prove to be a useful resource for comparative mt genomic studies of digenetic trematodes, and will provide a rich source of DNA markers for studies into the systematics, epidemiology, and population genetics of this parasite and other digenean trematodes. PMID:26434796

  5. Lung fluke (Paragonimus africanus) infects Nigerian red-capped mangabeys and causes respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Friant, Sagan; Brown, Kelsey; Saari, Mason T.; Segel, Nicholas H.; Slezak, Julia; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs of the lung fluke genus Paragonimus were detected in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria. We assess the role of these primates as potential sylvatic hosts and the clinical effects of the parasite on monkeys. DNA sequenced from eggs in feces were 100% identical in the ITS2 region to Paragonimus africanus sequences from humans in Cameroon. Paragonimus-positive monkeys coughed more than uninfected monkeys. Experimental de-worming led to reduction in parasite intensity and a corresponding reduction of coughing to baseline levels in infected monkeys. This report provides the first evidence of Paragonimus sp. in C. torquatus, of P. africanus in Nigerian wildlife, and the first molecular evidence of the parasite in African wildlife. Coughing, sometimes interpreted as a communication behavior in primates, can actually indicate infection with lung parasites. Observations of coughing in primates may, in turn, provide a useful mechanism for surveillance of Paragonimus spp, which are re-emerging human pathogens, in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:26543803

  6. Prevalence of liver fluke infections in slaughtered animals in Lorestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ezatpour, Behrouz; Hasanvand, Ali; Azami, Mehdi; Anbari, Khatereh; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum as liver flukes, contaminate ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that create considerable economic losses. This retrospective study has been done to evaluate contamination rate of slaughtered animals with fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis at Lorestan abattoirs. In this survey, prevalence rate of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered animals in a 3-year period (2010-2013) has been analyzed. A total of 356,605 livestock including 265,692 sheep and 90,913 goats were slaughtered in the 3-year period and overall 39,613 (11.1 %) livers were condemned. Fascioliasis and dicrocoeliosis were responsible for 6.3 and 4.8 % of total liver condemnations in this period, respectively. Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infection in sheep (7.1 and 5.6 %, respectively) were considerably higher than goats (3.9 and 2.6 %, respectively). The annual prevalence rates showed a significant decline in the fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis infection in goats (p < 0.001). Data showed significant seasonal pattern for distomatosis in sheep and goats (p < 0.001). Liver condemnations due to fasciolosis were prevalent in sheep and goats slaughtered during spring and autumn, respectively, whereas dicrocoeliosis were common in spring season for both sheep and goats. This survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of these potentially important parasitic infections in the region. PMID:26688642

  7. Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

    2012-03-01

    A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. PMID:21704728

  8. Battlespace exploitation vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Johnson, Ray O.

    1997-06-01

    The quantity and quality of data collected by military and commercial electro-optic and radar sensors is rapidly increasing. This increase in imagery data has not been accompanied by an increase in the number of image analysts needed to rapidly screen the imagery to locate and identify military targets or other objects of interest. Automatic target recognition (ATR) technology that automates the target detection, classification, and identification process has been a promising technology for at least two decades, and recent advances make the realization of aided target recognition possible. The future military battlespace will be filled with airborne, spaceborne, and land-based sensors observing moving and stationary targets at various locations, from multiple aspects, and at multiple frequencies and wavelengths. Only through the use of computer-assisted data analysis and ATR can the vast amount of data be analyzed within the timelines required by the military. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a number of programs developing technology to support the exploitation and control of the future battlespace information.

  9. Identification of Fasciola flukes in Thailand based on their spermatogenesis and nuclear ribosomal DNA, and their intraspecific relationships based on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Ichikawa, Madoka; Sobhon, Prasert; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 147 Fasciola flukes obtained from cattle in Thailand based on their spermatogenetic ability, and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes as molecular markers. One hundred twenty-eight flukes, which had abundant sperm in their seminal vesicles (spermic) and showed the PCR-RFLP pattern of F. gigantica in the ITS1, were accurately identified as F. gigantica. The other 19 flukes that had no sperm in their seminal vesicles were aspermic Fasciola sp. with the RFLP patterns identical to that of F. gigantica. Twenty-nine ND1 haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 2-30) were distinguished in the 128 F. gigantica flukes and were divided into haplotypes unique to Thailand and those common to other countries, suggesting the possibility that ancestral haplotypes were introduced into Thailand. Three haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 7, 9 and 27) appeared to be the major haplotypes found in F. gigantica from Thailand. Only one haplotype (Fg-ND1-Thai 1) was found in the 19 aspermic Fasciola sp. flukes obtained from geographical regions, and the nucleotide sequence of Fg-ND1-Thai 1 was identical to that of the aspermic Fasciola sp. from Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam and Myanmar, suggesting that they were descendants with a common provenance and expanded to these countries in the relatively recent past. PMID:22575172

  10. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  11. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    PubMed

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of <5m resolution was acquired in the spring of 2013 for the area around Bruges, Belgium, a region where dairy farms suffer from liver fluke infections transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations. PMID:25599638

  12. Seasonal differences in the efficacy of pour-on formulations of triclabendazole and ivermectin or abamectin against late immature liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sargent, R M; Chambers, M; Elliott, T

    2009-04-01

    Three controlled studies were conducted to determine the efficacy against late immature (6 weeks) Fasciola hepatica of two currently available fasciolicides (Genesis Ultra and Coopers Sovereign) which are applied externally to cattle. Efficacy of the two products was assessed when application was made under winter, spring and summer conditions. Efficacies for winter, spring and summer respectively, based on arithmetic mean total fluke counts, were 78.9%, 91.7% and 99.6% for Coopers Sovereign and 73.4%, 89.7% and 99.6% for Genesis Ultra. Seasonal differences with treatment efficacy were indicated. The studies also confirmed previous observations that liver fluke egg counts overestimate the efficacy of fasciolicides and that total fluke counts is the most reliable method for assessing efficacy of such products. PMID:19167826

  13. Protein and small non-coding RNA-enriched extracellular vesicles are released by the pathogenic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Fanny C.; Swain, Martin T.; Klychnikov, Oleg I.; Niazi, Umar; Ivens, Alasdair; Quintana, Juan F.; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Buck, Amy H.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Penetration of skin, migration through tissues and establishment of long-lived intravascular partners require Schistosoma parasites to successfully manipulate definitive host defences. While previous studies of larval schistosomula have postulated a function for excreted/secreted (E/S) products in initiating these host-modulatory events, the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has yet to be considered. Here, using preparatory ultracentrifugation as well as methodologies to globally analyse both proteins and small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), we conducted the first characterization of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula EVs and their potential host-regulatory cargos. Results Transmission electron microscopy analysis of EVs isolated from schistosomula in vitro cultures revealed the presence of numerous, 30–100 nm sized exosome-like vesicles. Proteomic analysis of these vesicles revealed a core set of 109 proteins, including homologs to those previously found enriched in other eukaryotic EVs, as well as hypothetical proteins of high abundance and currently unknown function. Characterization of E/S sncRNAs found within and outside of schistosomula EVs additionally identified the presence of potential gene-regulatory miRNAs (35 known and 170 potentially novel miRNAs) and tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs; nineteen 5′ tsRNAs and fourteen 3′ tsRNAs). Conclusions The identification of S. mansoni EVs and the combinatorial protein/sncRNA characterization of their cargo signifies that an important new participant in the complex biology underpinning schistosome/host interactions has now been discovered. Further work defining the role of these schistosomula EVs and the function/stability of intra- and extra-vesicular sncRNA components presents tremendous opportunities for developing novel schistosomiasis diagnostics or interventions. PMID:26443722

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase gene from a blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; He, Yuan; He, Li; Zong, Hong-Ying; Cai, Guo-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) is a major antioxidant enzyme and plays critical roles in the protection of cells against oxidative stress by catalysing reduction of lipid hydroperoxides. A full-length cDNA sequence corresponding to GPx gene from Schistosoma japonicum (designated SjGPx) was isolated and characterized. SjGPx contained an in-frame TGA codon for selenocysteine (Sec) and a concurrent Sec insertion sequence in its 3'-untranslated region. Protein encoded by SjGPx demonstrated a primary structure characteristic to the PHGPx family, including preservation of catalytic domains and absence of the subunit interaction domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SjGPx was highly related to the other PHGPx-related members, and clustered into the trematode subclade II. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blotting showed that the SjGPx was mainly expressed in the female adults and eggs. RNA interference was employed to investigate the effects of knockdown of SjGPx. SjGPx expression level was significantly reduced on the 5th day post-RNAi. We observed a 53.86% reduction in total GPx activity and the eggs severely deformed. Oxidative stimulation of viable worms with H2O2 or paraquat resulted in 1.6- to 2.1-fold induction of the GPx activity. Our results revealed that the SjGPx protein is selenium-dependent PHGPx, which might actively participate in the detoxification of oxidative damage during egg production. PMID:26484892

  15. Fasciola hepatica: effects of the fasciolicide clorsulon in vitro and in vivo on the tegumental surface, and a comparison of the effects on young- and old-mature flukes.

    PubMed

    Meaney, M; Fairweather, I; Brennan, G P; McDowell, L S L; Forbes, A B

    2003-10-01

    The ultrastructural changes in Fasciola hepatica induced by the fasciolicide clorsulon were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. At 8 and 44 weeks post-infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with F. hepaticawere dosed orally with clorsulon at a concentration of 12.5 mg/kg and mature flukes recovered from the bile duct after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h in both experiments. An in vitro incubation was also set up using mature fluke (8 weeks old) incubated with clorsulon for 24 h at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. After 24 h in vivo, the young-mature flukes (8 weeks old) showed significant disruption to the tegumental surface, particularly in the anterior mid-body region, where a distinct band of swelling and blebbing was evident. The band began just behind the ventral sucker and ran posteriorly along both margins. The apical cone region of the fluke was characterised by swelling and blebbing of the surface between the spines. Similar changes were evident after 48 h in vivo, but the disruption was more severe and the mid-body band had spread posteriorly. In approximately half of the specimens recovered after 72 h in vivo, widespread disruption had occurred, with sloughing of the apical membrane or the entire syncytium, over almost all of the oral cone and anterior mid-body. For all time periods, the anterior half of the fluke was more severely affected than the posterior half. No differences were seen between the dorsal and ventral surfaces. Old-mature flukes (44 weeks old) showed regionally similar, but more severe and widespread disruption than that seen in the young-mature flukes. The onset of surface changes occurred more quickly in old-mature flukes as well. Eight-week-old flukes which had been incubated for 24 h in vitro showed surprisingly little disruption, but this may be due to the method by which the drug is taken up by the fluke. PMID:12937959

  16. Molecular Changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian Liver Fluke) during the Transition from the Juvenile to the Adult Stage

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Hall, Ross S.; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Gasser, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer ( = cholangiocarcinoma). In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina) representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology) for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. Conclusions This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals. PMID:23209858

  17. Prevalence of Platynosomum fastosum infection in free roaming cats in northeastern Brazil: Fluke burden and grading of lesions.

    PubMed

    Braga, R R; Teixeira, A C; Oliveira, J A A; Cavalcanti, L P G

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this paper was to investigate prevalence and parasite load of the trematode Platynosomum fastosum infection and the risk of developing cholangitis/cholangiohepatitis among infected domestic cats in a city of northeastern Brazil, and to characterize the influence of fluke burden in the formation of lesions in liver and gallbladder. A total of 141 cats was necropsied and examined for the presence of P. fastosum. The observed prevalence was 42.6% (60/141, 95% CI=34.2-50.9). Parasite load varied from 1 to 219 flukes per animal. Adult cats were more frequently infected than kittens (p<0.01). Risk of cholangitis was about three times higher in infected animals (RR=3.23, 95% CI=2.01-5.07, p<0.01). Centrolobular congestion, portal cholangitis and cholestasis was significantly more common in infected as compared to non-infected cats (p<0.01). Similarly, fibrosis, cholangitis and mucous gland hyperplasia were significantly more prevalent in the bile duct of infected animals (p<0.01). Mild fibrosis and cholecystitis were observed principally in infected cats. Hyperplastic precursor lesions of cholangiocarcinoma were observed, but no solid tumor was diagnosed. These results reveal high prevalence of P. fastosum in free roaming cats in northeastern Brazil, with increased risk of liver disease. PMID:27523932

  18. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) naturally infecting introduced European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in northern Patagonia: phenotype, prevalence and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Pablo F; Cataldo, Sophia Di; Fantozzi, M Cecilia; Deis, Erika; Isenrath, Gabriela Diaz; Viberti, Gabriela; Artigas, Patricio; Peixoto, Raquel; Valero, M Adela; Sierra, Roberto Mera Y; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Fascioliasis has recently been included in the WHO list of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Besides being a major veterinary health problem, fascioliasis has large underdeveloping effects on the human communities affected. Though scarcely considered in fascioliasis epidemiology, it is well recognized that both native and introduced wildlife species may play a significant role as reservoirs of the disease. The objectives are to study the morphological characteristics of Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs in a population of Lepus europaeus, to assess liver fluke prevalence, and to analyze the potential reservoir role of the European brown hare in northern Patagonia, Argentina, where fascioliasis is endemic. Measures of F. hepatica found in L. europaeus from northern Patagonia demonstrate that the liver fluke is able to fully develop in wild hares and to shed normal eggs through their faeces. Egg shedding to the environment is close to the lower limit obtained for pigs, a domestic animal whose epidemiological importance in endemic areas has already been highlighted. The former, combined with the high prevalence found (14.28%), suggest an even more important role in the transmission cycle than previously considered. The results obtained do not only remark the extraordinary plasticity and adaptability of this trematode species to different host species, but also highlight the role of the European brown hare, and other NIS, as reservoirs capable for parasite spillback to domestic and native cycle, representing a potentially important, but hitherto neglected, cause of disease emergence. PMID:26204194

  19. Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

  20. The effectiveness of repeated tank treatments of copper sulfate and formalin on gill flukes and Ich in naturally infested white bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasites infesting the gills of juvenile fish reared in tanks can cause serious fish losses. Multiple treatments of formalin and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were evaluated for effectiveness against a natural infestation of gill flukes Onchocleidus mimus (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae) and Ichthyop...

  1. Comparison of the time required to administer three different fluke and worm combination products to commercial beef cattle at housing.

    PubMed

    Webster, R; Knox, K; Berger, F; Delaveau, J; Forbes, A B

    2008-01-01

    Larger livestock units, a decline in the farm labor force, animal welfare concerns, and a trend toward more selective use of drugs have increased the focus on animal handling, time management, convenience, and compliance in administering veterinary therapeutics. This study was undertaken to quantify and compare the time needed to treat commercial beef cattle with three fluke and worm combination products with different administration profiles. Young beef cattle (n = 270) weighing approximately 400 kg were allocated to batches of five, which were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin + clorsulon injection, ivermectin + closantel injection, or levamisole + triclabendazole oral drench. The mean time needed to administer ivermectin + clorsulon (single injection) to five cattle was 31 seconds, which was significantly less than the 100 seconds needed for ivermectin + closantel (two injections) and the 126 seconds needed for levamisole + triclabendazole (P < .001). Such quantitative data can allow for better planning and selection of parasiticide treatment approaches at the farm level. PMID:18415946

  2. A Granulin-Like Growth Factor Secreted by the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, Promotes Proliferation of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smout, Michael J.; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Jones, Alun; Brindley, Paul J.; Loukas, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infects millions of people throughout south-east Asia and is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma, or cancer of the bile ducts. The mechanisms by which chronic infection with O. viverrini results in cholangiocarcinogenesis are multi-factorial, but one such mechanism is the secretion of parasite proteins with mitogenic properties into the bile ducts, driving cell proliferation and creating a tumorigenic environment. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a homologue of human granulin, a potent growth factor involved in cell proliferation and wound healing, in the excretory/secretory (ES) products of the parasite. O. viverrini granulin, termed Ov-GRN-1, was expressed in most parasite tissues, particularly the gut and tegument. Furthermore, Ov-GRN-1 was detected in situ on the surface of biliary epithelial cells of hamsters experimentally infected with O. viverrini. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 was expressed in E. coli and refolded from inclusion bodies. Refolded protein stimulated proliferation of murine fibroblasts at nanomolar concentrations, and proliferation was inhibited by the MAPK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Antibodies raised to recombinant Ov-GRN-1 inhibited the ability of O. viverrini ES products to induce proliferation of murine fibroblasts and a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line in vitro, indicating that Ov-GRN-1 is the major growth factor present in O. viverrini ES products. This is the first report of a secreted growth factor from a parasitic worm that induces proliferation of host cells, and supports a role for this fluke protein in establishment of a tumorigenic environment that may ultimately manifest as cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:19816559

  3. Intestinal and liver flukes of birds of prey (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes) from Slovakia: uniform or diverse compound?

    PubMed

    Komorová, Petronela; Sitko, Jiljí; Špakulová, Marta; Hurníková, Zuzana

    2016-07-01

    During 2012-2014 up to 286 birds of the orders Falconiformes (5 species), Accipitriformes (11 species), and Strigiformes (7 species) were examined for trematodes and this represents the first detailed study in Slovakia. A total of 12 trematode species belonging to the families Diplostomidae, Cyathocotylidae, Strigeidae, and Opisthorchiidae were identified. Rare infections were found in falcons where only two species (40 %) and three of 85 examined birds (3.5 %) were infected with a low range of two to four worms of generalists Strigea falconis or Plagiorchis elegans. Contrary to that, ten accipitriformes species (90.9 %) and 63 of 156 bird individuals (40.4 %) were infected with nine flukes: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Conodiplostomum spathula, Neodiplostomum attenuatum, Neodiplostomum spathoides, Parastrigea flexilis, Strigea falconis, Strigea vandenbrokae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, and Metorchis bilis. S. falconis and N. attenuatum were the most frequent, occurring in parallel in eight and four bird species, in numbers up to 575 and 224. The intensity of infection with other fluke species was low ranging from one to 13 worms. Three owl (Strigiformes) representatives (42.9 %) were exclusive hosts for Neodiplostomum canaliculatum and Strigea strigis, and the proportion of positive and dissected individual birds was 10:45 (22.2 %). Both trematodes occurred in two or three owl species. In conclusion, apparent dissimilarity of trematode load of three unrelated lines of falcons, eagles, and owls was revealed. The present study extends our knowledge on the composition of the trematode fauna in Slovakia as all species except S. falconis and P. elegans that represent new host and species records in Slovakia. PMID:27055533

  4. Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict

    PubMed Central

    Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature on male–female coevolution concerns the processes by which male traits and female preferences for these can coevolve and be maintained by selection. There has been less explicit focus on the origin of male traits and female preferences. Here, I argue that it is important to distinguish origin from subsequent coevolution and that insights into the origin can help us appreciate the relative roles of various coevolutionary processes for the evolution of diversity in sexual dimorphism. I delineate four distinct scenarios for the origin of male traits and female preferences that build on past contributions, two of which are based on pre-existing variation in quality indicators among males and two on exploitation of pre-existing sensory biases among females. Recent empirical research, and theoretical models, suggest that origin by sensory exploitation has been widespread. I argue that this points to a key, but perhaps transient, role for sexually antagonistic coevolution (SAC) in the subsequent evolutionary elaboration of sexual traits, because (i) sensory exploitation is often likely to be initially costly for individuals of the exploited sex and (ii) the subsequent evolution of resistance to sensory exploitation should often be associated with costs due to selective constraints. A review of a few case studies is used to illustrate these points. Empirical data directly relevant to the costs of being sensory exploited and the costs of evolving resistance is largely lacking, and I stress that such data would help determining the general importance of sexual conflict and SAC for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:16612895

  5. The Exploitation of Black Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    1983-01-01

    Colleges and universities have not up held their end of the bargain with athletes, exploiting a disproportionate number of talented Black athletes by not providing the kind of education the students sought or needed and by applying rigid academic standards for eligibility. (MSE)

  6. An integrated pipeline for next generation sequencing and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester, 1857) Looss, 1899

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Ghatani, Sudeep; Shylla, Jollin A.; Sahu, Ranjana; Mullapudi, Nandita

    2013-01-01

    Helminths include both parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminths (trematode and cestode flatworms) that are abundant, and are of clinical importance. The genetic characterization of parasitic flatworms using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis and control of infections. Although the nuclear genome houses suitable genetic markers (e.g., in ribosomal (r) DNA) for species identification and molecular characterization, the mitochondrial (mt) genome consistently provides a rich source of novel markers for informative systematics and epidemiological studies. In the last decade, there have been some important advances in mtDNA genomics of helminths, especially lung flukes, liver flukes and intestinal flukes. Fasciolopsis buski, often called the giant intestinal fluke, is one of the largest digenean trematodes infecting humans and found primarily in Asia, in particular the Indian subcontinent. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies now provide opportunities for high throughput sequencing, assembly and annotation within a short span of time. Herein, we describe a high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline for mt genomics for F. buski that emphasizes the utility of short read NGS platforms such as Ion Torrent and Illumina in successfully sequencing and assembling the mt genome using innovative approaches for PCR primer design as well as assembly. We took advantage of our NGS whole genome sequence data (unpublished so far) for F. buski and its comparison with available data for the Fasciola hepatica mtDNA as the reference genome for design of precise and specific primers for amplification of mt genome sequences from F. buski. A long-range PCR was carried out to create an NGS library enriched in mt DNA sequences. Two different NGS platforms were employed for complete sequencing, assembly and annotation of the F. buski mt genome. The complete mt genome sequences of the intestinal fluke comprise 14,118 bp and is thus the shortest

  7. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H

    1978-06-16

    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion. PMID:17738704

  8. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. PMID:21549130

  9. Exploiting perceptual redundancy in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyi; Chen, Zhenzhong

    2015-03-01

    Exploiting perceptual redundancy plays an important role in image processing. Conventional JND models describe the visibility of the minimally perceptible difference by assuming that the visual acuity is consistent over the whole image. Some earlier work considers the space-variant properties of HVS-based on the non-uniform density of photoreceptor cells. In this paper, we aim to exploit the relationship between the masking effects and the foveation properties of HVS. We design the psychophysical experiments which are conducted to model the foveation properties in response to the masking effects. The experiment examines the reduction of visual sensitivity in HVS due to the increased retinal eccentricity. Based on these experiments, the developed Foveated JND model measures the perceptible difference of images according to masking effects therefore provides the information to quantify the perceptual redundancy in the images. Subjective evaluations validate the proposed FJND model.

  10. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach☆

    PubMed Central

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J.; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host–parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n = 10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages. PMID:25796359

  11. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  12. Light and electron microscopy observations of embryogenesis and egg development in the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Platyhelminthes, Digenea).

    PubMed

    Khampoosa, Panita; Jones, Malcolm K; Lovas, Erica M; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Laha, Thewarach; Piratae, Supawadee; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Tesana, Smarn

    2012-02-01

    Eggs of most species digenean flukes hatch in the external environment to liberate larvae that seek and penetrate a snail intermediate host. Those of the human liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini, hatch within the gastrointestinal canal of their snail hosts. While adult parasites are primarily responsible for the pathology in cases of human opisthorchiasis, their eggs also contribute by inducing granulomata and in serving as nidi for gallstone formation. In view of the peculiar biology of O. viverrini eggs and their contribution to pathology, we investigated embryogenesis in this species by light and transmission electron microscopy. Egg development was traced from earliest stages of coalescence in the ootype until full embryonation in the distal region of the uterus. Fully mature eggs were generally impermeable to resin and could not be examined by conventional electron microscopy methods. However, the use of high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation of previously fixed eggs enabled the internal structure of mature eggs, particularly the subshell envelopes, to be elucidated. Fertilization occurs in the ootype, and the large zygote is seen therein with a single spermatozoon wrapped around its plasma membrane. As the zygote begins to divide, the spent vitellocytes are pushed to the periphery of the eggs, where they progressively degrade. The early eggshell is formed in the ootype by coalescing eggshell precursor material released by approximately six vitelline cells. The early eggs have a thinner eggshell and are larger than, but lack the characteristic shape of, mature eggs. Characteristic shell ornamentation, the "muskmelon" appearance of eggs, appears after eggshell polymerization in the ootype. Pores are not present in the shell of O. viverrini eggs. The inner and outer envelopes are poorly formed in this species, with the outer envelope evident beneath the eggshell at the opercular pole of the mature egg. The miracidium has a conical anterior end

  13. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink a certain amount of glucose ( oral glucose tolerance test ) How the Test will Feel When the ... a fasting blood glucose, HbA1c test , or glucose tolerance test , depending on your random blood glucose test ...

  14. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  15. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  16. Knowledge based SAR images exploitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, David L.

    1987-01-01

    One of the basic functions of SAR images exploitation system is the detection of man-made objects. The performance of object detection is strongly limited by performance of segmentation modules. This paper presents a detection paradigm composed of an adaptive segmentation algorithm based on a priori knowledge of objects followed by a top-down hierarchical detection process that generates and evaluates object hypotheses. Shadow information and inter-object relationships can be added to the knowledge base to improve performance over that of a statistical detector based only on the attributes of individual objects.

  17. Landscape influence on spatial patterns of meningeal worm and liver fluke infection in white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Vanderwaal, Kimberly L; Windels, Steve K; Olson, Bryce T; Vannatta, J Trevor; Moen, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host. PMID:25498206

  18. Haplorchis taichui, Witenberg, 1930: Development of a HAT-RAPD marker for the detection of minute intestinal fluke infection.

    PubMed

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Chai, Jong Yil; Anuntalabhochai, Somboon

    2009-10-01

    Specific primers to determine the presence of an intestinal fluke, Haplorchis taichui, were investigated using the high annealing temperature random amplified polymorphic DNA (HAT-RAPD) PCR, and 18 arbitrary primers (Operon Technologies), to generate different polymorphic DNA profiles. Thirteen kinds of parasites were used to compare fingerprints. A 256bp HAT-RAPD marker, generated from the OPP-11 primer, was found to be H. taichui-specific, and this marker was cloned, transformed, and sequenced. From the sequence data, a pair of primers were designed with Genetyx-MAC ver.11 and indicated as: Hap-t F 5'-GGC CAA CGC AAT CGT CAT CC-3' and Hap-t R 5'-GCG TCG GGT TTC AGA CAT GG-3'. These specific primers were tested for efficacy and specificity by amplifying them with all 13 parasites DNAs in PCR reaction. A 256bp amplicon was generated, which was shown to have a positive result, only for H. taichui DNA. It revealed no cross-reaction with any of the other tested parasite species. The minimum DNA template, needed for detection by PCR, was 0.1picogram (pg). The successful development of H. taichui-specific primers is expected to be beneficial for epidemiological studies and for prevention and control of these parasitic infections. PMID:19563805

  19. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... child Call 1-800-843-5678 Report sexual exploitation of a child The CyberTipline ® receives leads and tips regarding suspected crimes of sexual exploitation committed against children. More than 3.3 million ...

  20. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... first part of the small intestine, or esophagus Blood clotting disorders Defects in the blood vessels of the ... as a complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistries, blood clotting tests, and liver function tests Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (placing ...

  1. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  2. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  3. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both ...

  4. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships. PMID:12812183

  5. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  6. Opportunistic exploitation: an overlooked pathway to extinction.

    PubMed

    Branch, Trevor A; Lobo, Aaron S; Purcell, Steven W

    2013-07-01

    How can species be exploited economically to extinction? Past single-species hypotheses examining the economic plausibility of exploiting rare species have argued that the escalating value of rarity allows extinction to be profitable. We describe an alternative pathway toward extinction in multispecies exploitation systems, termed 'opportunistic exploitation'. In this mode, highly valued species that are targeted first by fishing, hunting, and logging become rare, but their populations can decline further through opportunistic exploitation while more common but less desirable species are targeted. Effectively, expanding exploitation to more species subsidizes the eventual extinction of valuable species at low densities. Managers need to recognize conditions that permit opportunistic depletion and pass regulations to protect highly desirable species when exploitation can expand to other species. PMID:23562732

  7. Combined effects of social stress and liver fluke infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Avgustinovich, Damira F; Marenina, Mariya K; Zhanaeva, Svetlana Ya; Tenditnik, Mikhail V; Katokhin, Alexey V; Pavlov, Konstantin S; Sivkov, Anton Yu; Vishnivetskaya, Galina B; Lvova, Maria N; Tolstikova, Tatiana G; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of two influences, social stress and acute opisthorchiasis, were investigated in inbred C57BL/6J male mice. In the model of social stress, mice were repeatedly attacked and defeated by aggressive outbred ICR male mice and were in continuous sensory contact with an aggressive conspecific mouse in their home cage for 20 days. Acute opisthorchiasis was provoked by invasion of Opisthorchis felineus (50 larvae per animal) on the fourth day after the social stress was induced. Simultaneous action of both factors caused the hypertrophy of adrenal glands, as well as elevated the activity of cathepsins B and L in the spleen. This effect on the activity of the cysteine proteases in the hippocampus and hypothalamus following O. felineus invasion was the predominant result of simultaneous action with social stress. Acute opisthorchiasis, social stress, and their combination caused an increase in the level of blood IL-6 in approximately 30% of the animals. Social stress induced a more pronounced effect on mouse plus-maze behavior than O. felineus invasion. Our results suggest a more severe negative effect of the simultaneous influence of both factors on most of the parameters that were investigated. PMID:26778779

  8. Development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the small liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Truong, Nam Hai; De, Nguyen Van

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-LAMP) because multiple copies occur in every cell. Four LAMP primers [F3, FIP(F1c+F2), BIP(B1c+B2), and B3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of Opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-OvLAMP) to distinguish DNA of O. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (Clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes (Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica). Conventional PCR was applied using F3/B3 primer pairs to verify the specificity of the primers for O. viverrini DNA templates. All LAMP-positive samples could be detected with the naked eye in sunlight, by gel electrophoresis (stained with ethidium bromide), and by addition of SYBR green I to the product in sunlight or under UV light. Only DNA from O. viverrini yielded amplification products by LAMP (and by PCR verification), and the LAMP limit of detection was as little as 100 fg (10(-4) ng DNA), indicating that this assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than PCR. Field testing was done using representative egg and metacercarial samples collected from localities where the fluke is endemic. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness, mito-OvLAMP is a good tool for molecular detection and epidemiology studies in regions or countries where O. viverrini is endemic, which can lead to more effective control of opisthorchiasis and trematodiasis. PMID:22322346

  9. Biochemical Characterization and Differential Expression of a 16.5-Kilodalton Tegument-Associated Antigen from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Gaudier, José F.; Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Osuna, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a 16.5-kDa protein termed FhTP16.5 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes using pooled sera from rabbits infected with F. hepatica for 4 weeks. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that FhTP16.5 is not expressed in unembryonated eggs. It is poorly expressed in miracidia and highly expressed at the juvenile and adult stages; however, significant differences were found between the expression levels of FhTP16.5 in juveniles versus adult flukes. Recombinant FhTP16.5 was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used to raise anti-FhTP16.5 polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immunoblot analysis using the anti-FhTP16.5 IgG antibody identified FhTP16.5 in crude and tegumental extracts and in excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica. The protein was not detected in crude extracts of Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Antibodies to FhTP16.5 were detected in the sera of rabbits at 3 to 12 weeks of F. hepatica infection as well as in the sera of humans with chronic fascioliasis; these findings suggest that FhTP16.5 could be a good antigen for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that FhTP16.5 localizes to the surface of the tegument of various developmental stages and in parenchymal tissues of the adult fluke. Such specific localization makes FhTP16.5 an attractive target for immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy. PMID:22278327

  10. Exploiting dual otoacoustic emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdala, Carolina; Kalluri, Radha

    2015-12-01

    Two distinct processes generate otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Reflection-source emissions, here recorded as stimulus frequency OAEs, are optimally informative at low sound levels and are more sensitive to slight hearing loss; they have been linked to cochlear amplifier gain and tuning. Distortion-source emissions are strongest at moderate-high sound levels and persist despite mild hearing loss; they likely originate in the nonlinear process of hair cell transduction. In this preliminary study, we exploit the unique features of each by generating a combined reflection-distortion OAE profile in normal hearing and hearing-impaired ears. Distortion-product (DP) and stimulus-frequency (SF) OAEs were recorded over a broad range of stimulus levels and frequencies. Individual I/O and transfer functions were generated for both emission types in each ear, and OAE peak strength, compression threshold, and rate of compression were calculated. These combined SFOAE and DPOAE features in normal and hearing-impaired ears may provide a potentially informative and novel index of hearing loss. This is an initial step toward utilizing OAE source in characterizing cochlear function and dysfunction.

  11. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  12. Exploiting scientific advances. Philip Russell.

    PubMed

    1992-04-01

    The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) will hopefully accelerate the vaccine development process, make it more efficient, and produce new and better vaccines which will prevent most, if not all, of today's preventable diseases which lead to childhood mortality. The technology exists, but has simply not been exploited. Many exciting approaches to vaccine development never advance beyond the product development stage because, until now, there has been no mechanism for overseeing the entire process from the initial conception of a vaccine in the laboratory to its development by industry and its incorporation into vaccine programs. The CVI, however, has been established to provide such oversight and to coordinate the process. Recently developed technologies which could advance the attainment of CVI goals are the microencapsulation process and the use of live viral or attenuated bacterial vectors, genetically engineered to express desired vaccine antigen structures and induce immunity to specific infectious agents. The scientific obstacles are simply challenges which can be overcome. However, for the CVI to achieve its goals, it requires both adequate public sector resources and the collaboration of private industry. PMID:12321835

  13. Two questions about surrogacy and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, Alan

    1992-01-01

    In this article I will consider two related questions about surrogacy and exploitation: (1) Is surrogacy exploitative? (2) If surrogacy is exploitative, what is the moral force of this exploitation? Briefly stated, I shall argue that whether surrogacy is exploitative depends on whether exploitation must be harmful to the exploited party or whether (as I think) there can be mutually advantageous exploitation. It also depends on some facts about surrogacy about which we have little reliable evidence and on our philosophical view on what counts as a harm to the surrogate. Our answer to the second question will turn in part on the account of exploitation we invoke in answering the first question and in part on the way in which we resolve some other questions about the justification of state interference. I shall suggest, however, that if surrogacy is a form of voluntary and mutually advantageous exploitation, then there is a strong presumption that surrogacy contracts should be permitted and even enforceable, although that presumption may be overridden on other grounds. PMID:11652070

  14. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  15. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  16. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  17. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the way you normally talk or behave Fainting spells Seizures (for the first time) SCREENING FOR ... drawn are slight, but may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma (blood accumulating under the ...

  18. Immunization and challenge shown by hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini following exposure to gamma-irradiated metacercariae of this carcinogenic liver fluke.

    PubMed

    Papatpremsiri, A; Junpue, P; Loukas, A; Brindley, P J; Bethony, J M; Sripa, B; Laha, T

    2016-01-01

    Here we report findings to optimize and standardize conditions to attenuate metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini by ionizing radiation to elicit protective immune responses to challenge infection. Metacercariae were gamma-irradiated and the ability of irradiated metacercariae to prevent patent infection of challenge metacercariae in hamsters was determined, as well as their ability to induce a host antibody response. Metacercariae irradiated in a dose-dependent manner, with 3, 5, 10, 12, 20, 25 and 50 Gray, were used to infect Syrian golden hamsters by stomach gavage to ascertain the effect of irradiation on ability of the worms to establish infection. In addition, other hamsters were infected with metacercariae irradiated with 20-50 Gray, followed by challenge with intact/wild-type (non-irradiated) metacercariae to determine the protective effect as established by the numbers of adult flukes, eggs of O. viverrini in hamster faeces and anti-O. viverrini antibody titres. Significantly fewer worms were recovered from hamsters immunized with metacercariae irradiated at 20, 25 and 50 Gray than from control hamsters infected with intact metacercariae or 0 Gray, and the worms showed damaged reproductive organs. Faecal egg numbers were decreased significantly in hamsters immunized with 25 and 50 Gray metacercariae of O. viverrini. Moreover, hamsters administered metacercariae that were protected elicited a robust, specific anti-fluke immunoglobulin G response compared to control hamsters, suggesting a role for antibody in protection elicited by radiation-attenuated metacercariae. PMID:25315797

  19. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  20. Fluke egg characteristics for the diagnosis of human and animal fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.

    PubMed

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Periago, M Victoria; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2009-08-01

    In trematodiases, shape and size of the fluke eggs shed with faeces are crucial diagnostic features because of their typically reduced intraspecific variability. In fascioliasis, the usual diagnosis during the biliary stage of infection is based on the classification of eggs found in stools, duodenal contents or bile. The aim of the present study is to validate the identification of Fasciola species based on the shape and size of eggs shed by humans, characterizing their morphometric traits using a computer image analysis system (CIAS). The influence of both the geographical location and of the host (human and livestock) has been analysed. Coprological studies were carried out in fascioliasis human endemic areas, where only F. hepatica is present (the northern Bolivian Altiplano and the Cajamarca valley in Peru), and where F. hepatica and F. gigantica coexist (the Kutaisi region of Georgia, the Nile Delta in Egypt, and the Quy Nhon province in Vietnam). Classically, it is considered that at the abopercular end of the shell of Fasciola eggs there is often a roughened or irregular area. Nevertheless, results show that the frequency of the presence of this feature in F. hepatica is population-dependent, and therefore is not a pathognomonic criterion in diagnosis. The study reveals that eggs shed by humans show morphological traits different from eggs shed by animals. In humans, F. hepatica eggs are bigger and F. gigantica eggs are smaller than reported to date from livestock, and their measurements overlap when compared. The material analysed in this study shows that the size of eggs shed by humans from Georgia and Egypt corresponds to the F. hepatica morph, while the size of eggs shed by humans from Vietnam corresponds to the F. gigantica morph. Measurements of F. hepatica and F. gigantica eggs originating from humans and animals from sympatric areas overlap, and, therefore, they do not allow differential diagnosis when within this overlapping range. In this sense

  1. Interviewing Child Victims of Sexual Exploitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, William

    The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…

  2. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation. PMID:21125955

  3. A New Measure of Interpersonal Exploitativeness

    PubMed Central

    Brunell, Amy B.; Davis, Mark S.; Schley, Dan R.; Eng, Abbey L.; van Dulmen, Manfred H.M.; Wester, Kelly L.; Flannery, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Measures of exploitativeness evidence problems with validity and reliability. The present set of studies assessed a new measure [the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale (IES)] that defines exploitativeness in terms of reciprocity. In Studies 1 and 2, 33 items were administered to participants. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that a single factor consisting of six items adequately assess interpersonal exploitativeness. Study 3 results revealed that the IES was positively associated with “normal” narcissism, pathological narcissism, psychological entitlement, and negative reciprocity and negatively correlated with positive reciprocity. In Study 4, participants competed in a commons dilemma. Those who scored higher on the IES were more likely to harvest a greater share of resources over time, even while controlling for other relevant variables, such as entitlement. Together, these studies show the IES to be a valid and reliable measure of interpersonal exploitativeness. The authors discuss the implications of these studies. PMID:23755031

  4. Financial exploitation, financial capacity, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Research in the past decade has documented that financial exploitation of older adults has become a major problem, and psychology is only recently increasing its presence in efforts to reduce exploitation. During the same time period, psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults culminating in the 2008 American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging and American Psychological Association (ABA/APA) joint publication on a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision-making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This article will examine the intersection of financial exploitation and decision-making capacity and introduce a new conceptual model and new tools for both the investigation and prevention of financial exploitation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159438

  5. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... typing. The liquid part of your blood without cells (serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type ... ABO typing: If your blood cells stick together when mixed with: Anti-A serum, you have type A blood Anti-B serum, you have type B blood Both anti-A and ...

  6. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  7. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  8. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ... your body cannot make enough blood A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which ...

  9. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether or not there are certain proteins, called antigens, on your red blood cells. Blood is often ... There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If ...

  10. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda).

    PubMed

    Biswal, Devendra K; Chatterjee, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878), the Indian isolate of the lung fluke representative of the family Paragonimidae (Trematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Devendra K.; Chatterjee, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Among helminth parasites, Paragonimus (zoonotic lung fluke) gains considerable importance from veterinary and medical points of view because of its diversified effect on its host. Nearly fifty species of Paragonimus have been described across the globe. It is estimated that more than 20 million people are infected worldwide and the best known species is Paragonimus westermani, whose type locality is probably India and which infects millions of people in Asia causing disease symptoms that mimic tuberculosis. Human infections occur through eating raw crustaceans containing metacercarie or ingestion of uncooked meat of paratenic hosts such as pigs. Though the fluke is known to parasitize a wide range of mammalian hosts representing as many as eleven families, the status of its prevalence, host range, pathogenic manifestations and its possible survivors in nature from where the human beings contract the infection is not well documented in India. We took advantage of the whole genome sequence data for P. westermani, generated by Next Generation Sequencing, and its comparison with the existing data for the P. westermani for comparative mt DNA phylogenomic analyses. Specific primers were designed for the 12 protein coding genes with the aid of existing P. westermani mtDNA as the reference. The Ion torrent next generation sequencing platform was harnessed to completely sequence the mitochondrial genome, and applied innovative approaches to bioinformatically assemble and annotate it. A strategic PCR primer design utilizing the whole genome sequence data from P. westermani enabled us to design specific primers capable of amplifying all regions of the mitochondrial genome from P. westermani. Assembly of NGS data from libraries enriched in mtDNA sequence by PCR gave rise to a total of 11 contigs spanning the entire 14.7 kb mt DNA sequence of P. westermani available at NCBI. We conducted gap-filling by traditional Sanger sequencing to fill in the gaps. Annotation of non

  12. Organ sales: exploitative at any price?

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2014-05-01

    In many cases, claims that a transaction is exploitative will focus on the details of the transaction, such as the price paid or conditions. For example, in a claim that a worker is exploited, the grounds for the claim are usually that the pay is not sufficient or the working conditions too dangerous. In some cases, however, the claim that a transaction is exploitative is not seen to rely on these finer details. Many, for example, claim that organ sales would be exploitative, in a way that doesn't seem to depend on the details. This article considers, but ultimately rejects, a number of arguments which could be used to defend this sort of claim. PMID:23025892

  13. Exploitation of Children Widespread, ILO Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucherov, Tanya

    1980-01-01

    Reports that nearly 55 million children under age 15 are working in violation of labor standards. Discusses industries in which child labor is common, effects on children's safety and health, and social and economic causes of exploitation. (SK)

  14. Characterization of a female-specific cDNA derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Bobek, L; Rekosh, D M; van Keulen, H; LoVerde, P T

    1986-08-01

    We have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone that is derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA found only in mature female schistosomes. The mRNA is approximately 950 nucleotides in length and is not detectable in immature female schistosomes isolated from single-sex infections, in male worms, or in eggs. During normal bisexual infections, the mRNA species is first detected 28 days after infection (the time of worm pairing) and increases to a high level 35 days after infection, coinciding with the start of egg production. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA shows two large open reading frames in the coding strand. Several features of the clone, including the deduced sequence of the polypeptide encoded by one of the reading frames, suggest a relationship to the silk moth chorion (egg shell) gene family. The isolation of this clone provides us with a probe for further studies of female schistosome development and is a first step toward a detailed understanding of this process at the molecular level. PMID:3461449

  15. Exploitations and their complications: the necessity of identifying the multiple forms of exploitation in pharmaceutical trials.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other (usually wealthier) parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial. Many commentators have argued that a single form of exploitation takes place during human subject research in LMICs. These commentators do not, however, agree as to what kind of moral wrong exploitation is or when exploitation is morally impermissible. In this paper, I have two primary goals. First, I will argue for a taxonomy of exploitation that identifies three distinct forms of exploitation. While each of these forms of exploitation has its critics, I will argue that they can each be developed into plausible accounts of exploitation tied to different vulnerabilities and different forms of wrongdoing. Second, I will argue that each of these forms of exploitation can coexist in single situations, including human subject trials of pharmaceuticals. This lesson is important, since different forms of exploitation in a single relationship can influence, among other things, whether the relationship is morally permissible. PMID:21039692

  16. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) and block blood flow or break loose ( ...

  17. High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

  18. Liver fluke control on sheep farms in Northern Ireland: A survey of changing management practices in relation to disease prevalence and perceived triclabendazole resistance.

    PubMed

    McMahon, C; Edgar, H W J; Hanna, R E B; Ellison, S E; Flanagan, A M; McCoy, M; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A W; Irwin, D; Barley, J E; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-30

    Reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) among fluke populations have increased in recent years. Allied to this, there has been a rise in the prevalence of the disease, which has been linked to climate change. Results from questionnaire surveys conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering the years 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering the years 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which fluke control practices have changed over a prolonged time-frame, in light of these changes. A number of differences were highlighted. There was a significant shift away from the use of TCBZ over time, with it being replaced largely by closantel. The timing of treatments had moved earlier in the year, perhaps in response to climate change (and an altered pattern of disease). In relation to the frequency of drug treatments, there were no major changes in the overall pattern of drug treatments between the two survey points, although on both occasions approximately one-third of flock owners gave more than 3 treatments per year to ewes. In lowland areas in 2011, flock owners were rotating drug classes more often (each year and at each treatment) than in 2005, whereas in upland areas, flock owners were rotating less often and more were not rotating at all. Between 2005 and 2011, the percentage of flock owners giving quarantine treatments to bought-in stock had halved, to a very low level (approximately 10%). Using data from a complementary TCBZ resistance survey (Hanna et al., 2015), it has been shown that the way in which data are selected and which efficacy formula is applied can influence the calculation of drug efficiency and impact on diagnosis of resistance. PMID:26801598

  19. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: (1) how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? (2) In the light of the answer to (1), how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is the argument that surrogates from economically disadvantaged countries cannot validly consent because their background circumstances are coercive. Several versions of this argument are examined and I conclude that at least one has some merit. The article's overall conclusion is that while ethically there is something to be concerned about, paid surrogacy is in no worse a position than many other exploitative commercial transactions which take place against a backdrop of global inequality and constrained options, such as poorly‐paid and dangerous construction work. Hence, there is little reason to single surrogacy out for special condemnation. On a policy level, the case for prohibiting international commercial surrogacy is weak, despite legitimate concerns about consent and background poverty. PMID:27471338

  20. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  1. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  2. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  3. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chirullo, Barbara; Pesciaroli, Michele; Drumo, Rosanna; Ruggeri, Jessica; Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Pistoia, Claudia; Petrucci, Paola; Martinelli, Nicola; Cucco, Lucilla; Moscati, Livia; Amadori, Massimo; Magistrali, Chiara F.; Alborali, Giovanni L.; Pasquali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028) is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection. Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 h post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S. Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets. PMID:26441914

  4. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... of other blood components, such as platelets and plasma , may take less time. After the transfusion, you ...

  5. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  6. The World's Exploited Children: Growing Up Sadly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William James

    This monograph, fourth in a series on labor development, focuses on child exploitation in the context of child labor. The collection of papers briefly discusses (1) the relation between conditions of poverty and the prevalence of child labor in developing countries; (2) the lack of effectiveness of labor legislation in preventing child…

  7. User interface development for semiautomated imagery exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, R. P.; Bohling, Edward H.

    1991-08-01

    Operational reconnaissance technical organizations are burdened by greatly increasing workloads due to expanding capabilities for collection and delivery of large-volume near-real- time multisensor/multispectral softcopy imagery. Related to the tasking of reconnaissance platforms to provide the imagery are more stringent timelines for exploiting the imagery in response to the rapidly changing threat environment being monitored. The development of a semi-automated softcopy multisensor image exploitation capability is a critical step toward integrating existing advanced image processing techniques in conjunction with appropriate intelligence and cartographic data for next-generation image exploitation systems. This paper discusses the results of a recent effort to develop computer-assisted aids for the image analyst (IA) in order to rapidly and accurately exploit multispectral/multisensor imagery in combination with intelligence support data and cartographic information for the purpose of target detection and identification. A key challenge of the effort was to design and implement an effective human-computer interface that would satisfy any generic IA task and readily accommodate the needs of a broad range of IAs.

  8. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  9. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  10. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections. PMID:26234898

  11. Prevalence of Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in Wild Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): Coproantigen ELISA Is a Practicable Alternative to Faecal Egg Counting for Surveillance in Remote Populations.

    PubMed

    French, Andrew S; Zadoks, Ruth N; Skuce, Philip J; Mitchell, Gillian; Gordon-Gibbs, Danielle K; Craine, Alexandra; Shaw, David; Gibb, Stuart W; Taggart, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) are hosts of liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica); yet, prevalence is rarely quantified in wild populations. Testing fresh samples from remote regions by faecal examination (FE) can be logistically challenging; hence, we appraise frozen storage and the use of a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) for F. hepatica surveillance. We also present cELISA surveillance data for red deer from the Highlands of Scotland. Diagnoses in faecal samples (207 frozen, 146 fresh) were compared using a cELISA and by FE. For each storage method (frozen or fresh), agreement between the two diagnostics was estimated at individual and population levels, where population prevalence was stratified into cohorts (e.g., by sampling location). To approximate sensitivity and specificity, 65 post-slaughter whole liver examinations were used as a reference. At the individual level, FE and cELISA diagnoses agreed moderately (κfrozen = 0.46; κfresh = 0.51), a likely reflection of their underlying principles. At the population level, FE and cELISA cohort prevalence correlated strongly (Pearson's R = 0.89, p < 0.0001), reflecting good agreement on relative differences between cohort prevalence. In frozen samples, prevalence by cELISA exceeded FE overall (42.8% vs. 25.8%) and in 9/12 cohorts, alluding to differences in sensitivity; though, in fresh samples, no significant difference was found. In 959 deer tested by cELISA across the Scottish Highlands, infection prevalence ranged from 9.6% to 53% by sampling location. We highlight two key advantages of cELISA over FE: i) the ability to store samples long term (frozen) without apparent loss in diagnostic power; and ii) reduced labour and the ability to process large batches. Further evaluation of cELISA sensitivity in red deer, where a range of fluke burdens can be obtained, is desirable. In the interim, the cELISA is a practicable diagnostic for F. hepatica surveillance in red deer, and its application here has revealed considerable

  12. Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moellman, Dennis E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline

  13. Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood circulation within the tendons contributes to repair of the tendon after the exercises. Recently, blood circulation of human tendons could be measured using red laser lights (Kubo et al. 2008b). Using this technique, we were able to measure changes in blood volume and oxygen saturation of human tendons by various treatments. During a 60-min heating, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased significantly from the resting level, and continued to increase by 35 min. These changes in blood circulation of tendon were considerably different from the temperatures of muscle and skin. Furthermore, when the needle tip was moved up and down from the targeted depth (up-and-down manipulation) at approximately 1 mm amplitude, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the treated tendon increased significantly. After the removal of the acupuncture needle, the blood volume and oxygen saturation of the tendon increased gradually for the non-treated side. These results suggested that the change in blood circulation of the tendon during acupuncture with up-and-down manipulation was caused by axon reflex, and increase in blood flow in the tendons after the needle removal might be caused through the central nervous system. It is well known that heating and acupuncture treatments were quite effective in the management of tendon injuries. Therefore, these phenomena would be related to the changes in blood circulation of tendons due to heating and acupuncture treatments. PMID:27535246

  14. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  15. Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

  16. Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF.

    PubMed

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence. PMID:12348873

  17. Integrative mobile elements exploiting Xer recombination.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Martínez, Eriel; Midonet, Caroline; Barre, François-Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Integrative mobile genetic elements directly participate in the rapid response of bacteria to environmental challenges. They generally encode their own dedicated recombination machineries. CTXφ, a filamentous bacteriophage that harbors the genes encoding cholera toxin in Vibrio cholerae provided the first notable exception to this rule: it hijacks XerC and XerD, two chromosome-encoded tyrosine recombinases for lysogenic conversion. XerC and XerD are highly conserved in bacteria because of their role in the topological maintenance of circular chromosomes and, with the advent of high throughput sequencing, numerous other integrative mobile elements exploiting them have been discovered. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of integration of the different integrative mobile elements exploiting Xer (IMEXs) so far described. PMID:23127381

  18. Joint multisensor exploitation for mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaven, Scott G.; Stocker, Alan D.; Winter, Edwin M.

    2004-09-01

    Robust, timely, and remote detection of mines and minefields is central to both tactical and humanitarian demining efforts, yet remains elusive for single-sensor systems. Here we present an approach to jointly exploit multisensor data for detection of mines from remotely sensed imagery. LWIR, MWIR, laser, multispectral, and radar sensor have been applied individually to the mine detection and each has shown promise for supporting automated detection. However, none of these sources individually provides a full solution for automated mine detection under all expected mine, background and environmental conditions. Under support from Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) we have developed an approach that, through joint exploitation of multiple sensors, improves detection performance over that achieved from a single sensor. In this paper we describe the joint exploitation method, which is based on fundamental detection theoretic principles, demonstrate the strength of the approach on imagery from minefields, and discuss extensions of the method to additional sensing modalities. The approach uses pre-threshold anomaly detector outputs to formulate accurate models for marginal and joint statistics across multiple detection or sensor features. This joint decision space is modeled and decision boundaries are computed from measured statistics. Since the approach adapts the decision criteria based on the measured statistics and no prior target training information is used, it provides a robust multi-algorithm or multisensor detection statistic. Results from the joint exploitation processing using two different imaging sensors over surface mines acquired by NVESD will be presented to illustrate the process. The potential of the approach to incorporate additional sensor sources, such as radar, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery is also illustrated.

  19. DANDRUFF: THE MOST COMMERCIALLY EXPLOITED SKIN DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, S; Mukhopadhyay, T

    2010-01-01

    The article discuss in detail about the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of dandruff including the etio-pathology. The article also discusses in detail about various treatment methods available for dandruff. The status of dandruff being amphibious – a disease/disorder, and relatively less medical intervention is sought after for the treatment, dandruff is the most commercially exploited skin and scalp disorder/disease by personal care industries. PMID:20606879

  20. SAIM: a mobile multisensor image exploitation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devambez, Francois

    2000-11-01

    The control of information is an essential part of operations. Technology allows today a near real time surveillance capacity, over wide areas, due to sensor performances, communication networks. The system presented herein has been developed by Thomson-Csf, under contract with the French MOD to give to the decision makers the right information, in a very short delay, and prepare support information, to help for decision. The SAIM, Mobile Multisensor Image Exploitation Ground System, uses near real time acquisition units, very large data base management, data processing, including fusion and decision aiding tools, and communication networks. It then helps for all the steps of exploitation of data incoming from image sensors, form preparation of the reconnaissance mission to the dissemination of intelligence. The SAIM system is in operations in the French Air Force, and soon in the French Navy and the French Army. Initially defined for the specific use of French Recce sensors, the SAIM is now intended to be widely used for the exploitation of UAV and battle field MTI and SAR surveillance systems.

  1. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  2. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... to check the levels of certain immunoglobulins (or antibodies) associated with multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. This ...

  3. Immune responses in rats and sheep induced by a DNA vaccine containing the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Fasciola hepatica and liver fluke infection.

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Pyziel, Anna M; Zygner, Wojciech; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-06-01

    Immune responses of rats and sheep following vaccination with cDNA encoding phosphoglycerate kinase of Fasciola hepatica (cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV) and F. hepatica infection were investigated in the present study. cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated female Sprague-Dawley rats were better protected by vaccination than their male counterparts - 48% reduction in fluke burden for females and no protection for males when compared with appropriate infection control groups. Moreover, male rats developed marked leukocytosis during the study with higher neutrophil, eosinophil and monocyte responses than females. Additionally, dynamics of eosinophil and monocyte responses varied between sexes. Increased titres of anti-FhPGK IgG1 and IgG2a correlated with the protective effect of vaccination that was observed among female rats. In the case of male sheep, no differences in worm burdens and in the course of the immune response were observed following vaccination. Titres of specific antibodies detected were low, and cellular responses were not significant. Apparently, sheep immune responses induced by cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccination are not effective at controlling F. hepatica infection. Poor immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in large animals is still a major obstacle of this technology that has to be overcome. PMID:27078643

  4. 2D-PAGE analysis of the soluble proteins of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica and biliary amphistome, Gigantocotyle explanatum, concurrently infecting Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasir A; Khan, Mohd Abdul Hannan; Abidi, S M A

    2016-09-01

    The digenetic trematodes, Fasciola gigantica and Gigantocotyle explanatum, belonging to the family Fasciolidae and Paramphistomidae respectively, have been often found to concurrently infect the liver of Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, causing serious pathological damage to the vital organ, incurring huge economic losses. In the present study the soluble gene products of both F. gigantica and G. explanatum were analyzed by 2 dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The soluble proteomic profile revealed considerable similarity as well as differences in the size, distribution pattern, total number, the isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mr) of the resolved polypeptide spots. The maximum number of polypeptide spots with a molecular weight range of >10 to 160 kDa were recorded with a pI range of 7-9 followed by pI range of 5-7, 9-10 and 3-5 in both the parasites. However, considerable variation was recorded in the Mr of the polypeptides belonging to each pI range. The genetic heterogeneity could be an obvious contributing factor for such differences but some polypeptides appeared to be conserved in the two species. The molecular similarities and the habitat preference by these worms may be a consequence of microenvironmental cues that guide these flukes to reach their habitat through different routes and establish a successful host-parasite relationship. PMID:27605808

  5. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci for Dicrocoelium dendriticum, an emerging liver fluke of ungulates in North America, and their use to detect clonemates and random mating.

    PubMed

    van Paridon, Bradley J; Goater, Cameron P; Gilleard, John S; Criscione, Charles D

    2016-05-01

    This study characterizes polymorphic microsatellite loci from adults of the liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum sampled from a population of sympatric beef cattle and wapiti in a region of emergence in southern Alberta, Canada. We also scrutinized the markers to validate their use in studying the population genetics of this complex life cycle parasite. Among the nine loci described, four deviated significantly from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) due to technical artefacts. The remaining five loci were in HWE. These five provided sufficient resolution to identify clonemates produced from the obligate asexual reproduction phase of the life cycle in snails and to assess the impact of non-random transmission of clonemates on measures of FIS, FST and genotypic disequilibrium. Excluding clonemates, we show that the sub-population of worms was in HWE, that average FIS within hosts was 0.003 (p=0.4922) and that there was no population genetic structure among hosts FST=0.001 (p=0.3243). These markers will be useful for studies of Dicrocoelium dendriticum ecology, transmission, and evolution. PMID:27188658

  6. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version High Blood Pressure Overview What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the amount of force that your ... called your blood pressure. What is high blood pressure? High blood pressure (also called hypertension) occurs when your blood ...

  7. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... you'd like to help, learn more about blood donation . It's one way to be an everyday superhero and save lives! Reviewed by: Maureen F. Edelson, MD Date reviewed: June 2014 previous ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Health Care: What Do ...

  8. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  9. Gaze interaction in UAS video exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Jutta; Brüstle, Stefan; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    A frequently occurring interaction task in UAS video exploitation is the marking or selection of objects of interest in the video. If an object of interest is visually detected by the image analyst, its selection/marking for further exploitation, documentation and communication with the team is a necessary task. Today object selection is usually performed by mouse interaction. As due to sensor motion all objects in the video move, object selection can be rather challenging, especially if strong and fast and ego-motions are present, e.g., with small airborne sensor platforms. In addition to that, objects of interest are sometimes too shortly visible to be selected by the analyst using mouse interaction. To address this issue we propose an eye tracker as input device for object selection. As the eye tracker continuously provides the gaze position of the analyst on the monitor, it is intuitive to use the gaze position for pointing at an object. The selection is then actuated by pressing a button. We integrated this gaze-based "gaze + key press" object selection into Fraunhofer IOSB's exploitation station ABUL using a Tobii X60 eye tracker and a standard keyboard for the button press. Representing the object selections in a spatial relational database, ABUL enables the image analyst to efficiently query the video data in a post processing step for selected objects of interest with respect to their geographical and other properties. An experimental evaluation is presented, comparing gaze-based interaction with mouse interaction in the context of object selection in UAS videos.

  10. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  11. Exploration versus exploitation in polydomous ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Zoe; Franks, Daniel W; Robinson, Elva J H

    2013-04-21

    In socially foraging species resource information can be shared between individuals, increasing foraging success. In ant colonies, nestmate recruitment allows high exploitation rates at known resources however, to maximise foraging efficiency this must be balanced with searching for new resources. Many ant species form colonies inhabiting two or more spatially separated but socially connected nests: this type of organisation is known as polydomy. Polydomous colonies may benefit from increased foraging efficiency by carrying out dispersed-central place foraging. However, decentralisation of the colony may affect recruitment success by limiting interaction between ants based in separate nests. We use an agent-based model which compares the foraging success of monodomous and polydomous colonies in different food environments, incorporating recruitment through pheromone trails and group foraging. In contrast to previous results we show that polydomy is beneficial in some but not all cases. Polydomous colonies discover resources at a higher rate, making them more successful when food is highly dispersed, but their relative success can be lowered by limitations on recruitment success. Monodomous colonies can have higher foraging efficiency than polydomous colonies by exploiting food more rapidly. The results show the importance of interactions between recruitment strategy, colony size, and colony organisation. PMID:23380232

  12. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  13. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production {{ Immunoglobulins, antibodies made by plasma cells in response ... used for chemotherapy cause temporarily impaired blood cell production in the marrow and depressed immune system functions. ...

  14. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and ... returns to the heart from the lungs, which pumps it throughout the body.

  15. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  16. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  17. Catecholamine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  18. Cord Blood and Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  19. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  20. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  1. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  2. Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.

    PubMed

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics. PMID:22285769

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum (trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Xu, Min-Jun; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-15

    Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common trematodes living in the pancreatic and bile ducts of ruminants and also occasionally infects humans, causing eurytremiasis. In spite of its economic and medical importance, very little is known about the genomic resources of this parasite. Herein, we performed de novo sequencing, assembly and characterization of the transcriptome of adult E. pancreaticum. Approximately 36.4 million high-quality clean reads were obtained, and the length of the transcript contigs ranged from 66 to 19,968 nt with mean length of 479 nt and N50 length of 1094 nt, and then 23,573 unigenes were assembled. Of these unigenes, 15,353 (65.1%) were annotated by blast searches against the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Among these, 15,267 (64.8%), 2732 (11.6%) and 10,354 (43.9%) of the unigenes had significant similarity with proteins in the NR, NT and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. 5510 (23.4%) and 4567 (19.4%) unigenes were assigned to GO and COG, respectively. 8886 (37.7%) unigenes were identified and mapped onto 254 pathways in the KEGG Pathway database. Furthermore, we found that 105 (1.18%) unigenes were related to pancreatic secretion and 61 (0.7%) to pancreatic cancer. The present study represents the first transcriptome of any members of the family Dicrocoeliidae, which has little genomic information available in the public databases. The novel transcriptome of E. pancreaticum should provide a useful resource for designing new strategies against pancreatic flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance. PMID:26494161

  4. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    PubMed

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  5. RNA-Seq Reveals Infection-Induced Gene Expression Changes in the Snail Intermediate Host of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini

    PubMed Central

    Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Sotillo, Javier; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Nolan, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. Conclusions/Significance The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of other

  6. Unchanged triclabendazole kinetics after co-administration with ivermectin and methimazole: failure of its therapeutic activity against triclabendazole-resistant liver flukes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The reduced drug accumulation based on enhanced drug efflux and metabolic capacity, identified in triclabendazole (TCBZ)-resistant Fasciola hepatica may contribute to the development of resistance to TCBZ. The aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of TCBZ administered alone or co-administered with ivermectin (IVM, efflux modulator) and methimazole (MTZ, metabolic inhibitor) in TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica-parasitized sheep. Sheep infected with TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica (Sligo isolate) were divided into three groups (n = 4): untreated control, TCBZ-treated (i.r. at 10 mg/kg) and TCBZ+IVM+MTZ treated sheep (10 i.r., 0.2 s.c. and 1.5 i.m. mg/kg, respectively). Plasma samples were collected and analysed by HPLC. In the clinical efficacy study, the animals were sacrificed at 15 days post-treatment to evaluate the comparative efficacy against TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica. Results The presence of IVM and MTZ did not affect the plasma disposition kinetics of TCBZ metabolites after the i.r. administration of TCBZ. The AUC value of TCBZ.SO obtained after TCBZ administration (653.9 ± 140.6 μg.h/ml) was similar to that obtained after TCBZ co-administered with IVM and MTZ (650.7 ± 122.8 μg.h/ml). Efficacy values of 56 and 38% were observed for TCBZ alone and for the combined treatment, respectively. No statistical differences (P > 0.05) were observed in fluke counts between treated groups and untreated control, which confirm the resistant status of the Sligo isolate. Conclusions The presence of IVM and MTZ did not affect the disposition kinetics of TCBZ and its metabolites. Thus, the combined drug treatment did not reverse the poor efficacy of TCBZ against TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica. PMID:20128898

  7. Exploiting Resistive Guiding for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Devising methods and schemes for controlling fast electron transport remains a major challenge in Fast Ignition research. Realistic estimates of the fast electron divergence angle require this control in order to ensure that the fast electron to hot spot coupling efficiency does not reach excessively low values. Resistivity gradients in the target will lead to strong magnetic field growth (via ∇ηxj) which can be exploited for the purposes of controlling the fast electron propagation (Robinson and Sherlock, PoP (2007)). There are a number of possible schemes which might be considered. Here we will report on numerical simulations that we have carried out on both simple configurations such as parabolic reflectors, and complex arrangements (Robinson, Key and Tabak, PRL (2012)). Substantial improvements to the fast electron to hot spot coupling efficiency have been found even for realistic fast electron divergence angles.

  8. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas systems for biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Timothy R.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease is the central component of the Type II CRISPR/Cas system, a prokaryotic adaptive restriction system against invading nucleic acids, such as those originating from bacteriophages and plasmids. Recently, this RNA-directed DNA endonuclease has been harnessed to target DNA sequences of interest. Here, we review the development of Cas9 as an important tool to not only edit the genomes of a number of different prokaryotic and eukaryotic species, but also as an efficient system for site-specific transcriptional repression or activation. Additionally, a specific Cas9 protein has been observed to target an RNA substrate, suggesting that Cas9 may have the ability to be programmed to target RNA as well. Cas proteins from other CRISPR/Cas subtypes may also be exploited in this regard. Thus, CRISPR/Cas systems represent an effective and versatile biotechnological tool, which will have significant impact on future advancements in genome engineering. PMID:24323919

  9. Iron and Zinc Exploitation during Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Terwilliger, Austen; Maresso, Anthony W.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient bacteria originated from metal-rich environments. Billions of years of evolution directed these tiny single cell creatures to exploit the versatile properties of metals in catalyzing chemical reactions and biological responses. The result is an entire metallome of proteins that use metal co-factors to facilitate key cellular process that range from the production of energy to the replication of DNA. Two key metals in this regard are iron and zinc, both abundant on Earth but not readily accessible in a human host. Instead, pathogenic bacteria must employ clever ways to acquire these metals. In this review we describe the many elegant ways these bacteria mine, regulate, and craft the use of two key metals (iron and zinc) to build a virulence arsenal that challenges even the most sophisticated immune response. PMID:26497057

  10. Digital video steganalysis exploiting collusion sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhia, Udit; Kundur, Deepa

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we present an effective steganalyis technique for digital video sequences based on the collusion attack. Steganalysis is the process of detecting with a high probability and low complexity the presence of covert data in multimedia. Existing algorithms for steganalysis target detecting covert information in still images. When applied directly to video sequences these approaches are suboptimal. In this paper, we present a method that overcomes this limitation by using redundant information present in the temporal domain to detect covert messages in the form of Gaussian watermarks. Our gains are achieved by exploiting the collusion attack that has recently been studied in the field of digital video watermarking, and more sophisticated pattern recognition tools. Applications of our scheme include cybersecurity and cyberforensics.

  11. Exploiting data redundancy in computational optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Munro, Peter R T

    2015-11-30

    We present an algorithm which exploits data redundancy to make computational, coherent, optical imaging more computationally efficient. This algorithm specifically addresses the computation of how light scattered by a sample is collected and coherently detected. It is of greatest benefit in the simulation of broadband optical systems employing coherent detection, such as optical coherence tomography. Although also amenable to time-harmonic data, the algorithm is designed to be embedded within time-domain electromagnetic scattering simulators such as the psuedo-spectral and finite-difference time domain methods. We derive the algorithm in detail as well as criteria which ensure accurate execution of the algorithm. We present simulations that verify the developed algorithm and demonstrate its utility. We expect this algorithm to be important to future developments in computational imaging. PMID:26698693

  12. Redressing China's Strategy of Water Resource Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Lishan; Lu, Xi Xi

    2013-03-01

    China, with the confrontation of water-related problems as an element of its long history, has been investing heavily in water engineering projects over the past few decades based on the assumption that these projects can solve its water problems. However, the anticipated benefits did not really occur, or at least not as large as expected. Instead, the results involved additional frustrations, such as biodiversity losses and human-induced disasters (i.e., landslides and earthquakes). Given its inherent shortcomings, the present engineering-dominated strategy for the management of water resources cannot help solve China's water problems and achieve its goal of low-carbon transformation. Therefore, the present strategy for water resources exploitation needs to be reevaluated and redressed. A policy change to achieve better management of Chinese rivers is urgently needed.

  13. Redressing China's strategy of water resource exploitation.

    PubMed

    Ran, Lishan; Lu, Xi Xi

    2013-03-01

    China, with the confrontation of water-related problems as an element of its long history, has been investing heavily in water engineering projects over the past few decades based on the assumption that these projects can solve its water problems. However, the anticipated benefits did not really occur, or at least not as large as expected. Instead, the results involved additional frustrations, such as biodiversity losses and human-induced disasters (i.e., landslides and earthquakes). Given its inherent shortcomings, the present engineering-dominated strategy for the management of water resources cannot help solve China's water problems and achieve its goal of low-carbon transformation. Therefore, the present strategy for water resources exploitation needs to be reevaluated and redressed. A policy change to achieve better management of Chinese rivers is urgently needed. PMID:23314565

  14. On the practical exploitation of scarsity.

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, A.; Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2008-01-01

    Scarsity is the notion that the Jacobian J for a given function f: {Re}{sup n} {yields} {Re}{sup m} may have fewer than n {sup *} m degrees of freedom. A scarse J may be represented by a graph with a minimal edge count. So far, scarsity has been recognized only from a high-level application point of view, and no automatic exploitation has been attempted. We introduce an approach to recognize and use scarsity in computational graphs in a source transformation context. The goal is to approximate the minimal graph representation through a sequence of transformations including eliminations, reroutings, and normalizations, with a secondary goal of minimizing the transformation cost. The method requires no application-level insight and is implemented as a fully automatic transformation in OpenAD. This paper introduces the problem and a set of heuristics to approximate the minimal graph representation. We also present results on a set of test problems.

  15. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  16. Exploiting tumor metabolism: challenges for clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of cancer cells differs from most normal cells, but how to exploit this difference for patient benefit is incompletely understood. Cancer cells require altered metabolism to efficiently incorporate nutrients into biomass and support abnormal proliferation. In addition, the survival of tumor cells outside of a normal tissue context requires adaptation of metabolism to different microenvironments. Some existing chemotherapies target metabolic enzymes, and there is a resurgent interest in developing new cancer drugs that interfere with metabolism. Success with this approach depends on understanding why specific metabolic pathways are important for cancer cells, determining how best to select patients, and developing technologies for monitoring patient response to therapies that target metabolic enzymes. The articles in this Review series address these issues, with a focus on how altered metabolism might influence tumor progression and how this knowledge might inform the use of new therapies targeting cancer metabolism. Emerging biomarker strategies to guide drug development are also highlighted. PMID:23999437

  17. Implementing functional languages to exploit locality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolski, R.; Feo, J.; Cann, D.

    1991-01-01

    In the quest for high performance, no obstacle has been as persistent or unyielding as memory latency. It was hoped that dataflow's fine-grain asynchronous model of execution might defeat the memory latency problem. Unable to realize efficient fine-grain systems, the dataflow community is now studying medium-grain and coarse-grain implementations which, like conventional execution models, suffer the effects of memory latency. In this paper, we describe a functional language implementation that automatically exploits locality on cache-coherent multiprocessors. Our system achieves performance improvements reaching 20% for some programs. This study lends further support to the superiority of the functional paradigm for parallel processing. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  19. Exploiting apoptosis in photodynamic therapy: is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-06-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme is the most common form of malignant brain tumors and accounts for approximately 25% of all primary brain tumors. Only 5% of these patients survive longer than 2 years. The standard form of treatment is radiation therapy and surgery if the site is accessible. Different forms of adjuvant chemotherapy have been largely proven unsuccessful. Another form of adjuvant therapy, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), has undergone preliminary trials showing some promising results but at the cost of increased side effects like rise in intracranial blood pressure and neurological deficiency. Apoptotic cell kill used as a biological treatment endpoint can possibly ameliorate these side effects. This study evaluates the significance of apoptotic cell death in the 9L rat gliosarcoma using the aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced endogenous photosensitizer Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX). A strong influence of drug incubation time with cell kill was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was less than 10% for 2 and 4 hours incubation times and irradiation times ensuring up to 70 and 80% cell kill respectively. Accumulation of PpIX in the mitochondria and cytoplasm was quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy showing a linear relationship of PpIX fluorescence with concentration. The possibility of an in vitro threshold in the PDT dose is discussed, above which cell repair mechanisms may become exhausted. In conclusion for the range of parameters investigated, apoptotic cell kill may be hard to exploit therapeutically in this tumor model.

  20. Plasmodium vivax Pre-Erythrocytic–Stage Antigen Discovery: Exploiting Naturally Acquired Humoral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Douglas M.; Finney, Olivia C.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Felgner, Philip L.; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Liang, Xiaowu; Wang, Ruobing

    2012-01-01

    The development of pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium vivax vaccines is hindered by the lack of in vitro culture systems or experimental rodent models. To help bypass these roadblocks, we exploited the fact that naturally exposed Fy− individuals who lack the Duffy blood antigen (Fy) receptor are less likely to develop blood-stage infections; therefore, they preferentially develop immune responses to pre-erythrocytic–stage parasites, whereas Fy+ individuals experience both liver- and blood-stage infections and develop immune responses to both pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasites. We screened 60 endemic sera from P. vivax-exposed Fy+ or Fy− donors against a protein microarray containing 91 P. vivax proteins with P. falciparum orthologs that were up-regulated in sporozoites. Antibodies against 10 P. vivax antigens were identified in sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals but not unexposed controls. This technology has promising implications in the discovery of potential vaccine candidates against P. vivax malaria. PMID:22826492

  1. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  2. GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampierto, D.

    2011-07-01

    New ESA missions dedicated to the observation of the Earth from space, like the gravity-gradiometry mission GOCE and the radar altimetry mission CRYOSAT 2, foster research, among other subjects, also on inverse gravimetric problems and on the description of the nature and the geographical location of gravimetric signals. In this framework the GEMMA project (GOCE Exploitation for Moho Modeling and Applications), funded by the European Space Agency and Politecnico di Milano, aims at estimating the boundary between Earth's crust and mantle (the so called Mohorovičić discontinuity or Moho) from GOCE data in key regions of the world. In the project a solution based on a simple two layer model in spherical approximation is proposed. This inversion problem based on the linearization of the Newton's gravitational law around an approximate mean Moho surface will be solved by exploiting Wiener-Kolmogorov theory in the frequency domain where the depth of the Moho discontinuity will be treated as a random signal with a zero mean and its own covariance function. The algorithm can be applied in a numerically efficient way by using the Fast Fourier Transform. As for the gravity observations, we will consider grids of the anomalous gravitational potential and its second radial derivative at satellite altitude. In particular this will require first of all to elaborate GOCE data to obtain a local grid of the gravitational potential field and its second radial derivative and after that to separate the gravimetric signal due to the considered discontinuity from the gravitational effects of other geological structures present into the observations. The first problem can be solved by applying the so called space- wise approach to GOCE observations, while the second one can be achieved by considering a priori models and geophysical information by means of an appropriate Bayesan technique. Moreover other data such as ground gravity anomalies or seismic profiles can be combined, in an

  3. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  4. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the groin Brachial artery in the arm The health care provider may test circulation to the hand before taking a sample ... must remain constant for 20 minutes before the test. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any blood-thinning ...

  5. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma) Group B – has only the B antigen on ...

  6. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body's tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  7. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Stuart M.; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R.; Specht, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by Dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  8. Exploiting range imagery: techniques and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Walter

    2009-07-01

    Practically no applications exist for which automatic processing of 2D intensity imagery can equal human visual perception. This is not the case for range imagery. The paper gives examples of 3D laser radar applications, for which automatic data processing can exceed human visual cognition capabilities and describes basic processing techniques for attaining these results. The examples are drawn from the fields of helicopter obstacle avoidance, object detection in surveillance applications, object recognition at high range, multi-object-tracking, and object re-identification in range image sequences. Processing times and recognition performances are summarized. The techniques used exploit the bijective continuity of the imaging process as well as its independence of object reflectivity, emissivity and illumination. This allows precise formulations of the probability distributions involved in figure-ground segmentation, feature-based object classification and model based object recognition. The probabilistic approach guarantees optimal solutions for single images and enables Bayesian learning in range image sequences. Finally, due to recent results in 3D-surface completion, no prior model libraries are required for recognizing and re-identifying objects of quite general object categories, opening the way to unsupervised learning and fully autonomous cognitive systems.

  9. Exploiting Microbeams for Membrane Protein Structure Determination.

    PubMed

    Warren, Anna J; Axford, Danny; Paterson, Neil G; Owen, Robin L

    2016-01-01

    A reproducible, and sample independent means of predictably obtaining large, well-ordered crystals has proven elusive in macromolecular crystallography. In the structure determination pipeline, crystallisation often proves to be a rate-limiting step, and the process of obtaining even small or badly ordered crystals can prove time-consuming and laborious. This is particularly true in the field of membrane protein crystallography and this is reflected in the limited number of unique membrane protein structures deposited in the protein data bank (less than 650 by June 2016 - http://blanco.biomol.uci.edu/mpstruc ). Over recent years the requirement for, and time and cost associated with obtaining, large crystals has been partially alleviated through the development of beamline instrumentation allowing data collection, and structure solution, from ever-smaller crystals. Advances in several areas have led to a step change in what might be considered achievable during a synchrotron trip over the last decade. This chapter will briefly review the current status of the field, the tools available to ease data collection and processing, and give some examples of exploitation of these for membrane protein microfocus macromolecular crystallography. PMID:27553238

  10. Accelerating Large Data Analysis By Exploiting Regularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Ellsworth, David

    2003-01-01

    We present techniques for discovering and exploiting regularity in large curvilinear data sets. The data can be based on a single mesh or a mesh composed of multiple submeshes (also known as zones). Multi-zone data are typical to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Regularities include axis-aligned rectilinear and cylindrical meshes as well as cases where one zone is equivalent to a rigid-body transformation of another. Our algorithms can also discover rigid-body motion of meshes in time-series data. Next, we describe a data model where we can utilize the results from the discovery process in order to accelerate large data visualizations. Where possible, we replace general curvilinear zones with rectilinear or cylindrical zones. In rigid-body motion cases we replace a time-series of meshes with a transformed mesh object where a reference mesh is dynamically transformed based on a given time value in order to satisfy geometry requests, on demand. The data model enables us to make these substitutions and dynamic transformations transparently with respect to the visualization algorithms. We present results with large data sets where we combine our mesh replacement and transformation techniques with out-of-core paging in order to achieve significant speed-ups in analysis.

  11. Exploiting death: apoptotic immunity in microbial pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ucker, D S

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity typically is responsible for initial host responses against infections. Independently, nucleated cells that die normally as part of the physiological process of homeostasis in mammals (including humans) suppress immunity. Specifically, the physiological process of cell death (apoptosis) generates cells that are recognized specifically by viable cells of all types and elicit a profound transient suppression of host immunity (termed 'innate apoptotic immunity' (IAI)). IAI appears to be important normally for the maintenance of self-tolerance and for the resolution of inflammation. In addition, pathogens are able to take advantage of IAI through a variety of distinct mechanisms, to enable their proliferation within the host and enhance pathogenicity. For example, the protist pathogen Leishmania amazonensis, at its infective stage, mimics apoptotic cells by expressing apoptotic-like protein determinants on the cell surface, triggering immunosuppression directly. In contrast, the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes triggers cell death in host lymphocytes, relying on those apoptotic cells to suppress host immune control and facilitate bacterial expansion. Finally, although the inhibition of apoptotic cell death is a common attribute of many viruses which facilitates their extended replication, it is clear that adenoviruses also reprogram the non-apoptotic dead cells that arise subsequently to manifest apoptotic-like immunosuppressive properties. These three instances represent diverse strategies used by microbial pathogens to exploit IAI, focusing attention on the potency of this facet of host immune control. Further examination of these cases will be revealing both of varied mechanisms of pathogenesis and the processes involved in IAI control. PMID:26943319

  12. Tonic Dopamine Modulates Exploitation of Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Daw, Nathaniel; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this “closed economy” paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior. PMID:21120145

  13. Generating circuit tests by exploiting designed behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Mark H.

    1988-12-01

    Generating tests for sequential devices is one of the hardest problems in designing and manufacturing digital circuits. This task is difficult primarily because internal components are accessible only indirectly, forcing a test generator to use the surrounding components collectively as a probe for detecting faults. This in turn forces the test generator to reason about complex interactions between the behaviors of these surrounding components. Current automated solutions are becoming ineffective as designs grow larger and more complex. Yet, despite the complexity, human experts remain remarkably successful, in part, because they use knowledge from many sources and use a variety of reasoning techniques. This thesis exploits several kinds of expert knowledge about circuits and test generation not used by the current algorithms. First, many test generation problems can be solved efficiently using operation relations, a novel representation of circuit behavior that connects internal component operations with directly executable circuit operations. Operation relations can be computed efficiently for sequential circuits that provide few operations at their interfaces by searching traces of simulated circuit behavior. Second, experts write test programs rather than test vectors because programs are a more readable and compact representation for tests than vectors are. Test programs can be constructed automatically by merging test program fragments using expert supplied goal-refined rules and domain independent planning techniques from artificial intelligence.

  14. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148

  15. Examining the potential exploitation of UNOS policies.

    PubMed

    Zink, Sheldon; Wertlieb, Stacey; Catalano, John; Marwin, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) waiting list was designed as a just and equitable system through which the limited number of organs is allocated to the millions of Americans in need of a transplant. People have trusted the system because of the belief that everyone on the list has an equal opportunity to receive an organ and also that allocation is blind to matters of financial standing, celebrity or political power. Recent events have revealed that certain practices and policies have the potential to be exploited. The policies addressed in this paper enable those on the list with the proper resources to gain an advantage over other less fortunate members, creating a system that benefits not the individual most in medical need, but the one with the best resources. These policies are not only unethical but threaten the balance and success of the entire UNOS system. This paper proposes one possible solution, which seeks to balance the concepts of justice and utility. PMID:16109680

  16. Relationship between exploitation, oscillation, MSY and extinction.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bapan; Kar, T K; Legovic, T

    2014-10-01

    We give answers to two important problems arising in current fisheries: (i) how maximum sustainable yield (MSY) policy is influenced by the initial population level, and (ii) how harvesting, oscillation and MSY are related to each other in prey-predator systems. To examine the impact of initial population on exploitation, we analyze a single species model with strong Allee effect. It is found that even when the MSY exists, the dynamic solution may not converge to the equilibrium stock if the initial population level is higher but near the critical threshold level. In a prey-predator system with Allee effect in the prey species, the initial population does not have such important impact neither on MSY nor on maximum sustainable total yield (MSTY). However, harvesting the top predator may cause extinction of all species if odd number of trophic levels exist in the ecosystem. With regard to the second problem, we study two prey-predator models and establish that increasing harvesting effort either on prey, predator or both prey and predator destroys previously existing oscillation. Moreover, equilibrium stock both at MSY and MSTY level is stable. We also discuss the validity of found results to other prey-predator systems. PMID:25050794

  17. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Kirkegaard, Karla A; Weinberger, Leor S

    2016-05-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus's inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles-the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations-both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  18. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Benjamin, Doug; De, Kaushik; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Panitkin, Sergey; Paterson, Michael; De Silva, Asoka; van der Ster, Daniel; Taylor, Ryan; Vitillo, Roberto A.; Walker, Rod

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of grid computing; since the start of data-taking, this model has proven very successful in the federated operation of more than one hundred Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) sites for offline data distribution, storage, processing and analysis. However, new paradigms in computing, namely virtualization and cloud computing, present improved strategies for managing and provisioning IT resources that could allow ATLAS to more flexibly adapt and scale its storage and processing workloads on varied underlying resources. In particular, ATLAS is developing a “grid-of-clouds” infrastructure in order to utilize WLCG sites that make resources available via a cloud API. This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R&D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a “cloud factory” for managing cloud VM instances. Next, performance results when running on virtualized/cloud resources at CERN LxCloud, StratusLab, and elsewhere will be presented. Finally, we will present the ATLAS strategies for exploiting cloud-based storage, including remote XROOTD access to input data, management of EC2-based files, and the deployment of cloud-resident LCG storage elements.

  19. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed. PMID:27325170

  20. Exploiting graph properties of game trees

    SciTech Connect

    Plaat, A.; Pijls, W.; Bruin, A. de; Schaeffer, J.

    1996-12-31

    The state space of most adversary games is a directed graph. However, due to the success of simple recursive algorithms based on alpha-beta, theoreticians and practitioners have concentrated on the traversal of trees, giving the field the name {open_quotes}game-tree search,{close_quotes} This paper shows that the focus on trees has obscured some important properties of the underlying graphs. One of the hallmarks of the field of game-tree search has been the notion of the minimal tree, the smallest tree that has to be searched by any algorithm to find the minimax value. In fact, for most games it is a directed graph. As demonstrated in chess and checkers, we show that the minimal graph is significantly smaller than previously thought, proving that there is more room for improvement of current algorithms. We exploit the graph properties of the search space to reduce the size of trees built in practice by at least 25%. For over a decade, fixed-depth alpha-beta searching has been considered a closed subject, with research moving on to more application-dependent techniques. This work opens up new avenues of research for further application-independent improvements.

  1. Exploiting phase transitions for fusion optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenson, Pontus

    2005-05-01

    Many optimization problems that arise in multi-target tracking and fusion applications are known to be NP-complete, ie, believed to have worst-case complexities that are exponential in problem size. Recently, many such NP-complete problems have been shown to display threshold phenomena: it is possible to define a parameter such that the probability of a random problem instance having a solution jumps from 1 to 0 at a specific value of the parameter. It is also found that the amount of resources needed to solve the problem instance peaks at the transition point. Among the problems found to display this behavior are graph coloring (aka clustering, relevant for multi-target tracking), satisfiability (which occurs in resource allocation and planning problem), and the travelling salesperson problem. Physicists studying these problems have found intriguing similarities to phase transitions in spin models of statistical mechanics. Many methods previously used to analyze spin glasses have been used to explain some of the properties of the behavior at the transition point. It turns out that the transition happens because the fitness landscape of the problem changes as the parameter is varied. Some algorithms have been introduced that exploit this knowledge of the structure of the fitness landscape. In this paper, we review some of the experimental and theoretical work on threshold phenomena in optimization problems and indicate how optimization problems from tracking and sensor resource allocation could be analyzed using these results.

  2. Exploiting Genetic Interference for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, Karla A.; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly evolving viruses are a major threat to human health. Such viruses are often highly pathogenic (e.g., influenza virus, HIV, Ebola virus) and routinely circumvent therapeutic intervention through mutational escape. Error-prone genome replication generates heterogeneous viral populations that rapidly adapt to new selection pressures, leading to resistance that emerges with treatment. However, population heterogeneity bears a cost: when multiple viral variants replicate within a cell, they can potentially interfere with each other, lowering viral fitness. This genetic interference can be exploited for antiviral strategies, either by taking advantage of a virus’s inherent genetic diversity or through generating de novo interference by engineering a competing genome. Here, we discuss two such antiviral strategies, dominant drug targeting and therapeutic interfering particles. Both strategies harness the power of genetic interference to surmount two particularly vexing obstacles—the evolution of drug resistance and targeting therapy to high-risk populations—both of which impede treatment in resource-poor settings. PMID:27149616

  3. GOCE: mission accomplished but exploitation continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floberghagen, Rune; Fehringer, Michael; Steiger, Christoph; Romanazzo, Massimo; Frommknecht, Bjoern; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    Launched in March 2009 into an extremely low Earth orbit on an originally 20-months mission to map the quasi-static gravity field, the GOCE satellite more than tripled its expected measurement return. Being the lowest orbiting research satellite since the beginning, GOCE underwent a series of orbit lowerings towards the end of its lifetime in order to further maximise the signal content (both in amplitude and scale) of the gravity gradient and hi-lo satellite-to-satellite observations. Gravity field mapping in drag-compensation mode at 224 km altitude was completed on 21 October 2013, after which the satellite rapidly decayed deeper into the upper layers of the atmosphere. During this phase all instruments and avionics equipment were acquiring data. Finally, the satellite re-entered over the South Atlantic ocean in the very early hours of 11 November 2013 (UTC). This contribution describes the science return of GOCE in its final phase, including the de-orbiting and re-entry phase. It provides an overview of the impact of GOCE in the earth sciences, incl. geodesy, oceanography, solid earth and aeronomy. Plans for continued exploitation of GOCE data - within and outside the context of the European Space Agency programmes - will be also presented.

  4. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R; Specht, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Innate recognition of fungi leads to strong adaptive immunity. Investigators are trying to exploit this observation in vaccine development by combining antigens with evolutionarily conserved fungal cell wall carbohydrates to induce protective responses. Best studied is β-1,3-glucan, a glycan that activates complement and is recognized by dectin-1. Administration of antigens in association with β-1,3-glucan, either by direct conjugation or complexed in glucan particles, results in robust humoral and cellular immune responses. While the host has a host of mannose receptors, responses to fungal mannoproteins generally are amplified if cells are cooperatively stimulated with an additional danger signal such as a toll-like receptor agonist. Chitosan, a polycationic homopolymer of glucosamine manufactured by the deacetylation of chitin, is being studied as an adjuvant in DNA and protein-based vaccines. It appears particularly promising in mucosal vaccines. Finally, universal and organism-specific fungal vaccines have been formulated by conjugating fungal cell wall glycans to carrier proteins. A major challenge will be to advance these experimental findings so that at risk patients can be protected. PMID:25404118

  5. Exploiting Metabolic Differences in Glioma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain function depends upon complex metabolic interactions amongst only a few different cell types, with as-trocytes providing critical support for neurons. Astrocyte functions include buffering the extracellular space, providing substrates to neurons, interchanging glutamate and glutamine for synaptic transmission with neurons, and facilitating access to blood vessels. Whereas neurons possess highly oxidative metabolism and easily succumb to ischemia, astrocytes rely more on glycolysis and metabolism associated with synthesis of critical intermediates, hence are less susceptible to lack of oxygen. Astrocytoma and higher grade glioma cells demonstrate both basic metabolic mechanisms of astrocytes as well as tumors in general, e.g. they show a high glycolytic rate, lactate extrusion, ability to proliferate even under hypoxia, and opportunistic use of mechanisms to enhance metabolism and blood vessel generation, and suppression of cell death pathways. There may be differences in metabolism between neurons, normal astrocytes and astrocytoma cells, providing therapeutic opportunities against astrocytomas, including a wide range of enzyme and transporter differences, regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), glutamate uptake transporters and glutamine utilization, differential sensitivities of monocarboxylate transporters, presence of glycogen, high interlinking with gap junctions, use of NADPH for lipid synthesis, utilizing differential regulation of synthetic enzymes (e.g. isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate-aspartate NADH shuttle) and different glucose uptake mechanisms. These unique metabolic susceptibilities may augment conventional therapeutic attacks based on cell division differences and surface receptors alone, and are starting to be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:22339075

  6. Exploiting metabolic differences in glioma therapy.

    PubMed

    Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-12-01

    Brain function depends upon complex metabolic interactions amongst only a few different cell types, with astrocytes providing critical support for neurons. Astrocyte functions include buffering the extracellular space, providing substrates to neurons, interchanging glutamate and glutamine for synaptic transmission with neurons, and facilitating access to blood vessels. Whereas neurons possess highly oxidative metabolism and easily succumb to ischemia, astrocytes rely more on glycolysis and metabolism associated with synthesis of critical intermediates, hence are less susceptible to lack of oxygen. Astrocytoma and higher grade glioma cells demonstrate both basic metabolic mechanisms of astrocytes as well as tumors in general, e.g. they show a high glycolytic rate, lactate extrusion, ability to proliferate even under hypoxia, and opportunistic use of mechanisms to enhance metabolism and blood vessel generation, and suppression of cell death pathways. There may be differences in metabolism between neurons, normal astrocytes and astrocytoma cells, providing therapeutic opportunities against astrocytomas, including a wide range of enzyme and transporter differences, regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), glutamate uptake transporters and glutamine utilization, differential sensitivities of monocarboxylate transporters, presence of glycogen, high interlinking with gap junctions, use of NADPH for lipid synthesis, utilizing differential regulation of synthetic enzymes (e.g. isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate-aspartate NADH shuttle) and different glucose uptake mechanisms. These unique metabolic susceptibilities may augment conventional therapeutic attacks based on cell division differences and surface receptors alone, and are starting to be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:22339075

  7. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Miller, Bonnie B.; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989–2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called ‘customers’ or ‘consumers,’ and occasionally ‘predators’; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a ‘victimless crime,’ maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade. PMID:26793015

  8. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cross chapter closest to you. Can't Donate Blood? A financial donation can also help save lives. Donate Now Find ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics ...

  9. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  10. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  12. Blood Pressure Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  13. Effectiveness of a Health Educational Program Based on Self-Efficacy and Social Support for Preventing Liver Fluke Infection in Rural People of Surin Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Thanapatto, Sirisuda; Nuathong, Wimonya; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    conclusion, this was a successful health education program for liver fluke avoidance. Therefore, it may useful for further behavior modification in the other epidemic areas. PMID:27039733

  14. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative. PMID:24766117

  15. Aspects of abuse: commercial sexual exploitation of children.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Melissa; Jackson, Allison M; Deye, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) and adolescents is a serious worldwide problem. It is, in essence, the sexual abuse of a minor for economic gain. In the United States, there is no uniform nationwide database to capture the incidence and prevalence of CSEC. Therefore, there is a great variation in the estimates, but the actual numbers are unknown. Given the clandestine nature of the practice, it is often underreported and underidentified. Healthcare providers will often encounter victims of commercial sexual exploitation due to mental health, physical health, and sexual health consequences, and therefore should be knowledgeable in the signs of possible sexual exploitation. The aim of this article is to educate healthcare providers on how vulnerable children may become sexually exploited, the health consequences involved with sexual exploitation, how to better identify possible victims, and the medical evaluation of a victim of sexual exploitation. PMID:25823944

  16. Exploiting spatial descriptions in visual scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Leon; Johannsen, Katrin; Swadzba, Agnes; De Ruiter, Jan P; Wachsmuth, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The reliable automatic visual recognition of indoor scenes with complex object constellations using only sensor data is a nontrivial problem. In order to improve the construction of an accurate semantic 3D model of an indoor scene, we exploit human-produced verbal descriptions of the relative location of pairs of objects. This requires the ability to deal with different spatial reference frames (RF) that humans use interchangeably. In German, both the intrinsic and relative RF are used frequently, which often leads to ambiguities in referential communication. We assume that there are certain regularities that help in specific contexts. In a first experiment, we investigated how speakers of German describe spatial relationships between different pieces of furniture. This gave us important information about the distribution of the RFs used for furniture-predicate combinations, and by implication also about the preferred spatial predicate. The results of this experiment are compiled into a computational model that extracts partial orderings of spatial arrangements between furniture items from verbal descriptions. In the implemented system, the visual scene is initially scanned by a 3D camera system. From the 3D point cloud, we extract point clusters that suggest the presence of certain furniture objects. We then integrate the partial orderings extracted from the verbal utterances incrementally and cumulatively with the estimated probabilities about the identity and location of objects in the scene, and also estimate the probable orientation of the objects. This allows the system to significantly improve both the accuracy and richness of its visual scene representation. PMID:22806654

  17. Exploiting Untapped Information Resources in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Fox, P. A.; Kempler, S.; Maskey, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the continuing challenges in any Earth science investigation is the amount of time and effort required for data preparation before analysis can begin. Current Earth science data and information systems have their own shortcomings. For example, the current data search systems are designed with the assumption that researchers find data primarily by metadata searches on instrument or geophysical keywords, assuming that users have sufficient knowledge of the domain vocabulary to be able to effectively utilize the search catalogs. These systems lack support for new or interdisciplinary researchers who may be unfamiliar with the domain vocabulary or the breadth of relevant data available. There is clearly a need to innovate and evolve current data and information systems in order to improve data discovery and exploration capabilities to substantially reduce the data preparation time and effort. We assert that Earth science metadata assets are dark resources, information resources that organizations collect, process, and store for regular business or operational activities but fail to utilize for other purposes. The challenge for any organization is to recognize, identify and effectively utilize the dark data stores in their institutional repositories to better serve their stakeholders. NASA Earth science metadata catalogs contain dark resources consisting of structured information, free form descriptions of data and pre-generated images. With the addition of emerging semantic technologies, such catalogs can be fully utilized beyond their original design intent of supporting current search functionality. In this presentation, we will describe our approach of exploiting these information resources to provide novel data discovery and exploration pathways to science and education communities

  18. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  19. Simulation of subsea gas hydrate exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2014-05-01

    The recovery of methane from gas hydrate layers that have been detected in several subsea sediments and permafrost regions around the world is a promising perspective to overcome future shortages in natural gas supply. Being aware that conventional natural gas resources are limited, research is going on to develop technologies for the production of natural gas from such new sources. Thus various research programs have started since the early 1990s in Japan, USA, Canada, India, and Germany to investigate hydrate deposits and develop required technologies. In recent years, intensive research has focussed on the capture and storage of CO2 from combustion processes to reduce climate impact. While different natural or man-made reservoirs like deep aquifers, exhausted oil and gas deposits or other geological formations are considered to store gaseous or liquid CO2, the storage of CO2 as hydrate in former methane hydrate fields is another promising alternative. Due to beneficial stability conditions, methane recovery may be well combined with CO2 storage in the form of hydrates. Regarding technological implementation many problems have to be overcome. Especially mixing, heat and mass transfer in the reservoir are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR« different technological approaches for the optimized exploitation of gas hydrate deposits are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical processes are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs. Simulations based on geological field data have been carried out. The studies focus on the potential of gas production from turbidites and their fitness for CO2 storage. The effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within

  20. Nanostructures Exploit Hybrid-Polariton Resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured devices that exploit the hybrid-polariton resonances arising from coupling among photons, phonons, and plasmons are subjects of research directed toward the development of infrared-spectroscopic sensors for measuring extremely small quantities of molecules of interest. The spectroscopic techniques in question are surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). An important intermediate goal of this research is to increase the sensitivity achievable by these techniques. The basic idea of the approach being followed in this research is to engineer nanostructured devices and thereby engineer their hybrid-polariton resonances to concentrate infrared radiation incident upon their surfaces in such a manner as to increase the absorption of the radiation for SEIRA and measure the frequency shifts of surface vibrational modes. The underlying hybrid-polariton-resonance concept is best described by reference to experimental devices that have been built and tested to demonstrate the concept. The nanostructure of each such device includes a matrix of silicon carbide particles of approximately 1 micron in diameter that are supported on a potassium bromide (KBr) or poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] window. These grains are sputter-coated with gold grains of 40-nm size (see figure). From the perspective of classical electrodynamics, in this nanostructure, that includes a particulate or otherwise rough surface, the electric-field portion of an incident electromagnetic field becomes concentrated on the particles when optical resonance conditions are met. Going beyond the perspective of classical electrodynamics, it can be seen that when the resonance frequencies of surface phonons and surface plasmons overlap, the coupling of the resonances gives rise to an enhanced radiation-absorption or -scattering mechanism. The sizes, shapes, and aggregation of the particles determine the frequencies of the resonances. Hence, the task of

  1. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  2. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  3. Possible Risks of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... transfusions are done Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To ... Topic How blood transfusions are done Next Topic Alternatives to blood transfusions Possible risks of blood transfusions Although blood transfusions ...

  4. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) Plan ...

  5. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis, 2005; Milloy in…

  6. Early Sexual Exploitation as an Influence in Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbert, Mimi H.; Pines, Ayala M.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 200 female street prostitutes to determine whether they were sexually exploited during childhood. Results showed 60 percent of the subjects were sexually exploited. The few girls who discussed their abuse with others were met with shame and most often inaction. Only 10 percent were abused by strangers. (JAC)

  7. Self-Report Measure of Financial Exploitation of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…

  8. The Intersection of Financial Exploitation and Financial Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the past decade has documented that financial exploitation of older adults has become a major problem and Psychology is only recently increasing its presence in efforts to reduce exploitation. During the same time period, Psychology has been a leader in setting best practices for the assessment of diminished capacity in older adults culminating in the 2008 ABA/APA joint publication on a handbook for psychologists. Assessment of financial decision making capacity is often the cornerstone assessment needed in cases of financial exploitation. This paper will examine the intersection of financial exploitation and decision making capacity; introduce a new conceptual model and new tools for both the investigation and prevention of financial exploitation. PMID:27159438

  9. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country. PMID:11767581

  10. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, K.

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. PMID:27133936

  12. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  13. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  14. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  15. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  16. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Low Blood Pressure Updated:Aug 30,2016 To know if you ... to learn more about blood pressure . If my blood pressure stays around 85/55, do I have a ...

  17. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... code using the Blood Bank Locator below: Blood Bank Locator City: State/Province: ZIP Code: Country: Show ... and care. The Association sets standards for blood banks and transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks ...

  18. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, simple, ... this test, as well as during the donation process, is sterile, used only once and then disposed. ...

  19. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Aug 17,2016 Blood pressure is typically ... Your doctor should evaluate unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare ...

  20. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , White ...

  2. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 7 people entering the hospital will use blood. 1 PINT Blood cannot be artificially made. The only way to have enough blood to save lives is through your blood donations. 3 LIVES Every pint of blood can be split into platelets, plasma, and red blood cells, which can save 3 ...

  3. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9% A+ 31% A- 6% B+ 9% B- 2% AB+ 3% AB- 1% Blood Group Compatibility There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. Rollover blood group to view compatibility. RED BLOOD CELLS WHOLE BLOOD PLASMA Donor O Group O can donate red blood ...

  4. Uncertainty of exploitation estimates made from tag returns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Brock, R.E.; Dorr, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    Over 6,000 crappies Pomoxis spp. were tagged in five water bodies to estimate exploitation rates by anglers. Exploitation rates were computed as the percentage of tags returned after adjustment for three sources of uncertainty: postrelease mortality due to the tagging process, tag loss, and the reporting rate of tagged fish. Confidence intervals around exploitation rates were estimated by resampling from the probability distributions of tagging mortality, tag loss, and reporting rate. Estimates of exploitation rates ranged from 17% to 54% among the five study systems. Uncertainty around estimates of tagging mortality, tag loss, and reporting resulted in 90% confidence intervals around the median exploitation rate as narrow as 15 percentage points and as broad as 46 percentage points. The greatest source of estimation error was uncertainty about tag reporting. Because the large investments required by tagging and reward operations produce imprecise estimates of the exploitation rate, it may be worth considering other approaches to estimating it or simply circumventing the exploitation question altogether.

  5. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. PMID

  6. A major cathepsin B protease from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has atypical active site features and a potential role in the digestive tract of newly excysted juvenile parasites.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Simone A; Piedrafita, David; Phillips, Carolyn I; Samarawickrema, Nirma; Law, Ruby H P; Smooker, Peter M; Quinsey, Noelene S; Irving, James A; Greenwood, Deanne; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Turk, Boris; Coetzer, Theresa H; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Spithill, Terry W; Pike, Robert N

    2009-07-01

    The newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage of the Fasciola hepatica lifecycle occurs just prior to invasion into the wall of the gut of the host, rendering it an important target for drug development. The cathepsin B enzymes from NEJ flukes have recently been demonstrated to be crucial to invasion and migration by the parasite. Here we characterize one of the cathepsin B enzymes (recombinant FhcatB1) from NEJ flukes. FhcatB1 has biochemical properties distinct from mammalian cathepsin B enzymes, with an atypical preference for Ile over Leu or Arg residues at the P(2) substrate position and an inability to act as an exopeptidase. FhcatB1 was active across a broad pH range (optimal activity at pH 5.5-7.0) and resistant to inhibition by cystatin family inhibitors from sheep and humans, suggesting that this enzyme would be able to function in extracellular environments in its mammalian hosts. It appears, however, that the FhcatB1 protease functions largely as a digestive enzyme in the gut of the parasite, due to the localization of a specific, fluorescently labeled inhibitor with an Ile at the P(2) position. Molecular modelling and dynamics were used to predict the basis for the unusual substrate specificity: a P(2) Ile residue positions the substrate optimally for interaction with catalytic residues of the enzyme, and the enzyme lacks an occluding loop His residue crucial for exopeptidase activity. The unique features of the enzyme, particularly with regard to its specificity and likely importance to a vital stage of the parasite's life cycle, make it an excellent target for therapeutic inhibitors or vaccination. PMID:19401154

  7. Conceptual model and map of financial exploitation of older adults.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Fairman, Kimberly P; Rosen, Abby; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the processes and outcomes of three-dimensional concept mapping to conceptualize financial exploitation of older adults. Statements were generated from a literature review and by local and national panels consisting of 16 experts in the field of financial exploitation. These statements were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software, which grouped the statements into clusters and depicted them as a map. Statements were grouped into six clusters, and ranked by the experts as follows in descending severity: (a) theft and scams, (b) financial victimization, (c) financial entitlement, (d) coercion, (e) signs of possible financial exploitation, and (f) money management difficulties. The hierarchical model can be used to identify elder financial exploitation and differentiate it from related but distinct areas of victimization. The severity hierarchy may be used to develop measures that will enable more precise screening for triage of clients into appropriate interventions. PMID:21978290

  8. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  9. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  10. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  11. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  12. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... manufacturers commonly produce these blood products. Top What fees are associated with blood? While donated blood is ... donors; and quality assurance. As a result, processing fees are charged to recover costs. Processing fees for ...

  13. High blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000468.htm High blood pressure To use the sharing features on ... body. Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure. Blood pressure readings are given as ...

  14. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  15. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  16. High blood sugar

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000332.htm High blood sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... later when energy is needed. Symptoms of High Blood Sugar Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being ...

  17. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  18. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  19. CEA blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  20. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  1. Blood Test: Testosterone

    MedlinePlus

    ... secretes two hormones (luteinizing hormone, or LH; and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH) that work together to ... TOPIC Blood Test: Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Blood Test: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Blood Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty ...

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  3. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  5. Postpartum Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click ...

  6. Blood in the semen

    MedlinePlus

    Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation ... Most of the time, blood in the semen is caused by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . Blood in the ...

  7. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  8. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming ...

  9. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  10. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  11. Blood Test: Estradiol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testosterone Blood Test: Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Blood Test: Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Understanding Early Sexual Development Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Getting a ...

  12. Alternatives to blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Donat R; Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2013-05-25

    The use of alternatives to allogeneic blood continues to rest on the principles that blood transfusions have inherent risks, associated costs, and affect the blood inventory available for health-care delivery. Increasing evidence exists of a fall in the use of blood because of associated costs and adverse outcomes, and suggests that the challenge for the use of alternatives to blood components will similarly be driven by costs and patient outcomes. Additionally, the risk-benefit profiles of alternatives to blood transfusion such as autologous blood procurement, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and haemostatic agents are under investigation. Nevertheless, the inherent risks of blood, along with the continued rise in blood costs are likely to favour the continued development and use of alternatives to blood transfusion. We summarise the current roles of alternatives to blood in the management of medical and surgical anaemias. PMID:23706802

  13. Experimental quantum imaging exploiting multimode spatial correlation of twin beams

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Meda, Alice; Berchera, Ivano Ruo

    2011-03-15

    Properties of quantum states have disclosed new and revolutionary technologies, ranging from quantum information to quantum imaging. This last field is intended to overcome the limits of classical imaging by exploiting specific properties of quantum states of light. One of the most interesting proposed schemes exploits spatial quantum correlations between twin beams for realizing sub-shot-noise imaging of weakly absorbing objects, leading ideally to a noise-free imaging. Here we discuss in detail the experimental realization of this scheme, showing its capability to reach a larger signal-to-noise ratio with respect to classical imaging methods and therefore its potential for future practical applications.

  14. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289

  15. Exploiting the Fanconi Anemia Pathway for Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ukhyun; Kim, Hyungjin

    2015-01-01

    Genome instability, primarily caused by faulty DNA repair mechanisms, drives tumorigenesis. Therapeutic interventions that exploit deregulated DNA repair in cancer have made considerable progress by targeting tumor-specific alterations of DNA repair factors, which either induces synthetic lethality or augments the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The study of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare inherited blood disorder and cancer predisposition syndrome, has been instrumental in understanding the extent to which DNA repair defects contribute to tumorigenesis. The FA pathway functions to resolve blocked replication forks in response to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), and accumulating knowledge of its activation by the ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway has provided promising therapeutic opportunities for cancer treatment. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of FA pathway regulation and its potential application for designing tailored therapeutics that take advantage of deregulated DNA ICL repair in cancer. PMID:26194820

  16. Platelet-cytokine Complex Suppresses Tumour Growth by Exploiting Intratumoural Thrombin-dependent Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Tung; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Tumours constitute unique microenvironments where various blood cells and factors are exposed as a result of leaky vasculature. In the present study, we report that thrombin enrichment in B16F10 melanoma led to platelet aggregation, and this property was exploited to administer an anticancer cytokine, interferon-gamma induced protein 10 (IP10), through the formation of a platelet-IP10 complex. When intravenously infused, the complex reached platelet microaggregates in the tumour. The responses induced by the complex were solely immune-mediated, and tumour cytotoxicity was not observed. The complex suppressed the growth of mouse melanoma in vivo, while both platelets and the complex suppressed the accumulation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the tumour. These results demonstrated that thrombin-dependent platelet aggregation in B16F10 tumours defines platelets as a vector to deliver anticancer cytokines and provide specific treatment benefits. PMID:27117228

  17. Can commercial ferrofluids be exploited in AC magnetic hyperthermia treatment to address diverse biomedical aspects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelakeris, M.; Li, Zi-An; Sakellari, D.; Simeonidis, K.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.

    2014-07-01

    Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for various applications combining diagnosis, imaging and therapy. In the present work, we elaborate on the commercial colloidal solution "FluidMAG" (from Chemicell GmbH) as a possible candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. The current product is a dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles employed for purification or separation of biotinylated biomolecules from different sources (e.g. blood). Transmission Electron Microscopy showed that the NPs have a spherical shape with mean diameter of 12.3 nm (± 20%), and SQUID magnetometry revealed their superparamagnetic character. Our promising results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of "FluidMAG" suggest that with the appropriate manipulation it can also be exploited as magnetic hyperthermia agent.

  18. Introduced bullfrogs and their parasites: Haematoloechus longiplexus (Trematoda) exploits diverse damselfly intermediate hosts on Vancouver Island.

    PubMed

    Novak, Colin W; Goater, Timothy M

    2013-02-01

    The lung fluke, Haematoloechus longiplexus, is the most prevalent and abundant parasite of introduced bullfrogs on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The ecological success of this trematode in invasive bullfrogs is related to the fluke's ability to utilize native intermediate hosts for transmission. The purpose of this study was to identify the odonate (dragonfly/damselfly) species involved in the transmission of H. longiplexus to the introduced bullfrog. The prevalences and mean intensities of 21 species of odonates (nymphs and adults) were examined for metacercariae infections. Haematoloechus longiplexus is a second intermediate host specialist, being found only in damselflies. Six damselfly species exhibiting the "climber" ecological habit were identified as second intermediate hosts of H. longiplexus. Enallagma carunculatum (prevalence = 75.0%, mean intensity = 17.2 ± 10.8), Ischnura cervula (65.2%, 8.9 ± 4.3), Ischnura perparva (45.5%, 15.4 ± 10.3), and Enallagma boreale (40.7%, 4.8 ± 7.8) were the most commonly infected damselfly species. Metacercariae were absent in damselflies collected from sites lacking bullfrogs. Haematoloechus longiplexus was likely introduced along with the bullfrog, and subsequently adapted to the physid snail and diverse damselfly intermediate hosts present in ponds on Vancouver Island. PMID:22924931

  19. Exploitation and community engagement: can community advisory boards successfully assume a role minimising exploitation in international research?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Lwin, Khin Maung; Zion, Deborah; Nosten, Francois; Loff, Bebe; Cheah, Phaik Yeong

    2015-04-01

    It has been suggested that community advisory boards (CABs) can play a role in minimising exploitation in international research. To get a better idea of what this requires and whether it might be achievable, the paper first describes core elements that we suggest must be in place for a CAB to reduce the potential for exploitation. The paper then examines a CAB established by the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit under conditions common in resource-poor settings - namely, where individuals join with a very limited understanding of disease and medical research and where an existing organisational structure is not relied upon to serve as the CAB. Using the Tak Province Border Community Ethics Advisory Board (T-CAB) as a case study, we assess the extent to which it might be able to take on a role minimising exploitation were it to decide to do so. We investigate whether, after two years in operation, T-CAB is capable of assessing clinical trials for exploitative features and addressing those found to have them. The findings show that, although T-CAB members have gained knowledge and developed capacities that are foundational for one-day taking on a role to reduce exploitation, their ability to critically evaluate studies for the presence of exploitative elements has not yet been strongly demonstrated. In light of this example, we argue that CABs may not be able to perform such a role for a number of years after initial formation, making it an unsuitable responsibility for many short-term CABs. PMID:23725206

  20. BUN - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  1. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory and separated into components (red blood cells, plasma and sometimes into platelets and cryoprecipitate). After processing, the red blood cells can be stored for up to 42 days. Apheresis An apheresis blood donation is one where the blood goes through a special machine ...

  2. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  3. The forecast effectiveness of mining exploitation effects on the exploited area conducted with the use of Bialek`s formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orwat, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of numerical calculations conducted with the use of a computer programme EDN - OPN for forecasting permanent deformations of a mining area being the result of the underground exploitation of coal deposits. The theoretical values of basic deformation indicators (decreases, inclinations, curvatures, displacements and horizontal strains) were determined with the use of Bialek`s formulas. They were subsequently juxtaposed with the practical values obtained thanks to the geodetic measurements conducted in the years 2001-2011 on the established observation line. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the conducted forecast of effects of the mining exploitation was carried out on this basis.

  4. The Sexual Exploitation of Missing Children: A Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotaling, Gerald T.; Finkelhor, David

    This paper evaluates current knowledge about the prevalence, dynamics, and short- and long-term effects of sexual exploitation among missing children. It is based upon empirical research findings from books, papers presented at professional meetings, doctoral dissertations, works in progress, and more than 75 articles in professional journals.…

  5. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  6. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  7. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and the School Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A.; Sheetz, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the…

  8. Malware Sandbox Analysis for Secure Observation of Vulnerability Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Katsunari; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Hoshizawa, Yuji; Nogawa, Hiroki; Nakao, Koji

    Exploiting vulnerabilities of remote systems is one of the fundamental behaviors of malware that determines their potential hazards. Understanding what kind of propagation tactics each malware uses is essential in incident response because such information directly links with countermeasures such as writing a signature for IDS. Although recently malware sandbox analysis has been studied intensively, little work is done on securely observing the vulnerability exploitation by malware. In this paper, we propose a novel sandbox analysis method for securely observing malware's vulnerability exploitation in a totally isolated environment. In our sandbox, we prepare two victim hosts. We first execute the sample malware on one of these hosts and then let it attack the other host which is running multiple vulnerable services. As a simple realization of the proposed method, we have implemented a sandbox using Nepenthes, a low-interaction honeypot, as the second victim. Because Nepenthes can emulate a variety of vulnerable services, we can efficiently observe the propagation of sample malware. In the experiments, among 382 samples whose scan capabilities are confirmed, 381 samples successfully started exploiting vulnerabilities of the second victim. This indicates the certain level of feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Exploiting link dynamics in LEO-to-ground communications

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Joseph Mcrae; Caffrey, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The high dynamics of the LEO-to-ground radio channel are described. An analysis shows how current satellite radio systems largely underutilize the available radio link, and that a radio that can adaptively vary the bit rate can more fully exploit it, resulting in increased data throughput and improved power efficiency. We propose one method for implementing the adaptivity, and present simulation results.

  10. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    PubMed

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application. PMID:23848273

  11. Exploitation of commercial remote sensing images: reality ignored?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Paul C.

    1999-12-01

    The remote sensing market is on the verge of being awash in commercial high-resolution images. Market estimates are based on the growing numbers of planned commercial remote sensing electro-optical, radar, and hyperspectral satellites and aircraft. EarthWatch, Space Imaging, SPOT, and RDL among others are all working towards launch and service of one to five meter panchromatic or radar-imaging satellites. Additionally, new advances in digital air surveillance and reconnaissance systems, both manned and unmanned, are also expected to expand the geospatial customer base. Regardless of platform, image type, or location, each system promises images with some combination of increased resolution, greater spectral coverage, reduced turn-around time (request-to- delivery), and/or reduced image cost. For the most part, however, market estimates for these new sources focus on the raw digital images (from collection to the ground station) while ignoring the requirements for a processing and exploitation infrastructure comprised of exploitation tools, exploitation training, library systems, and image management systems. From this it would appear the commercial imaging community has failed to learn the hard lessons of national government experience choosing instead to ignore reality and replicate the bias of collection over processing and exploitation. While this trend may be not impact the small quantity users that exist today it will certainly adversely affect the mid- to large-sized users of the future.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Exploitation of College Athletes Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rheenen, Derek; Atwood, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of college athletes has been a topic of controversy within American higher education for over half of a century. Especially in the revenue-generating sports of men's basketball and football, critics have highlighted the surplus gains expropriated by colleges and universities on the backs of these young men, who are…

  13. Exploiting Patient Labour at Kew Cottages, Australia, 1887-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Lee-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the exploitation of patient labour at Kew Cottages, Australia's first purpose-built state institution for people with learning disabilities. Analysing historical evidence for the period 1887-1950 shows that unpaid patient labour contributed significantly to the economy of the Cottages and so to the government department of…

  14. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  15. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part of diabetes care. This ... check my blood sugar? You use a blood glucose meter to check your blood sugar. This device ...

  16. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  17. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...

  18. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  19. Commercial sexual exploitation of children and the school nurse.

    PubMed

    Grace, Lisa Goldblatt; Starck, Maureen; Potenza, Jane; Kenney, Patricia A; Sheetz, Anne H

    2012-12-01

    As trusted health professionals in the school setting, school nurses are well positioned to identify students who may be victims of commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). However, until recently this issue has been clouded by lack of awareness, stigma, and/or denial. Since nationally the average age of entry for girls into the commercial sex industry (specifically prostitution) is 12-15 years old, many of these young people continue to attend school although attendance may be sporadic. Additional continuing education is needed to increase school nurses' awareness that these young victims might be in their practices, whether they are located in urban, rural, or suburban communities. As primary sources of health care for children throughout the United States, school nurses have a pivotal role in helping an exploited girl move beyond invisibility to a path of safety and support-and a new life. PMID:22627024

  20. Exploitation of puddles for breakthroughs in claustrum research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, John-Irwin; Fenske, Brian A.; Jaswa, Amar S.; Morris, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification as a thin strip of gray matter enclosed between stretches of neighboring fiber bundles, the claustrum has been considered impossible to study by many modern techniques that need a certain roominess of tissue for their application. Known as the front wall, vormauren in German from 1822, and still called avant-mur in French, we here propose a means for breaking into and through this wall, by utilizing the instances where the claustral tissue itself has broken free into more spacious dimensions. This has occurred several times in the evolution of modern mammals, and all that needs be done is to exploit these natural expansions in order to take advantage of a great panoply of technological advances now at our disposal. So here we review the kinds of breakout “puddles” that await productive exploitation, to bring our knowledge of structure and function up to the level enjoyed for other more accessible regions of the brain. PMID:24860441

  1. Exploiting cantilever curvature for noise reduction in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Aleksander; Grütter, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Optical beam deflection is a widely used method for detecting the deflection of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. This paper presents a first order derivation for the angular detection noise density which determines the lower limit for deflection sensing. Surprisingly, the cantilever radius of curvature, commonly not considered, plays a crucial role and can be exploited to decrease angular detection noise. We demonstrate a reduction in angular detection shot noise of more than an order of magnitude on a home-built AFM with a commercial 450 μm long cantilever by exploiting the optical properties of the cantilever curvature caused by the reflective gold coating. Lastly, we demonstrate how cantilever curvature can be responsible for up to 45% of the variability in the measured sensitivity of cantilevers on commercially available AFMs. PMID:21280834

  2. Lunar Resource Exploitation with Team Hakuto Swarm Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acierno, Kyle

    2016-07-01

    While much research has been done on the exploration, extraction and utilization of the Moon's resources, little attention has been given to exploring the economic opportunities that exist in the exploitation of those resources with the use of swam rovers. In order to develop a holistic view of lunar resources, this paper will first investigate the most important volatiles and minerals that are known to exist on the Moon. Next, Google Lunar XPRIZE Team Hakuto's technology and current robotic set up will be given. Finally, TEAM HAKUTO's 2017 Lunar mission plan will be outlined, providing an overview of future architectures using future swarm robotics to search for, map and eventually exploit the resources and volatiles.

  3. Wireless Jamming Localization by Exploiting Nodes' Hearing Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hongbo; Xu, Wenyuan; Chen, Yingying

    Jamming attacks are especially harmful when ensuring the dependability of wireless communication. Finding the position of a jammer will enable the network to actively exploit a wide range of defense strategies. Thus, in this paper, we focus on developing mechanisms to localize a jammer. We first conduct jamming effect analysis to examine how a hearing range, e.g., the area from which a node can successfully receive and decode the packet, alters with the jammer's location and transmission power. Then, we show that the affected hearing range can be estimated purely by examining the network topology changes caused by jamming attacks. As such, we solve the jammer location estimation by constructing a least-squares problem, which exploits the changes of the hearing ranges. Compared with our previous iterative-search-based virtual force algorithm, our proposed hearing-range-based algorithm exhibits lower computational cost (i.e., one-step instead of iterative searches) and higher localization accuracy.

  4. Online child sexual exploitation: prevalence, process, and offender characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kloess, Juliane A; Beech, Anthony R; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of current knowledge and understanding of the process of sexual grooming and exploitation of children via the Internet. Specifically, the prevalence of online sexual grooming and exploitation is explored as well as associated challenges relating to the identification of its occurrence. This is complemented by a detailed outline and discussion of the process, both online and in the physical world, and legal responses to this phenomenon. A number of factors are examined to provide an explanation of the facilitating and contributing role they may play in offense processes online. Finally, current typologies are discussed in relation to characteristics of Internet offenders in general and "groomers"/chat room offenders specifically. This review concludes by offering suggestions for future research. PMID:24608540

  5. SAR data exploitation: computational technology enabling SAR ATR algorithm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Uttam K.; Casteel, Curtis H., Jr.; Buxa, Peter; Minardi, Michael J.; Zelnio, Edmund G.; Nehrbass, John W.

    2007-04-01

    A fundamental issue with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application development is data processing and exploitation in real-time or near real-time. The power of high performance computing (HPC) clusters, FPGA, and the IBM Cell processor presents new algorithm development possibilities that have not been fully leveraged. In this paper, we will illustrate the capability of SAR data exploitation which was impractical over the last decade due to computing limitations. We can envision that SAR imagery encompassing city size coverage at extremely high levels of fidelity could be processed at near-real time using the above technologies to empower the warfighter with access to critical information for the war on terror, homeland defense, as well as urban warfare.

  6. Exploitation of puddles for breakthroughs in claustrum research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John-Irwin; Fenske, Brian A; Jaswa, Amar S; Morris, John A

    2014-01-01

    Since its first identification as a thin strip of gray matter enclosed between stretches of neighboring fiber bundles, the claustrum has been considered impossible to study by many modern techniques that need a certain roominess of tissue for their application. Known as the front wall, vormauren in German from 1822, and still called avant-mur in French, we here propose a means for breaking into and through this wall, by utilizing the instances where the claustral tissue itself has broken free into more spacious dimensions. This has occurred several times in the evolution of modern mammals, and all that needs be done is to exploit these natural expansions in order to take advantage of a great panoply of technological advances now at our disposal. So here we review the kinds of breakout "puddles" that await productive exploitation, to bring our knowledge of structure and function up to the level enjoyed for other more accessible regions of the brain. PMID:24860441

  7. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines. PMID:24899337

  8. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  9. Use of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, E; Moore, J S

    1990-03-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice and are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20-25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7-12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five per cent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10-20 ml/kg, recipient weight, is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10-15 ml of blood/kg body weight at 2-4 week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood crossmatching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 ml of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria, hemoglobinuria

  10. Combating sexual exploitation at the macro and micro levels.

    PubMed

    Perpinan, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Third World Movement against the Exploitation of Women (TW-MAE-W) is an international nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines which conducts advocacy upon global issues such as the root causes of exploitation and campaigns against sex tourism and military prostitution. TW-MAE-W began providing direct services at the local level in 1987, and now has 7 drop-in centers and 3 homes around the country, run by 35 female staff members. In addition, the Bethany Transition Home in Quezon City, Manila, houses 10-20 women, all who have outside employment. The girls and women who come to TW-MAE-W's facilities have all been exploited in some way. For example, they may be battered wives, women who have experienced incest, or girls who have been sold or tricked into prostitution. They arrive after either calling a telephone hotline on their own or being referred by social workers and nongovernmental organizations. Following an initial 3-month course of recuperation, center residents are helped to either continue their academic training, receive vocational training, or find a job. Basic health services are provided to the residents and drop-in center clients. PMID:12348690

  11. Architectures for intelligent robots in the age of exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Sarkar, Saurabh; Mathur, Kovid; Tennety, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    History shows that problems that cause human confusion often lead to inventions to solve the problems, which then leads to exploitation of the invention, creating a confusion-invention-exploitation cycle. Robotics, which started as a new type of universal machine implemented with a computer controlled mechanism in the 1960's, has progressed from an Age of Over-expectation, a Time of Nightmare, an Age of Realism, and is now entering the Age of Exploitation. The purpose of this paper is to propose architecture for the modern intelligent robot in which sensors permit adaptation to changes in the environment are combined with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. This ideal model may be compared to various controllers that have been implemented using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Several prototypes and simulations are considered in view of peta-computing. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications.

  12. Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Yravedra, José; Cobo-Sánchez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of Homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of Neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of game like deer, horses or large bovids. Our analysis of an extensive sample of Middle Paleolithic sites with faunal remains in the Iberian Peninsula reveals that Iberian ibex and chamois were frequently present throughout this period. Statistical analyses allowed us to assess the conditions that might have favored the presence or absence of these animals in the sites, while the taphonomic analyses enabled us to address the issue of whether ibex and chamois were indeed hunted by Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results indicate a better representation of both species in rocky and mountainous areas. The taphonomy of some sites reveals that chamois and ibex were hunted by Neanderthals, who showed great adaptive capacities to a wide variety of environments, including mountainous habitats. In contrast, other sites with favorable ecological conditions for ibex and chamois where these animals were not exploited by Neanderthals, who chose to hunt other species like deer, horses or aurochs, suggest behavioral complexity and large versatility. PMID:25481629

  13. Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

  14. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858

  15. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects. PMID:24851858

  16. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    PubMed

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed. PMID:26066575

  17. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  18. Home blood sugar testing

    MedlinePlus

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  19. Low blood sugar - newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  20. Haptoglobin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver. It attaches to a certain type of hemoglobin in the blood. How the Test is Performed ... destroyed. When red blood cells die, they release hemoglobin. Haptoglobin attaches to this released hemoglobin, which is ...

  1. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause ...

  2. ACTH blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroid hormone cortisol. Cortisol is released by the adrenal gland . It regulates blood pressure and blood sugar. This ... higher-than-normal level of ACTH may indicate: Adrenal glands not producing enough cortisol ( Addison disease ) Adrenal glands ...

  3. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... help to clot the blood and control bleeding. Plasma , the pale yellow liquid part of whole blood. ... patients with bleeding problems, transfusions with platelets or plasma can help to control or prevent bleeding complications. ...

  4. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the blood. ... Methylmalonic acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ...

  5. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause problems for ...

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, ... failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  7. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure to live. Without it, blood can't flow through our bodies and carry oxygen to our vital organs. But when blood pressure gets too high — a condition called hypertension — it can lead to ...

  8. Blood pressure check (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more often referred to as a blood pressure cuff. The cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and inflated ... flow of blood in your artery. As the cuff is slowly deflated, your doctor uses a stethoscope ...

  9. Blood Sugar and Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... a deciliter) of blood, or mg/dL. Measuring Triglycerides Triglyceride levels in the blood rise quickly after you ... with HIV disease have unusually high levels of triglycerides. This is especially true for people taking protease ...

  10. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  11. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

  12. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  13. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  14. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePlus

    ... type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for emergency transfusions. Minority and diverse ... levels. “I was deferred from giving blood 10 times or more.” However, in October 2005 Rosalyn’s iron ...

  15. Haptoglobin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Collection of blood (hematoma) Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia ...

  16. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... re needed. Blood also collects waste products, like carbon dioxide, and takes them to the organs responsible for ... carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40%–45% ...

  17. Exploitation of marine gas hydrates: Benefits and risks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmann, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in marine gas hydrates deposited at continental margins. The global inventory of carbon bound as methane in gas hydrates is currently estimated as 1000 × 500 Gt. Large-scale national research projects located mostly in South-East Asia but also in North America and Europe are aiming to exploit these ice-like solids as new unconventional resource of natural gas. Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries are taking the lead because their national waters harbor exploitable gas hydrate deposits which could be developed to reduce the dependency of these nations on costly LGN imports. In 2013, the first successful production test was performed off Japan at water depths of ca. 1000 m demonstrating that natural gas can be released and produced from marine hydrates by lowering the pressure in the sub-seabed hydrate reservoirs. In an alternative approach, CO2 from coal power plans and other industrial sources is used to release natural gas (methane) from hydrates while CO2 is bound and stored in the sub-surface as solid hydrate. These new approaches and technologies are still in an early pre-commercial phase; the costs of field development and gas production exceed the value of natural gas being produced from the slowly dissociating hydrates. However, new technologies are currently under development in the German SUGAR project and elsewhere to reduce costs and enhance gas production rates such that gas hydrates may become commercially exploitable over the coming decade(s). The exploitation of marine gas hydrates may help to reduce CO2 emissions from the fossil fuel sector if the produced natural gas is used to replace coal and/or LNG. Hydrate development could also provide important incentives for carbon capture technologies since CO2 can be used to produce natural gas from hydrates. However, leakage of gas may occur during the production process while slope failure may be induced by the accompanying dissociation/conversion of gas

  18. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Neeves, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.

  19. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Neeves, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena. PMID:26236058

  20. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  1. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  2. Blood Cotinine Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of cotinine in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2008. Blood cotinine levels from this period are also compared to those measured during earlier surveys (1988 to 1991). Blood cotinine is a chemical that forms inside the body af...

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  4. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Top Facts about the blood donation process Donating blood is a safe process. A sterile needle is used only once for ... discarded. Blood donation is a simple four-step process: registration, medical history and mini-physical, donation and ...

  5. [Syphilis and blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Serrano, J

    1991-06-01

    Along 17 years (1973-1989), syphilis screening has been performed on 146,355 blood units in the author's blood bank. A total number of 143 positive results (confirmed by MHA-TP) was registered, which means an incidence of 0.097%. Of the total number of blood units, 31,529 came from professional donors, 51 of them (0.16%) being positive, while of the 114,826 blood units from voluntary donors 92 were positive (0.08%). With respect to voluntary donations, the highest incidence of positive reactions was found between 1980 and 1982, but this period registered also the highest number of blood units studied. Along this 17 year period 8 patients have received blood products with positive syphilis test. They were transfused on urgent request with fresh blood or platelet concentrates, the transfusion being performed before knowing the results of the screening for syphilis. No special measures were taken in 2 such cases, who died shortly after the transfusion on account of their disease. Two other were treated with penicillin at the time of transfusion. The remaining four patients received preventive penicillin. Even taking into account that positive screening tests are uncommon amongst blood donors, and that only under special circumstances the patients receiving contaminated blood may develop the illness, it seems advisable for every blood bank to perform the screening for syphilis on every blood donation. PMID:1948541

  6. Blood groups systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  7. Blood groups systems.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  8. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also ... sugar levels. continue How to Check Blood Sugar Levels Blood glucose testing is easier, less painful, and ...

  9. Enhancing data exploitation through DTN-based data transmission protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Rontogiannis, Athanasios; Balasis, Georgios; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Paronis, Dimitrios; Sykioti, Olga; Tsinganos, Antonios

    2014-05-01

    Data distribution and data access are major issues in space sciences and geosciences as they strongly influence the degree of data exploitation. Processing and analysis of large volumes of Earth observation and space/planetary data face two major impediments: limited access capabilities due to narrow connectivity windows between spacecraft and ground receiving stations and lack of sufficient communication and dissemination mechanisms between space data receiving centres and the end-user community. Real-time data assimilation that would be critical in a number of forecasting capabilities is particularly affected by such limitations. The FP7-Space project "Space-Data Routers" (SDR) has the aim of allowing space agencies, academic institutes and research centres to disseminate/share space data generated by single or multiple missions, in an efficient, secure and automated manner. The approach of SDR relies on space internetworking - and in particular on Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN), which marks the new era in space communications, unifies space and earth communication infrastructures and delivers a set of tools and protocols for space-data exploitation. The project includes the definition of limitations imposed by typical space mission scenarios in which the National Observatory of Athens is currently involved, including space and planetary exploration, as well as satellite-supported geoscience applications. In this paper, we present the mission scenarios, the SDR-application and the evaluation of the associated impact from the space-data router enhancements. The work leading to this paper has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement no. 263330 for the SDR (Space-Data Routers for Exploiting Space Data) collaborative research project. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  10. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats. PMID:25411457

  11. The strv 1 microsatellite semes: Exploiting the geosynchronous transfer orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blott, R. J.; Wells, N. S.; Eves, J.

    Following 3 successful years in orbit, the UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency's two Space Technology Research Vehicle microsatellites (STRV) 1 a&b will be followed by a second mission. STRV 1 c&d are now in construction for a planned launch in 1999. The new mission, which includes 22 experimental payloads and developmental spacecraft bus technologies from European, US and Canadian military, civil and commercial sponsors, exploits the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) to offer an affordable, working space research tool for both government and industry. The STRV 1 programme objective is to promote the enhancement of military and civil space communications, remote sensing and navigation capabilities at reduced cost and risk. Additional aims are to help industry to achieve commercial benefit from investment in emerging technologies and to develop the synergy between government, commercial and civilian space applications. The paper explains how STRV 1 exploits the variable altitude and high radiation environment of GTO to investigate the performance of emerging technologies and techniques. This includes the accelerated life testing of components and materials, such as infra-red detectors, advanced microprocessors and solar cell technologies, and the prototyping of new techniques to improve communications and spacecraft autonomy. Experiments include implementing a secure version of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) packet telecommand and telemetry standards, further development of the Internet-based Space Communication Protocol Standards (SCPS) and evaluating the exploitation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) in geosynchronous orbit. The new mission also builds on and extends the comprehensive environmental monitoring achieved by STRV 1 a&b.

  12. Widespread exploitation of the honeybee by early Neolithic farmers.

    PubMed

    Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Regert, Martine; Evershed, Richard P; Outram, Alan K; Cramp, Lucy J E; Decavallas, Orestes; Dunne, Julie; Gerbault, Pascale; Mileto, Simona; Mirabaud, Sigrid; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Smyth, Jessica; Šoberl, Lucija; Whelton, Helen L; Alday-Ruiz, Alfonso; Asplund, Henrik; Bartkowiak, Marta; Bayer-Niemeier, Eva; Belhouchet, Lotfi; Bernardini, Federico; Budja, Mihael; Cooney, Gabriel; Cubas, Miriam; Danaher, Ed M; Diniz, Mariana; Domboróczki, László; Fabbri, Cristina; González-Urquijo, Jesus E; Guilaine, Jean; Hachi, Slimane; Hartwell, Barrie N; Hofmann, Daniela; Hohle, Isabel; Ibáñez, Juan J; Karul, Necmi; Kherbouche, Farid; Kiely, Jacinta; Kotsakis, Kostas; Lueth, Friedrich; Mallory, James P; Manen, Claire; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Maurice-Chabard, Brigitte; Mc Gonigle, Martin A; Mulazzani, Simone; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Perić, Olga S; Perić, Slaviša R; Petrasch, Jörg; Pétrequin, Anne-Marie; Pétrequin, Pierre; Poensgen, Ulrike; Pollard, C Joshua; Poplin, François; Radi, Giovanna; Stadler, Peter; Stäuble, Harald; Tasić, Nenad; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Vuković, Jasna B; Walsh, Fintan; Whittle, Alasdair; Wolfram, Sabine; Zapata-Peña, Lydia; Zoughlami, Jamel

    2015-11-12

    The pressures on honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations, resulting from threats by modern pesticides, parasites, predators and diseases, have raised awareness of the economic importance and critical role this insect plays in agricultural societies across the globe. However, the association of humans with A. mellifera predates post-industrial-revolution agriculture, as evidenced by the widespread presence of ancient Egyptian bee iconography dating to the Old Kingdom (approximately 2400 BC). There are also indications of Stone Age people harvesting bee products; for example, honey hunting is interpreted from rock art in a prehistoric Holocene context and a beeswax find in a pre-agriculturalist site. However, when and where the regular association of A. mellifera with agriculturalists emerged is unknown. One of the major products of A. mellifera is beeswax, which is composed of a complex suite of lipids including n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters. The composition is highly constant as it is determined genetically through the insect's biochemistry. Thus, the chemical 'fingerprint' of beeswax provides a reliable basis for detecting this commodity in organic residues preserved at archaeological sites, which we now use to trace the exploitation by humans of A. mellifera temporally and spatially. Here we present secure identifications of beeswax in lipid residues preserved in pottery vessels of Neolithic Old World farmers. The geographical range of bee product exploitation is traced in Neolithic Europe, the Near East and North Africa, providing the palaeoecological range of honeybees during prehistory. Temporally, we demonstrate that bee products were exploited continuously, and probably extensively in some regions, at least from the seventh millennium cal BC, likely fulfilling a variety of technological and cultural functions. The close association of A. mellifera with Neolithic farming communities dates to the early onset of agriculture and may provide

  13. Human Collective Intelligence under Dual Exploration-Exploitation Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate “information scroungers” may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a “multi-armed bandit” problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental “dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas” successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence. PMID:24755892

  14. Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2012-06-01

    The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.

  15. Questioning 'black humour': racial exploitation, media and health.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie

    2009-07-01

    This commentary explores the relevance of media racism to health psychology. While supporting Dr Estacio's call for health psychologists to get involved in promoting social justice via the media, we propose that health psychologists should not overstate the negative influence of the media on racism in society. Media content is complex and contradictory. It contains both racist and anti-racist representations. Challenging racism requires a conceptualization of links between the representational spaces provided by the media and the everyday geographic places within which inter-personal interactions and exploitation occur. PMID:19515676

  16. Exploiting the Potential of Data Centers in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yu-An; Liu, Xiaojing; Cao, Tengfei

    As the number of cloud computing data centers grows rapidly in recent years, from the perspective of smart grid, they are really large and noticeable electric load. In this paper, we focus on the important role and the potential of data centers as controllable loads in the smart grid. We reviewed relevant research in the area of letting data centers participate in the ancillary services market and demand response programs of the grid, and further investigate the possibility of exploiting the impact of data center placement on the grid. Various opportunities and challenges are summarized, which could provide more chances for researches to explore this field.

  17. XJava: Exploiting Parallelism with Object-Oriented Stream Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Frank; Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F.

    This paper presents the XJava compiler for parallel programs. It exploits parallelism based on an object-oriented stream programming paradigm. XJava extends Java with new parallel constructs that do not expose programmers to low-level details of parallel programming on shared memory machines. Tasks define composable parallel activities, and new operators allow an easier expression of parallel patterns, such as pipelines, divide and conquer, or master/worker. We also present an automatic run-time mechanism that extends our previous work to automatically map tasks and parallel statements to threads.

  18. On the Exploitation of Sensitivity Derivatives for Improving Sampling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yanzhao; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Many application codes, such as finite-element structural analyses and computational fluid dynamics codes, are capable of producing many sensitivity derivatives at a small fraction of the cost of the underlying analysis. This paper describes a simple variance reduction method that exploits such inexpensive sensitivity derivatives to increase the accuracy of sampling methods. Three examples, including a finite-element structural analysis of an aircraft wing, are provided that illustrate an order of magnitude improvement in accuracy for both Monte Carlo and stratified sampling schemes.

  19. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  20. Use of blood and blood products.

    PubMed

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria

  1. Have You Given Blood Lately?

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA’s standards and regulations regarding blood donor selection, blood donation, and processing help protect the health of both ... to detect emerging diseases and bioterrorist agents in blood donations. They are also wor king to improve blood ...

  2. Osmoregulatory bicarbonate secretion exploits H(+)-sensitive haemoglobins to autoregulate intestinal O2 delivery in euryhaline teleosts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C A; Regan, M D; Brauner, C J; De Bastos, E S R; Wilson, R W

    2014-10-01

    Marine teleost fish secrete bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) into the intestine to aid osmoregulation and limit Ca(2+) uptake by carbonate precipitation. Intestinal HCO3 (-) secretion is associated with an equimolar transport of protons (H(+)) into the blood, both being proportional to environmental salinity. We hypothesized that the H(+)-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb) system of seawater teleosts could be exploited via the Bohr and/or Root effects (reduced Hb-O2 affinity and/or capacity with decreasing pH) to improve O2 delivery to intestinal cells during high metabolic demand associated with osmoregulation. To test this, we characterized H(+) equilibria and gas exchange properties of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) haemoglobin and constructed a model incorporating these values, intestinal blood flow rates and arterial-venous acidification at three different environmental salinities (33, 60 and 90). The model suggested red blood cell pH (pHi) during passage through intestinal capillaries could be reduced by 0.14-0.33 units (depending on external salinity) which is sufficient to activate the Bohr effect (Bohr coefficient of -0.63), and perhaps even the Root effect, and enhance tissue O2 delivery by up to 42 % without changing blood flow. In vivo measurements of intestinal venous blood pH were not possible in flounder but were in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout which confirmed a blood acidification of no less than 0.2 units (equivalent to -0.12 for pHi). When using trout-specific values for the model variables, predicted values were consistent with measured in vivo values, further supporting the model. Thus this system is an elegant example of autoregulation: as the need for costly osmoregulatory processes (including HCO3 (-) secretion) increases at higher environmental salinity, so does the enhancement of O2 delivery to the intestine via a localized acidosis and the Bohr (and possibly Root) effect. PMID:25160040

  3. Characterization of CRISPR RNA transcription by exploiting stranded metatranscriptomic data.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuzhen; Zhang, Quan

    2016-07-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune systems, each typically composed of a locus of cas genes and a CRISPR array of spacers flanked by repeats. Processed transcripts of CRISPR arrays (crRNAs) play important roles in the interference process mediated by these systems, guiding targeted immunity. Here we developed computational approaches that allow us to characterize the expression of many CRISPRs in their natural environments, using community RNA-seq (metatranscriptomic) data. By exploiting public human gut metatranscriptomic data sets, we studied the expression of 56 repeat-sequence types of CRISPRs, revealing that most CRISPRs are transcribed in one direction (producing crRNAs). In rarer cases, including a type II system associated with Bacteroides fragilis, CRISPRs are transcribed in both directions. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems were found in the microbiomes, but metatranscriptomic reads were barely found for their CRISPRs. We observed individual-level variation of the crRNA transcription, and an even greater transcription of a CRISPR from the antisense strand than the crRNA strand in one sample. The orientations of CRISPR expression implicated by metatranscriptomic data are largely in agreement with prior predictions for CRISPRs, with exceptions. Our study shows the promise of exploiting community RNA-seq data for investigating the transcription of CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:27190232

  4. Characterization of CRISPR RNA transcription by exploiting stranded metatranscriptomic data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yuzhen; Zhang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR–Cas systems are bacterial adaptive immune systems, each typically composed of a locus of cas genes and a CRISPR array of spacers flanked by repeats. Processed transcripts of CRISPR arrays (crRNAs) play important roles in the interference process mediated by these systems, guiding targeted immunity. Here we developed computational approaches that allow us to characterize the expression of many CRISPRs in their natural environments, using community RNA-seq (metatranscriptomic) data. By exploiting public human gut metatranscriptomic data sets, we studied the expression of 56 repeat-sequence types of CRISPRs, revealing that most CRISPRs are transcribed in one direction (producing crRNAs). In rarer cases, including a type II system associated with Bacteroides fragilis, CRISPRs are transcribed in both directions. Type III CRISPR–Cas systems were found in the microbiomes, but metatranscriptomic reads were barely found for their CRISPRs. We observed individual-level variation of the crRNA transcription, and an even greater transcription of a CRISPR from the antisense strand than the crRNA strand in one sample. The orientations of CRISPR expression implicated by metatranscriptomic data are largely in agreement with prior predictions for CRISPRs, with exceptions. Our study shows the promise of exploiting community RNA-seq data for investigating the transcription of CRISPR–Cas systems. PMID:27190232

  5. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  6. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E; Weseloh, Wayne N; Robey, Robert W; Matthew, Sottile J; Quinlan, Daniel; Overbye, Jeffrey

    2010-12-15

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  7. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  8. Infomax Strategies for an Optimal Balance Between Exploration and Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions that achieve high reward, like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications turn out to be successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest probability of success among the arms, saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. Conversely, gathering information on the identity of the best arm in the bandit leads to a strategy that is vastly suboptimal in terms of payoff. The nature of the quantity selected for Infomax acquisition is then crucial for effective tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  9. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  10. Noise-exploitation and adaptation in neuromorphic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindo, Thamira; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2012-04-01

    Even though current micro-nano fabrication technology has reached integration levels where ultra-sensitive sensors can be fabricated, the sensing performance (resolution per joule) of synthetic systems are still orders of magnitude inferior to those observed in neurobiology. For example, the filiform hairs in crickets operate at fundamental limits of noise; auditory sensors in a parasitoid fly can overcome fundamental limitations to precisely localize ultra-faint acoustic signatures. Even though many of these biological marvels have served as inspiration for different types of neuromorphic sensors, the main focus these designs have been to faithfully replicate the biological functionalities, without considering the constructive role of "noise". In man-made sensors device and sensor noise are typically considered as a nuisance, where as in neurobiology "noise" has been shown to be a computational aid that enables biology to sense and operate at fundamental limits of energy efficiency and performance. In this paper, we describe some of the important noise-exploitation and adaptation principles observed in neurobiology and how they can be systematically used for designing neuromorphic sensors. Our focus will be on two types of noise-exploitation principles, namely, (a) stochastic resonance; and (b) noise-shaping, which are unified within our previously reported framework called Σ▵ learning. As a case-study, we describe the application of Σ▵ learning for the design of a miniature acoustic source localizer whose performance matches that of its biological counterpart(Ormia Ochracea).

  11. Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.

  12. User-Driven Sampling Strategies in Image Exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Neal R.; Porter, Reid B.

    2013-12-23

    Visual analytics and interactive machine learning both try to leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines to solve complex data exploitation tasks. These fields overlap most significantly when training is involved: the visualization or machine learning tool improves over time by exploiting observations of the human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on one aspect of the human-computer interaction that we call user-driven sampling strategies. Unlike relevance feedback and active learning sampling strategies, where the computer selects which data to label at each iteration, we investigate situations where the user selects which data is to be labeled at each iteration. User-driven sampling strategies can emerge in many visual analytics applications but they have not been fully developed in machine learning. We discovered that in user-driven sampling strategies suggest new theoretical and practical research questions for both visualization science and machine learning. In this paper we identify and quantify the potential benefits of these strategies in a practical image analysis application. We find user-driven sampling strategies can sometimes provide significant performance gains by steering tools towards local minima that have lower error than tools trained with all of the data. Furthermore, in preliminary experiments we find these performance gains are particularly pronounced when the user is experienced with the tool and application domain.

  13. JPEG2000-coded image error concealment exploiting convex sets projections.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Luigi; Ginesu, Giaime; Raccis, Alessio

    2005-04-01

    Transmission errors in JPEG2000 can be grouped into three main classes, depending on the affected area: LL, high frequencies at the lower decomposition levels, and high frequencies at the higher decomposition levels. The first type of errors are the most annoying but can be concealed exploiting the signal spatial correlation like in a number of techniques proposed in the past; the second are less annoying but more difficult to address; the latter are often imperceptible. In this paper, we address the problem of concealing the second class or errors when high bit-planes are damaged by proposing a new approach based on the theory of projections onto convex sets. Accordingly, the error effects are masked by iteratively applying two procedures: low-pass (LP) filtering in the spatial domain and restoration of the uncorrupted wavelet coefficients in the transform domain. It has been observed that a uniform LP filtering brought to some undesired side effects that negatively compensated the advantages. This problem has been overcome by applying an adaptive solution, which exploits an edge map to choose the optimal filter mask size. Simulation results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:15825483

  14. User-Driven Sampling Strategies in Image Exploitation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harvey, Neal R.; Porter, Reid B.

    2013-12-23

    Visual analytics and interactive machine learning both try to leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines to solve complex data exploitation tasks. These fields overlap most significantly when training is involved: the visualization or machine learning tool improves over time by exploiting observations of the human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on one aspect of the human-computer interaction that we call user-driven sampling strategies. Unlike relevance feedback and active learning sampling strategies, where the computer selects which data to label at each iteration, we investigate situations where the user selects which data is to be labeled at each iteration. User-drivenmore » sampling strategies can emerge in many visual analytics applications but they have not been fully developed in machine learning. We discovered that in user-driven sampling strategies suggest new theoretical and practical research questions for both visualization science and machine learning. In this paper we identify and quantify the potential benefits of these strategies in a practical image analysis application. We find user-driven sampling strategies can sometimes provide significant performance gains by steering tools towards local minima that have lower error than tools trained with all of the data. Furthermore, in preliminary experiments we find these performance gains are particularly pronounced when the user is experienced with the tool and application domain.« less

  15. A case study of exploiting enterprise resource planning requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Mingzhou; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2011-05-01

    The requirements engineering (RE) processes have become a key to conceptualising corporate-wide integrated solutions based on packaged enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The RE literature has mainly focused on procuring the most suitable ERP package. Little is known about how an organisation exploits the chosen ERP RE model to frame the business application development. This article reports an exploratory case study of a key tenet of ERP RE adoption, namely that aligning business applications to the packaged RE model leads to integral practices and economic development. The case study analysed a series interrelated pilot projects developed for a business division of a large IT manufacturing and service company, using Oracle's appl1ication implementation method (AIM). The study indicated that AIM RE improved team collaboration and project management experience, but needed to make hidden assumptions explicit to support data visibility and integrity. Our study can direct researchers towards rigorous empirical evaluations of ERP RE adoption, collect experiences and lessons learned for practitioners, and help generate more effective and mature processes when exploiting ERP RE methods.

  16. REG and GREAT, two networks to optimize Gaia scientific exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Spanish Participants in Reg; Great

    2013-05-01

    The launch of Gaia satellite by the European Space Agency is a year ahead (last quarter of 2013), and Spanish and European community have already out in place two networks devoted to the preparation of the scientific exploitation of the data acquired by the satellite: GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training), funded by the European Science Foundation and by Marie Curie Actions in its People 7th Programme, and REG (Spanish Network for the scientific exploitation of Gaia) funded by MINECO. These networks, which are open to the international community, have adopted the challenges of Gaia mission: to revolutionize our understanding of the Milky Way and its components, trace the distribution of dark matter in the local universe, validate and improve models of stellar structure and evolution, characterizing solar system objects, ... and many more. Both networks promote the close interaction among researchers of different institutes, by supporting short and long exchange visits, workshops, schools and large conferences. Currently, 128 Spanish people actively participate in the several working groups in GREAT and REG and 2 students are performing their PhD in the framework of the GREAT-ITN Spanish node. This paper provides detailed information about the structure of these networks, the Spanish participation, and present and future tasks that are foreseen.

  17. Infomax Strategies for an Optimal Balance Between Exploration and Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Proper balance between exploitation and exploration is what makes good decisions that achieve high reward, like payoff or evolutionary fitness. The Infomax principle postulates that maximization of information directs the function of diverse systems, from living systems to artificial neural networks. While specific applications turn out to be successful, the validity of information as a proxy for reward remains unclear. Here, we consider the multi-armed bandit decision problem, which features arms (slot-machines) of unknown probabilities of success and a player trying to maximize cumulative payoff by choosing the sequence of arms to play. We show that an Infomax strategy (Info-p) which optimally gathers information on the highest probability of success among the arms, saturates known optimal bounds and compares favorably to existing policies. Conversely, gathering information on the identity of the best arm in the bandit leads to a strategy that is vastly suboptimal in terms of payoff. The nature of the quantity selected for Infomax acquisition is then crucial for effective tradeoffs between exploration and exploitation.

  18. Activity-based exploitation of Full Motion Video (FMV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Shashi

    2012-06-01

    Video has been a game-changer in how US forces are able to find, track and defeat its adversaries. With millions of minutes of video being generated from an increasing number of sensor platforms, the DOD has stated that the rapid increase in video is overwhelming their analysts. The manpower required to view and garner useable information from the flood of video is unaffordable, especially in light of current fiscal restraints. "Search" within full-motion video has traditionally relied on human tagging of content, and video metadata, to provision filtering and locate segments of interest, in the context of analyst query. Our approach utilizes a novel machine-vision based approach to index FMV, using object recognition & tracking, events and activities detection. This approach enables FMV exploitation in real-time, as well as a forensic look-back within archives. This approach can help get the most information out of video sensor collection, help focus the attention of overburdened analysts form connections in activity over time and conserve national fiscal resources in exploiting FMV.

  19. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  20. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-02-01

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway. PMID:20195510

  1. Exploiting GPUs in Virtual Machine for BioCloud

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Heeseung; Jeong, Jinkyu; Lee, Myoungho; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment. PMID:23710465

  2. Exploiting Domain Knowledge by Automated Taxonomy Generation in Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Anand, Sarabjot S.

    The effectiveness of incorporating domain knowledge into recommender systems to address their sparseness problem and improve their prediction accuracy has been discussed in many research works. However, this technique is usually restrained in practice because of its high computational expense. Although cluster analysis can alleviate the computational complexity of the recommendation procedure, it is not satisfactory in preserving pair-wise item similarities, which would severely impair the recommendation quality. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach based on the technique of Automated Taxonomy Generation to exploit relational domain knowledge in recommender systems so as to achieve high system scalability and prediction accuracy. Based on the domain knowledge, a hierarchical data model is synthesized in an offline phase to preserve the original pairwise item similarities. The model is then used by online recommender systems to facilitate the similarity calculation and keep their recommendation quality comparable to those systems by means of real-time exploiting domain knowledge. Experiments were conducted upon real datasets to evaluate our approach.

  3. Myoglobin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle tissue that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents into the blood ( rhabdomyolysis ) Skeletal muscle inflammation ( myositis ) Skeletal muscle ischemia (oxygen deficiency) Skeletal ...

  4. Cortisol blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone growth Blood pressure control Immune system function Metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and protein Nervous system function Stress response Different diseases, such as Cushing syndrome and ...

  5. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  6. Exploitation: One View of Industry and Business. Training and Development Research Center: Project Number Ten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Richard A.; And Others

    A reasonable definition of exploitation is an unjust or improper use of another person for one's own profit or advantage. Exploitation predates the age of industry; it is not the sole province of industry and business. Worker responses to exploitation in the evolving industrial democracy have taken the form of labor unions, political clubs, credit…

  7. The Illusions and Juxtapositions of Commercial Sexual Exploitation among Youth: Identifying Effective Street-Outreach Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holger-Ambrose, Beth; Langmade, Cheree; Edinburgh, Laurel D.; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    To explore sexually exploited youths' perspectives of how street outreach workers can effectively provide outreach and connections to services, we conducted qualitative interviews with 13 female participants, ages 14 to 22, in a Midwest U.S. city. Participants reported multiple types of exploitation, most first exploited by age 13, plus…

  8. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation AGENCY... Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under section 2021, Subtitle H--Elder... establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as directed by section...

  9. [Blood in art, art in blood].

    PubMed

    Danic, B; Lefrère, J-J

    2010-12-01

    In the different forms of art developed by Humanity over the centuries, artists have at times chosen themes from the world of medicine or health, such as blood donation or transfusion. In order to illustrate this, we have looked at three artistic domains: painting, movies and body art. PMID:21051264

  10. Exploitation of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a remote chemical sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Chen, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    We have discussed recent experimental results using a resonance-Raman-based LIDAR system as a remote chemical sensor. This spectroscopy has the fundamental advantage that it is based on optical fingerprints that are insensitive to environmental perturbations. By taking advantage of resonance enhancement, which 6 orders-of-magnitude, can be as large as 4 to an increased sensing range for a given chemical concentration or lower detection limit for a given stand-off distance can be realized. The success discussed above can in part be traced back to the use of new state-of-the-art technologies which, only recently, have allowed the phenomenon of resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to be fully exploited as a remote chemical sensor platform. Since many chemicals have electronic transitions in the UV/IS, it is expected that many will have pronounced resonance enhancements.

  11. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T.; Murray, Christopher B.; Kagan, Cherie R.

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high–dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second.

  12. Exploitation, conservation, preservation: A geographic perspective on natural resource use

    SciTech Connect

    Cutter, S.L.; Renwick, H.L.; Renwick, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors of this college textbook deliberately chose the title words ''exploitation,'' ''conservation,'' and ''preservation'' to clearly illustrate that people may have very different views of natural resources. The authors state that they have attempted to include a wide range of opinions and interpretations of natural resource issues, and they have achieved this goal remarkable well. Part one (five chapters) examines the economic, ecological, political, and other factors involved in making decisions about resource use. Part two (ten chapters) consists of relatively traditional coverage of the various resources. Part three has a chapter on various models of the future that were prepared by various individuals and organizations. Then there is an epilogue in which each author views the future.

  13. Microfluidic photocatalytic device exploiting PDMS/TiO2 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    A microfluidic device exploiting PDMS/TiO2 nanocomposite has been used for photocatalytic degradation studies of organic dye. By using commercial P25 TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and conventional PDMS casting and replication techniques, high density and well-dispersed TiO2 NPs were embedded in the elastomeric surface. The obtained nanocomposite membranes were characterized by morphological, chemical, and physical points of view. The fabrication process allows an easy integration of the membrane into an all-PDMS microfluidic device for pollutant photodegradation. The high surface-to-volume ratio intrinsic in nanoparticles and the functional properties of the proposed nanocomposite substrate are responsible for the interesting photocatalytic device performance.

  14. Sustained Administration of Hormones Exploiting Nanoconfined Diffusion through Nanochannel Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Geninatti, Thomas; Hood, R. Lyle; Bruno, Giacomo; Jain, Priya; Nicolov, Eugenia; Ziemys, Arturas; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Implantable devices may provide a superior means for hormone delivery through maintaining serum levels within target therapeutic windows. Zero-order administration has been shown to reach an equilibrium with metabolic clearance, resulting in a constant serum concentration and bioavailability of released hormones. By exploiting surface-to-molecule interaction within nanochannel membranes, it is possible to achieve a long-term, constant diffusive release of agents from implantable reservoirs. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the controlled release of model hormones from a novel nanochannel system. We investigated the delivery of hormones through our nanochannel membrane over a period of 40 days. Levothyroxine, osteocalcin and testosterone were selected as representative hormones based on their different molecular properties and structures. The release mechanisms and transport behaviors of these hormones within 3, 5 and 40 nm channels were characterized. Results further supported the suitability of the nanochannels for sustained administration from implantable platforms. PMID:27293533

  15. Exploiting Intimate Relationships: Controlling Mosquito-Transmitted Disease with Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Caragata, Eric P; Dutra, Heverton L C; Moreira, Luciano A

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-transmitted diseases impose a growing burden on human health, and current control strategies have proven insufficient to stem the tide. The bacterium Wolbachia is a novel and promising form of control for mosquito-transmitted disease. It manipulates host biology, restricts infection with dengue and other pathogens, and alters host reproduction to promote rapid spread in the field. In this review, we examine how the intimate and diverse relationships formed between Wolbachia and their mosquito hosts can be exploited for disease control purposes. We consider these relationships in the context of recent developments, including successful field trials with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to combat dengue, and new Wolbachia infections in key malaria vectors, which have enhanced the disease control prospects of this unique bacterium. PMID:26776329

  16. Exploiting the geomagnetic distortion of inclined atmospheric showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billoir, Pierre; Settimo, Mariangela; Blanco, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    We propose a novel approach to the determination of the nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays by exploiting the geomagnetic deviation of muons in nearly horizontal showers. The distribution of muons at ground level is well described by a simple parameterization providing a few shape parameters tightly correlated to Xmaxμ, the depth of maximal muon production, which is a mass indicator tightly correlated to the usual parameter Xmax, the depth of maximal development of the shower. We show that some constraints can be set on the predictions of hadronic models, especially by combining the geomagnetic distortion with standard measurements of the longitudinal profile. We discuss the precision needed to obtain significant results, and we propose a schematic layout of a detector.

  17. Review of oil and gas exploitation impacts on grizzly bears

    SciTech Connect

    Schallenberger, A.

    1980-01-01

    It is concluded that available information indicates that impacts of oil and gas exploitation should be considered primarily detrimental for grizzly bears in northwestern Montana. Research has shown that grizzlies tend to react strongly to aircraft, especially helicopters. Marked animals previously captured by aircraft show the greatest reaction. Helicopter disturbance may cause den abandonment. Biologists suggest that road development has contributed to a decline in numbers of bears by accelerating habitat loss and increasing hunting and poaching pressure. Use of river valleys for transportation corridors, campsites, and other activities magnifies the effect of human presence by concentrating it in some of the most vulnerable and essential grizzly habitat. Bear-human conflicts may increase as a result of secondary development such as recreation, logging, livestock grazing, and construction of subdivisions.

  18. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants. PMID:22901730

  19. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  20. Exploiting Biocatalysis in the Synthesis of Supramolecular Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sangita; Ulijn, Rein V.

    This chapter details the exploitation of biocatalysis in generating supramolecular polymers. This approach provides highly dynamic supramolecular structures, inspired by biological polymeric systems found in the intra- and extracellular space. The molecular design of the self-assembling precursors is discussed in terms of enzyme recognition, molecular switching mechanisms and non-covalent interactions that drive the supramolecular polymerisation process, with an emphasis on aromatic peptide amphiphiles. We discuss a number of unique features of these systems, including spatiotemporal control of nucleation and growth of supramolecular polymers and the possibility of kinetically controlling mechanical properties. Fully reversible systems that operate under thermodynamic control allow for defect correction and selection of the most stable structures from mixtures of monomers. Finally, a number of potential applications of enzymatic supramolecular polymerisations are discussed in the context of biomedicine and nanotechnology.

  1. Compressive SAR imaging with joint sparsity and local similarity exploitation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fangfang; Zhao, Guanghui; Shi, Guangming; Dong, Weisheng; Wang, Chenglong; Niu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Compressive sensing-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging has shown its superior capability in high-resolution image formation. However, most of those works focus on the scenes that can be sparsely represented in fixed spaces. When dealing with complicated scenes, these fixed spaces lack adaptivity in characterizing varied image contents. To solve this problem, a new compressive sensing-based radar imaging approach with adaptive sparse representation is proposed. Specifically, an autoregressive model is introduced to adaptively exploit the structural sparsity of an image. In addition, similarity among pixels is integrated into the autoregressive model to further promote the capability and thus an adaptive sparse representation facilitated by a weighted autoregressive model is derived. Since the weighted autoregressive model is inherently determined by the unknown image, we propose a joint optimization scheme by iterative SAR imaging and updating of the weighted autoregressive model to solve this problem. Eventually, experimental results demonstrated the validity and generality of the proposed approach. PMID:25686307

  2. Thermal infrared exploitation for 3D face reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayowa, Bernard O.

    2009-05-01

    Despite the advances in face recognition research, current face recognition systems are still not accurate or robust enough to be deployed in uncontrolled environments. The existence of a pose and illumination invariant face recognition system is still lacking. This research exploits the relationship between thermal infrared and visible imagery, to estimate 3D face with visible texture from infrared imagery. The relationship between visible and thermal infrared texture is learned using kernel canonical correlation analysis(KCCA), and then a 3D modeler is used to estimate the geometric structure from predicted visual imagery. This research will find it's application in uncontrolled environments where illumination and pose invariant identification or tracking is required at long range such as urban search and rescue (Amber alert, missing dementia patient), and manhunt scenarios.

  3. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  4. SMARTS: Exploiting Temporal Locality and Parallelism through Vertical Execution

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, P.; Crotinger, J.; Karmesin, S.; Malony, A.; Oldehoeft, R.; Shende, S.; Smith, S.; Vajracharya, S.

    1999-01-04

    In the solution of large-scale numerical prob- lems, parallel computing is becoming simultaneously more important and more difficult. The complex organization of today's multiprocessors with several memory hierarchies has forced the scientific programmer to make a choice between simple but unscalable code and scalable but extremely com- plex code that does not port to other architectures. This paper describes how the SMARTS runtime system and the POOMA C++ class library for high-performance scientific computing work together to exploit data parallelism in scientific applications while hiding the details of manag- ing parallelism and data locality from the user. We present innovative algorithms, based on the macro -dataflow model, for detecting data parallelism and efficiently executing data- parallel statements on shared-memory multiprocessors. We also desclibe how these algorithms can be implemented on clusters of SMPS.

  5. Apoptosis pathways and their therapeutic exploitation in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2009-07-01

    Resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a characteristic feature of human malignancies including pancreatic cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the western world. Defects in this intrinsic cell death program can contribute to the multistep process of tumorigenesis, because too little cell death can disturb tissue homeostasis. Further, blockade of apoptosis pathways can cause treatment failure, because intact apoptosis signalling cascades largely mediate therapy-induced cytotoxicity. The elucidation of apoptosis pathways in pancreatic carcinoma over the last decade has resulted in the identification of various molecular defects. How apoptosis pathways can be exploited for the treatment of pancreatic cancer will be discussed in this review. PMID:19382915

  6. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs †

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Ling; Luo, Yung-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN) is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols. PMID:27005624

  7. Exploiting the colloidal nanocrystal library to construct electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Wang, Han; Oh, Soong Ju; Paik, Taejong; Sung, Pil; Sung, Jinwoo; Ye, Xingchen; Zhao, Tianshuo; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic methods produce libraries of colloidal nanocrystals with tunable physical properties by tailoring the nanocrystal size, shape, and composition. Here, we exploit colloidal nanocrystal diversity and design the materials, interfaces, and processes to construct all-nanocrystal electronic devices using solution-based processes. Metallic silver and semiconducting cadmium selenide nanocrystals are deposited to form high-conductivity and high-mobility thin-film electrodes and channel layers of field-effect transistors. Insulating aluminum oxide nanocrystals are assembled layer by layer with polyelectrolytes to form high-dielectric constant gate insulator layers for low-voltage device operation. Metallic indium nanocrystals are codispersed with silver nanocrystals to integrate an indium supply in the deposited electrodes that serves to passivate and dope the cadmium selenide nanocrystal channel layer. We fabricate all-nanocrystal field-effect transistors on flexible plastics with electron mobilities of 21.7 square centimeters per volt-second. PMID:27124455

  8. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    PubMed

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  9. Rehabilitation of a case of pure alexia: exploiting residual abilities.

    PubMed

    Maher, L M; Clayton, M C; Barrett, A M; Schober-Peterson, D; Gonzalez Rothi, L J

    1998-11-01

    We present a case study of a 43-year-old woman with chronic and stable pure alexia. Using a multiple baseline design we report the results of two different interventions to improve reading. First, a restitutive treatment approach using an implicit semantic access strategy was attempted. This approach was designed to exploit privileged access to lexical-semantic representations and met with little success. Treatment was then switched to a substitutive treatment strategy, which involved using the patient's finger to pretend to copy the letters in words and sentences. Reading using this motor cross-cuing strategy was 100% accurate and doubled in speed after 4 weeks of intervention. We propose that this patient's inability to benefit from the implicit semantic access treatment approach may be in part related to her inability to suppress the segmental letter identification process of word recognition. PMID:10050368

  10. Apoptosis pathways and their therapeutic exploitation in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone

    2009-01-01

    Resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a characteristic feature of human malignancies including pancreatic cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the western world. Defects in this intrinsic cell death program can contribute to the multistep process of tumorigenesis, because too little cell death can disturb tissue homeostasis. Further, blockade of apoptosis pathways can cause treatment failure, because intact apoptosis signalling cascades largely mediate therapy-induced cytotoxicity. The elucidation of apoptosis pathways in pancreatic carcinoma over the last decade has resulted in the identification of various molecular defects. How apoptosis pathways can be exploited for the treatment of pancreatic cancer will be discussed in this review. PMID:19382915

  11. Individual ambidexterity: exploring and exploiting in dynamic contexts.

    PubMed

    Good, Darren; Michel, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding the role of individuals within the organizational ambidexterity construct has primarily focused on behavioral characteristics of managers. Drawing from the organizational, psychological, and neuroscience literatures, this study develops and tests hypotheses concerning the formative construct of Individual Ambidexterity (IA), the cognitive abilities necessary to balance efforts of exploration and exploitation. In an initial criterion-related predictive validity laboratory study, 181 undergraduate students completed successive trials in a computer-simulated, real-time dynamic microworld context. Findings explained unique variance beyond measures of general intelligence on the total score of task adaptive performance. The results indicate a novel combination of abilities that may further understanding of how individual abilities contribute to the ambidexterity literature. PMID:24003589

  12. Image exploitation using multi-sensor/neural network systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uberbacher, E.C.; Xu, Y.; Lee, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed and evaluated a tool for change detection and other analysis tasks relevant to image exploitation. The tool, visGRAIL, integrates three key elements: (1) the use of multiple algorithms to extract information from images - feature extractors or {open_quotes}sensors{close_quotes}, (2) an algorithm to fuse the information - presently a neural network, and (3) empirical estimation of the fusion parameters based on a representative set of images. The system was applied to test images in the RADIUS Common Development Environment (RCDE). In a task designed to distinguish natural scenes from those containing various amounts of human-made objects and structure, the system classified correctly 95% of 350 images in a test set. This paper describes details of the feature extractors, and presents analyses of the discriminatory characteristics of the features. visGRAIL has been integrated into the RCDE.

  13. Exploiting sequential phonetic constraints in recognizing spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlocher, D. P.

    1985-10-01

    Machine recognition of spoken language requires developing more robust recognition algorithms. A recent study by Shipman and Zue suggest using partial descriptions of speech sounds to eliminate all but a handful of word candidates from a large lexicon. The current paper extends their work by investigating the power of partial phonetic descriptions for developing recognition algorithms. First, we demonstrate that sequences of manner of articulation classes are more reliable and provide more constraint than certain other classes. Alone these results are of limited utility, due to the high degree of variability in natural speech. This variability is not uniform however, as most modifications and deletions occur in unstressed syllables. Comparing the relative constraint provided by sounds in stressed versus unstressed syllables, we discover that the stressed syllables provide substantially more constraint. This indicates that recognition algorithms can be made more robust by exploiting the manner of articulation information in stressed syllables.

  14. How Polyomaviruses Exploit the ERAD Machinery to Cause Infection.

    PubMed

    Dupzyk, Allison; Tsai, Billy

    2016-01-01

    To infect cells, polyomavirus (PyV) traffics from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it hijacks elements of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to penetrate the ER membrane and reach the cytosol. From the cytosol, the virus transports to the nucleus, enabling transcription and replication of the viral genome that leads to lytic infection or cellular transformation. How PyV exploits the ERAD machinery to cross the ER membrane and access the cytosol, a decisive infection step, remains enigmatic. However, recent studies have slowly unraveled many aspects of this process. These emerging insights should advance our efforts to develop more effective therapies against PyV-induced human diseases. PMID:27589785

  15. Exploiting periodicity to extract the atrial activity in atrial arrhythmias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinares, Raul; Igual, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation disorders are one of the main arrhythmias of the elderly. The atrial and ventricular activities are decoupled during an atrial fibrillation episode, and very rapid and irregular waves replace the usual atrial P-wave in a normal sinus rhythm electrocardiogram (ECG). The estimation of these wavelets is a must for clinical analysis. We propose a new approach to this problem focused on the quasiperiodicity of these wavelets. Atrial activity is characterized by a main atrial rhythm in the interval 3-12 Hz. It enables us to establish the problem as the separation of the original sources from the instantaneous linear combination of them recorded in the ECG or the extraction of only the atrial component exploiting the quasiperiodic feature of the atrial signal. This methodology implies the previous estimation of such main atrial period. We present two algorithms that separate and extract the atrial rhythm starting from a prior estimation of the main atrial frequency. The first one is an algebraic method based on the maximization of a cost function that measures the periodicity. The other one is an adaptive algorithm that exploits the decorrelation of the atrial and other signals diagonalizing the correlation matrices at multiple lags of the period of atrial activity. The algorithms are applied successfully to synthetic and real data. In simulated ECGs, the average correlation index obtained was 0.811 and 0.847, respectively. In real ECGs, the accuracy of the results was validated using spectral and temporal parameters. The average peak frequency and spectral concentration obtained were 5.550 and 5.554 Hz and 56.3 and 54.4%, respectively, and the kurtosis was 0.266 and 0.695. For validation purposes, we compared the proposed algorithms with established methods, obtaining better results for simulated and real registers.

  16. Sensor Exposure, Exploitation, and Experimentation Environment (SE4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, D.; Duff, F.; Goding, J.; Bankston, M.; McLaughlin, T.; Six, S.; Taylor, S.; Wootton, S.

    2011-09-01

    As the resident space object population increases from new launches and events such as the COSMOS/IRIDIUM collision, the maintenance of high-level Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has become increasingly difficult. To maintain situational awareness of the changing environment, new systems and methods must be developed. The Sensor Exposure, Exploitation and Experimentation Environment (SE4) provides a platform to illustrate “The Art of the Possible” that shows the potential benefit of enriched sensor data collections and real-time data sharing. Through modeling and simulation, and a net-centric architecture, SE4 shows the added value of sharing data in real-time and exposing new types of sensor data. The objective of SE4 is to develop an experimentation and innovation environment for sensor data exposure, composable sensor capabilities, reuse, and exploitation that accelerates the delivery of needed Command and Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance capabilities to the warfighter. Through modeling, simulation and rapid prototyping, the art of the possible for a fully-connected, net-centric space Command and Control (C2) and sensor enterprise can be demonstrated. This paper provides results that demonstrate the potential for faster cataloging of breakup events and additional event monitoring that are possible with data available today in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). Demonstrating the art of the possible for the enterprise will guide net-centric requirements definition and facilitate discussions with stakeholder organizations on the Concept of Operations (CONOPS), policy, and Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) evolution necessary to take full advantage of net-centric operations. SE4 aligns with direction from Secretary Gates and the Chairman Joint Chief of Staff that emphasizes the need to get the most out of our existing systems. Continuing to utilize SE4 will enable the enterprise by demonstrating the benefits of applying

  17. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  18. Model-supported exploitation of synthetic aperture radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappa, Rama; Kuttikkad, Shyam; Meth, Reuven; Burlina, Philippe; Shekhar, Chandra S.

    1996-02-01

    We address the application of model-supported exploitation techniques to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. The emphasis is on monitoring SAR imagery using wide area 2D and/or 3D site models along with contextual information. We consider here the following tasks useful in monitoring: (a) site model construction using segmentation and labeling techniques, (b) target detection, (c) target classification and indexing, and (d) SAR image-site model registration. The 2-D wide area site models used here for SAR image exploitation differ from typical site models developed for RADIUS applications, in that they do not model specific facilities, but constitute wide area site models of cultural features such as urban clutter areas, roads, clearings, fields, etc. These models may be derived directly from existing site models, possibly constructed from electro-optical (EO) observations. When such models are not available, a set of segmentation and labeling techniques described here can be used for the construction of 2D site models. The use of models can potentially yield critical information which can disambiguate target signatures in SAR images. We address registration of SAR and EO images to a common site model. Specific derivations are given for the case of registration within the RCDE platform. We suggest a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection scheme and a topographic primal sketch (TPS) based classification scheme for monitoring target occurrences in SAR images. The TPS of an observed target is matched against candidate targets TPSs synthesized for the preferred target orientation, inferred from context (e.g. road or parking lot targets). Experimental results on real and synthetic SAR images are provided.

  19. Current status EGS Soultz project during geothermal exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genter, A.; Cuenot, N.; Scheiber, J.; Melchert, B.

    2012-04-01

    A three-year research program (2010-2012) associated with the geothermal exploitation of the Soultz-sous-Forêts power plant is on-going with a scientific and technical monitoring. Several hydraulic circulation tests have been running that take into account one production well, GPK-2 and two reinjection wells, GPK-1 and GPK-3: a long term circulation for about 11 months in 2010, and two short term circulation tests in 2011. During the 2010 exploitation, geothermal fluid discharge from GPK-2 reached about 500 000 m3 by producing 18L/s and 164°C. In 2010, more than 400 induced micro-seismicity events occurred with low magnitude. Geochemical monitoring of the fluid discharged from GPK-2 indicates that the chemical composition of this fluid becomes closer to that of the native geothermal brine because it only remains 5% of injected freshwater. Corrosion study done on-site on several kinds of materials indicates a corrosion rate of about 0.2mm/year for re-injection conditions. During 2011, geothermal fluid discharge from GPK-2 reached about 300 000 m3 by producing 24L/s and 159°C. The strategy was to increase the reinjection flow rate in GPK-1 and simultaneously minimize it in GPK-3 in order to decrease reinjection pressure. Induced seismicity activity was very low with only 5 micro-earthquakes in 2011. In parallel, many research works have been carried out for characterizing scaling and the natural radioactivity derived from natural brines circulating within a deep fractured granite reservoir. Because Soultz is the first geothermal power plant in France, many challenges have been outlined, new scientific and technical expertise is raising and will benefit to the French-German consortium for transferring the results to some new geothermal applications through the Upper Rhine Valley.

  20. Exploiting tumor shrinkage through temporal optimization of radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Craft, David; Hong, Theodore; Papp, Dávid; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Salari, Ehsan; Wolfgang, John; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    In multi-stage radiotherapy, a patient is treated in several stages separated by weeks or months. This regimen has been motivated mostly by radiobiological considerations, but also provides an approach to reduce normal tissue dose by exploiting tumor shrinkage. The paper considers the optimal design of multi-stage treatments, motivated by the clinical management of large liver tumors for which normal liver dose constraints prohibit the administration of an ablative radiation dose in a single treatment. We introduce a dynamic tumor model that incorporates three factors: radiation induced cell kill, tumor shrinkage, and tumor cell repopulation. The design of multi-stage radiotherapy is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem in which the total dose to the normal tissue is minimized, subject to delivering the prescribed dose to the tumor. Based on the model, we gain insight into the optimal administration of radiation over time, i.e. the optimal treatment gaps and dose levels. We analyze treatments consisting of two stages in detail. The analysis confirms the intuition that the second stage should be delivered just before the tumor size reaches a minimum and repopulation overcompensates shrinking. Furthermore, it was found that, for a large range of model parameters, approximately one-third of the dose should be delivered in the first stage. The projected benefit of multi-stage treatments in terms of normal tissue sparing depends on model assumptions. However, the model predicts large dose reductions by more than a factor of 2 for plausible model parameters. The analysis of the tumor model suggests that substantial reduction in normal tissue dose can be achieved by exploiting tumor shrinkage via an optimal design of multi-stage treatments. This suggests taking a fresh look at multi-stage radiotherapy for selected disease sites where substantial tumor regression translates into reduced target volumes.