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Sample records for blood grouping reagent

  1. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  2. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  3. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  4. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Blood...

  5. 21 CFR 660.20 - Blood Grouping Reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood Grouping Reagent. 660.20 Section 660.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.20 Blood Grouping Reagent. (a) Proper name...

  6. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identify human blood-group antibodies. (b) Source. Reagent Red Blood Cells shall be prepared from human... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells §...

  7. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  8. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be Reagent...

  9. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  10. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  11. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  17. Blood groups systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  18. Blood groups systems.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  19. Cross-Institute Evaluations of Inhibitor-Resistant PCR Reagents for Direct Testing of Aerosol and Blood Samples Containing Biological Warfare Agent DNA

    PubMed Central

    Minogue, Timothy D.; Rachwal, Phillip A.; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples—which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR. PMID:24334660

  20. Discrepancy in ABO blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Noman; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Ahmed, Zulfiqar

    2013-08-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. PMID:23930880

  1. Alkaline earths as main group reagents in molecular catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Michael S; Liptrot, David J; Weetman, Catherine

    2016-02-21

    The past decade has witnessed some remarkable advances in our appreciation of the structural and reaction chemistry of the heavier alkaline earth (Ae = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) elements. Derived from complexes of these metals in their immutable +2 oxidation state, a broad and widely applicable catalytic chemistry has also emerged, driven by considerations of cost and inherent low toxicity. The considerable adjustments incurred to ionic radius and resultant cation charge density also provide reactivity with significant mechanistic and kinetic variability as group 2 is descended. In an attempt to place these advances in the broader context of contemporary main group element chemistry, this review focusses on the developing state of the art in both multiple bond heterofunctionalisation and cross coupling catalysis. We review specific advances in alkene and alkyne hydroamination and hydrophosphination catalysis and related extensions of this reactivity that allow the synthesis of a wide variety of acyclic and heterocyclic small molecules. The use of heavier alkaline earth hydride derivatives as pre-catalysts and intermediates in multiple bond hydrogenation, hydrosilylation and hydroboration is also described along with the emergence of these and related reagents in a variety of dehydrocoupling processes that allow that facile catalytic construction of Si-C, Si-N and B-N bonds. PMID:26797470

  2. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on fabric - part 2: peroxidase reagents.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Savage, Kathleen A; Bandey, Helen; Ciuksza, Tomasz; Nic Daéid, Niamh

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates the optimisation of peroxidase based enhancement techniques for footwear impressions made in blood on various fabric surfaces. Four different haem reagents: leuco crystal violet (LCV), leuco malachite green (LMG), fluorescein and luminol were used to enhance the blood contaminated impressions. The enhancement techniques in this study were used successfully to enhance the impressions in blood on light coloured surfaces, however, only fluorescent and/or chemiluminescent techniques allowed visualisation on dark coloured fabrics, denim and leather. Luminol was the only technique to enhance footwear impressions made in blood on all the fabrics investigated in this study. PMID:21889107

  3. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  4. Canine blood groups: description of 20 specificities.

    PubMed

    Symons, M; Bell, K

    1992-01-01

    Twenty blood typing reagents, four agglutinins and 16 operable in the antiglobulin test, were prepared from 54 antisera which were produced in 24 dogs. Two of the reagents were identified as anti-B and Nf6. Two of the antigens were shown by absorption and family studies to be linear subtypes. In most cases, detailed family studies demonstrated a Mendelian dominant inheritance for the genes controlling the canine red cell antigens. Gene frequencies were determined in various breeds of dogs and in the dingo. PMID:1492701

  5. New reagents for the introduction of reactive functional groups into chemically synthesized DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczynski, Zbigniew; Wayland, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    An efficient and versatile preparative approach is described, allowing for the preparation of DNA probes modified with an aldehyde group at the 3'- or 5'-end. The developed synthetic strategy allows for the preparation of a new family of phosphoramidites and solid supports compatible with the automated synthesis of modified oligonucleotide probes. These new reagents were prepared from intermediates 3 and 3a, obtained from the commercially available aleuritic acid 1. It was demonstrated that the new phosphoramidite reagents also could be used as new types of cleavable linkers. A new and efficient method for the production of 5' aldehyde-labeled DNA probes was developed. PMID:12757390

  6. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  7. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other contaminants. (b) Each blood collecting container and its satellite container(s), if any, shall be... and reverse grouping cells Do. Hepatitis test reagents Each run. Syphilis serology reagents...

  8. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other contaminants. (b) Each blood collecting container and its satellite container(s), if any, shall be... and reverse grouping cells Do. Hepatitis test reagents Each run. Syphilis serology reagents...

  9. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other contaminants. (b) Each blood collecting container and its satellite container(s), if any, shall be... and reverse grouping cells Do. Hepatitis test reagents Each run. Syphilis serology reagents...

  10. Search for a new reagents from the nitrosoamine group for spectrophotometric determination of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Biziuk, M.; Kozlowski, E.; Baiulescu, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    p-Nitrosodiphenylamine as a representative of nitrosoamine group was tested as a new reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of SO/sub 2/. A mixture containing p-nitrosodiphenylamine, formaldehyde, HCl, dimethylformamide and water was added to the aqueous test solutions of sulphites forming after 5 min a blue complex with lambda/sub max/=675 nm stable for one hour. The Lambert-Beer law was obeyed in the 0 to 50/..mu..g SO/sub 2//cm/sup 3/ range. Molar absorptivity was equal to 2000 and the specific absorption was 0.062. The investigations should lead to search for other reagents from the nitrosoamine group suitable for this purpose.

  11. Modification of sodium and gating currents by amino group specific cross-linking and monofunctional reagents.

    PubMed Central

    Drews, G; Rack, M

    1988-01-01

    To test the possible role of lysine residues in Na channel function the effects of several imidoesters on Na and gating currents were studied in voltage-clamped single frog nerve fibers. Mono- and bisimidoesters were used. These reagents modify amino groups exclusively and do not change the net charge. The three bisimidoesters used easily introduce cross-links between neighboring amino groups. Their structure is almost identical; only the length of the spacers between the two amino-reactive groups is different. An irreversible reduction of Na currents and gating currents was observed with the longest (dimethyl suberimidate [DMS]) and the shortest (dimethyl adipimidate [DMA]) of the cross-linkers used. Of the three cross-linking reagents only the shortest made Na current inactivation slow and incomplete. The steady-state inactivation curve, h infinity (E), was shifted by greater than 25 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by each of the reagents. The voltage dependence of activation, however, remained unchanged. Furthermore, the effects of two different monoimidoesters (ethyl acetimidate [EAI] and isethionyl acetimidate [IAI]) on gating currents were tested. EAI can penetrate a membrane, whereas IAI is membrane impermeant. IAI was almost without effect, whereas EAI caused a considerable reduction of the gating currents. EAI and DMS reduced the Qoff/Qon ratio without affecting the decay of the Na currents. The results show that lysine residues are critically involved in Na channel gating. PMID:2850028

  12. Synthesis of 8-Aminoquinolines by Using Carbamate Reagents: Facile Installation and Deprotection of Practical Amidating Groups.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Donghyeon; Hwang, Heejun; Kim, Hye Kyung; Marder, Seth R; Chang, Sukbok

    2015-11-23

    Described herein is the development of practical routes to 8-aminoquinolines by using readily installable and easily deprotectable amidating reagents. Two scalable procedures were optimized under Rh(III) -catalyzed conditions: i) the use of pre-generated chlorocarbamates and ii) a two-step one-pot process that directly employs carbamates. Both approaches are highly convenient for the gram-scale synthesis of 8-aminoquinolines under mild conditions. Facile deprotection of the synthetically versatile amidating groups was achieved under the Pd-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation conditions with simultaneous deoxygenation of quinoline N-oxides, thus yielding 8-aminoquinolines in excellent overall efficiency. PMID:26463666

  13. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Chowdhuri, A. N. Rai

    1980-01-01

    A total of 736 patients with fever was tested for malaria and classified according to ABO blood group. Of these, 476 cases had patent parasitaemia at the time of investigation. The distribution of blood groups in this group was significantly different from that in 1300 controls from the same area. While group A was found to be more common in malaria cases than in normals, the reverse situation was found for group O. Possible explanations for this are discussed. PMID:6971187

  14. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    PubMed

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests. PMID:8211961

  15. Blood groups of Barbary apes (Macaca sylvanus).

    PubMed

    Socha, W W; Merz, E; Moor-Jankowski, J

    1981-01-01

    32 Barbary macaques were all found to be secretors of the A and H blood group substances and to have an M-like agglutinogen on their red cells. Hemagglutination tests for other human-type red cell specificities were negative. In contrast, several so-called simian-type specificities were detected on the erythrocytes of Barbary apes by means of the cross-reacting rhesus and baboon antisera. Among these, only the specificities of the graded Drh blood group system were found to be polymorphic in this species of macaques. Blood groups of Barbary apes are compared with those of several other species of macaques and some taxonomic aspects of blood grouping tests are discussed. PMID:7319424

  16. Importance of blood groups and blood group antibodies in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Hohenhaus, Ann E

    2004-04-01

    Dogs, cats, birds, and ferrets are popular companion animals. Because these pets are considered by many to be family members, they are provided high-quality veterinary medical care, including blood transfusions. This article reviews the current status of blood groups in dogs, cats, birds, and ferrets and discusses the impact of blood groups on veterinary transfusion medicine. One blood group with 3 types has been described in the cat, whereas multiple blood groups have been described in the dog. Only rudimentary knowledge exists regarding pet bird blood groups, and, to date, the ferret appears to be unique because no blood groups have been described. Antibodies against blood group antigens also play a role in animal blood transfusions. Cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies; however, dogs do not appear to have clinically significant naturally occurring alloantibodies. Understanding the issues related to blood groups and blood group antibodies in companion animals will also benefit those using these species as research models for human diseases. PMID:15067591

  17. Biofunctionalizing nanofibers with carbohydrate blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Barr, Katie; Kannan, Bhuvaneswari; Korchagina, Elena; Popova, Inna; Ryzhov, Ivan; Henry, Stephen; Bovin, Nicolai

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and simple method of biofunctionalising nylon, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl butyral electrospun nanofibers with blood group glycans was achieved by preparing function-spacer-lipid constructs and simply contacting them to fibers with a piezo inkjet printer. A series of water dispersible amphipathic glycan-spacer constructs were synthesized representing a range ABO and related blood group antigens. After immediate contact of the amphipathic glycan-spacer constructs with nanofiber surfaces they self-assembled and were detectable by enzyme immunoassays with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27388774

  18. Pediatric patient with Bombay blood group: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhar Kundu, Sudeshna; De, Anisha; Saha, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    Bombay blood group is a rare blood group in which there is the absence of H antigen and presence of anti-H antibodies. At the time of blood grouping, this blood group mimics O blood group due to the absence of H antigen, but it shows incompatibility with O group blood during cross matching. Serum grouping or reverse grouping are essential for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients carrying this blood group can receive blood only from a person with this blood group. Reported cases of anesthesia in the pediatric patient with Bombay blood group are relatively rare. Here, we present successful anesthetic management along with intraoperative blood transfusion in a pediatric patient with Bombay blood group posted for ovarian cystectomy. PMID:26240554

  19. Pediatric patient with Bombay blood group: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhar (Kundu), Sudeshna; De, Anisha; Saha, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    Bombay blood group is a rare blood group in which there is the absence of H antigen and presence of anti-H antibodies. At the time of blood grouping, this blood group mimics O blood group due to the absence of H antigen, but it shows incompatibility with O group blood during cross matching. Serum grouping or reverse grouping are essential for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients carrying this blood group can receive blood only from a person with this blood group. Reported cases of anesthesia in the pediatric patient with Bombay blood group are relatively rare. Here, we present successful anesthetic management along with intraoperative blood transfusion in a pediatric patient with Bombay blood group posted for ovarian cystectomy. PMID:26240554

  20. Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Klüter, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Background The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A1, A2, B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. Methods The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. Results The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). Conclusion In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for future

  1. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  6. Association of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis with Histo-blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, E; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Pandey, R M

    2016-07-01

    Association of rotavirus gastroenteritis with histo-blood group antigens in children younger than 5 years admitted with diarrhea (n=389) was studied. Distribution of blood groups in rotavirus positive (n=96) and rotavirus negative (n=51) diarrhea gastroenteritis cases did not show any susceptibility to any blood group; blood group O seemed to be protective. PMID:27508550

  7. Modification of Emit assay reagents for improved sensitivity and cost effectiveness in the analysis of hemolyzed whole blood.

    PubMed

    Asselin, W M; Leslie, J M

    1992-01-01

    This report describes an improved method for the direct detection of a broad spectrum of drugs of abuse in hemolyzed whole blood by means of Syva Emit enzyme immunoassay. Improvements include a 1.5 to 10 fold increase in Emit assay sensitivity along with a 2 to 4 times increase in the normal number of assays per kit. This was accomplished by enzyme substrate and cofactor supplementation with a commercially available product (Raichem), assay reagent dilution, and extension of the absorbance measure time. The Emit drug abuse in urine (d.a.u.) assays used in this study included amphetamine, barbiturate, methadone, methaqualone, opiate, benzodiazepine metabolite, phencyclidine, and propoxyphene. The Emit serum assays used were the benzodiazepine and the tricyclic antidepressant assays. The within-run coefficients of variation ranged from 0.25 to 0.66%, and the between-run coefficients of variation ranged from 0.45 to 1.00%. The proposed method allows for the analysis of hemolyzed whole blood using both Emit d.a.u. and serum assays. It is sensitive and can detect therapeutic or subtherapeutic concentrations of drugs in all assays tested. The method is simple, rapid, and allows for the direct analysis of a methanolic extract of whole blood without lengthy sample concentration steps. The method allows for the detection of highly potent drugs and for long-term monitoring of drug metabolites and conjugates. This could be beneficial for therapeutic drug monitoring, assessing patient compliance, and detection of previous drug use. PMID:1293406

  8. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. Aim To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. Materials and Methods A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r’r’ (0.1%). Conclusion Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety. PMID:27437223

  9. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS... Procedures Manual to determine their capacity to perform as required: Reagent or solution Frequency of testing Anti-human globulin Each day of use. Blood grouping reagents Do. Lectins Do. Antibody...

  10. Dextramer reagents are effective tools for quantifying CMV antigen-specific T cells from peripheral blood samples.

    PubMed

    Tario, Joseph D; Chen, George L; Hahn, Theresa E; Pan, Dalin; Furlage, Rosemary L; Zhang, Yali; Brix, Liselotte; Halgreen, Charlotte; Jacobsen, Kivin; McCarthy, Philip L; Wallace, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    The enumeration of antigen-specific T cells is increasingly relevant in clinical and research settings. This information is useful for evaluating immune responses to treatment, monitoring the efficacy of anticancer vaccines, and for detecting self-reactive T cells in autoimmune disorders. Quantifying antigen-specific T cells can be accomplished via IFNγ ELISpot assay, the measurement of intracellular cytokine production by flow cytometry, or by lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to antigen. While robust, these technologies are labor-intensive and can take several days to obtain results. New technology has led to more powerful tools for quickly and accurately measuring antigen-specific T cells by flow cytometry via fluorescently-labeled TCR-specific multimers. In this study, we evaluated the use of an assay based on Dextramer reagents for enumerating cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen-specific T cells (CASTs). Assay performance characteristics were assessed by establishing Dextramers' sensitivity (median=0.4; range=0.1-1.4 CASTs μl(-1) ), determining their specificity (100%), evaluating assay robustness with different leukocyte sources and assay reproducibility via interlaboratory and interinstrument investigations. Furthermore, the levels of CASTs in 95 peripheral blood samples from 62 unique blood and marrow transplants recipients correlated well between Dextramers and Tetramers (R(2)  =0.9042). PMID:25338522

  11. DNA duplexes with reactive dialdehyde groups as novel reagents for cross-linking to restriction- modification enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Brevnov, M G; Gritsenko, O M; Mikhailov, S N; Efimtseva, E V; Ermolinsky, B S; Van Aerschot, A; Herdewijn, P; Repyk, A V; Gromova, E S

    1997-01-01

    To create new, effective reagents for affinity modification of restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes, a regioselective method for reactive dialdehyde group incorporation into oligonucleotides, based on insertion of a 1-beta-D-galactopyranosylthymine residue, has been developed. We synthesized DNA duplex analogs of the substrates of the Eco RII and Mva I R-M enzymes that contained a galactose or periodate-oxidized galactose residue as single substituents either in the center of the Eco RII (Mva I) recognition site or in the flanking nucleotide sequence. The dependence of binding, cleavage and methylation of these substrate analogs on the modified sugar location in the duplex was determined. Cross-linking of the reagents to the enzymes under different conditions was examined. M. Eco RII covalent attachment to periodate-oxidized substrate analogs proceeded in a specific way and to a large extent depended on the location of the reactive dialdehyde group in the substrate. The yield of covalent attachment to a DNA duplex with a dialdehyde group in the flanking sequence with Eco RII or Mva I methylases was 9-20% and did not exceed 4% for R. Eco RII. PMID:9241245

  12. Cheiloscopy and its patterns in comparison with ABO blood groups

    PubMed Central

    Telagi, Neethu; Mujib, Ahmed; Spoorthi, BR; Naik, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups and to determine the correlation between their characters and blood groups. Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 150 individuals who were randomly selected and blood groups of these subjects were analyzed. Results: The results revealed no association between distribution of lip print (cheiloscopy) pattern and blood groups. Conclusion: Lip print pattern does not show any correlation between blood groups. PMID:22408325

  13. Relationship between Serum Iron Profile and Blood Groups among the Voluntary Blood Donors of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S

    2016-04-01

    Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum

  14. [ABO BLOOD GROUPS AS RISK FACTOR IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    PubMed

    Gonzáles Flores, Pedro Alejandro; Díaz Ferrer, Javier Omar; Monge Salgado, Eduardo; Watanabe Varas T, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    TITLE: ABO blood groups as risk factor in Helicobacter pylori infection.OBJECTIVE: To asses the relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection. METHODS: The present is a case and control study. A study population of dyspeptic patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was selected. Four biopsies were taken from the antrum and the body of the stomach and blood group was typified. Patients with gastrectomy, gastric cancer, treated for Hp infection in the previous six months or without blood group typification were excluded. The population sample was found using EPIINFO 5.1 program. We called case to every patient with Hp (+) biopsy and control all with Hp (-) biopsy. The risk of the infection was calculated with the OR (Odds ratio) and the study sample was compared with the blood bank control group using the Chi-square test (p<0.005).RESULTS: 367 patients were included (202 female). Age average was 45,06 years. 276 (75,2%) were Hp (+). There were not statistically significant differences in the distribution of ABO blood groups between the study population and the blood bank control. When we compared the ABO blood distribution between patients Hp (+) and Hp (-) we found significant differences for blood group O (p=0.004) and blood group A (p=0.03). Statistical analysis revealed an OR=2,22 for the blood group O and OR=0,5 for the blood group A.CONCLUSIONS: 1) The ABO blood group distribution is different in patients with Hp infection compared with those without Hp infection. 2) Blood group O would be a moderate risk factor for infection by Helicobacter pylori. PMID:12140571

  15. ABO blood group and von Willebrand factor: biological implications.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Crestani, Silvia; Frattini, Francesco; Sissa, Cinzia; Bonfanti, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    ABO blood group antigens are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on the surface of red blood cells and a variety of human cells and tissues. It is well known that ABO blood type exerts a profound influence on hemostasis, being a major determinant of von Willebrand factor (VWF), and consequently factor VIII, plasma levels. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between ABO blood group and VWF in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24945431

  16. Selectivity in the Addition Reactions of Organometallic Reagents to Aziridine-2-carboxaldehydes: The Effects of Protecting Groups and Substitution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Aman; Schomaker, Jennifer M.; Holmes, Daniel; Staples, Richard J.; Jackson, James E.; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Good to excellent stereo-selectivity has been found in the addition reactions of Grignard and organo-zinc reagents to N-protected aziridine-2-carboxaldehydes. Specifically, high syn selectivity was obtained with benzyl-protected cis, tert-butyloxycar-bonyl-protected trans, and tosyl-pro-tected 2,3-disubstituted aziridine-2-car-boxaldehydes. Furthermore, rate and selectivity effects of ring substituents, temperature, solvent, and Lewis acid and base modifiers were studied. The diastereomeric preference of addition is dominated by the substrate aziri-dines’ substitution pattern and especially the electronic character and conformational preferences of the nitrogen protecting groups. To help rationalize the observed stereochemical outcomes, conformational and electronic structural analyses of a series of model systems representing the various substitution patterns have been explored by density functional calculations at the B3LYP/6–31G* level of theory with the SM8 solvation model to account for solvent effects. PMID:21928447

  17. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  18. ABO and rhesus blood group distribution in Kurds

    PubMed Central

    Jaff, Mohamad S

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established that ABO and rhesus (Rh) genes and phenotypes vary widely between ethnic groups and both within and between geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Kurds and to compare it with those of other populations. Subjects and methods: The study included blood grouping of total population of 53,234 whose ABO and Rh blood groups were determined by standard methods during a period of about 5 years (2005–2009). Results: The most prevalent blood group was O (37.16%), followed by blood groups A (32.47%) and B (23.84%), whereas the least prevalent blood group was AB (6.53%). The majority 91.73% were Rh positive, and 8.27% were Rh negative. Data showed that among the Rh-positive individuals, 34.03% were O, 29.99% were A, 21.69% were B, and 6.02% were AB. Break up of the Rh negatives showed that 3.13% were group O, 2.48% were A, 2.15% were B, and 0.51% were AB. Conclusion: Blood group O is the commonest blood group in, followed by A, B, and AB. More than 91% of the study population is Rh positive. Also, we can conclude that distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Kurds, in addition to being close to the mean of the world’s population, is closest to Iranians, with similar trend to the neighboring countries, and appears to be intermediate between eastern (Asian) and western European (Caucasian) data. PMID:22282694

  19. Comparative evaluation of new Cookson-type reagents for LC/ESI-MS/MS assay of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in neonatal blood samples.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Kittaka, Hiroki; Shinoda, Kenta; Ooki, Satoshi; Nakata, Akiho; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    The screening of vitamin D deficiency in neonatal infants, which is based on the blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] quantification, is important for the early detection, diagnosis and health risk assessment of several diseases. In this study, two new Cookson-type reagents, 4-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (DEAPTAD) and 4-(6-quinolyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione, were designed and synthesized, then compared with the previous reagents, 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) and 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (DAPTAD), in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the assay of 25(OH)D3 in neonatal blood samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the reagents, DEAPTAD was found to be the most promising. The limit of detection (0.38 fmol on the column) of the DEAPTAD-derivatized 25(OH)D3 was 60 and 2 times lower than those of the intact 25(OH)D3 and the PTAD derivative, respectively. 25(OH)D3 was more clearly detected in the plasma sample as the DEAPTAD derivative than the DAPTAD derivative owing to the lower background noise. DEAPTAD derivatization was also useful for the separation of 25(OH)D3 from a potent interfering metabolite, 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 . By using DEAPTAD, a trace amount of 25(OH)D3 in dried blood spots was reproducibly determined without interference from coexisting compounds. Thus, DEAPTAD was proved useful in the measurement of 25(OH)D3 in neonatal blood samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26451531

  20. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Then, Whui Lyn; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Garnier, Gil

    2015-11-15

    The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion. While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use. In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and IgG antibodies. As with indirect antiglobulin tests (IAT), which use IgG antibodies for detection, IgG antibodies are initially incubated with RBCs. This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. Using the D-antigen as an example, a clear distinction between positive (>500 RU) and negative (<100 RU) RBCs is achieved using anti-D IgG. Complete regeneration of the anti-human IgG surface is also successful, showing negligible degradation of the surface after more than 100 regenerations. This novel approach is validated with human-sourced whole blood samples to demonstrate an interesting alternative for quantitative blood grouping using SPR analysis. PMID:26047997

  1. Distribution of ABO blood groups in acute leukaemias and lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Murali K; Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Solomon, John; Rajaseharan, Annabelle

    2004-09-01

    We studied the distribution of ABO blood groups in Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, in children up to the age of 12 years, in a hospital-based retrospective study. Blood group data were recorded from the case records of all the patients in a tertiary care centre with the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, during the period 1987-1997. There were 63 Hodgkin's lymphoma, 78 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 116 acute myeloid leukaemia and 522 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients. We assessed the distribution of ABO blood groups and the difference in the distribution from the source population. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, there were 45.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.8-84.5] more patients with B blood group. In acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, there were 14.3% (95% CI: 3.2-25.2) more patients with O blood group. In Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, there were 56.5% (95% CI: 19.9-85.4) and 52.9% (95% CI: 18.1-82.6) less patients with A blood group, respectively. This shows that the relationship between the ABO blood groups and haematological malignancies merits further investigation in a population-based prospective study. This is the first study of its kind in any Indian population. PMID:15175895

  2. Cheiloscopy and blood groups: Aid in forensic identification★

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Devanand

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen–antibody reactions in their bloodstream. Aim To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. Objective To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. Methodology In this study, lip prints were obtained from 122 subjects (62 males and 60 females), and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi’s classification of type I (complete vertical grooves), type I′ (incomplete vertical grooves), type II (forking grooves), type III (intersecting grooves), type IV (reticular grooves), and type V (indeterminate grooves) was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems. Result No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. Conclusion No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique. PMID:25382951

  3. Use of fluorescein hydrazide and fluorescein thiosemicarbazide reagents for the fluorometric determination of protein carbonyl groups and for the detection of oxidized protein on polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Ahn, B; Rhee, S G; Stadtman, E R

    1987-03-01

    Highly fluorescent thiosemicarbazide and hydrazide prepared by reaction of fluorescein isothiocyanate with hydrazine or adipic acid dihydrazide have been used to monitor the presence of carbonyl groups in oxidatively modified proteins. After oxidation, proteins react with these reagents under anaerobic conditions in the dark to yield fluorescent protein conjugates (presumably thiosemicarbazones or hydrazones) which can be visualized as fluorescent bands following electrophoresis (0-4 degrees C) on lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. These reagents do not react with unoxidized proteins. The conjugates formed dissociate readily at room temperature but are fairly stable at pH 6-9, 0 degrees C. Current data suggest that these reagents will be useful in the detection and quantitation of oxidatively modified proteins in biological systems. PMID:2883911

  4. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p < 0.01) and concomitantly, indicating the association of parasite invasion with the amount of H antigen present on the surface of erythrocyte. Thus, the question arises, could H antigen be involved in P. falciparum invasion? To evaluate erythrocyte invasion inhibition, 'O' group erythrocytes were virtually converted to Bombay group-like erythrocytes by the treatment of anti-H lectins extracted from Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of non-treated cultures and was found to be similar with the mean percent parasitemia demonstrated by the Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis. PMID:27071756

  5. [Production of monoclonal antibody with anti-B specificity, to be used as reagent for blood classification].

    PubMed

    León, Graciela; Cruz, Carlos; Rojas, Lola

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to produce murine monoclonal antibodies with anti B specificity to be used as reagents in red cells typing. Balb/c mice were immunized with substance B from saliva of a donor secreting B antigen, in order to obtain spleen cells or splenocytes producing antibodies with anti B specificity. These cells were fused with mouse mycloma cells P3-X63.Ag8.653 by using the PEG technique. After seeded, the hybridomas secreting the putative antibodies were cloned through the limiting dilution technique to obtain monoclonality. Afterwards, the antibodies were evaluated using immunological and immunochemical methods. BMS-4 clone secreting antibodies IgM-kappa with anti B specificity were obtained, which displayed high potency, excellent avidity, great sensibility and long time stability. We think that this clone can be used to produce a red cell typing reagent. PMID:15211982

  6. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/. PMID:25893845

  7. Genetic polymorphism of the LW blood group system.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Green, C A; Lomas, C G; Tippett, P

    1983-10-01

    Family studies of rare LW(a-b+) propositi confirm the recent finding based on frequency studies that the LW blood groups are polymorphic in Finland (Sistonen & Tippett, 1982); they are controlled by two alleles LWa (0.97) and LWb (0.03) independent from most other common blood group loci. Lod scores for LW and the loci for 27 markers are presented. PMID:6418057

  8. [Mobilization of Blood: Blood Transfusion Service, Blood Group Research, and Total Defence in Switzerland, 1940-1960].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    During World War II and the early Cold War period, a rapid development of the blood transfusion service and a boom in blood group research occurred in Switzerland. Unprecedented volumes of blood were stored and enormous quantities of blood group data were recorded. In the following paper I will argue that this mobilization of blood was strongly shaped by military institutions and aims. The military worked closely with the Red Cross in order to build a blood transfusion service that was supposed to guarantee a permanent readiness for war and help prepare the nation for an imagined nuclear conflict. Concurrently, geneticists, anthropologists, and physicians obtained new opportunities for scientific research in collaboration with the military and the Red Cross enabling them access to comprehensive military data and modern serological laboratories. The paper points out how this cooperation between the military and the sciences influenced and transformed the cultural meanings, the medical uses of as well as the knowledge about human blood. PMID:26902059

  9. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, D

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. An early morning urine specimen was obtained from a random 50% of the men, and only in Creoles was there an association between raised blood pressure and sodium/potassium urinary excretion ratio. PMID:6875443

  10. Phosphorescent biscyclometallated iridium(III) ethylenediamine complexes functionalised with polar ester or carboxylate groups as bioimaging and visualisation reagents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tommy Siu-Ming; Leung, Kam-Keung; Louie, Man-Wai; Liu, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2015-03-21

    We report the synthesis, characterisation and photophysical properties of new phosphorescent biscyclometallated iridium(III) ethylenediamine (en) complexes functionalised with polar ester or carboxylate groups [Ir(N^C)2(en)](n)(X) (n = +1, X = Cl(-), HN^C = methyl 4-(2-pyridyl)benzoate Hppy-COOMe (1a), methyl 2-phenyl-4-quinolinecarboxylate Hpq-COOMe (2a); n = -1, X = Li(+), HN^C = 4-(2-pyridyl)benzoate Hppy-COO(-) (1b), 2-phenyl-4-quinolinecarboxylate Hpq-COO(-) (2b)). In aqueous solutions, the carboxylate complexes 1b and 2b displayed emission quenching (ca. 7 and 74 fold, respectively) and lifetime shortening upon protonation, and their pKa values were determined to be 5.13 and 3.46, respectively. The pq complexes 2a and 2b exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission maxima and a significant increase in emission intensity (ca. 84 and 15 fold, respectively) upon nonspecific binding to the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) results revealed that the ester complexes 1a and 2a were efficiently internalised by the human cervix epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cells through energy-requiring pathways and subsequently localised in endosomes and mitochondria, respectively. They showed good biocompatibility in the dark, but became significantly cytotoxic upon photoirradiation due to the generation of singlet oxygen. In contrast, in aqueous solutions of physiological pH, the carboxylate complexes 1b and 2b existed as the anionic form and hardly entered cells due to limited membrane permeability, as evidenced by the intense emission surrounding the plasma membrane of the cells. They showed negligible cytotoxicity and the cell viability remained over 95% for an incubation period of 24 hours. In view of the low cytotoxicity and strongly emissive nature of the hydrophilic ppy-COO(-) complex 1b in an aqueous medium, the potential application of the complex as a visualisation

  11. Selective copper(II)-mediated oxidative coupling of a nucleophilic reagent to the para-methyl group of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol.

    PubMed

    Boldron, Christophe; Ozalp-Yaman, Seniz; Gamez, Patrick; Tooke, Duncan M; Spek, Anthony L; Reedijk, Jan

    2005-11-01

    A copper(II) neocuproine system has been developed for the efficient and very selective 1,6-addition of a nucleophile to the para-methyl group of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol. Crystallographic and spectroscopic data point towards the involvement of a micro-methoxo-micro-phenoxo-bridged copper species which appears to generate a highly reactive quinone methide intermediate that can be attacked by a nucleophilic reagent. PMID:16234935

  12. Robust, high-throughput solution for blood group genotyping.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gaelle C; Brès, Jean-Charles; Rigal, Dominique; Blum, Loïc J; Marquette, Christophe A

    2010-07-15

    With the concomitant increase of blood transfusions and safety rules, there is a growing need to integrate high-throughput and multiparametric assays within blood qualification centers. Using a robust and automated solution, we describe a new method for extended blood group genotyping (HiFi-Blood 96) bringing together the throughput possibilities of complete automation and the microarray multiplexed analysis potential. Our approach provides a useful resource for upgrading blood qualification center facilities. A set of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with clinically important blood group antigens (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems) were selected and the corresponding genotyping assays developed. A panel of 293 blood samples was used to validate the approach. The resulting genotypes were compared to phenotypes previously determined by standard serologic techniques, and excellent correlations were found for five SNPs out of six. For the Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS3/MNS4 systems, high matching percentages of 100%, 98.9%, 97.7%, and 97.4% were obtained, respectively, whereas a concordance percentage of 83.3% only was attained for the MNS1/MNS2 polymorphism. PMID:20560530

  13. [Polymorphism of LW blood group gene in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Qing; Yu, Qiong; Liu, Xu; Liang, Yan-Lian; Wei, Tian-Li

    2008-06-01

    In order to study the polymorphism of Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group gene in Chinese population, peripheral blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA from 160 unrelated volunteer blood donors were randomly collected, and genomic DNA were extracted. 160 DNA samples were analyzed for exon 1 of LW gene by direct DNA sequencing, and detected for LWa/LWb allele by improved PCR-SSP genotyping. The results showed that all LW allele in 160 donors were LWa homozygous, and the LWa allele occurred commonly. In conclusion, LWa allele occurs with incidence of 100% of donors in this study, while LWb allele has not been found in Chinese population. PMID:18549656

  14. Treponemal serology and blood groups on Bali island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Breguet, G; Ney, R; Gerber, H; Garner, M F

    1986-10-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study of the population of Bali, Indonesia, 2452 blood samples from people of both sexes were tested for treponemal infection and blood groups. Analysis of blood groups of the 81 patients reactive to the Treponema pallidum immobilisation (TPI) test, who were considered to have latent or inactive yaws, compared with a control group of 552 healthy Balinese, showed that the ratio of MM to MN and NN phenotypes was 2.25 times higher in the patients than in the controls (chi 2(1) = 10.2, p less than 0.005). A speculative hypothesis is that yews infection gives people with the MM phenotype a lower selective fitness. This hypothesis could explain the low prevalence of the M gene in the Australo-Melanesian populations. PMID:3770754

  15. Treponemal serology and blood groups on Bali island, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Breguet, G; Ney, R; Gerber, H; Garner, M F

    1986-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study of the population of Bali, Indonesia, 2452 blood samples from people of both sexes were tested for treponemal infection and blood groups. Analysis of blood groups of the 81 patients reactive to the Treponema pallidum immobilisation (TPI) test, who were considered to have latent or inactive yaws, compared with a control group of 552 healthy Balinese, showed that the ratio of MM to MN and NN phenotypes was 2.25 times higher in the patients than in the controls (chi 2(1) = 10.2, p less than 0.005). A speculative hypothesis is that yews infection gives people with the MM phenotype a lower selective fitness. This hypothesis could explain the low prevalence of the M gene in the Australo-Melanesian populations. PMID:3770754

  16. Correlation between ABO Blood Group, and Conventional Hematological and Metabolic Parameters in Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Terenziani, Isabella; Bonfanti, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Background Although several studies have investigated and confirmed the existence of an association between ABO blood type and several human disorders, especially with cardiovascular disease, little is known on the physiological influence or association of ABO blood groups on basal levels of some conventional hematological and metabolic parameters. Study Design and Methods A total number of 7,723 consecutive healthy blood donors underwent laboratory testing at the time of their first blood donation, which apart from ABO typing included assessment of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triglycerides, creatinine, iron, ferritin, uric acid, glucose, hemoglobin, and platelet count. Results The most relevant finding was the identification of significantly higher values of total cholesterol and HDL-c in subjects with blood group A compared with those with O blood type, with the highest levels being observed in A1 subtype. Conclusions The positive association between A blood type and plasma lipid levels supports its potential role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and the clinical observations of increased vulnerability to cardiovascular disease of individuals with non-O blood groups. PMID:26595152

  17. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Pelzer, U.; Klein, F.; Bahra, M.; Sinn, M.; Dörken, B.; Neuhaus, P.; Meyer, O.; Riess, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1—q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: One hundred and sixty-six patients who underwent a resection of PC were evaluated in a period between 2000 and 2010. Blood group reference distribution for the German population is given as: 0: 41%; A: 43%; B: 11%; AB: 5%; Rhesus positive: 85%; Rhesus negative: 15%. Analyses were done using the non-parametric Chi2-test (p-value two sided; SPSS 19.0). Results: Median age was 62 (34–82) years. Gender: female 73/44%; male: 93/56%. Observed blood group proportions: 0: 43 (25.9%)/A: 94 (56.6%)/B: 16 (9.6%)/AB: 13 (7.8%)/Rhesus positive: 131 (78.9%)/negative: 35 (21.1%). We detected a significant difference to the German reference distribution of the AB0 system (Chi2 19.34, df 3, p < 0.001). Rhesus factor has no impact on AB0-distribution (Chi2 4.13, df 3, p = 0.25), but differs significantly from reference distribution—probably due to initial AB0-variation (Chi2 4.82, df 1, p = 0.028). The odds ratio for blood group A is 2.01 and for blood group 0 is 0.5. Conclusions: The incidence of PC in the German cohort is highly associated with the AB0-system as well. More patients with blood group A suffer from PC (p < 0.001) whereas blood group 0 was less frequent in patients with PC (p < 0.001). Thus, our findings support the results from other non-German surveys. The causal trigger points of this carcinogenesis correlation are still not known. PMID:23745115

  18. ABO blood groups and fertility in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Chakravartti, M R; Chakravartti, R

    1978-06-01

    A total of 589 compatible mating couples could be investigated against 432 incompatible mating couples in order to determine the selective mechanism operating on ABO blood groups. There appears to be no striking difference in the proportion of childless couples between the two groups. The mean number of living children presents a significant difference. There is 21% deficiency of 'A' children in the two groups. Similarly, there is 16% deficiency of 'B' children in the two groups. It appears that there is 31.9% fetal wastage in incompatible matings as compared with 17.15% in compatible matings. PMID:670941

  19. Blood groups of the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata).

    PubMed

    Froehlich, J W; Socha, W W; Wiener, A S; Moor-Jankowski, J; Thorington, R W

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-two howler monkeys were tested for their human-type A-B-O blood groups. All were group B, as shown by the presence of B and H in their saliva, and anti-A in serum. The B-like agglutinogen of their red cells is common to all New World monkey species tested, and is of different origin and significance than their true A-B-O blood group. Differences among the B-like agglutinogens of the red cells of howler monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and humans group B were demonstrated, and limited tests have also been performed to study the biochemical basis of the anti-B reactions. PMID:412971

  20. The Immune Response to Blood-Group Substances

    PubMed Central

    Holborow, E. J.; Loewi, G.

    1962-01-01

    Guinea pigs were immunized with purified human A and Lea blood-group substances. Skin testing revealed a delayed hypersensitivity response to A and Lea and other human blood-group substances, showing a very marked degree of cross-reactivity, irrespective of the immunizing antigen. Circulating antibody was tested for by eliciting systemic anaphylaxis, by direct cutaneous anaphylaxis using a dye-spreading method, and by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test of Ovary. Precipitation and red-cell agglutination tests were also employed. It was found that immunization with A substance consistently produced a major specific anti-A antibody and a minor separate antibody specific for Lea. Immunization with Lea substance did not consistently give rise to detectable circulating antibody. In those animals, however, in which antibody to Lea was found, a reaction with A substance could also be shown. These results could be explained in terms of a small amount of Lea activity in A substance, as revealed by agglutination-inhibition and P.C.A. tests. The results indicate that the polypeptide part of blood-group mucopolysaccharides is the entity chiefly concerned in producing and eliciting delayed hypersensitivity to these substances. The cross-reactivity of the delayed response supports the view that the different human blood-group mucopolysaccharides share a similar polypeptide component. The more precise nature of the circulating antibody is explicable in terms of a response to the specific polysaccharide entity of blood-group substances. These findings are considered in the light of previous work on the relationship of delayed hypersensitivity to the circulating antibody response. The question of a possible delayed response to carbohydrate antigen is left unanswered. PMID:13908295

  1. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9160 - Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in... Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9160 Blood group substances of nonhuman origin for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Blood group substances of nonhuman...

  6. Blood groups and human groups: Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two

    PubMed Central

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an “indispensable” reference book on the “anthropology of blood groups” containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly ‘genetic’ and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, ‘populations’ were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently ‘biological’, but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. PMID:25066898

  7. Transfusion reaction in a case with the rare Bombay blood group.

    PubMed

    Shahshahani, Hayedeh Javadzadeh; Vahidfar, Mohamad Reza; Khodaie, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is extremely rare in Caucasian with an incidence of 1 in 250,000. When individuals with the Bombay phenotype need blood transfusion, they can receive only autologous blood or blood from another Bombay blood group. Transfusing blood group O red cells to them can cause a fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction. In this study, we report a case with the rare Bombay blood group that was misdiagnosed as the O blood group and developed a hemolytic transfusion reaction. This highlights the importance of both forward and reverse typing in ABO blood grouping and standard cross-matching and performing standard pretransfusion laboratory tests in hospital blood banks. PMID:23559776

  8. ABO blood group glycans modulate sialic acid recognition on erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam; Hurtado-Ziola, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    ABH(O) blood group polymorphisms are based on well-known intraspecies variations in structures of neutral blood cell surface glycans in humans and other primates. Whereas natural antibodies against these glycans can act as barriers to blood transfusion and transplantation, the normal functions of this long-standing evolutionary polymorphism remain largely unknown. Although microbial interactions have been suggested as a selective force, direct binding of lethal pathogens to ABH antigens has not been reported. We show in this study that ABH antigens found on human erythrocytes modulate the specific interactions of 3 sialic acid-recognizing proteins (human Siglec-2, 1918SC influenza hemagglutinin, and Sambucus nigra agglutinin) with sialylated glycans on the same cell surface. Using specific glycosidases that convert A and B glycans to the underlying H(O) structure, we show ABH antigens stabilize sialylated glycan clusters on erythrocyte membranes uniquely for each blood type, generating differential interactions of the 3 sialic acid-binding proteins with erythrocytes from each blood type. We further show that by stabilizing such structures ABH antigens can also modulate sialic acid-mediated interaction of pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasite. Thus, ABH antigens can noncovalently alter the presentation of other cell surface glycans to cognate-binding proteins, without themselves being a direct ligand. PMID:19704115

  9. Blood group genotyping in a population of highly diverse ancestry.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, J; Castilho, L; Rios, M; De Souza, C A

    2001-01-01

    Accurate phenotyping of red blood cells (RBCs) can be difficult in transfusion-dependent patients such as those with thalassemia and sickle cell anemia because of the presence of previously transfused RBCs in the patient's circulation. Recently, the molecular basis associated with the expression of many blood group antigens was established. This allowed the development of a plethora of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests for identification of the blood group antigens by testing DNA. The new technologies complement phenotyping and overcome some of the limitations of hemagglutination assays. These molecular assays were developed on the basis of DNA sequences of individuals of Caucasian ancestry. The present study addresses the concern that these genotyping assays may not be applicable to populations of highly diverse ancestry because of variability in intronic regions or because of unrecognized alleles. We determined both phenotype and genotype for RH D, K 1/K 2, JK A/JK B, FY A/ FY B-GATA in 250 normal blood donors using PCR. Phenotype and genotype results agreed in 100% of the cases, indicating that molecular genotyping protocols can be effectively applied to populations with a highly diverse genetic background. However, genotyping for Duffy antigens provided information that could not be obtained by phenotyping. Essentially, 30.5 % of the donors with the FY B gene typed as Fy(b-) because of mutations in the GATA box. This information is very useful for the management of transfusion dependent patients. PMID:11170227

  10. Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

  11. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipid extract. A parallel chromatogram overlaid with biotinylated Ulex europaeus lectin, which is a fucose-binding lectin with a specificity for the H blood group antigen, showed that two of these glycosphingolipids carried this antigenic determinant. Preparations of crude and purified adhesin (a protein with a size of 15.7 kDa which lacked cysteine residues) from one of the strains also bound to these same two components. The third glycosphingolipid, which bound whole cells but neither preparation of adhesin, was recognized by Helix pomatia lectin, indicating that it contained N-acetylgalactosamine, possibly in the form of the A blood group antigen. Overlay assays with a sixth strain of C. albicans (GDH 2023) revealed a completely different binding pattern of four receptors, each of which contained N-acetylglucosamine. These results confirm earlier predictions about the receptor specificity of the strains made on the basis of adhesion inhibition studies and indicate that blood group antigens can act as epithelial cell receptors for C. albicans. PMID:8641797

  12. Genotyping of 28 blood group alleles in blood donors from Mali: Prediction of rare phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ba, Alhassane; Bagayoko, Seydou; Chiaroni, Jacques; Baiily, Pascal; Silvy, Monique

    2016-04-01

    We determined the frequencies of clinically relevant blood group alleles in 300 blood donors from Mali. Multiplex test based on xMAP technology was used to investigate six blood group systems (RH, KEL, MNS, FY, JK, DO, HPA) and complementary analysis were conducted for MNS and RH systems. Polymorphisms that affect the specificity of molecular tests leading to discrepant genotype results are discussed. Antigen expressions were predicted showing that 50% of donors expressed at least one traditional low prevalence antigen, and 11.6% lacked the ability to express at least one high prevalence antigen compatible with Dob-, HPA1a-, S-s-U-, Jsb-, RH:-31 and/or RH:-34 phenotypes. PMID:26616029

  13. US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network: Prioritization & Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network represents a broad community plan to begin to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle), swine, poultry (primarily chickens)...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test...

  15. Blood group A glycosphingolipid accumulation in the hair of patients with alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akihiko; Kanekura, Takuro; Saito, Yoshifumi; Sagawa, Kazunori; Nosaka, Mizuho; Kanzaki, Tamotsu; Tsuji, Tsutomu

    2005-03-01

    In the hair of individuals with blood group AB, the level of blood group A glycosphingolipids is much lower than that of blood group B. We hypothesized that in hair, blood group A determinants are converted by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA, E.C.3.2.1.49) to H determinants. To address our hypothesis, the relative amount of ABH glycosphingolipids in hairs and nails of normal subjects, patients with Kanzaki disease, and heterozygous carriers of alpha-NAGA deficiency were analyzed by dot-blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In hair from normal subjects with blood group B, ABH glycosphingolipids consisted of 88% blood group B- and 12% blood group H glycosphingolipids. In blood group A subjects, 14% were group A- and 86% were group H glycosphingolipids. In Kanzaki patients, 81% were blood group A- and 19% were blood group H glycosphingolipids. In 2 alpha-NAGA deficiency carriers, the ABH glycosphingolipids consisted of 67% blood group A- and 33% blood group H glycosphingolipids. These results indicate that blood group A glycosphingolipids are catabolized to H glycosphingolipids by alpha-NAGA, resulting in lower levels of blood group A glycosphingolipids in the hair of normal subjects, and alpha-NAGA deficiency causes accumulation of blood group A glycosphingolipids in the hair of Kanzaki patients. This finding is of clinical relevance because it suggests that hair may be used to diagnose and assess the alpha-NAGA status of individuals. PMID:15698859

  16. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fya, Fyb, Jka, Jkb, M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Methods: Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. Results: A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, Fya: 87.4, Fyb: 57.6, Jka: 81.5, Jkb: 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. Interpretation & conclusions: This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups. PMID:23640559

  17. Subgrouping of A and AB blood groups in Indian blood centres: is it required?

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Ranjita; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    Anti A1 antibody in the serum of A2 and A2B individuals is rare but when present can have laboratory and clinical significance. Routine subgrouping of all A and AB blood groups in blood centres in India is difficult due to economic constraints and has always been a point of debate. This study thus brings out the prevalence of anti A1 antibody and the clinical significance related to its presence. The results of the study showed a low prevalence of anti A1 antibody and when present, it had a low thermal amplitude and titre. Further, no blood group discrepancy or problems during compatibility testing were encountered with these (A1 antibody positive) blood units. Thus, it may be concluded that in India and other developing countries where resources are scarce, routine subgrouping of A and AB may not be really worthwhile unless there is a group discrepancy, problem during compatibility testing or history of a transfusion reaction. PMID:22315863

  18. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  3. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  4. Chemical Basis for Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Between ABO Blood Groups and Subgroups: Implications for Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeyakanthan, M; Tao, K; Zou, L; Meloncelli, P J; Lowary, T L; Suzuki, K; Boland, D; Larsen, I; Burch, M; Shaw, N; Beddows, K; Addonizio, L; Zuckerman, W; Afzali, B; Kim, D H; Mengel, M; Shapiro, A M J; West, L J

    2015-10-01

    Blood group ABH(O) carbohydrate antigens are carried by precursor structures denoted type I-IV chains, creating unique antigen epitopes that may differ in expression between circulating erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Characterization of such differences is invaluable in many clinical settings including transplantation. Monoclonal antibodies were generated and epitope specificities were characterized against chemically synthesized type I-IV ABH and related glycans. Antigen expression was detected on endomyocardial biopsies (n = 50) and spleen (n = 11) by immunohistochemical staining and on erythrocytes by flow cytometry. On vascular endothelial cells of heart and spleen, only type II-based ABH antigens were expressed; type III/IV structures were not detected. Type II-based ABH were expressed on erythrocytes of all blood groups. Group A1 and A2 erythrocytes additionally expressed type III/IV precursors, whereas group B and O erythrocytes did not. Intensity of A/B antigen expression differed among group A1 , A2 , A1 B, A2 B and B erythrocytes. On group A2 erythrocytes, type III H structures were largely un-glycosylated with the terminal "A" sugar α-GalNAc. Together, these studies define qualitative and quantitative differences in ABH antigen expression between erythrocytes and vascular tissues. These expression profiles have important implications that must be considered in clinical settings of ABO-incompatible transplantation when interpreting anti-ABO antibodies measured by hemagglutination assays with reagent erythrocytes. PMID:26014598

  5. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against group A, B, and C capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis and preparation of latex reagents.

    PubMed

    Nato, F; Mazie, J C; Fournier, J M; Slizewicz, B; Sagot, N; Guibourdenche, M; Postic, D; Riou, J Y

    1991-07-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C were produced in order to develop immunological reagents allowing both the detection of soluble antigens during meningococcal meningitis and antigenic serogrouping of N. meningitidis cultures. The performance characteristics of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody latex reagents were compared. For the detection of soluble polysaccharide antigen, polyclonal antibody latex reagent was selected for N. meningitidis A and C. The latex reagent prepared with polyclonal antibodies against N. meningitidis B could not detect capsular polysaccharide even at 1 mg/ml. The monoclonal antibody B latex reagent which detected 100 ng of polysaccharide per ml was therefore chosen. For the serogroup identification of N. meningitidis, the use of a confirmatory test results in an overall specificity of 100% with polyclonal or monoclonal antibody latex reagents. PMID:1909346

  6. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....

  7. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....

  8. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....

  9. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system....

  10. Blood group and serum protein polymorphisms in a population group of Moldavians.

    PubMed

    Varsahr, A M; Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D

    2006-03-01

    The distribution of the alleles and haplotypes for blood groups A1A2B0, MNSs, RHESUS, P1, KELL-CELLANO and biochemical markers of the alleles of loci AMY2, HPA, GC, C3, TF, BF, CP, PI (including subtypes) were studied in 125 Moldavian individuals from Karahasani settlement, Stefan-Voda District, Republic of Moldavia. The results show that the gene pool of Moldavians is similar to those of Southeastern European populations. PMID:16623088

  11. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... simply note any changes you see on a card and then mail the results card to your health care provider. To do the ... about 2 minutes. Note the results on the card provided, then flush the pad away. Repeat for ...

  12. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  13. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  14. A review of the JR blood group system.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lilian; Reid, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    The JR blood group system (ISBT 032) consists of one antigen,Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. The rare Jr(a-) phenotype has been found mostly in Japanese and other Asian populations, but also in people of northern European ancestry, in Bedouin Arabs, and in one Mexican. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and is involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein (also known as the breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP), which is encoded by the ABCG2 gene on chromosome 4q22.1. The Jr(a-) phenotype mostly results from recessive inheritance of ABCG2 null alleles caused by frameshift or nonsense changes. PMID:24094238

  15. Evolutionary genetics of the human Rh blood group system

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Xue, Yali; Smith, Richard S.; Meyer, Wynn K.; Çalışkan, Minal; Yanez-Cuna, Omar; Lee, Arthur S.; Gutiérrez-Arcelus, María; Ober, Carole; Hollox, Edward J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Lee, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary history of variation in the human Rh blood group system, determined by variants in the RHD and RHCE genes, has long been an unresolved puzzle in human genetics. Prior to medical treatments and interventions developed in the last century, the D-positive children of D-negative women were at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn, if the mother produced anti-D antibodies following sensitization to the blood of a previous D-positive child. Given the deleterious fitness consequences of this disease, the appreciable frequencies in European populations of the responsible RHD gene deletion variant (for example, 0.43 in our study) seem surprising. In this study, we used new molecular and genomic data generated from four HapMap population samples to test the idea that positive selection for an as-of-yet unknown fitness benefit of the RHD deletion may have offset the otherwise negative fitness effects of hemolytic disease of the newborn. We found no evidence that positive natural selection affected the frequency of the RHD deletion. Thus, the initial rise to intermediate frequency of the RHD deletion in European populations may simply be explained by genetic drift/ founder effect, or by an older or more complex sweep that we are insufficiently powered to detect. However, our simulations recapitulate previous findings that selection on the RHD deletion is frequency dependent, and weak or absent near 0.5. Therefore, once such a frequency was achieved, it could have been maintained by a relatively small amount of genetic drift. We unexpectedly observed evidence for positive selection on the C allele of RHCE in non-African populations (on chromosomes with intact copies of the RHD gene) in the form of an unusually high FST value and the high frequency of a single haplotype carrying the C allele. RhCE function is not well understood, but the C/c antigenic variant is clinically relevant and can result in hemolytic disease of the newborn, albeit much less commonly

  16. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1–1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera. PMID:27082955

  17. Blood group variation in the Isle of Lewis.

    PubMed

    Clegg, E J; Tills, D; Warlow, A; Wilkinson, J; Marin, A

    1985-01-01

    Blood groups and protein and enzyme polymorphism distributions were studied in 285 residents on the Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides. As well as gene frequency calculations for individual loci, genetic distance estimations were made and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The results indicated several major differences from North-west European populations, with high values of R2(CDe), Rz(CDE) and P1. Among protein and enzyme polymorphisms Hp1, EAPA and PGM1(1) had very high frequencies. Genetic distances show Lewis to be unlike both Western and Eastern North European populations, while the phylogenetic tree shows a common, but rather distant, ancestry with Icelanders. This genetic uniqueness of Lewis as a whole is accompanied by a considerable degree of heterogeneity within the island itself, especially in the ABO and Rh systems. Stornoway, with a greater proportion of residents descended from immigrant stock, shows a greater degree of similarity with neighbouring populations. The reasons for both the overall uniqueness and the heterogeneity within Lewis are discussed, but in the absence of a large time-depth and adequate vital records, the various roles of selection, drift and migration in producing them are difficult to establish. PMID:3929670

  18. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 6. An intact antibody conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) reagent via sulfhydryl groups had considerably higher kidney concentrations than the same antibody conjugated with an isothiocyanato-closo-decaborate(2-) reagent via lysine amines

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Chen, Yun; Hamlin, Donald K.; Santos, Erlinda B.; Kornblit, Brian T.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating the use of an 211At-labeled anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a replacement of total body irradiation in conditioning regimens designed to decrease the toxicity of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). As part of that investigation, dose-escalation studies were conducted in dogs using 211At-labeled anti-canine CD45 mAb, CA12.10C12, conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 4. Unacceptable renal toxicity was noted in the dogs receiving doses in the 0.27 – 0.62 mCi/kg range. This result was not anticipated, as no toxicity had been noted in prior biodistribution and toxicity studies conducted in mice. Studies were conducted to understand the cause of the renal toxicity and to find a way to circumvent it. A dog biodistribution study was conducted with 123Ilabeled CA12.10C12 that had been conjugated with 4. The biodistribution data showed that 10-fold higher kidney concentrations were obtained with the maleimido-conjugate than had been obtained in a previous biodistribution study with 123I-labeled CA12.10C12 conjugated with an amine-reactive phenylisothiocyanato-CHX-A” derivative. The difference in kidney concentrations observed in dogs for the two conjugation approaches led to an investigation of the reagents. SE-HPLC analyses showed that the purity of the CA12.10C12 conjugated via reduced disulfides was lower than that obtained with amine-reactive conjugation reagents, and non-reducing SDS-PAGE analyses indicated protein fragments were present in the disulfide reduced conjugate. Although we had previously prepared closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives with amine-reactive functional groups (e.g. 6 & 8), a new easily synthesized, amine-reactive (phenylisothiocyanate) derivative, 10, was prepared for use in the current studies. A biodistribution was conducted with co-administered 125I- and 211At-labeled CA12.10C10 conjugated with 10. In that study, lower kidney concentrations were obtained for both radionuclides than had

  19. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 6. An intact antibody conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) reagent via sulfhydryl groups had considerably higher kidney concentrations than the same antibody conjugated with an isothiocyanato-closo-decaborate(2-) reagent via lysine amines.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Chen, Yun; Hamlin, Donald K; Santos, Erlinda B; Kornblit, Brian T; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2012-03-21

    We are investigating the use of an (211)At-labeled anti-CD45 monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a replacement of total body irradiation in conditioning regimens designed to decrease the toxicity of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). As part of that investigation, dose-escalation studies were conducted in dogs using (211)At-labeled anticanine CD45 mAb, CA12.10C12, conjugated with a maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) derivative, 4. Unacceptable renal toxicity was noted in the dogs receiving doses in the 0.27-0.62 mCi/kg range. This result was not anticipated, as no toxicity had been noted in prior biodistribution and toxicity studies conducted in mice. Studies were conducted to understand the cause of the renal toxicity and to find a way to circumvent it. A dog biodistribution study was conducted with (123)I-labeled CA12.10C12 that had been conjugated with 4. The biodistribution data showed that 10-fold higher kidney concentrations were obtained with the maleimido-conjugate than had been obtained in a previous biodistribution study with (123)I-labeled CA12.10C12 conjugated with an amine-reactive phenylisothiocyanato-CHX-A″ derivative. The difference in kidney concentrations observed in dogs for the two conjugation approaches led to an investigation of the reagents. SE-HPLC analyses showed that the purity of the CA12.10C12 conjugated via reduced disulfides was lower than that obtained with amine-reactive conjugation reagents, and nonreducing SDS-PAGE analyses indicated protein fragments were present in the disulfide reduced conjugate. Although we had previously prepared closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives with amine-reactive functional groups (e.g., 6 and 8), a new, easily synthesized, amine-reactive (phenylisothiocyanate) derivative, 10, was prepared for use in the current studies. A biodistribution was conducted with coadministered (125)I- and (211)At-labeled CA12.10C10 conjugated with 10. In that study, lower kidney concentrations were obtained for both radionuclides

  20. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. PMID:23388491

  1. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of a Type 2 Blood Group A Tetrasaccharide and Development of High-throughput Assays Enables a Platform for Screening Blood Group Antigen-cleaving Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kwan, David H; Ernst, Sabrina; Kötzler, Miriam P; Withers, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    A facile enzymatic synthesis of the methylumbelliferyl β-glycoside of the type 2 A blood group tetrasaccharide in good yields is reported. Using this compound, we developed highly sensitive fluorescence-based high-throughput assays for both endo-β-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity specific for the oligosaccharide structure of the blood group A antigen. We further demonstrate the potential to use this assay to screen the expressed gene products of metagenomic libraries in the search for efficient blood group antigen-cleaving enzymes. PMID:25964111

  2. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  3. The Higher Frequency of Blood Group B in a Brazilian Population with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Onsten, Tor Gunnar Hugo; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the frequency of and odds for and against HIV infection based on ABO blood type in a large sample of blood donors. Background: Coevolution between pathogens and hosts may explain the ABO system of polymorphisms. HIV-infected cells add ABO(H) blood group antigens to the viral envelope. Naturally occurring antibodies against ABO(H) antigens that are present in normal human sera are able to neutralize ABO-expressing HIV in vitro. Blood donors are ideal for studying blood groups and HIV infection in vivo because all donors are routinely typed and tested. Methods: All blood donors who donated blood between 1994 and 2010 were tested for HIV (ELISA antibody tests and Western blot test or immunofluorescence testing) and were ABO typed (direct and reverse grouping tests). HIV infection based on the ABO blood group was analyzed using the chi-square test and game theory. Results: The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 271,410, of whom 389 were infected with HIV. B-group donors were more infected than non-B donors (p= 0.006). Conclusions: A more restricted antigen recognition capacity of anti-Galα1-3Gal in blood groups AB and B and a weaker antigen-binding capacity of anti-A antibodies may contribute to a higher frequency of HIV infection in blood group B. PMID:24222813

  4. Noninvasive Antenatal Determination of Fetal Blood Group Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a condition characterized by a decreased lifespan of fetal red blood cells caused by maternally produced allospecific antibodies transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. The antibodies bind to the corresponding blood group antigens on fetal red blood cells and induce hemolysis. Cell-free DNA derived from the conceptus circulates in maternal blood. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), it can be determined if this cell-free fetal DNA encodes the corresponding blood group antigen that is the target of the maternal allospecific antibodies. This determination carries no risk to the fetus. It is important to determine if the fetus is at risk of hemolysis to enable timely intervention. Many tests for blood groups are based solely on the presence or absence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Antenatal determination of fetal blood group by NGS analysis holds advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determination based on allele specific amplification. PMID:26511760

  5. A sequence of tests of minute human blood stains for human origin identification and ABO blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, K

    1986-01-01

    A series of examinations is presented for human origin identification and ABO blood grouping of doubtful minute human blood stains. A blood-stained thread (0.5 cm in length) was first tested to identify human origin by microprecipitation method and then the ABO blood type was determined by both a modified absorption-elution test and a modified mixed agglutination. In the continuous tests, the maximum limits of positive reactions of the microprecipitation method, the modified absorption-elution test, and the modified mixed agglutination were 1:640, 1:160, and 1:2,560 diluted blood, respectively. A and B agglutinogens were more sensitively determined than H agglutinogen. Hemagglutinogens of blood stains on cotton threads were more easily detected than those of polyester ones. PMID:3825313

  6. (S)-Naproxen as a platform to develop chiral derivatizing reagent for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of analytes having a carbonyl functional group.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Lal, Manohar

    2012-12-01

    (S)-Naproxen was used to synthesize a chiral reagent, (S)-2-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl)propanehydrazide, by itsreaction with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as coupling agent. The reagent was characterized and its chiral purity was established. It was used as a chiral derivatizing reagent for the synthesis of hydrazone diastereomers, under microwave irradiation, of certain chiral aldehydes and ketones. The respective diastereomers were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a binary solvent combination containing trifluoroacetic acid. The diastereomers were detected at 231 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, and limit of detection (LOD). For a series of hydrazones the LOD was found to be in the range 1.62-1.65 pmol/mL. PMID:22473802

  7. Correlation Among Lip Print Pattern, Finger Print Pattern and Abo Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    N, Srilekha; A, Anuradha; Srinivas G, Vijay; Devi R, Sabitha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study correlation between lip print pattern, finger print pattern and ABO blood group. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 27 males and 27 females who were aged between 20–40 years. Lip prints, finger prints and ABO and Rh blood groups of each individual were recorded. Lip prints were classified, based on Suzuki’s and Tsuchihashi’s classification and finger prints were classified, based on Michael’s and Kucken’s classification. The results were statistically analyzed by using Chi–square test. Results: Complete vertical lip print, loop finger print pattern, O+ blood group were predominant among individual groups. O+ blood group-type I lip print combination, loop finger print pattern-type IV lip print pattern combination, O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern combination and both B+ blood group-loop finger print pattern- type IV lip print pattern combination and O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern-type I lip print pattern were predominant. Conclusion: Though lip prints, finger prints and blood groups had their own specificities, correlation of the three parameters did not show any significance. PMID:24783079

  8. ABO blood grouping from hard and soft tissues of teeth by modified absorption-elution technique

    PubMed Central

    Ramnarayan, BK; Manjunath, M; Joshi, Anagha Ananth

    2013-01-01

    Background: Teeth have always been known as stable tissue that can be preserved both physically and chemically for long periods of time. Blood group substances have been known to be present in both the hard and soft tissues of the teeth. Objectives: This study aimed at detection of ABO blood group substances from soft and hard tissues of teeth and also to evaluate the reliability of teeth stored for a relatively long period as a source of blood group substances by absorption–elution technique with some modifications. Results: Blood group obtained from the teeth was compared with those obtained from the blood sample. Pulp showed a very large correlation in both fresh and long-standing teeth though it decreased slightly in the latter. Hard tissue showed a large correlation in both the groups indicating that hard tissue is quite reliable to detect blood group and that there is no much difference in the reliability in both the groups. However, combining pulp and hard tissue, correlation is moderate. Correlation of blood grouping with the age, sex, and jaw distribution was carried out. Conclusion: Blood group identification from hard and soft tissues of teeth aids in the identification of an individual. PMID:23960412

  9. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a…

  10. Is Radiosensitivity Associated to Different Types of Blood Groups? (A cytogenetic study)

    PubMed Central

    Elahimanesh, Farideh; Shabestani Monfared, Ali; Khosravifarsani, Meysam; Akhavan Niaki, Haleh; Abedian, Zeinab; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Borzouisileh, Sajad; Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Amiri, Mehrangiz

    2013-01-01

    Many biological factors affect radiosensitivity. In this study, radiosensitivity among the different blood groups was investigated. Peripheral blood sample of 95 healthy people were divided into two parts. One part was irradiated with 2 Gy Co-60 gamma rays and the second one was considered as control. Then all the samples were studied by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN assay). Our study showed that the radiosensitivity index of A+ and O+ groups was significantly higher and lower than other blood groups, respectively. It seems that blood type can be used as a radiosensitivity index for determining the given dose to radiotherapy, although extensive studies are necessary. PMID:24551803

  11. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  12. [Genetic linkage of blood group, egg and serum protein and plumage color loci in chickens].

    PubMed

    Gintovt, V E; Novik, I E; Moiseeva, I G; Tolokoniikova, E V

    1976-01-01

    Genetic relationship of six blood group (A, B, C, D, E, x5), three egg (G2, G3, Ov) and one serum (Alb) protein loci and two plumage colour (I-dominant white, E-extended black) loci were investigated. 3250 gametes have been analysed for 21 loci combinations, 11 from them have never been studied on linkage. Blood group loci A, B, C, D, E, x5 segregated independently on egg protein loci G2, G3, and Ov, serum protein locus Alb and plumage colour locus E. No linkage was observed between blood group locus B and dominant white locus I. Close linkage for two egg protein loci G3 and Ov is confirmed. Independent segregation of investigated blood group, egg and serum protein loci suggests their localization on different autosomes in the chicken genome. The recent literature and the authors' data on genetic relationship between blood group, polymorphic protein loci and morphological traits are reviewed. PMID:1010323

  13. Reduced prevalence of placental malaria in primiparae with blood group O

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood group O protects African children against severe malaria and has reached high prevalence in malarious regions. However, its role in malaria in pregnancy is ambiguous. In 839 delivering Ghanaian women, associations of ABO blood groups with Plasmodium falciparum infection were examined. Methods Plasmodium falciparum infection was diagnosed in placental blood samples by microscopy and PCR assays. Present or past infection was defined as the detection of parasitaemia or haemozoin by microscopy, or a positive PCR result. Blood groups were inferred from genotyping rs8176719 (indicating the O allele) and rs8176746/rs8176747 (distinguishing the B allele from the A allele). Results The majority of women had blood group O (55.4%); present or past P. falciparum infection was seen in 62.3% of all women. Among multiparae, the blood groups had no influence on P. falciparum infection. In contrast, primiparae with blood group O had significantly less present or past infection than women with non-O blood groups (61.5 vs 76.2%, P = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, the odds of present or past placental P. falciparum infection were reduced by 45% in blood group O primiparae (aOR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.33–0.94]). Conclusions The present study shows a clear protective effect of blood group O against malaria in primiparae. This accords with findings in severe malaria and in vitro results. The data underline the relevance of host genetic protection among primiparae, i.e. the high-risk group for malaria in pregnancy, and contribute to the understanding of high O allele frequencies in Africa. PMID:25066505

  14. Personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism associate with ABO blood groups through catecholamine activities.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, Donna K

    2011-08-01

    Personality trait research has shown associations with many genes, prominently those of the catecholamine metabolism such as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). Because DBH gene is in linkage disequilibrium with ABO gene, there is reason to think that other catecholamine genes using the same substrate as DBH may also have associations with ABO blood groups, and this paper demonstrates how this may be so. Reasons include similarities in hapmap population frequency distributions, similarities in illness risks between ABO blood groups and DBH activities as well as between ABO blood groups and COMT activities and between ABO blood groups and MAOA activities. If ABO blood groups can be demonstrated to associate with all these catecholamine genes, then the catecholamine personality trait research can be applied to ABO blood groups and tested for confirmation. ABO blood typing is widely available and affords ability to test this hypothesis and thus confirm the possible joint association of personality traits of aggression-submissiveness and perfectionism to catecholamine genes and to ABO blood groups. Clinical applications and implications are discussed. PMID:21601990

  15. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. Patients and methods A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio

  16. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab')2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  17. Agglutinating mouse IgG3 compares favourably with IgMs in typing of the blood group B antigen: Functionality and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Tomasz; Bzowska, Monika; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Kabat, Agnieszka Martyna; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Czaplicki, Dominik; Makuch, Krzysztof; Jucha, Jarosław; Karabasz, Alicja; Bereta, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Mouse immunoglobulins M (IgMs) that recognize human blood group antigens induce haemagglutination and are used worldwide for diagnostic blood typing. Contrary to the current belief that IgGs are too small to simultaneously bind antigens on two different erythrocytes, we obtained agglutinating mouse IgG3 that recognized antigen B of the human ABO blood group system. Mouse IgG3 is an intriguing isotype that has the ability to form Fc-dependent oligomers. However, F(ab′)2 fragments of the IgG3 were sufficient to agglutinate type B red blood cells; therefore, IgG3-triggered agglutination did not require oligomerization. Molecular modelling indicated that mouse IgG3 has a larger range of Fab arms than other mouse IgG subclasses and that the unique properties of mouse IgG3 are likely due to the structure of its hinge region. With a focus on applications in diagnostics, we compared the stability of IgG3 and two IgMs in formulated blood typing reagents using an accelerated storage approach and differential scanning calorimetry. IgG3 was much more stable than IgMs. Interestingly, the rapid decrease in IgM activity was caused by aggregation of the molecules and a previously unknown posttranslational proteolytic processing of the μ heavy chain. Our data point to mouse IgG3 as a potent diagnostic tool. PMID:27484487

  18. Structural Basis for the ABO Blood-Group Dependence of Plasmodium falciparum Rosetting

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Audrey; Raynal, Bertrand; England, Patrick; Cohen, Jacques H.; Bertrand, Olivier; Peyrard, Thierry; Bentley, Graham A.; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2012-01-01

    The ABO blood group influences susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent evidence indicates that the protective effect of group O operates by virtue of reduced rosetting of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) with uninfected RBCs. Rosetting is mediated by a subgroup of PfEMP1 adhesins, with RBC binding being assigned to the N-terminal DBL1α1 domain. Here, we identify the ABO blood group as the main receptor for VarO rosetting, with a marked preference for group A over group B, which in turn is preferred to group O RBCs. We show that recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 and NTS-DBL1α1-CIDR1γ reproduce the VarO-iRBC blood group preference and document direct binding to blood group trisaccharides by surface plasmon resonance. More detailed RBC subgroup analysis showed preferred binding to group A1, weaker binding to groups A2 and B, and least binding to groups Ax and O. The 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of the PfEMP1-VarO Head region, NTS-DBL1α1-CIDR1γ, reveals extensive contacts between the DBL1α1 and CIDR1γ and shows that the NTS-DBL1α1 hinge region is essential for RBC binding. Computer docking of the blood group trisaccharides and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis localized the RBC-binding site to the face opposite to the heparin-binding site of NTS-DBLα1. RBC binding involves residues that are conserved between rosette-forming PfEMP1 adhesins, opening novel opportunities for intervention against severe malaria. By deciphering the structural basis of blood group preferences in rosetting, we provide a link between ABO blood grouppolymorphisms and rosette-forming adhesins, consistent with the selective role of falciparum malaria on human genetic makeup. PMID:22807674

  19. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    Alloantibodies directed to red blood cell (RBC) antigens play an important role in alloimmune-mediated haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The frequencies and phenotypes of RBC antigens are different in populations from different geographic areas and races. However, the data on major blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China are still very limited; thus, we aimed to investigate them in this study. A total of 1412 unrelated voluntary Chinese Han blood donors were randomly recruited. All donors were typed for blood group antigens: D, C, c, E, e, C(w) , Jk(a) , Jk(b) ,M, N, S, s, Le(a) , Le(b) , K, k. Kp(a) , Kp(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , P1 and Di(a) using serological technology. Calculations of antigen and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amongst the Rh antigens, D was the most common (98.94%) followed by e (92.28%), C (88.81%), c (58.43%), E (50.78%) and C(w) (0.07%) with DCe/DCe (R1 R1 , 40.72%) being the most common phenotype. In the Kell blood group system, k was present in 100% of the donors and a rare phenotype, Kp (a+b+), was found in 0.28% of the donors. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (44.05% and 84.35%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S-s+ (45.54%) was the most common, whereas M+N-S-s- and M-N+S-s- were not found. The rare Lu (a-b-) and Lu (a+b+) phenotypes were identified in 0.43% and 1.13% of the donors, respectively. Le(a) and Le(b) were seen in 17.92% and 63.03% of donors, respectively. The frequency of Di(a) was 4.75%, which was higher than in the Chinese population in Taiwan region or the Caucasian and Black populations (P < 0.0001). This study systematically describes the frequencies of 24 blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China. The data can

  20. Apparent change of Rhesus blood group typing in a case of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Tien, S L; Ong, Y W; Ng, H S

    1991-08-01

    An interesting case of ulcerative colitis with an apparent change of Rhesus blood group typing is described. To our knowledge, this has not been reported before. We postulate that during the initial active phase of ulcerative colitis, an unknown D-like antigen, possibly bacterial in origin, could temporarily give rise to a Rhesus D-positive blood group typing in a patient with Rhesus D-negative blood type. Interestingly, with continuous immunosuppressive therapy for ulcerative colitis, the patient did not develop anti-D antibodies despite multiple transfusions with D-positive blood. PMID:1776013

  1. Development and Validation of a Fully Automated Platform for Extended Blood Group Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Boccoz, Stephanie A; Le Goff, Gaelle C; Mandon, Celine A; Corgier, Benjamin P; Blum, Loïc J; Marquette, Christophe A

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-five blood group systems, containing >300 antigens, are listed by the International Society of Blood Transfusion. Most of these antigens result from a single nucleotide polymorphism. Blood group typing is conventionally performed by serology. However, this technique has some limitations and cannot respond to the growing demand of blood products typed for a large number of antigens. The knowledge of the molecular basis of these red blood cell systems allowed the implementation of molecular biology methods in immunohematology laboratories. Here, we describe a blood group genotyping assay based on the use of TKL immobilization support and microarray-based HIFI technology that takes approximately 4 hours and 30 minutes from whole-blood samples to results analysis. Targets amplified by multiplex PCR were hybridized on the chip, and a revelation step allowed the simultaneous identification of up to 24 blood group antigens, leading to the determination of extended genotypes. Two panels of multiplex PCR were developed: Panel 1 (KEL1/2, KEL3/4; JK1/2; FY1/2; MNS1/2, MNS3/4, FY*Fy et FY*X) and Panel 2 (YT1/2; CO1/2; DO1/2, HY+, Jo(a+); LU1/2; DI1/2). We present the results of the evaluation of our platform on a panel of 583 and 190 blood donor samples for Panel 1 and 2, respectively. Good correlations (99% to 100%) with reference were obtained. PMID:26621100

  2. Reagents for Astatination of Biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-Decaborate(2-) and closo-Dodecaborate(2-) Moieties as Reactive Groups for Labeling with Astatine-211

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, D. Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K.; Perry, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the α-particle emitting radionuclide 211At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B10H9R]2−) moiety for 211At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B12H11R]2−) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as 211At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regards to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g. 79–96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et3NH]2B12H10I-CONHpropyl, [125I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1h, 19.8 %ID/g; 4h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et3NH]2B10H8I-CONHpropyl, [125I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1h, 6.6%ID/g; 4h, 0.27%ID/g). Interestingly, when another salt of the

  3. Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-decaborate(2-) and closo-dodecaborate(2-) moieties as reactive groups for labeling with astatine-211.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D Scott; Chyan, Ming-Kuan; Hamlin, Donald K; Perry, Matthew A

    2009-03-18

    In vivo deastatination has been a major problem in the development of reagents for therapeutic applications of the alpha-particle emitting radionuclide (211)At. Our prior studies demonstrated that the use of a closo-decaborate(2-) ([closo-B(10)H(9)R](2-)) moiety for (211)At labeling of biomolecules provides conjugates that are stable to in vivo deastatination. In this investigation, the closo-decaborate(2-) moiety was compared with the structurally similar closo-dodecaborate(2-) ([closo-B(12)H(11)R](2-)) to determine if one has more favorable properties than the other for use in pendant groups as (211)At labeling molecules. To determine the differences, two sets of structurally identical molecules, with the exception that they contained either a closo-decaborate(2-) or a closo-dodecaborate(2-) moiety, were compared with regard to their synthesis, radiohalogenation, stability to in vivo deastatination and tissue distribution. Quite different rates of reaction were noted in the synthetic steps for the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, but ultimately the yields were similar, making these differences of little importance. Differences in radiohalogenation rates were also noted between the two closo-borate(2-) moieties, with the more electrophilic closo-decaborate(2-) reacting more rapidly. This resulted in somewhat higher yields of astatinated closo-decaborate(2-) derivatives (84% vs 53%), but both cage moieties gave good radioiodination yields (e.g., 79-96%). Importantly, both closo-borate(2-) cage moieties were shown to have high stability to in vivo deastatination. The largest differences between pairs of compounds containing the structurally similar boron cage moieties were in their in vivo tissue distributions. For example, [Et(3)NH](2)B(12)H(10)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]2b had high concentrations in kidney (1 h, 19.8%ID/g; 4 h, 26.5%ID/g), whereas [Et(3)NH](2)B(10)H(8)I-CONHpropyl, [(125)I]1e had much lower concentrations in kidney (1 h, 6.6%ID/g; 4 h, 0.27%ID

  4. Mice Expressing RHAG and RHD Human Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is “rescued” (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  5. Mice expressing RHAG and RHD human blood group genes.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Dominique; da Silva, Nelly; Metral, Sylvain; Cortes, Ulrich; Callebaut, Isabelle; Picot, Julien; Mouro-Chanteloup, Isabelle; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anti-RhD prophylaxis of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is highly effective, but as the suppressive mechanism remains uncertain, a mouse model would be of interest. Here we have generated transgenic mice expressing human RhAG and RhD erythrocyte membrane proteins in the presence and, for human RhAG, in the absence, of mouse Rhag. Human RhAG associates with mouse Rh but not mouse Rhag on red blood cells. In Rhag knockout mice transgenic for human RHAG, the mouse Rh protein is "rescued" (re-expressed), and co-immunoprecipitates with human RhAG, indicating the presence of hetero-complexes which associate mouse and human proteins. RhD antigen was expressed from a human RHD gene on a BAC or from RHD cDNA under control of β-globin regulatory elements. RhD was never observed alone, strongly indicative that its expression absolutely depends on the presence of transgenic human RhAG. This first expression of RhD in mice is an important step in the creation of a mouse model of RhD allo-immunisation and HDFN, in conjunction with the Rh-Rhag knockout mice we have developed previously. PMID:24260394

  6. ABO blood groups in relation to breast carcinoma incidence and associated prognostic factors in Moroccan women.

    PubMed

    Zouine, S; Marnissi, F; Otmani, N; Bennani Othmani, M; El Wafi, M; Kojok, K; Zaid, Y; Tahiri Jouti, N; Habti, N

    2016-07-01

    The association between blood groups ABO and different types of diseases was established in several previous studies. Our aim was to seek the possible association between the ABO blood group and breast cancer-associated prognostic factors. The Chi-squared analytic test was used to compare phenotypic ABO distribution among Moroccan blood donors and 442 cases of women suffering from breast carcinoma with archived files in Maternity Ward of University Hospital C.H.U Ibn Rochd between 2008 and 2011. High incidence of breast carcinoma was observed in blood type B patients (p < 0.05). Blood type B was associated with breast carcinomas overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 (p < 0.05) and high risk of cancer at age over 70 years (p < 0.001). Blood type A was associated with high risk of cancer among women younger than 35 years old. Blood type A and AB were associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis has shown correlation between O blood type and estrogen receptor-positive tumor. Patients with blood group A, B, and AB were more likely to develop aggressive breast carcinoma. Further follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the role of ABH antigens in the progression of breast carcinoma. PMID:27241035

  7. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  8. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient. PMID:23890534

  9. Association of ABO blood group with fracture pattern and mortality in hip fracture patients

    PubMed Central

    Smith, RP; Khan, A; Aghedo, D; Venkatesan, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The mechanism of falling has been proposed as the exclusive explanation for hip fracture pattern. Evidence exists that other genetic factors also influence proximal femoral fracture configuration. The ABO blood group serotype has been associated with other pathologies but any role in hip fracture has yet to be definitively characterised. Methods Our National Hip Fracture Database was interrogated over a four-year period. All patients had their blood group retrieved, and this was compared with hip fracture pattern and mortality rates. Confounding factors were accounted for using logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 2,987 consecutive patients presented to our institution. Those with blood group A were significantly more likely to sustain intracapsular fractures than ‘non-A’ individuals (p=0.009). The blood group distribution of patients with intracapsular fractures was identical to that of the national population of England. However, blood group A was less common in patients with intertrochanteric fractures than in the general population (p=0.0002). Even after correction for age and sex, blood group A was associated with a decrease in the odds of suffering an intertrochanteric fracture to 80% (p=0.002). Blood group A had inferior survivorship correcting for age, sex and hip fracture pattern (hazard ratio: 1.14, p=0.035). This may be due to associated increased prevalence of co-morbid disease in this cohort. Conclusions Blood group is an independent predictor of hip fracture pattern, with group A patients more likely to sustain an intracapsular fracture and non-A individuals more likely to sustain an intertrochanteric fracture. The determinants of fracture pattern are likely to be related to complex interactions at a molecular level based on genetic susceptibility. The mechanism of fall may not be the only aetiological determinant of proximal femoral fracture configuration. PMID:25198976

  10. AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS BLOOD PROGRAM AWARD GROUP - LEFT TO RIGHT - SEATED - JOHN S BROWN - MISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS BLOOD PROGRAM AWARD GROUP - LEFT TO RIGHT - SEATED - JOHN S BROWN - MISS ELEANOR KIPLINGER - DR SHARP - JESSIE SHEWARD - DR VICTORY - FIRST ROW - GORDON ROMIG - ROBERT BRIGADOI - MIKE VACCARO - ALFRED VALERINO -

  11. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  12. ABO blood group as a model for platelet glycan modification in arterial thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Hanrui; Reilly, John P.; Chrisitie, Jason D.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Kumagai, Tadahiro; Azadi, Parastoo; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood groups have long been associated with cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and acute coronary syndromes. Many studies over the years have shown type O blood group to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to non-type O blood groups. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Although ABO blood group is associated with variations in concentrations of circulating von Willebrand Factor and other endothelial cell adhesion molecules, ABO antigens are also present on several platelet surface glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. As we highlight in this platelet-centric review, these glycomic modifications may impact platelet function in arterial thrombosis. More broadly, improving our understanding of the role of platelet glycan modifications in acute coronary syndromes may inform future diagnostics and therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26044584

  13. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion. PMID:23563364

  14. [Correlation between Staphylococcus carriage, specific antibody-production and AB0-blood grouping in plasma donors].

    PubMed

    Nemyrovs'ka, L M; Patoka, V V

    2002-01-01

    Interaction peculiarities of three components of the immune human homeostasis-antigens of blood groups AB0, staphylococcus antigens and antistaphylococcus antibodies have been investigated. Donors (85) of antistaphylococcus plasma immunized by staphylococcus anatoxin have been investigated. It is found that the nasal staphylococcus carriage in donors depends on the level of specific and natural antibodies and on the coincidence between the staphylococcus antigen structure and the protein substance of the specific blood group factors. PMID:12190026

  15. Relationship between ABO blood groups and carcinoma of esophagus and cardia in Chaoshan inhabitants of China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Lu, Shan-Ming; Tian, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Hu; Xiao-YunLi; Li, De-Rui; Zheng, Zhi-Chao

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between ABO blood groups and carcinoma of esophagus and cardia in Chaoshan inhabitants of China, which is a unique Littoral high-risk area of esophageal carcinoma in China. The poor communication and transportation in the past has made Chaoshan a relatively closed area and kept its culture and custure of old China thousand years ago. METHODS: Data on age, sex, ABO blood type and X-ray or pathological diagnose of the patients with carcinoma of esophagus or cardia were collected from the Tumor Hospital. First Affiliated Hospital, Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College; and the Central Hospital of Shantou and the Central Hospital of Jieyang. A total of 6685 patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC) and 2955 patients with cardiac cancer (CC) in Chaoshan district were retrospectively assessed for their association with ABO blood groups. RESULTS: The distribution of ABO blood groups in patients with EC or CC was similar to the normal local population in Chaoshan. However, blood group B in male patients with CC and in the patients with carcinoma in the upper third esophagus was 2.3% and 4.7% higher than the corresponding controls. The relative risk B∶O was 1.1415 (P < 0.05) and 1.2696 (P < 0.05), respectively. No relationship was found between ABO blood groups and tumor differentiation. CONCLUSION: ABO blood group B is associated with the incidence of CC in male individuals and carcinoma in the upper third esophagus. The distribution of ABO blood groups varies in the different geographical and ethnic groups. As a result, proper controls are very important for such studies. PMID:11819849

  16. Human blood group activity of human and canine intestinal glycolipids containing fucose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E. L.; Bowdler, A. J.; Bull, R. W.; McKibbin, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A number of fucose-containing glycolipids (fuco-lipids), which are similar in composition to those of human normal and malignant gastrointestinal tissue, have been isolated from whole small intestines of individual dogs. Dogs from which these fuco-lipids were isolated fell into two types according to the qualitative sugar composition of their fuco-lipids. Glycolipids from type I dogs contained glucose, galactose, glucosamine, galactosamine and fucose, while those from type II dogs contained the same sugars but lacked galactosamine. Fucolipids isolated from type I and II dogs were tested for both canine blood group and human A, B, H and Lea and Leb blood group activity. At the concentrations tested, only human blood group A activity was found in significant amounts, and only in those fuco-lipids which contained galactosamine (type I dogs). Of the fuco-lipids with human blood group A activity, some had activity comparable to that of glycoprotein blood group substances, while others had lower, but significant, activity. These latter fuco-lipids also had marked chromatographic differences, indicating that they are of several different structural types, a finding similar to the A active glycolipids of human red cell stroma. None of the isolated intestinal fuco-lipids had canine blood group activity. A fuco-lipid with Lea activity was also isolated in relatively large amounts from a normal human whole small intestine. PMID:4753403

  17. Comparison of Lip Print Patterns in Two Indian Subpopulations and Its Correlation in ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Suragimath, Girish; Sande, Abhijeet R; Kulkarni, Prasad; Nimbal, Anand; Shankar, T.; Gowd, T. Snigdha; Shetty, Prajwal K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The study of lip-print pattern (cheiloscopy) is a scientific method for personal identification and plays a major role in forensic and criminal investigations. Objective: To compare the lip print patterns in Kerala and Maharashtra population and correlate between ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects, 100 from Maharashtra and 100 from Kerala were considered for the study. Lip prints were recorded, analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The lip print patterns were compared in the two populations, correlated in ABO blood groups. The data obtained was statistically analyzed with SPSS software using chi-square test. Results: In our study, predominant lip print pattern observed in Kerala population was type IV (53%) and Maharashtra population was type II (42%). The difference between the two population was statistically significant (p<0.001). Subjects with A+ and O- blood groups had type II lip print predominance. Subjects with B+, AB+ and O+ blood groups had type IV predominance. The lip print patterns do not show any correlation in ABO blood groups. Conclusion: Lip prints are unique to each individual and are different even in two persons. Lip print patterns were different in the two sub populations studied, and they showed no correlation in ABO blood groups. PMID:25478445

  18. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro...

  19. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9225 - Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9225 Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. Cell-freezing apparatus and reagents for in vitro...

  3. A questionnaire on survival of kittens depending on the blood groups of the parents.

    PubMed

    Axnér, Eva

    2014-10-01

    Cats more than 2 months of age have alloantibodies against the blood type antigen that they do not possess. Maternal antibodies, including alloantibodies against blood groups, are transferred to the kittens' systemic circulation when they suckle colostrum during the first 12-16 h after birth. If kittens with blood group A or AB nurse from a mother with blood group B they may develop neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI). Breeders can prevent kittens at risk of NI from nursing during the first 16-24 h; after this period it is safe to let them nurse. Kittens depend, however, on the passive transfer of antibodies from the colostrum for early protection against infections. Although it is known that kittens deprived of colostrum will also be deprived of passive systemic immunity, it is not known if this will affect their health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate kitten mortality in litters with B-mothers and A-fathers compared to litters with A-mothers. In addition, the aim was to evaluate the effects of colostrum deprivation on the health of the mothers, and the breeders' opinions and experiences of these combinations of breedings. A web-based questionnaire was constructed and distributed to breeders. The results indicate that there is no difference in mortality between planned litters that have mothers with blood group A and litters with mothers that have blood group B and fathers that have blood group A. When managing blood group incompatibility in cat all factors affecting the health of the cats, including genetic variation, should be considered. PMID:24423812

  4. Mutation at codon 322 in the human acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) gene accounts for YT blood group polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, C.F.; Lockridge, O. ); Zelinski, T. )

    1993-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is present in innervated tissues, where its function is to terminate nerve impulse transmission. It is also found in the red blood cell membrane, where its function is unknown. The authors report the first genetic variant of human acetylcholinesterase and support the identity of acetylcholinesterase as the YT blood group antigen. DNA sequencing shows that the wild-type sequence of acetylcholinesterase with His322 (CAC) is the YT1 blood group antigen and that the rare variant of acetylcholinesterase with Asn322 (AAC) is the YT2 blood group antigen. Two additional point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene do not affect the amino acid sequence of the mature enzyme. 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Case report: diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Baranyay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having altered protein glycosilation, modified blood group substances have been widely studied [Kannagi R, Miyake M, Zenita KM, Itai S, Hiraiwa N, Shigeta K, et al. Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens: modified blood group substances and oncodevelopmental antigens on tumor cells. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 1988; 34: p. 15-28; Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O their changes associated with human cancer. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999; 1473: p. 247-266; Brooks SA, Carter TM, Royle L, Harvey DJ, Fry SA, Kinch C, et al. Altered glycosilation of proteins in cancer: what is the potential for new anti-tumour strategies. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2008; 8: p. 2-21]. In the study reported here, a 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with circulatory failure. At autopsy, the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with a diffusely blackberry-colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology, the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Using immunohistochemistry, an antibody to breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient was blood group O. Labelling for binding of lectins with and without blood group antigen specificity and monoclonal antibodies was carried out. The B blood group specific Banderiaea simplicifolia agglutinin I and an anti-B blood group monoclonal antibody labelled all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow intensely. There was no detection of blood group A antigen by either binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The surviving carcinoma cells may have found a place of refuge from immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow

  6. Prevalence of feline blood groups in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fosset, Fabrice T J; Blais, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    The feline AB blood group system has clinical significance because type B cats have natural alloimmune anti-A antibodies which can cause isoerythrolysis of the newborn and life-threatening transfusion reactions. In the United States, the prevalence of type B blood is estimated to be 1% to 2%. This study determined the prevalence of feline AB blood groups among 207 potential blood donor cats that included 178 domestic cats, in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada. Blood typing was performed using a standardized tube technique. Blood types AB and B were confirmed using a backtyping technique. The frequency of blood types among the studied population was as follows: 95.2% type A, 4.4% type B, and 0.48% type AB. Among domestic cats, the frequency was 94.4% for type A, 5% for type B, and 0.6% for type AB. The frequency of type B was higher than expected, which reinforces the recommendation to ensure blood compatibility of the recipient and donor before transfusion through typing and possibly cross-matching as well. PMID:24381340

  7. Shelf-stable electrophilic reagents for trifluoromethylthiolation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xinxin; Xu, Chunfa; Lu, Long; Shen, Qilong

    2015-05-19

    Fluorine, which is the most electronegative element and has a small atomic radius, plays a key role in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials sciences. One of the fluoroalkyl groups, the trifluoromethylthio group (CF3S-), has been well-recognized as an important structural motif in the design of lead compounds for new drug discovery because of its high lipophilicity (Hansch lipophilicity parameter π = 1.44) and strong electron-withdrawing properties, which could improve the drug molecule's cell-membrane permeability and enhance its chemical and metabolic stability. While classic methods for the preparation of trifluoromethylthiolated compounds typically involve halogen-fluorine exchange reactions of polyhalogenomethyl thioethers or trifluoromethylation of sulfur-containing compounds under harsh reaction conditions, an alternative but more attractive strategy is direct trifluoromethylthiolation of the substrate at a late stage by employing an electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagent. Although several electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents have been reported previously, these reagents either require a strong Lewis acid/Brønsted acid as an activator or suffer from a toxic nature or limited substrate scope. To address these problems, in late 2011 we initiated a project with the aim to develop new, shelf-stable, and highly reactive electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagents that could easily install the trifluoromethylthio group at the desired positions of the drug molecule at a late stage of drug development. Inspired by the broad reactivity of the hypervalent iodine reagent, we initially discovered a highly reactive trifluoromethylthiolating reagent, trifluoromethanesulfenate 1a. Structure-reactivity studies disclosed that the iodine atom of reagent 1a does not play an important role in this reagent's reactivity. Consequently, a simplified second-generation electrophilic reagent, trifluoromethanesulfenate 1b, was developed. In parallel

  8. Clostridium perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase blood group A2-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Smith, Daniel

    2003-04-01

    Enzymic modification of type A(2) erythrocyte membranes with Clostridium perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was investigated. An ELISA demonstrated hydrolysis of type A(2) epitopes under conditions of red-blood-cell collection and storage. The enzyme hydrolysed the terminal N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine from the blood type A(2) antigen, producing H antigen, blood group O, which is universally compatible in the ABO system. The enzyme was active in common red-cell preservative solutions at pH 6.4-7.0, at 4 degrees C, at ionic strengths found in stored red cell units and in the presence of type A plasma. These data imply that the C. perfringens alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase might be added directly to packed A(2) red-blood-cell units for enzymic conversion to blood type O. Further studies are warranted. PMID:12630904

  9. ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Corvelo, T C O; Schneider, H; Harada, M L

    2002-06-01

    The ABO blood groups were determined in blood and saliva collected from 40 Aotus infulatus, 74 Saimiri sciureus, and 96 Cebus apella from the Amazonian region along the Tocantins river. Saliva samples were tested for human ABH antigens by a standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The observed distribution was as expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. Sera were used to detect naturally occurring antibodies and the results showed discrepancies between serum and saliva phenotypes in all species studied. PMID:12190854

  10. [Phenotype characteristics of humoral immunity parameters in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis with different blood groups].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Radomskaia, V M; Gil'miiarov, E M; Zubova, I A; Ryskina, E A; Epifanova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Interrelationships between parameters of humoral immunity with AB0 blood groups have been investigated. The highest content of IgA to transglutaminase was found in A(II) patients, while the lowest content was found in AB(IV) patients. The blood content on anti-gliadin IgA was higher in healthy donors. The oral liquid of periodontic patients contained anti-gliadin IgA and IgB lacking in healthy donors. It have been found that 47% of healthy people and 52.7% of patients are infcted with Helicobacter pylori. In the group of periodontic patients A(II) individually predominated; they were characterized by the presence of antibodies to H. pylori in the oral liquid, these antibodies were absent in healthy donors. The pepsinogen level was higher in blood of periodontic patients than in healthy donors. B(III) patients had the lowest level of blood pepsinogen. PMID:22359921

  11. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  12. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups.

    PubMed

    Hrv, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  13. Correlation of Lip Prints with Gender, ABO Blood Groups and Intercommissural Distance

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Saharan, Swati; Sachdeva, Kompal

    2013-01-01

    Background: In forensics, the mouth allows for a myriad of possibilities. Lip print on glass or cigarette butt found at crime scenes may link to a suspect. Hence, a dentist has to actively play his role in personal identification and criminal investigation. Aims: To investigate the uniqueness of the lip print patterns in relation to gender, ABO blood groups and intercommissural distance (ICD). Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 208 randomly selected students. The lip print of each subject was obtained and pattern was analyzed according to Tsuchihashi classification. The blood group and ICD at rest position was recorded for each. Results: The study showed that Type II (branched) lip pattern to be most prominent. The B+ blood group was the most common in both genders and the ICD is higher in males. The lip print pattern does not show any correlation between ABO blood groups, gender, and ICD. Conclusions: The lip print pattern shows no correlation with gender, ABO blood groups, or ICD. Further studies with larger samples are required to obtain statistical significance of this correlation. PMID:24020053

  14. Effect of Lewis blood group antigen expression on bacterial adherence to COS-1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, R A; Schaeffer, A J; Anderson, B E; Duncan, J L

    1994-01-01

    Epithelial cells from secretor individuals demonstrate decreased bacterial adherence compared with cells from nonsecretors. Lewis blood group antigen expression is one component of the secretor/nonsecretor phenotype and several epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between Lewis blood group antigen phenotype and susceptibility to urinary tract infections. In this study, we examined the possibility that the expression of the difucosylated Lewis blood group determinants, Leb and Ley (associated with the secretor phenotype), made cells less susceptible to Escherichia coli adherence by masking receptors for pili. COS-1 cells, which do not produce Lewis (Lea, Leb, Le(x), and Ley) blood group antigens, were used as target cells for bacterial adherence. The surface blood group antigen expression pattern of the cells was then modified by cotransfection with plasmids containing DNA inserts encoding alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase and alpha (1,3)- and alpha (1,4)-fucosyltransferases, resulting in the expression of Leb and Ley. E. coli HB101 expressing various adhesins (type 1, PapJ96, PapIA2, PapAD110, Prs, and S) from recombinant plasmids bound equally well to untransfected cells and transfected cells expressing Lea and Le(x) (nonsecretor phenotype) and Leb and Ley (secretor phenotype) antigens. We conclude that the presence of Leb and Ley antigens on cells from secretors does not alone mask receptors for E. coli pili or hinder bacterial adherence. PMID:8005692

  15. Isolation and purification of blood group antigens using immuno-affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Mönster, Andrea; Hiller, Oliver; Grüger, Daniela; Blasczyk, Rainer; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-02-01

    Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM(®)) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM(®) Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM(®) Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM(®) Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap(®) metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column. PMID:21194702

  16. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  17. Red blood cell complement receptor one level varies with Knops blood group, α+thalassaemia and age among Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958

  18. Mixed reagents in multicomponent flow-injection analysis Simultaneous determination of iron and copper in blood serum with mixed bathocuproinedisulphonate and bathophenanthrolinedisulphonate or ferrozine.

    PubMed

    Kubán, V; Gladilovich, D B; Sommer, L; Popov, P

    1989-04-01

    Mixtures of 0.6mM bathocuproinedisulphonate (BC) and 0.2mM bathophenanthrolinedisulphonate (BP) or 2mM BC and 0.2mM ferrozine (FZ) were used for a rapid determination of iron and copper in deproteinated blood serum in the presence of 0.1M formate buffer (pH 3.5), 10mM ascorbic acid and 0.3M trichloroacetic acid, by two variants of multicomponent FIA with a diode-array detector (MC-FIA). Merging zones MC-FIA is especially suitable for the determination of 0.7-33muM Fe and 0.4-35muMCu, for Cu:Fe concentration ratios from 10:1 to 1:10and with RSD <3 or 2% for Fe or RSD <6 or 5% for Cu in artificial mixtures and deproteinated standard blood sera, respectively, and relative errors of less than 3-5%. The concentrations of both elements were calculated according to a simple computer program (ORTHO) for overdetermined systems (10 or 11 wavelengths), but evaluation at the absorption maxima for the individual chelates (at 2 or 3 wavelengths) also gave satisfactory results. PMID:18964739

  19. Genetic Sequencing Analysis of A307 Subgroup of ABO Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Lin, Jiajin; Zhu, Suiyong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the serology and gene sequence characteristics of the A307 subgroup of the ABO blood group. Material/Methods Monoclonal anti-A and anti-B antibodies were used to detect the ABO antigens of a proband whose positive blood type was not consistent with the negative blood type of the ABO blood group. Standard A-, B-, and O-negative typing cells were used to test for ABO antibodies in the serum. Additionally, polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) was used to confirm the genotype, and subsequently, exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were detected by gene sequencing. Samples from the wife and daughters of the proband were also used for serological and genetic testing. Results Red blood cells of the proband showed weak agglutination reaction with anti-A antibody, while anti-B antibody was detected in the serum. Moreover, PCR-SSP detected A307 and O02 alleles, while gene sequencing revealed mutation of c.745C>T in exon 7, which produced a polypeptide chain p.R249W. The A307 gene of the proband was not inherited by his daughters. Conclusions A mutation (c.745 C>T) in exon 7 of the ABO blood group gene resulted in low activity of α-1,3-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase, producing A3 phenotype. PMID:26381103

  20. Is ABO blood group truly a risk factor for thrombosis and adverse outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shan; Welsby, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood type is one of the most readily available laboratory tests, and serves as a vital determinant in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO antigens are expressed not only on red blood cell membranes, determining the compatibility of transfusion, but also on the surface of other human cells, including epithelium, platelet and vascular endothelium, therefore extending the research into other involvements of cardiovascular disease and postoperative outcomes. ABO blood group has been recognized as a risk factor of venous thrombosis embolism since the 1960’s, effects now understood to be related to ABO dependent variations are procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. Levels of vWF, mostly genetically determined, are strongly associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). It mediates platelet adhesion aggregation and stabilizes FVIII in plasma. Moreover, many studies have tried to identify the relationship between ABO blood types and ischemic heart disease. Unlike the clear and convincing associations between VTE and ABO blood type, the link between ABO blood type and ischemic heart disease is less consistent and may be confusing. Other than genetic factors, ischemic heart disease is strongly related to diet, race, lipid metabolism and economic status. In this review, we’ll summarize the data relating race and genetics, including ABO blood type, to VTE, ischemic heart disease and postoperative bleeding after cardiac surgery. PMID:25276299

  1. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  2. Molecular basis for H blood group deficiency in Bombay (Oh) and para-Bombay individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R J; Ernst, L K; Larsen, R D; Bryant, J G; Robinson, J S; Lowe, J B

    1994-01-01

    The penultimate step in the biosynthesis of the human ABO blood group oligosaccharide antigens is catalyzed by alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase(s) (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), whose expression is determined by the H and Secretor (SE) blood group loci (also known as FUT1 and FUT2, respectively). These enzymes construct Fuc alpha 1-->2Gal beta-linkages, known as H determinants, which are essential precursors to the A and B antigens. Erythrocytes from individuals with the rare Bombay and para-Bombay blood group phenotypes are deficient in H determinants, and thus A and B determinants, as a consequence of apparent homozygosity for null alleles at the H locus. We report a molecular analysis of a human alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene, thought to correspond to the H blood group locus, in a Bombay pedigree and a para-Bombay pedigree. We find inactivating point mutations in the coding regions of both alleles of this gene in each H-deficient individual. These results define the molecular basis for H blood group antigen deficiency in Bombay and para-Bombay phenotypes, provide compelling evidence that this gene represents the human H blood group locus, and strongly support a hypothesis that the H and SE loci represent distinct alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase genes. Candidate sequences for the human SE locus are identified by low-stringency Southern blot hybridization analyses, using a probe derived from the H alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene. Images PMID:7912436

  3. The relationship between ABO blood group and cardiovascular disease: results from the Cardiorisk program

    PubMed Central

    Capuzzo, Enrico; Bonfanti, Carlo; Frattini, Francesco; Montorsi, Paolo; Turdo, Rosalia; Previdi, Maria Grazia; Turrini, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group exerts a profound influence on hemostasis, and it has hence been associated with the development of thrombotic cardiovascular adverse events. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the ABO blood group and the risk of cardiovascular disease assessed with the Cardiorisk score. Methods All blood donors aged between 35 and 65 years were enrolled in the Cardiorisk program, which included the assessment of 8 variables (sex, age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, plasma glucose, arterial blood pressure, anti-hypertensive therapy and smoking) which were used to generate a score. Individuals with a resulting score ≥20, considered at high cardiovascular risk, underwent additional instrumental tests (chest X-ray, stress electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound of supra-aortic trunks) and were closely clinically monitored. Results Between January 2005 and December 2015, 289 blood donors with Cardiorisk ≥20 were identified, 249 of whom were included in the study with at least 2 years of follow-up. Among these, 36 (14.5%) had instrumental abnormality tests and developed adverse cardiovascular events (10 acute coronary syndrome, 2 cerebral ischemia, 3 cardiac arrhythmia, 8 stenosis of supra-aortic trunks or iliac arteries) during a median follow-up of 5.3 years. In this group of 249 high risk individuals, a statistically significant association (P=0.02) was found between the non-O blood type and the risk of developing subclinical or clinical cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1–10.1; P=0.033). Conclusions The results of this study underline the both key role of ABO blood group for the risk of developing arterial thrombotic events and the need for including such unmodifiable variable on the scores assessing the thrombotic risk. PMID:27294085

  4. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. Aim To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Materials and Methods Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Results Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Conclusion Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination. PMID:27042574

  5. The ABO, Lewis or P blood group phenotypes are not associated with recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Sigler, E; Fenakel, K

    1991-01-01

    An assumption that ABO, Lewis, or P blood group phenotypes are associated with recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in a similar way as with recurrent urinary tract infection has been tried to establish. Of 20 patients with PID 9 (45%) had blood type A, 6 (30%) type B, 1 (5%) type AB and 4 (20%) type O; 14 (70%) had Le(a-b+), 5 (25%) had Le(a+b-), and 1 (5%) had Le(a-b-). Of the 20 controls 10 (50%) had blood type A, 3 (15%) type B, 1 (5%) type AB and 6 (30%) type O; 12 (60%) had Le(a-b+), 4 (20%) had Le(a+b-), and 4 (20%) had Le(a-b-). The difference in the proportions of the A, B, AB, and O phenotypes as well as the proportion of combined recessive and nonsecretor phenotype Le(a+/-b-) between patients with recurrent PID and controls were not statistically significant. The distribution was consistent with that in the general population. 2 of the patient group (10%) and 6 (30%) of the controls had positive blood type P1 (Fisher's exact probability = 0.0958). The distribution of P1 between the patients and controls was opposite to that in the general population. We could not demonstrate association of ABO, Lewis or P blood group phenotypes with recurrent PID. PMID:2071054

  6. Bombay blood group: Is prevalence decreasing with urbanization and the decreasing rate of consanguineous marriage

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Sujata; Kotasthane, Dhananjay S.; Chowdhury, Puskar S.; Sarkar, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bombay blood group although rare is found to be more prevalent in the Western and Southern states of India, believed to be associated with consanguineous marriage. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of the Bombay blood group (Oh) in the urban population of Puducherry. To find the effect of urbanization on consanguineous marriage and to establish whether consanguinity plays a part in the prevalence of Oh group. To compare Oh group prevalence with that of other neighboring states, where population is not predominantly urban. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive study in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, over a period of 6 years. Materials and Methods: All blood samples showing ‘O’ group were tested with anti-H lectin. Specialized tests like Adsorption Elution Technique, inhibition assay for determination of secretor status were performed on Oh positive cases. Any history of consanguineous marriage was recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: All variables were categorical variable and percentage and proportions were calculated manually. Results: Analysis of the results of 35,497 study subjects showed that the most common group was ‘O’ group constituting 14,164 (39.90%) of subjects. Only three “Oh” that is, Bombay phenotype (0.008%) were detected. Consanguinity was observed in two cases (66.66%). Conclusions: This study shows the prevalence of Bombay blood group representing the urban population of Puducherry, to be high (0.008%) and associated with consanguineous marriage (66.66%). Thus, consanguinity is still an important risk factor present, even in an urban population in Southern India. PMID:26420929

  7. Association of ABO Blood Group Phenotype and Allele Frequency with Chikungunya Fever

    PubMed Central

    Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Limprasert, Pornprot

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of the ABO blood group phenotype and allele frequency with CHIK fever. Methods. A rural community survey in Southern Thailand was conducted in August and September 2010. A total of 506 villagers were enrolled. Cases were defined as individuals having anti-CHIK IgG by hemagglutination ≥1 : 10. Results. There were 314 cases (62.1%) with CHIK seropositivity. Females were less likely to have positive anti-CHIK IgG with odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) of 0.63 (0.43, 0.93). All samples tested were Rh positive. Distribution of CHIK seropositivity versus seronegativity (P value) in A, B, AB, and O blood groups was 80 versus 46 (0.003), 80 versus 48 (0.005), 24 versus 20 (0.55), and 130 versus 78 (<0.001), respectively. However, chi-square test between ABO and CHIK infection showed no statistical significance (P = 0.76). Comparison of the ABO blood group allele frequency between CHIK seropositivity and seronegativity was not statistically significant. Conclusion. This finding demonstrated no association of the ABO blood group phenotypes and allele frequencies with CHIK infection. PMID:25977691

  8. Constitutive heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and Duffy blood group alleles in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kosower, N.S.; Gerad, L.; Goldstein, M.; Parasol, N.

    1995-04-24

    Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in unrelated schizophrenic patients, unrelated controls and patients and family members in multiplex families. The size-distribution of chromosome 1 heterochromatic region (1qH, C-band variants) among 21 unrelated schizophrenic patients was different from that found in a group of 46 controls. The patient group had 1qH variants of smaller size than the control group (P < 0.01). Incubation of phytohemagglutinin-treated blood lymphocytes with 5-azacytidine (which causes decondensation and extension of the heterochromatin) led to a lesser degree of heterochromatin decondensation in a group of patients than in the controls (7 schizophrenic, 9 controls, P < 0.01). The distribution of phenotypes of Duffy blood group system (whose locus is linked to the 1qH region) among 28 schizophrenic patients was also different from that in the general population. Cosegregation of schizophrenia with a 1qH (C-band) variant and Duffy blood group allele was observed in one of six multiplex families. The overall results suggest that alterations within the Duffy/1qH region are involved in schizophrenia in some cases. This region contains the locus of D5 dopamine receptor pseudogene 2 (1q21.1), which is transcribed in normal lymphocytes. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Determination of 14 benzodiazepines and hydroxy metabolites, zaleplon and zolpidem as tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives compared with other common silylating reagents in whole blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Teemu; Ariniemi, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2005-04-25

    The most common commercially available silylating reagents, N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide+1% trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) and N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) were evaluated to achieve optimal derivatization conditions for analyzing various benzodiazepines based on gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS). Sensitivity, repeatability, retention times and stability of the derivatives, as well as specificity of mass fragmentation, were studied in detail. Also other parameters affecting the derivatization chemistry of benzodiazepines are discussed. tert-Butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives proved to be more stable, reproducible and sensitive than corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives for the GC-EI-MS analysis of benzodiazepines. Based on the TBDMS derivatives, a rapid, reliable, sensitive and quantitative GC-MS method was developed for the determination of 14 benzodiazepines and two hydroxy metabolites, as well as two non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents, zolpidem and zaleplon, using 50 microl of whole blood. The method was completely validated in terms of accuracy, intra- and interday precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, selectivity and extraction efficiency; these were all within the required limits, except for the accuracy of nitrazepam at a medium concentration level. PMID:15734157

  10. ABO Blood Group, Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Herbert; Lu, Lingeng; Kidd, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Carriage of a non–O ABO blood group and colonization by Helicobacter pylori are thought to be risk factors for pancreatic cancer. We examined these associations in a population-based case–control study of 373 case patients and 690 control subjects frequency matched on sex and age. Control subjects were selected by random-digit dialing. Seropositivity for H pylori and its virulence protein CagA was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was associated with non–O blood group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.83, P = .034) and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.66, P = .025), but no association was observed for CagA seropositivity (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.16). An association between pancreatic cancer risk and CagA-negative H pylori seropositivity was found among individuals with non–O blood type but not among those with O blood type (OR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.49 to 5.20, P = .0014; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.62 to 2.64, P = .51, respectively). This study demonstrates an association between pancreatic cancer and H pylori colonization, particularly for individuals with non–O blood types. PMID:20181960

  11. The ABO Blood Group is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients With Resected Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Koichi; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Usami, Noriyasu; Kawaguchi, Koji; Fukui, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Futoshi; Nakamura, Shota; Yokoi, Kohei

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group is reported to be associated with the incidence and patient survival for several types of malignancies. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the prognostic significance of the ABO blood group in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods A total of 333 patients (218 men and 115 women) with resected NSCLC were included in this study. In addition to age, sex, smoking status, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, operative procedure, histology of tumors, pathological stage (p-stage), and adjuvant therapy, the association between the ABO blood group and survival was explored. Results The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 83.0% and 71.6% for blood group O, 67.2% and 62.3% for blood group A, 68.8% and 68.8% for blood group B and 69.2% and 65.3% for blood group AB, respectively. A multivariate analysis for overall survival showed the ABO blood group (group A vs. group O: HR 2.47, group AB vs. group O: HR 3.62) to be an independent significant prognostic factor, in addition to age, sex, smoking status, p-stage, and serum CEA level. A multivariate analysis for disease-free survival also showed the ABO blood group to be an independent significant prognostic factor. Conclusions The ABO blood group is an independent prognostic factor in patients with resected NSCLC. Studies of other larger cohorts are therefore needed to confirm the relationship between the ABO blood group and the prognosis among patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:25483106

  12. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Background/objectives Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium. PMID:22952457

  13. 14 Years of Polish Experience in Non-Invasive Prenatal Blood Group Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Orzińska, Agnieszka; Guz, Katarzyna; Dębska, Marzena; Uhrynowska, Małgorzata; Celewicz, Zbigniew; Wielgo, Mirosław; Brojer, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blood cell antigens may cause maternal alloimmunization leading to fetal/newborn disorders. Non-invasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD) of the blood group permits the determination of feto-maternal incompatibility. Aim To evaluate 14 years of blood group NIPD at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM) in Warsaw. Methods Plasma DNA from 536 RhD-negative, 24 Rhc-negative, 26 RhE-negative, 43 K-negative, and 42 HPA-1a-negative pregnant women was examined by real-time PCR to detect RHD, RHCE*c, RHCE*E, RHCE*C, KEL*01 and HPA*1A, respectively. We tested for CCR5, SRY or bi-allelic polymorphisms and quantified the total or fetal DNA. Results The results of fetal antigen status prediction by NIPD in all but one case (false-positive result of KEL*01) were correct taking neonate serology as a reference. It was confirmed that all negative results of NIPD contained fetal DNA except for four cases where there was no difference between the parents' polymorphisms. Conclusions A fetal genotype compatible with the mother was determined in 25% of all pregnancies tested at the IHTM for the fetal blood group. These cases were not at risk of disease, so it was possible to avoid invasive procedures. PMID:26733766

  14. Assignment of the Waldner blood group locus (WD) to 17q12-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Zelinski, T.; Coghlan, G.; White, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Waldner blood group antigen (WD1) was first recognized as a distinct erythrocyte surface structure in 1978. Occurring infrequently (incidence <1/1000) in random Caucasian blood samples, WD1 was assigned to the low-incidence (700) series by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) working party on terminology for red cell surface antigens. To date, WD1 has been identified in Hutterites from Manitoba, in Khoisans from South Africa, and in a family from Holland. Despite the isolated occurrence of WD1 in different populations, we are fortunate to have the only documented sizeable collection of families segregating for WD. In this article, we report the results of genetic linkage analyses that demonstrate that WD is somewhat loosely linked to the reference marker D17S41 at 17q12-q24 and closely linked to the anion exchange protein 1 locus (AE1) at 17q12-21. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  16. Blood Group O-Dependent Cellular Responses to Cholera Toxin: Parallel Clinical and Epidemiological Links to Severe Cholera.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, F Matthew; Santhanam, Srikanth; Kumar, Pardeep; Luo, Qingwei; Ciorba, Matthew A; Fleckenstein, James M

    2016-08-01

    Because O blood group has been associated with more severe cholera infections, it has been hypothesized that cholera toxin (CT) may bind non-O blood group antigens of the intestinal mucosae, thereby preventing efficient interaction with target GM1 gangliosides required for uptake of the toxin and activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in target epithelia. Herein, we show that after exposure to CT, human enteroids expressing O blood group exhibited marked increase in cAMP relative to cells derived from blood group A individuals. Likewise, using CRISPR/Cas9 engineering, a functional group O line (HT-29-A(-/-)) was generated from a parent group A HT-29 line. CT stimulated robust cAMP responses in HT-29-A(-/-) cells relative to HT-29 cells. These findings provide a direct molecular link between blood group O expression and differential cellular responses to CT, recapitulating clinical and epidemiologic observations. PMID:27162272

  17. High-throughput mass finger printing and Lewis blood group assignment of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Blank, Dennis; Gebhardt, Sabine; Maass, Kai; Lochnit, Günter; Dotz, Viktoria; Blank, Jennifer; Geyer, Rudolf; Kunz, Clemens

    2011-11-01

    The structural diversity of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) strongly depends on the Lewis (Le) blood group status of the donor which allows a classification of these glycans into three different groups. Starting from 50 μL of human milk, a new high-throughput, standardized, and widely automated mass spectrometric approach has been established which can be used for correlation of HMO structures with the respective Lewis blood groups on the basis of mass profiles of the entire mixture of glycans together with selected fragment ion spectra. For this purpose, the relative abundance of diagnostically relevant compositional species, such as Hex(2)Fuc(2) and Hex(3)HexNAc(1)Fuc(2), as well as the relative intensities of characteristic fragment ions obtained thereof are of key importance. For each Lewis blood group, i.e., Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), and Le(a-b-), specific mass profile and fragment ion patterns could be thus verified. The described statistically proven classification of the derived glycan patterns may be a valuable tool for analysis and comparison of large sets of milk samples in metabolic studies. Furthermore, the outlined protocol may be used for rapid screening in clinical studies and quality control of milk samples donated to milk banks. PMID:21898157

  18. von Willebrand Factor Propeptide: A Potential Disease Biomarker Not Affected by ABO Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Marianor, Mahat; Zaidah, Abdullah Wan; Maraina, CH Che

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that vascular-related disorders are associated with high von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF propeptide (VWFpp). VWFpp is secreted together with VWF:Ag upon endothelial cell activation, hence it could be a potential biomarker. This study was conducted to compare between VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels among 30 healthy individuals and 42 patients with high levels of VWF:Ag in different medical conditions and ABO blood groups. VWFpp levels were strongly correlated with VWF:Ag. VWF:Ag and VWFpp levels were significantly increased in patients compared to healthy individuals. VWFpp is not affected by ABO blood group in both healthy individual and patient groups unlike VWF:Ag. As expected, this study showed that VWFpp levels increased in parallel with VWF:Ag levels in patients with diseases associated with endothelial activation. VWFpp though nonspecific is a potential biomarker reflecting underlying pathophysiological changes in various medical conditions with an additional advantage of not being influenced by ABO blood groups. PMID:26339184

  19. Tropomyosin isoforms and reagents

    PubMed Central

    Schevzov, Galina; Whittaker, Shane P; Fath, Thomas; Lin, Jim JC

    2011-01-01

    Tropomyosins are rod-like dimers which form head-to-tail polymers along the length of actin filaments and regulate the access of actin binding proteins to the filaments.1 The diversity of tropomyosin isoforms, over 40 in mammals, and their role in an increasing number of biological processes presents a challenge both to experienced researchers and those new to this field. The increased appreciation that the role of these isoforms expands beyond that of simply stabilizing actin filaments has lead to a surge of reagents and techniques to study their function and mechanisms of action. This report is designed to provide a basic guide to the genes and proteins and the availability of reagents which allow effective study of this family of proteins. We highlight the value of combining multiple techniques to better evaluate the function of different tm isoforms and discuss the limitations of selected reagents. Brief background material is included to demystify some of the unfortunate complexity regarding this multi-gene family of proteins including the unconventional nomenclature of the isoforms and the evolutionary relationships of isoforms between species. Additionally, we present step-by-step detailed experimental protocols used in our laboratory to assist new comers to the field and experts alike. PMID:22069507

  20. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  1. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  2. Mechanism of catalytic aziridination with manganese corrole: the often postulated high-valent Mn(V) imido is not the group transfer reagent.

    PubMed

    Zdilla, Michael J; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2006-12-27

    The reaction of Arl=NTs (Ar = 2-(tert-butylsulfonyl)benzene and Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl) and (tpfc)Mn (tpfc=5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole), 1, affords the high-valent (tpfc)MnV=NTs, 2, on stopped-flow time scale. The reaction proceeds via the adduct [(tpfc)MnIII(ArINTs)], 3, with formation constant K3 = (10 +/- 2) x 10(3) L mol-1. Subsequently, 3 undergoes unimolecular group transfer to give complex 2 with the rate constant k4 = 0.26 +/- 0.07 s-1 at 24.0 degrees C. The complex (tpfc)Mn catalyzes [NTs] group transfer from ArINTs to styrene substrates with low catalyst loading and without requirement of excess olefin. The catalytic aziridination reaction is most efficient in benzene because solvents such as toluene undergo a competing hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction resulting in H2NTs and lowered aziridine yields. The high-valent manganese imido complex (tpfc)Mn=NTs does not transfer its [NTs] group to styrene. Double-labeling experiments with ArINTs and ArINTstBu (TstBu = (p-tert-butylphenyl)sulfonyl) establish the source of [NR] transfer as a "third oxidant", which is an adduct of Mn(V) imido, [(tpfc)Mn(NTstBu)(ArINTs)](4). Formation of this oxidant is rate limiting in catalysis. PMID:17177448

  3. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  4. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4–8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. PMID:26872772

  5. No Distinction of Orthology/Paralogy between Human and Chimpanzee Rh Blood Group Genes.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Takashi; Kim, Choong-Gon; Blancher, Antoine; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-03-01

    On human (Homo sapiens) chromosome 1, there is a tandem duplication encompassing Rh blood group genes (Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE). This duplication occurred in the common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and gorillas, after splitting from their common ancestor with orangutans. Although several studies have been conducted on ape Rh blood group genes, the clear genome structures of the gene clusters remain unknown. Here, we determined the genome structure of the gene cluster of chimpanzee Rh genes by sequencing five BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) clones derived from chimpanzees. We characterized three complete loci (Patr_RHα, Patr_RHβ, and Patr_RHγ). In the Patr_RHβ locus, a short version of the gene, which lacked the middle part containing exons 4-8, was observed. The Patr_RHα and Patr_RHβ genes were located on the locations corresponding to Hosa_RHD and Hosa_RHCE, respectively, and Patr_RHγ was in the immediate vicinity of Patr_RHβ. Sequence comparisons revealed high sequence similarity between Patr_RHβ and Hosa_RHCE, while the chimpanzee Rh gene closest to Hosa_RHD was not Patr_RHα but rather Patr_RHγ. The results suggest that rearrangements and gene conversions frequently occurred between these genes and that the classic orthology/paralogy dichotomy no longer holds between human and chimpanzee Rh blood group genes. PMID:26872772

  6. Genome-wide identification of genes required for fitness of group A Streptococcus in human blood.

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Yoann; Mistry, Pragnesh; Valdes, Kayla M; Quigley, Jeffrey; Kumar, Nikhil; Tettelin, Hervé; McIver, Kevin S

    2013-03-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a strict human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases. Although GAS genome sequences are available, functional genomic analyses have been limited. We developed a mariner-based transposon, osKaR, designed to perform Transposon-Site Hybridization (TraSH) in GAS and successfully tested its use in several invasive serotypes. A complex osKaR mutant library in M1T1 GAS strain 5448 was subjected to negative selection in human blood to identify genes important for GAS fitness in this clinically relevant environment. Mutants underrepresented after growth in blood (output pool) compared to growth in rich media (input pool) were identified using DNA microarray hybridization of transposon-specific tags en masse. Using blood from three different donors, we identified 81 genes that met our criteria for reduced fitness in blood from at least two individuals. Genes known to play a role in survival of GAS in blood were found, including those encoding the virulence regulator Mga (mga), the peroxide response regulator PerR (perR), and the RofA-like regulator Ralp-3 (ralp3). We also identified genes previously reported for their contribution to sepsis in other pathogens, such as de novo nucleotide synthesis (purD, purA, pyrB, carA, carB, guaB), sugar metabolism (scrB, fruA), zinc uptake (adcC), and transcriptional regulation (cpsY). To validate our findings, independent mutants with mutations in 10 different genes identified in our screen were confirmed to be defective for survival in blood bactericidal assays. Overall, this work represents the first use of TraSH in GAS to identify potential virulence genes. PMID:23297387

  7. Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Required for Fitness of Group A Streptococcus in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Yoann; Mistry, Pragnesh; Valdes, Kayla M.; Quigley, Jeffrey; Kumar, Nikhil; Tettelin, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) is a strict human pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases. Although GAS genome sequences are available, functional genomic analyses have been limited. We developed a mariner-based transposon, osKaR, designed to perform Transposon-Site Hybridization (TraSH) in GAS and successfully tested its use in several invasive serotypes. A complex osKaR mutant library in M1T1 GAS strain 5448 was subjected to negative selection in human blood to identify genes important for GAS fitness in this clinically relevant environment. Mutants underrepresented after growth in blood (output pool) compared to growth in rich media (input pool) were identified using DNA microarray hybridization of transposon-specific tags en masse. Using blood from three different donors, we identified 81 genes that met our criteria for reduced fitness in blood from at least two individuals. Genes known to play a role in survival of GAS in blood were found, including those encoding the virulence regulator Mga (mga), the peroxide response regulator PerR (perR), and the RofA-like regulator Ralp-3 (ralp3). We also identified genes previously reported for their contribution to sepsis in other pathogens, such as de novo nucleotide synthesis (purD, purA, pyrB, carA, carB, guaB), sugar metabolism (scrB, fruA), zinc uptake (adcC), and transcriptional regulation (cpsY). To validate our findings, independent mutants with mutations in 10 different genes identified in our screen were confirmed to be defective for survival in blood bactericidal assays. Overall, this work represents the first use of TraSH in GAS to identify potential virulence genes. PMID:23297387

  8. Tritioacetylating reagents and processes for preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Saljoughian, Manoucher; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Than, Chit

    2000-01-01

    Novel acetylating and tritioacetylating reagents suitable for preparation of nonlabelled and radiolabelled organic compounds. N-acetoxynaphthalimide, N-tritioacetoxyphthalimide, N-tritioacetoxysuccinimide, N-tritioacetoxynaphthalimide and processes of their preparation. The invention also concerns synthesis of nonlabelled acetylated and tritioacetylated organic compounds from precursors containing a free --NH.sub.2, --SH or --OH group.

  9. Association of human erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins with blood-group Cad specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J P; Blanchard, D

    1982-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membranes from a blood-group-B individual with the rare Cad phenotype indicates a lower-than-normal mobility of the main sialoglycoproteins, suggesting an increase in apparent molecular mass of 3kDa and 2kDa respectively for glycoprotein alpha (synonym glycophorin A) and glycoprotein delta (synonym glycophorin B). Since the chief structural determinant of Cad specificity is N-acetylgalactosamine, the membrane receptors have been isolated by affinity binding on immobilized Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) lectin. The predominant species eluted from the gel was the abnormal glycoprotein alpha, whereas in control experiments no material could be recovered from the adsorbent incubated with group-B Cad-negative erythrocyte membranes. After partition of the membranes with organic solvents, the blood-group-Cad activity was found in aqueous phases containing the sialoglycoproteins, but not in the organic phases containing simple or complex glycolipids, which, however, retained the blood-group-B activity. The carbohydrate composition of highly purified lipid-free glycoprotein alpha molecules prepared from Cad and control erythrocytes was determined. Interestingly the molar ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine was equal to 2:1 in the case of controls and equal to 1:1 in the case of Cad erythrocytes. Taken together these results suggest that Cad specificity is defined by N-acetylgalactosamine residues carried by the alkali-labile oligosaccharide chains attached to the erythrocyte membrane sialo-glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6187337

  10. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is a device made from snake venom and used to determine blood fibrinogen levels to aid in the evaluation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting in the blood vessels) in patients receiving heparin therapy (the administration of the anticoagulant heparin...

  11. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is a device made from snake venom and used to determine blood fibrinogen levels to aid in the evaluation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting in the blood vessels) in patients receiving heparin therapy (the administration of the anticoagulant heparin...

  12. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is a device made from snake venom and used to determine blood fibrinogen levels to aid in the evaluation of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting in the blood vessels) in patients receiving heparin therapy (the administration of the anticoagulant heparin...

  13. Why group & save? Blood transfusion at low-risk elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Stock, Owen; Beckmann, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Women undergoing elective caesarean section (CS) routinely have a group and save ordered as part of their preoperative assessment, whereas women with expected vaginal birth do not. Our aim was therefore to determine the rate of blood transfusion at elective CS compared with vaginal birth in a large Australian maternity hospital. A retrospective cohort study was performed using routinely collected de-identified data of 35 477 women, over 4 years, who delivered at the Mater Mothers' Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. After excluding women with established risk factors for transfusion, the likelihood of blood transfusion following elective CS was significantly lower compared to vaginal birth (aOR 0.47 (0.29, 0.77)). PMID:24576105

  14. Sulphydryl groups and their relation to the antioxidant enzymes of chelonian red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Torsoni, M A; Viana, R I; Ogo, S H

    1998-09-01

    Thiol groups of hemoglobin and blood glutathione are higher in Geochelone carbonaria than in Geochelone denticulata. Exposure of stripped hemolysate of both tortoises to terc-butyl hydroperoxide, resulted in a higher ferroheme oxidation of G. denticulata hemoglobin. In this example glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, were not active due to the absence of GSH and NADPH, suggesting that the thiol groups of G. carbonaria hemoglobin act as antioxidant, similar to GSH. In the total hemolysate, however, where the antioxidant enzymes are active, both species showed similar levels of hemoglobin oxidation, suggesting that the protective effect of thiol groups of hemoglobin are less effective for heme protection. The activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was higher in erythrocytes of G. denticulata and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was higher in erythrocytes of G. carbonaria. PMID:9784849

  15. Production of a recombinant antibody specific for i blood group antigen, a mesenchymal stem cell marker.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Tia; Suila, Heli; Tiitinen, Sari; Natunen, Suvi; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Kotovuori, Annika; Reinman, Mirka; Satomaa, Tero; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara; Takkinen, Kristiina; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valmu, Leena

    2013-10-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) offer great promise for future regenerative and anti-inflammatory therapies. Panels of functional and phenotypical markers are currently used in characterization of different therapeutic stem cell populations from various sources. The i antigen (linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine) from the Ii blood group system has been suggested as a marker for MSCs derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). However, there are currently no commercially available antibodies recognizing the i antigen. In the present study, we describe the use of antibody phage display technology to produce recombinant antibodies recognizing a structure from the surface of mesenchymal stem cells. We constructed IgM phage display libraries from the lymphocytes of a donor with an elevated serum anti-i titer. Antibody phage display technology is not dependent on immunization and thus allows the generation of antibodies against poorly immunogenic molecules, such as carbohydrates. Agglutination assays utilizing i antigen-positive red blood cells (RBCs) from UCB revealed six promising single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies, three of which recognized epitopes from the surface of UCB-MSCs in flow cytometric assays. The amino acid sequence of the VH gene segment of B12.2 scFv was highly similar to the VH4.21 gene segment required to encode anti-i specificities. Further characterization of binding properties revealed that the binding of B12.2 hyperphage was inhibited by soluble linear lactosamine oligosaccharide. Based on these findings, we suggest that the B12.2 scFv we have generated is a prominent anti-i antibody that recognizes i antigen on the surface of both UCB-MSCs and RBCs. This binder can thus be utilized in UCB-MSC detection and isolation as well as in blood group serology. PMID:24083089

  16. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. Patients and methods A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/−). Results There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). Discussion In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum. PMID:27143904

  17. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  18. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  19. Discordance between ambulatory versus clinic blood pressure according to global cardiovascular risk group

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jinho; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Ju Han; Ihm, Sang Hyun; Kim, Kwang-il; Kim, Woo Shik; Pyun, Wook Bum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Choi, Sung-il; Kim, Soon Kil

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The detection of white coat hypertension (WCH), treated normalized hypertension, and masked hypertension (MH) is important to improve the effectiveness of hypertension management. However, whether global cardiovascular risk (GCR) profile has any effect on the discordance between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and clinic blood pressure (CBP) is unknown. Methods: Data from 1,916 subjects, taken from the Korean Multicenter Registry for ABP monitoring, were grouped according to diagnostic and therapeutic thresholds for CBP and ABP (140/90 and 135/85 mmHg, respectively). GCR was assessed using European Society of Hypertension 2007 guidelines. Results: The mean subject age was 54.1 ± 14.9 years, and 48.9% of patients were female. The discordancy rate between ABP and CBP in the untreated and treated patients was 32.5% and 26.5%, respectively (p = 0.02). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension and MH was 14.4% and 16.0%, respectively. Discordance between ABP and CBP was lower in the very high added-risk group compared to the moderate added-risk group (odds ratio [OR], 0.649; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.487 to 0.863; p = 0.003). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension was also lower in the very high added-risk group (OR, 0.451; 95% CI, 0.311 to 0.655). Conclusions: Discordance between ABP and CBP was observed more frequently in untreated subjects than in treated subjects, and less frequently in the very high added-risk group, which was due mainly to the lower prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension. PMID:26354055

  20. Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified α1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that α1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups

  1. Zirconocene-Mediated Carbonylative Coupling of Grignard Reagents.

    PubMed

    Moss, Melissa; Han, Xinping; Ready, Joseph M

    2016-08-16

    Organozirconocenes are versatile synthetic intermediates that can undergo carbonylation to yield acyl anion equivalents. Zirconocene hydrochloride ([Cp2 ZrHCl]) is often the reagent of choice for accessing these intermediates but generates organozirconocenes only from alkenes and alkynes. This requirement eliminates a broad range of substrates. For example, organozirconocenes in which the zirconium center is bonded to an aromatic ring, a benzylic group, or an alkyl group that possesses a tertiary or quaternary carbon atom α to the carbon-zirconium bond can not be formed in this way. To provide more generalized access to acyl zirconium reagents, we explored the transmetalation of Grignard reagents with zirconocene dichloride under a CO atmosphere. This protocol generates acyl zirconium(IV) complexes that are inaccessible with the Schwartz reagent, including those derived from secondary and tertiary alkyl and aryl Grignard reagents. PMID:27410720

  2. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  3. Volatile chemical reagent detector

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan; Wang, Rong; Whitten, David

    2004-08-24

    A device for detecting volatile chemical reagents based on fluorescence quenching analysis that is capable of detecting neutral electron acceptor molecules. The device includes a fluorescent material, a contact region, a light source, and an optical detector. The fluorescent material includes at least one polymer-surfactant complex. The polymer-surfactant complex is formed by combining a fluorescent ionic conjugated polymer with an oppositely charged surfactant. The polymer-surfactant complex may be formed in a polar solvent and included in the fluorescent material as a solution. Alternatively, the complex may be included in the fluorescent material as a thin film. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex in the fluorescent material allows the device to detect both neutral and ionic acceptor molecules. The use of a polymer-surfactant complex film allows the device and the fluorescent material to be reusable after exposing the fluorescent material to a vacuum for limited time.

  4. Group A Streptococcus transcriptome dynamics during growth in human blood reveals bacterial adaptive and survival strategies.

    PubMed

    Graham, Morag R; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F; Barry, William T; Gowen, Brian B; Johnson, Claire R; Wright, Fred A; Musser, James M

    2005-02-01

    The molecular basis for bacterial responses to host signals during natural infections is poorly understood. The gram-positive bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human mucosal, skin, and life-threatening systemic infections. During the transition from a throat or skin infection to an invasive infection, GAS must adapt to changing environments and host factors. To better understand how GAS adapts, we used transcript profiling and functional analysis to investigate the transcriptome of a wild-type serotype M1 GAS strain in human blood. Global changes in GAS gene expression occur rapidly in response to human blood exposure. Increased transcription was observed for many genes that likely enhance bacterial survival, including those encoding superantigens and host-evasion proteins regulated by a multiple gene activator called Mga. GAS also coordinately expressed genes involved in proteolysis, transport, and catabolism of oligopeptides to obtain amino acids in this protein-rich host environment. Comparison of the transcriptome of the wild-type strain to that of an isogenic deletion mutant (DeltacovR) mutated in the two-component regulatory system designated CovR-CovS reinforced the hypothesis that CovR-CovS has an important role linking key biosynthetic, catabolic, and virulence functions during transcriptome restructuring. Taken together, the data provide crucial insights into strategies used by pathogenic bacteria for thwarting host defenses and surviving in human blood. PMID:15681829

  5. Selective Covalent Chemistry via Gas-Phase Ion/ion Reactions: An Exploration of the Energy Surfaces Associated with N-Hydroxysuccinimide Ester Reagents and Primary Amines and Guanidine Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jiexun; Fisher, Christine M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Prentice, Boone M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    Selective covalent bond forming reactions (referred to as covalent reactions) can occur in gas-phase ion/ion reactions and take place via the formation of a long-lived chemical complex. The gas-phase ion/ion reactivity between sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester reagent anions and peptide cations containing a primary amine or guanidine group has been examined via DFT calculations and complex dissociation rate measurements. The results reveal insights regarding the roles of the barriers of competing processes within the complex. When the covalent reaction is exothermic, two prototypical cases, determined by the nature of the energy surface, are apparent. The product partitioning between covalent reaction and simple proton transfer upon dissociation of the long-lived complex is sensitive to activation conditions when the transition state barrier for covalent reaction is relatively high (case 1) but is insensitive to activation conditions when the transition state barrier is relatively low (case 2). Covalent reaction efficiencies are very high in case 2 scenarios, such as when the reactive site is a guanidine and the anion attachment site is a guanidinium ion. Covalent reaction efficiencies are variable, and generally low, in case 1 scenarios, such as when an amine is the reactive site and an ammonium ion is the site of anion attachment. A relatively long slow-heating step prior to the complex dissociation step, however, can dramatically increase covalent reaction yield in case 1 scenarios.

  6. Selective Covalent Chemistry via Gas-Phase Ion/ion Reactions: An Exploration of the Energy Surfaces Associated with N-Hydroxysuccinimide Ester Reagents and Primary Amines and Guanidine Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jiexun; Fisher, Christine M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Prentice, Boone M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2016-06-01

    Selective covalent bond forming reactions (referred to as covalent reactions) can occur in gas-phase ion/ion reactions and take place via the formation of a long-lived chemical complex. The gas-phase ion/ion reactivity between sulfo- N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester reagent anions and peptide cations containing a primary amine or guanidine group has been examined via DFT calculations and complex dissociation rate measurements. The results reveal insights regarding the roles of the barriers of competing processes within the complex. When the covalent reaction is exothermic, two prototypical cases, determined by the nature of the energy surface, are apparent. The product partitioning between covalent reaction and simple proton transfer upon dissociation of the long-lived complex is sensitive to activation conditions when the transition state barrier for covalent reaction is relatively high ( case 1) but is insensitive to activation conditions when the transition state barrier is relatively low ( case 2). Covalent reaction efficiencies are very high in case 2 scenarios, such as when the reactive site is a guanidine and the anion attachment site is a guanidinium ion. Covalent reaction efficiencies are variable, and generally low, in case 1 scenarios, such as when an amine is the reactive site and an ammonium ion is the site of anion attachment. A relatively long slow-heating step prior to the complex dissociation step, however, can dramatically increase covalent reaction yield in case 1 scenarios.

  7. Selective Covalent Chemistry via Gas-Phase Ion/ion Reactions: An Exploration of the Energy Surfaces Associated with N-Hydroxysuccinimide Ester Reagents and Primary Amines and Guanidine Groups.

    PubMed

    Bu, Jiexun; Fisher, Christine M; Gilbert, Joshua D; Prentice, Boone M; McLuckey, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Selective covalent bond forming reactions (referred to as covalent reactions) can occur in gas-phase ion/ion reactions and take place via the formation of a long-lived chemical complex. The gas-phase ion/ion reactivity between sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester reagent anions and peptide cations containing a primary amine or guanidine group has been examined via DFT calculations and complex dissociation rate measurements. The results reveal insights regarding the roles of the barriers of competing processes within the complex. When the covalent reaction is exothermic, two prototypical cases, determined by the nature of the energy surface, are apparent. The product partitioning between covalent reaction and simple proton transfer upon dissociation of the long-lived complex is sensitive to activation conditions when the transition state barrier for covalent reaction is relatively high (case 1) but is insensitive to activation conditions when the transition state barrier is relatively low (case 2). Covalent reaction efficiencies are very high in case 2 scenarios, such as when the reactive site is a guanidine and the anion attachment site is a guanidinium ion. Covalent reaction efficiencies are variable, and generally low, in case 1 scenarios, such as when an amine is the reactive site and an ammonium ion is the site of anion attachment. A relatively long slow-heating step prior to the complex dissociation step, however, can dramatically increase covalent reaction yield in case 1 scenarios. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27020926

  8. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  9. [Alanine solution as enzyme reaction buffer used in A to O blood group conversion].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Bo; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Yin-Ze; Tan, Ying-Xia; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Ying-Li; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng; Gao, Hong-Wei

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alanine solution as α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase enzyme reaction buffer on the enzymatic activity of A antigen. The binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase with RBC in different reaction buffer such as alanine solution, glycine solution, normal saline (0.9% NaCl), PBS, PCS was detected by Western blot. The results showed that the efficiency of A to O conversion in alanine solution was similar to that in glycine solution, and Western blot confirmed that most of enzymes blinded with RBC in glycine or alanine solution, but few enzymes blinded with RBC in PBS, PCS or normal saline. The evidences indicated that binding of enzyme with RBC was a key element for A to O blood group conversion, while the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase with RBC in alanine or glycine solution was similar. It is concluded that alanine solution can be used as enzyme reaction buffer in A to O blood group conversion. In this buffer, the α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase is closely blinded with RBC and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase plays efficient enzymatic activity of A antigen. PMID:24989301

  10. Molecular basis and expression of the LWa/LWb blood group polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Hermand, P; Gane, P; Mattei, M G; Sistonen, P; Cartron, J P; Bailly, P

    1995-08-15

    The Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group antigens reside on a 42-kD erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein that has recently been cloned. Here, we found that the molecular basis for the LWa/LWb polymorphism is determined by a single base pair mutation (A308G) that correlates with a Pvu II restriction site and results in a Gln70Arg amino acid substitution. COS-7 cells transfected with LWa or LWb cDNAs reacted with human anti-LWa and anti-LWb sera, respectively, as well as with a murine monoclonal anti-LWab antibody, as shown by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, a 42-kD protein was immunoprecipitated from the transfected cells with the monoclonal anti-LWab antibody. These findings indicate that LWa and LWb are alleles of the LW blood group locus as defined also by a monoclonal anti-LWab of nonhuman origin. In addition, the LW locus has been assigned to chromosome 19p13.3 by in situ hybridization. Study by Southern blot analysis indicated also that the LW locus is composed of a single gene that was not grossly rearranged in rare LW(a-b-) and Rhnull individuals deficient for LW antigens. In addition, Pvu II restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis indicated that these variants were all homozygous for a phenotypically silent LWa allele. PMID:7632968

  11. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Denong; Tang, Jin; Liu, Shaoyi; Huang, Jiaoti

    2015-01-01

    Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation. PMID:26539555

  12. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration.

    PubMed

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  13. Revisiting the Diego Blood Group System in Amerindians: Evidence for Gene-Culture Comigration

    PubMed Central

    Bégat, Christophe; Bailly, Pascal; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mazières, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Six decades ago the DI*A allele of the Diego blood group system was instrumental in proving Native American populations originated from Siberia. Since then, it has received scant attention. The present study was undertaken to reappraise distribution of the DI*A allele in 144 Native American populations based on current knowledge. Using analysis of variance tests, frequency distribution was studied according to geographical, environmental, and cultural parameters. Frequencies were highest in Amazonian populations. In contrast, DI*A was undetectable in subarctic, Fuegian, Panamanian, Chaco and Yanomama populations. Closer study revealed a correlation that this unequal distribution was correlated with language, suggesting that linguistic divergence was a driving force in the expansion of DI*A among Native Americans. The absence of DI*A in circumpolar Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene speakers was consistent with a late migratory event confined to North America. Distribution of DI*A in subtropical areas indicated that gene and culture exchanges were more intense within than between ecozones. Bolstering the utility of classical genetic markers in biological anthropology, the present study of the expansion of Diego blood group genetic polymorphism in Native Americans shows strong evidence of gene-culture comigration. PMID:26148209

  14. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  15. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  16. Evasion of Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum: Rosettes of Blood Group A Impair Recognition of PfEMP1

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kirsten; Palmkvist, Mia; Ch'ng, Junhong; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Wahlgren, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are expressed on erythrocytes but also on endothelial cells, platelets and serum proteins. Notably, the ABO blood group of a malaria patient determines the development of the disease given that blood group O reduces the probability to succumb in severe malaria, compared to individuals of groups A, B or AB. P. falciparum rosetting and sequestration are mediated by PfEMP1, RIFIN and STEVOR, expressed at the surface of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC). Antibodies to these antigens consequently modify the course of a malaria infection by preventing sequestration and promoting phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied rosetting P. falciparum and present evidence of an immune evasion mechanism not previously recognized. We find the accessibility of antibodies to PfEMP1 at the surface of the pRBC to be reduced when P. falciparum forms rosettes in blood group A RBC, as compared to group O RBC. The pRBC surrounds itself with tightly bound normal RBC that makes PfEMP1 inaccessible to antibodies and clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, pRBC of in vitro cloned P. falciparum devoid of ABO blood group dependent rosetting were equally well detected by anti-PfEMP1 antibodies, independent of the blood group utilized for their propagation. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the severe forms of malaria may in patients of blood group A depend on the ability of the parasite to mask PfEMP1 from antibody recognition, in so doing evading immune clearance. PMID:26714011

  17. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  18. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species". Sets of reagents, i.e., monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies, that can identify the major leukocy...

  19. US Veterinary Immune Reagents Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine, and aquaculture species. Sets of reagents, i.e. monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies (Ab), that can identify the major leu...

  20. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex. PMID:9259831

  1. Simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing using a paper-based device and barcode-like interpretation.

    PubMed

    Songjaroen, Temsiri; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2016-05-19

    A new platform of a paper-based analytical device (PAD) for simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood group typing has been reported. This platform can overcome the discrepancy results as influenced by the individual haematocrit. The test and the control of non-haemagglutination on each channel were performed in parallel. The PAD was fabricated by printing six parallel channels with wax onto Whatman No. 4 filter paper. An LF1 blood separation membrane was used for the separation of plasma from whole blood for reverse grouping. The blood group was identified by haemagglutination of the corresponding antigen-antibody. For forward grouping, Anti-A, -B and -A,B were treated on the test line of PAD, and inactivated Anti-A, -B and -A,B were immobilized on the control line. For reverse grouping, 30% standard A-cells, B- and O- were added to the test channel after plasma separation, and O-cells were used as a control. Then, 0.9% normal saline (NSS) containing 1% Tween-20 was bi-functionally used for dilution of the blood sample and elution of the non-agglutinated RBCs within the channels. The distance of agglutinated RBCs in each test line was compared with the distance of non-agglutinated RBCs in the parallel control line. The forward and reverse patterns of blood groups A, B, AB and O were a barcode-like chart in which the results can be visually analysed. The PAD has excellent reproducibility when 10 replications of the A, B, AB or O blood groups were performed. The results of both forward and reverse grouping were highly correlated with conventional methods compared with the slide method and tube method, respectively (n = 76). Thus, this ABO typing PAD holds great potential for future applications in blood typing point-of-care testing. PMID:27126791

  2. Identification of an Unusual Pattern of Global Gene Expression in Group B Streptococcus Grown in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mereghetti, Laurent; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Green, Nicole M.; Musser, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Because passage of the bacterium to blood is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of many group B Streptococcus (GBS) invasive infections, we recently conducted a whole-genome transcriptome analysis during GBS incubation ex vivo with human blood. In the current work, we sought to analyze in detail the difference in GBS gene expression that occurred in one blood sample (donor A) relative to other blood samples. We incubated GBS strain NEM316 with fresh heparinized human blood obtained from healthy volunteers, and analyzed GBS genome expression and cytokine production. Principal component analysis identified extensive clustering of the transcriptome data among all samples at time 0. In striking contrast, the whole bacterial gene expression in the donor A blood sample was significantly different from the gene expression in all other blood samples studied, both after 30 and 90 min of incubation. More genes were up-regulated in donor A blood relative to the other samples, at 30 min and 90 min. Furthermore, there was significant variation in transcript levels between donor A blood and other blood samples. Notably, genes with the highest transcript levels in donor A blood were those involved in carbohydrate metabolism. We also discovered an unusual production of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines: MIF, tPAI-1 and IL-1β were produced at higher levels in donor A blood relative to the other blood samples, whereas GM-CSF, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-7 and IL-10 remained at lower levels in donor A blood. Potential reasons for our observations are that the immune response of donor A significantly influenced the bacterial transcriptome, or both GBS gene expression and immune response were influenced by the metabolic status of donor A. PMID:19774088

  3. Swine Toolkit Plans and Progress for the US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (http://www.umass.edu/vetimm/) was established to address the lack of immunological reagents specific for ruminant, porcine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species and accordingly has set a minimum goal of 20 reagents per species group. Current plans are to...

  4. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Mun; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2008-07-28

    Members of Norovirus, a genus in the family Caliciviridae, are causative agents of epidemic diarrhea in humans. Susceptibility to several noroviruses is linked to human histo-blood type, and its determinant histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are regarded as receptors for these viruses. Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to genogroup II noroviruses that exhibit a more diverse HBGA binding pattern. To understand the structural basis for how HBGAs interact with the NV capsid protein, and how the specificity is achieved, we carried out x-ray crystallographic analysis of the capsid protein domain by itself and in complex with A- and H-type HBGA at a resolution of {approx}1.4 {angstrom}. Despite differences in their carbohydrate sequence and linkage, both HBGAs bind to the same surface-exposed site in the capsid protein and project outward from the capsid surface, substantiating their possible role in initiating cell attachment. Precisely juxtaposed polar side chains that engage the sugar hydroxyls in a cooperative hydrogen bonding and a His/Trp pair involved in a cation-p interaction contribute to selective and specific recognition of A- and H-type HBGAs. This unique binding epitope, confirmed by mutational analysis, is highly conserved, but only in the genogroup I noroviruses, suggesting that a mechanism by which noroviruses infect broader human populations is by evolving different sites with altered HBGA specificities.

  5. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-05-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn to fetuses of immunized women. Prediction of the fetal RhD type has been very successful and is now integrated into clinical practice to assist in the management of the pregnancies of RhD immunized women. In addition, noninvasive prediction of the fetal RhD type can be applied to guide targeted prenatal prophylaxis, thus avoiding unnecessary exposure to anti-D in pregnant women. The analytical aspect of noninvasive fetal RHD typing is very robust and accurate, and its routine utilization has demonstrated high sensitivities for fetal RHD detection. A high compliance with administering anti-D is essential for obtaining a clinical effect. Noninvasive fetal typing of RHC/c, RHE/e, and KEL may become more widely used in the future. PMID:24431264

  6. Blood stream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii group in Japan - Epidemiological and clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, especially A. baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, constitutes an important group of nosocomial pathogens; however, epidemiological or clinical characteristics and prognosis is limited in Japan. From 2009 to 2013, 47 blood stream infection cases resulting from A. baumannii group were reviewed at the National Defense Medical College, an 800-bed tertiary hospital. To determine the genospecies, further comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the RNA polymerase b-subunit (rpoB) gene were performed. Sequence analysis of rpoB gene showed that 25 (49.0%), 17 (33.3%) and 5 (9.8%) cases were caused by A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, respectively. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates of A. baumannii were 8.5% and 25.5%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between Acinetobacter species. Clinical characteristics were statistically insignificant. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species were detected in 3 cases (5.9%) with same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and A. baumannii was less susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. In this study, the mortality and clinical characteristics were similar among A. baumannii group isolate cases despite some showing drug resistance. However, identification of Acinetobacter species helps to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy in earlier treatment phase, because A. baumannii shows some drug resistance. PMID:26993173

  7. U. S. VETERINARY IMMUNE REAGENTS NETWORK: PROGRESS WITH POULTRY IMMUNE REAGENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This poster will present a progress report on the CSREES-funded NRI grant to support a broad community approach to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle but inclu...

  8. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bishal K.; Leuthold, Mila M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  9. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S.; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R.; Kamble, Amit P.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory. PMID:27217647

  10. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bishal K; Leuthold, Mila M; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  11. Lichenoid reaction associated with silver amalgam restoration in a Bombay blood group patient: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rohini Rangarao; Mattigatti, Sudha S; Mahaparale, Rushikesh R; Kamble, Amit P

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic relationship between the oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) and dental restorative materials has been confirmed many times. An OLR affecting oral mucosa in direct contact with an amalgam restoration represents a delayed, type IV, cell mediated immune response to mercury or one of the other constituents of the dental amalgam. Bombay blood group patients are more prone to this. A case of bilateral OLR is presented, which is present in relation to amalgam restoration. The lesion healed up after the replacement of restorations with an intermediate restorative material. The clinician should be aware of all the possible pathological etiologies of white lesions. If there is any doubt about the nature or management of a usual oral lesion, a referral to an appropriate specialist is mandatory. PMID:27217647

  12. Structural analysis of the RH-like blood group gene products in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Salvignol, I.; Calvas, P.; Blancher, A.; Socha, W.W.; Colin, Y.; Le Van Kim, C.; Bailly, P.; Cartron, J.P.; Ruffie, J.; Blancher, A.

    1995-03-01

    Rh-related transcripts present in bone marrow samples from several species of nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, crab-eating macaque) have been amplified by RT-polymerase chain reaction using primers deduced from the sequence of human RH genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nonhuman transcripts revealed a high degree of similarity to human blood group Rh sequences, suggesting a great conservation of the RH genes throughout evolution. Full-length transcripts, potentially encoding 417 amino acid long proteins homologous to Rh polypeptides, were characterized, as well as mRNA isoforms which harbored nucleotide deletions or insertions and potentially encode truncated proteins. Proteins of 30-40,000 M{sub r}, immunologically related to human Rh proteins, were detected by western blot analysis with antipeptide antibodies, indicating that Rh-like transcripts are translated into membrane proteins. Comparison of human and nonhuman protein sequences was pivotal in clarifying the molecular basis of the blood group C/c polymorphism, showing that only the Pro103Ser substitution was correlated with C/c polymorphism. In addition, it was shown that a proline residue at position 102 was critical in the expression of C and c epitopes, most likely by providing an appropriate conformation of Rh polypeptides. From these data a phylogenetic reconstruction of the RH locus evolution has been calculated from which an unrooted phylogenetic tree could be proposed, indicating that African ape Rh-like genes would be closer to the human RhD gene than to the human RhCE gene. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Heterogeneity and diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in select Saudi Arabian populations.

    PubMed

    AlSuhaibani, E S; Kizilbash, N A; Malik, S

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of ABO and Rh blood group genes in the Saudi Arabian population, we assembled the phenotypic data of approximately 66,000 subjects from ten representative Saudi populations: Al-Khobar, Riyadh, Tabuk/Madina Al-Munawaara, Jeddah, Abha, South region, Sakaka, Domah, Al-Qurayat, and Sweer. The frequencies of p[A], q[B], and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus were observed to be 0.1688, 0.1242, and 0.7070, respectively, and the frequency of the D allele at the Rh locus was 0.7138. The heterozygosities at the ABO and Rh loci were 0.4563 and 0.4086, respectively, while the combined heterozygosity was 0.4324. Homogeneity tests revealed the population of Abha to be the most heterogeneous while that of Tabuk/Madina was found to be the least heterogeneous. Homogeneity was higher among the Northern populations while Southern populations demonstrated subdivisions and stratification. Gene diversity analyses yielded a total heterozygosity value of 0.4449. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.0090. Nei's genetic distance analyses showed that there was close affinity between the populations of Al-Khobar and Riyadh. The largest differences were observed between the populations of Sakaka and Domah. Furthermore, negative correlations were found between p[A] and r[O] alleles, and between q[B] and r[O] alleles at the ABO locus. Clinal analyses revealed that the r[O] allele showed an increasing trend from North-East to South-West, and conversely the q[B] allele exhibited a decreasing trend at these coordinates. These analyses present interesting aspects of the blood group allele distribution across the geography of Saudi Arabia. PMID:26214466

  14. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. PMID:11798089

  15. Deletion of antigens of the Lewis a/b blood group family in human prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Young, W. W.; Mills, S. E.; Lippert, M. C.; Ahmed, P.; Lau, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of antigens of the blood group Lewis a/b family were studied in a series of 42 prostatectomy specimens from patients with adenocarcinoma clinically confined to the prostate; 19 of these were later reclassified as pathologic Stage C. Staining of normal or hyperplastic versus neoplastic epithelium was assessed in routinely processed, paraffin-embedded tissue using murine monoclonal antibodies and an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Antigens screened and the antibodies used to recognize them were Lewis a (CF4C4), Lewis b and Type 1 H (NS10), monosialosyl Lewis a I (19.9), and disialosyl Lewis a and monosialosyl Lewis a II (FH7). FH7 strongly stained the benign epithelium of all 39 Lewis positive cases, suggesting that the sialyltransferase responsible for synthesis of FH7-reactive determinants is highly active in benign prostatic tissue. When compared to the reactivity of benign epithelium in Lewis positive cases, the staining of the carcinomas was markedly reduced in 18 cases (46%) and absent in 16 cases (41%). This reduction or loss of staining of the malignant epithelium was observed for all antibodies that stained the corresponding benign epithelium of each case. In only five of the cases (13%) was the intensity of staining in the carcinoma equal to that of the surrounding benign epithelium. No cases in this latter group had recurrence of disease, whereas in the other staining groups 25-33% of the cases had recurrences; median follow-up for the entire group was 78 months. No correlation was apparent between Gleason score and the staining pattern with these antigens. In summary, antigens of the Lewis a/b family are deleted in a high percentage of cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:2454582

  16. Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, E; Rogers, A R; Beesley, J; Jorde, L B

    1994-10-01

    The genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's GST was 0.013 (p < 0.002) for the RFLP data and 0.012 (p > 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the genetic variance in this population can be attributed to subdivision effects. A comparison of intersubdivision distance matrices based on blood groups, RFLPs, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees shows that genetic distances have relatively low and nonsignificant correlations with the other three types of data. However, the correlations based on RFLPs are considerably higher than those based on blood groups. Relationship matrices based on interindividual allele sharing were compared with known genealogical kinship coefficients between each pair of individuals. The correlation between the blood group and RFLP relationship matrices was small but marginally significant using the Mantel test (r = 0.014, p < 0.06). The RFLP relationship matrix correlated more highly with genealogical kinship than did the blood group relationship matrix (r = 0.023, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.012, p < 0.001, respectively). These correlations increased by approximately one order of magnitude when pairs of subjects having zero kinship coefficients were excluded. These results show that genetic distances derived from RFLPs correlate more strongly with other types of kinship than do distances based on blood groups. This probably reflects the fact that RFLPs are more neutral, have frequencies that are more accurately estimated, and contain more information about DNA sequence variation. PMID:8001907

  17. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  18. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  19. Role of histo-blood group antigens in primate enteric calicivirus infections.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Karol

    2014-08-12

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are associated with large proportion of non-bacterial diarrhea outbreaks together with > 50% of food-associated diarrheas. The function of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in pathogenesis of virus infection was implicated. Until recently however, due to lack of a robust animal and in vitro models of human NoV infection, only the partial knowledge concerning the virus pathogenesis (receptor, co-receptor and target cell) and absence of viable vaccine candidates were the frequently referenced attributes of this acute diarrheal illness. Recently, a novel group of enteric caliciviruses (CV) of rhesus macaque host origin was discovered and described. The new genus within the family Caliciviridae was identified: Rhesus Enteric CV, i.e., "Recovirus" (ReCV). ReCVs are genetically and biologically close relatives of human NoVs, exhibit similar genetic and biological features and are capable of being propagated in cell culture. ReCVs cause symptomatic disease (diarrhea and fever) in experimentally inoculated macaques. Formulation and evaluation of efficient NoV vaccine might take several years. As suggested by recent studies, inhibition of HBGAs or HBGA-based antivirals could meanwhile be exploited as vaccine alternatives. The purpose of this minireview is to provide the guidance in respect to newly available primate model of enteric CV infection and its similarities with human NoV in utilizing the HBGAs as potential virus co-receptors to indirectly address the unresolved questions of NoV pathogenesis and immunity. PMID:25392814

  20. Racial Differences Affecting Night Time Blood Pressure Dipping Groups in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, LH; Elaine, Huang; Kong, RT

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm, with dipping of BP at night. However, little has been done to show how the dipping groups vary amongst the White and Asian population at different periods of the year. This study aims to examine the pattern of nocturnal dipping between the White and Asian population, as well as to compare it to the different timings of the year, between summer and winter. Methods Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor recordings were obtained from 220 patients, half were White patients obtained from Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland and half were Asian patients from National Heart Centre, Singapore during the summer period from May to June and the winter period from October to December. Results Both the Irish and Singaporeans exhibit a decrease in total number of reverse dipper from summer to winter. However, the redistribution of reverse dipper was mainly to the dippers in Singapore, while in Ireland it was to both the extreme dipper and dipper. Irish seasonal changes also resulted in an increase in nocturnal diastolic pressure (95% CI, 0.72 to 6.03, 3.37 mm Hg; p<0.05) and a change in the duration of dipping at night (95% CI, 0.045 to 1.01, 0.53 Hours; p<0.05). Conclusion Regardless of race or temperature, reverse dippers seem to decrease in winter. However, the racial differences dictate the redistribution of the fall in number of dippers. This has implications on how reverse dippers should be treated at different periods of the year. PMID:26989605

  1. Blood Group Typing: From Classical Strategies to the Application of Synthetic Antibodies Generated by Molecular Imprinting †

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Adnan; Dickert, Franz L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood transfusion requires a mandatory cross-match test to examine the compatibility between donor and recipient blood groups. Generally, in all cross-match tests, a specific chemical reaction of antibodies with erythrocyte antigens is carried out to monitor agglutination. Since the visual inspection is no longer useful for obtaining precise quantitative information, therefore there is a wide variety of different technologies reported in the literature to recognize the agglutination reactions. Despite the classical methods, modern biosensors and molecular blood typing strategies have also been considered for straightforward, accurate and precise analysis. The interfacial part of a typical sensor device could range from natural antibodies to synthetic receptor materials, as designed by molecular imprinting and which is suitably integrated with the transducer surface. Herein, we present a comprehensive overview of some selected strategies extending from traditional practices to modern procedures in blood group typing, thus to highlight the most promising approach among emerging technologies. PMID:26729127

  2. Hydrazones as Singular Reagents in Asymmetric Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Matador, Esteban; Monge, David; Lassaletta, José M; Fernández, Rosario

    2016-09-12

    This Minireview summarizes strategies and developments regarding the use of hydrazones as reagents in asymmetric organocatalysis, their distinct roles in nucleophile-electrophile, cycloaddition, and cyclization reactions. The key structural elements governing the reactivity of these reagents in a preferred pathway will be discussed, as well as their different interactions with organocatalysts, leading to diverse activation modes. Along these studies, the synthetic equivalence of N-monoalkyl, N,N-dialkyl, and N-acyl hydrazones with several synthons is also highlighted. Emphasis is also put on the mechanistic studies performed to understand the observed reactivities. Finally, the functional group transformations performed from the available products has also been analyzed, highlighting the synthetic value of these methodologies, which served to access numerous families of valuable multifunctional compounds and nitrogen-containing heterocycles. PMID:27552942

  3. Gel-forming reagents and uses thereof for preparing microarrays

    DOEpatents

    Golova, Julia; Chernov, Boris; Perov, Alexander

    2010-11-09

    New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.

  4. Regulation of CovR expression in Group B Streptococcus impacts blood-brain barrier penetration.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Annalisa; Gurney, Michael A; Burnside, Kellie; Banerjee, Anirban; de los Reyes, Melissa; Connelly, James E; Lin, Wan-Jung; Jewell, Kelsea A; Vo, Anthony; Renken, Christian W; Doran, Kelly S; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2010-07-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of invasive infections in humans. The pathogen encodes a number of virulence factors including the pluripotent beta-haemolysin/cytolysin (beta-H/C). As GBS has the disposition of both a commensal organism and an invasive pathogen, it is important for the organism to appropriately regulate beta-H/C and other virulence factors in response to the environment. GBS can repress transcription of beta-H/C using the two-component system, CovR/CovS. Recently, we described that the serine/threonine kinase Stk1 can phosphorylate CovR at threonine 65 to relieve repression of beta-H/C. In this study, we show that infection with CovR-deficient GBS strains resulted in increased sepsis. Although CovR-deficient GBS showed decreased ability to invade the brain endothelium in vitro, they were more proficient in induction of permeability and pro-inflammatory signalling pathways in brain endothelium and penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Microarray analysis revealed that CovR positively regulates its own expression and regulates the expression of 153 genes. Collectively, our results suggest that the positive feedback loop which regulates CovR transcription modulates host cell interaction and immune defence and may facilitate the transition of GBS from a commensal organism to a virulent meningeal pathogen. PMID:20497331

  5. Nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and impaired cerebral blood flow autoregulation in group B streptococcal neonatal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Mertineit, C; Samlalsingh-Parker, J; Glibetic, M; Ricard, G; Noya, F J; Aranda, J V

    2000-03-01

    Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) contributes to CNS damage during neonatal meningitis. We tested (i) the hypothesis that cerebrovascular autoregulation is impaired during early onset group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis, (ii) whether this impairment is regulated by vasoactive mediators such as prostaglandins and (or) nitric oxide (NO), and (iii) whether this impairment is preventable by specific and (or) nonspecific inhibitors: dexamethasone, ibuprofen, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine, a NO inhibitor. Sterile saline or 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) of heat-killed GBS was injected into the cerebral ventricle of newborn piglets. CBF autoregulation was determined by altering cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) with balloon-tipped catheters placed in the aorta. GBS produced a narrow range of CBF autoregulation due to an impairment at the upper limit of CPP. We report that in vivo in the early stages (first 2 h) of induced GBS inflammation (i) GBS impairs the upper limit of cerebrovascular autoregulation; (ii) ibuprofen, dexamethasone, and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine not only prevent this GBS-induced autoregulatory impairment but improve the range of cerebrovascular autoregulation; (iii) these autoregulatory changes do not involve circulating cerebral prostanoids; and (iv) the observed changes correlate with the induction of NO synthase gene expression. Thus, acute early onset GBS-induced impairment of the upper limit of CBF autoregulation can be correlated with increases of NO synthase production, suggesting that NO is a vasoactive mediator of CBF. PMID:10721813

  6. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal multiple bonds between Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin and Lewis b ligand

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, P.; Shi, Q.; Magalhaes, A.; Reis, C. A.; Bugaytsova, J.; Borén, T.; Leckband, D.; Martins, M. C. L.

    2014-01-01

    The strength of binding between the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) and its cognate glycan receptor, the Lewis b blood group antigen (Leb), was measured by means of atomic force microscopy. High-resolution measurements of rupture forces between single receptor–ligand pairs were performed between the purified BabA and immobilized Leb structures on self-assembled monolayers. Dynamic force spectroscopy revealed two similar but statistically different bond populations. These findings suggest that the BabA may form different adhesive attachments to the gastric mucosa in ways that enhance the efficiency and stability of bacterial adhesion. PMID:25320070

  7. Possible genetical pathways for the biosynthesis of blood group mucopolysaccharides. Vox Sang 1959:4:97-119.

    PubMed

    Watkins, W M; Morgan, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper put forward possible biosynthetic pathways for the formation of the blood group A, B, H and Lewis antigens based on the limited knowledge of their chemistry and genetics that was available in 1959. The schemes proposed that genes at four independent loci ABO, HH, Lele and Sese interacted to give the five specificities A, B, H, Lea and Leb found in secretions and that the primary products of the blood group genes were not the antigens but enzymes that catalysed the sequential addition of single sugars to complete the determinants. PMID:7685971

  8. Emily Cooley lecture 2012: Emily Cooley and techniques that have been applied to characterize DO and JR blood groups.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marion E

    2013-09-01

    Emily Cooley was a well-respected medical technologist and morphologist with a remarkable skill set. She was highly regarded both professionally and personally. The "Emily Cooley Lectureship and Award" was established to honor her in particular and medical technologists in general. This article first reviews the history of the Emily Cooley award and provides some of the reasons why it carries her name. Then, using two blood group systems, DO and JR, it illustrates how many discoveries regarding blood groups were dependent on access to techniques. PMID:23581612

  9. Comparison between continuous ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring and standard blood pressure measurements among patients of younger and older age group.

    PubMed

    Babić, Betty Korljan; Bagatin, Jugoslav; Kokić, Slaven; Ostojić, Sanja Barsić; Carević, Vedran; Berović, Nina

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between blood pressure measured in a physician's office and the average 24 hr continuous blood pressure monitored by hypertensive patients at home. If there is a difference between these two situations then is it possibly the result of a blood pressure response by the patient to the physician which is known as "white coat effect" or "white coat hypertension". We studied 80 hypertensive outpatients which were divided into two groups of 40 patients each--a younger patient group, with a mean age of 22.8 +/- 1.8 years, and an older patient group with a mean age of 50.3 +/- 5.7 years. They were selected because they had been diagnosed as essentially hypertension grade 1, according to 2007 ESH/ESC Guidelines, or the USA Joint National Committee Guidelines (JNC 7) (i.e., arterial blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg and < 160/100 mmHg) and 35 were not having any antihypertensive treatment. All participants in the study went through a two-week "wash-out" period without medication. At the beginning of the study blood pressure was measured using the Riva-Rocci-Korotkoff method (mercury sphygmomanometer) after 5 minutes of rest and with the patient in the sitting position. The average of the two last measurements by sphygmomanometer was used in the analysis. The subsequent measurement was made by continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (SpaceLabs 90207 device). Continuous ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed that 17 patients of the younger age group (42.5%) who were diagnosed hypertonic, according to mercury sphygmomanometeric measurement, were in fact normotonic. In the older age group only 7 (17.5%) of participants were normotonic during 24 hr blood pressure monitoring. The proportion of miss-diagnosed normotonic younger patients was directly related to elevated clinic blood pressure, which could be referred to as office hypertension or isolated clinic hypertension (white coat hypertension

  10. Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms among malaria vivax patients in four areas of the Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    Cavasini, Carlos E; de Mattos, Luiz C; Couto, Álvaro AR D'Almeida; Couto, Vanja SC D'Almeida; Gollino, Yuri; Moretti, Laurence J; Bonini-Domingos, Cláudia R; Rossit, Andréa RB; Castilho, Lilian; Machado, Ricardo LD

    2007-01-01

    Background Duffy blood group polymorphisms are important in areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates, because this molecule acts as a receptor for this protozoan. In the present study, Duffy blood group genotyping in P. vivax malaria patients from four different Brazilian endemic areas is reported, exploring significant associations between blood group variants and susceptibility or resistance to malaria. Methods The P. vivax identification was determined by non-genotypic and genotypic screening tests. The Duffy blood group was genotyped by PCR/RFLP in 330 blood donors and 312 malaria patients from four Brazilian Amazon areas. In order to assess the variables significance and to obtain independence among the proportions, the Fisher's exact test was used. Results The data show a high frequency of the FYA/FYB genotype, followed by FYB/FYB, FYA/FYA, FYA/FYB-33 and FYB/FYB-33. Low frequencies were detected for the FYA/FYX, FYB/FYX, FYX/FYX and FYB-33/FYB-33 genotypes. Negative Duffy genotype (FYB-33/FYB-33) was found in both groups: individuals infected and non-infected (blood donors). No individual carried the FYX/FYB-33 genotype. Some of the Duffy genotypes frequencies showed significant differences between donors and malaria patients. Conclusion The obtained data suggest that individuals with the FYA/FYB genotype have higher susceptibility to malaria. The presence of the FYB-33 allele may be a selective advantage in the population, reducing the rate of infection by P. vivax in this region. Additional efforts may contribute to better elucidate the physiopathologic differences in this parasite/host relationship in regions endemic for P. vivax malaria, in particular the Brazilian Amazon region. PMID:18093292

  11. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS). Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016) geometric mean (95% CI) whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3) μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9) μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated. PMID:23317102

  12. Improved Reagents for Newborn Screening of Mucopolysaccharidosis Types I, II, and VI by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry for the multiplex and quantitative analysis of enzyme activities in dried blood spots on newborn screening cards has emerged as a powerful technique for early assessment of lysosomal storage diseases. Here we report the design and process-scale synthesis of substrates for the enzymes α-l-iduronidase, iduronate-2-sulfatase, and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase that are used for newborn screening of mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI. The products contain a bisamide unit that is hypothesized to readily protonate in the gas phase, which improves detection sensitivity by tandem mass spectrometry. The products contain a benzoyl group, which provides a useful site for inexpensive deuteration, thus facilitating the preparation of internal standards for the accurate quantification of enzymatic products. Finally, the reagents are designed with ease of synthesis in mind, thus permitting scale-up preparation to support worldwide newborn screening of lysosomal storage diseases. The new reagents provide the most sensitive assay for the three lysosomal enzymes reported to date as shown by their performance in reactions using dried blood spots as the enzyme source. Also, the ratio of assay signal to that measured in the absence of blood (background) is superior to all previously reported mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI assays. PMID:24694010

  13. Perioperative management of patient with Bombay blood group undergoing mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Priye, Shio; Sathyanarayan, J; Shivaprakash, S; Reddy, Durgaprasad

    2015-12-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of stenotic mitral valve with Bombay phenotype who underwent minimal invasive right lateral thoracotomy for the replacement of the mitral valve. A male patient from Bangladesh presented to the hospital with New York Heart Association III symptoms. His medical evaluation revealed severe mitral valve stenosis and mild aortic valve regurgitation. The patient received erythropoietin, intravenous iron succinate and folic acid tablets. Autologous blood transfusion was carried out. The mitral valve was replaced with a prosthetic valve successfully. After weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinisation was corrected with protamine. Post-operatively, the patient received autologous red blood cells. The patient recovered after 1-day of inotropic support with adrenaline and milrinone, and diuretics and was discharged on the 5(th) post-operative day. PMID:26903676

  14. Perioperative management of patient with Bombay blood group undergoing mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Priye, Shio; Sathyanarayan, J; Shivaprakash, S; Reddy, Durgaprasad

    2015-01-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of stenotic mitral valve with Bombay phenotype who underwent minimal invasive right lateral thoracotomy for the replacement of the mitral valve. A male patient from Bangladesh presented to the hospital with New York Heart Association III symptoms. His medical evaluation revealed severe mitral valve stenosis and mild aortic valve regurgitation. The patient received erythropoietin, intravenous iron succinate and folic acid tablets. Autologous blood transfusion was carried out. The mitral valve was replaced with a prosthetic valve successfully. After weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinisation was corrected with protamine. Post-operatively, the patient received autologous red blood cells. The patient recovered after 1-day of inotropic support with adrenaline and milrinone, and diuretics and was discharged on the 5th post-operative day. PMID:26903676

  15. The role of bradykinin in the regulation of blood flow to hindlimb muscle groups of the anaesthetized cat

    PubMed Central

    Poucher, S M; Garcia, S; Brooks, R

    1998-01-01

    Male cats were anaesthetized with alphaxalone-alphadolone and breathed spontaneously following tracheotomy. Using coloured microspheres, muscle blood flow was measured at rest and during two periods of contraction elicited by simultaneous stimulation of the left sciatic and femoral nerves at 3 Hz for 10 min. In one group, the hindlimb blood flow was allowed to increase during muscle contraction and in another group the perfusion of the hindlimb was limited by a stenosis on the left external iliac artery. In the absence of flow restriction, soleus muscle blood flow increased from 18.9 ± 3.8 to 30.4 ± 3.3 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1 (n = 6; P < 0.02) and gastrocnemius muscle blood flow increased from 24.8 ± 5.9 to 61.6 ± 12.8 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1 (n = 6; P < 0.01) during contraction. The bradykinin (BK) antagonist HOE 140 (1 mg kg−1, i.v.) did not affect the response in either the soleus (37.7 ± 7.3 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1; n = 6; n.s.) or the gastrocnemius (62.9 ± 7.9 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1; n = 6; n.s.) muscles. In the stenosis group, soleus muscle blood flow increased from 9.8 ± 2.3 to 22.9 ± 4.9 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1 (n = 6; P < 0.01) and gastrocnemius muscle blood flow increased from 15.8 ± 3.4 to 36.4 ± 5.5 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1 (n = 6; P < 0.01) during contraction. Following administration of HOE 140, functional hyperaemia in the soleus muscle was unaffected (blood flow, 17.8 ± 2.2 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1; n = 6; n.s.) whilst blood flow in the gastrocnemius muscle was reduced to 21.8 ± 6.0 ml min−1 (100 g tissue)−1 (n = 6; P < 0.05). The results show that BK does not contribute to functional hyperaemia associated with twitch contraction at 3 Hz when blood flow is unrestricted, but may contribute up to 40 % of the vasodilatation of predominantly glycolytic muscle groups such as the gastrocnemius when flow is restricted. BK plays no role in hyperaemia associated with twitch contraction of oxidative

  16. Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Kashima, Simone; Bonfim-Silva, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rochele; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; Bordin, José Orlando; Júnior, Dante Mário Langhi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2011-01-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Knb allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Knb and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22215954

  17. Inhibition of Histo-blood Group Antigen Binding as a Novel Strategy to Block Norovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Chhabra, Monica; Dai, Ying-Chun; Meller, Jarek; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387). Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library) for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design. PMID:23894462

  18. Inhibition of histo-blood group antigen binding as a novel strategy to block norovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Chhabra, Monica; Dai, Ying-Chun; Meller, Jarek; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387). Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library) for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design. PMID:23894462

  19. Gene arrangement at the Rhesus blood group locus of chimpanzees detected by fiber-FISH.

    PubMed

    Suto, Y; Ishikawa, Y; Hyodo, H; Ishida, T; Kasai, F; Tanoue, T; Hayasaka, I; Uchikawa, M; Juji, T; Hirai, M

    2003-01-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system in humans is encoded by two genes with high sequence homology. These two genes, namely, RHCE and RHD, have been implied to be duplicated during evolution. However, the genomic organization of Rh genes in chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates has not been precisely studied. We analyzed the arrangement of the Rh genes of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on chromatin DNA fibers (fiber-FISH) using two genomic DNA probes that respectively contain introns 3 and 7 of human RH genes. Among the five chimpanzees studied, three were found to be homozygous for the two-Rh-gene type, in an arrangement of Rh (5'-->3') - Rh (3'<--5'). Although a similar gene arrangement can be detected in the RH gene locus of typical Rh-positive humans, the distance between the two genes in chimpanzees was about 50 kb longer than that in humans. The remaining two chimpanzees were homozygous for a four-Rh-gene type, in an arrangement of Rh (5'-->3') - Rh (3'<--5') - Rh (3'<--5') - Rh (3'<--5') within a region spanning about 300 kb. This four-Rh-gene type has not been detected in humans. Further analysis of other great apes showed different gene arrangements: a bonobo was homozygous for the three-Rh-gene type; a gorilla was heterozygous for the one-Rh- and two-Rh-gene types; an orangutan was homozygous for the one-Rh-gene type. Our findings on the intra- and interspecific genomic variations in the Rh gene locus in Hominoids would shed further light on reconstructing the genomic pathways of Rh gene duplication during evolution. PMID:14610358

  20. The Role of Autophagy during Group B Streptococcus Infection of Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelium*

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, Andrew S.; Del Rosario, Yvette; Mu, Rong; Rodriguez, Anthony; Till, Andreas; Subramani, Suresh; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis occurs when bloodborne pathogens invade and penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), provoking inflammation and disease. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), the leading cause of neonatal meningitis, can enter human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs), but the host response to intracellular GBS has not been characterized. Here we sought to determine whether antibacterial autophagy, which involves selective recognition of intracellular organisms and their targeting to autophagosomes for degradation, is activated in BBB endothelium during bacterial infection. GBS infection resulted in increased punctate distribution of GFP-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of endogenous LC3-II and p62 turnover, two hallmark indicators of active autophagic flux. Infection with GBS mutants revealed that bacterial invasion and the GBS pore-forming β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-h/c) trigger autophagic activation. Cell-free bacterial extracts containing β-h/c activity induced LC3-II conversion, identifying this toxin as a principal provocative factor for autophagy activation. These results were confirmed in vivo using a mouse model of GBS meningitis as infection with WT GBS induced autophagy in brain tissue more frequently than a β-h/c-deficient mutant. Elimination of autophagy using Atg5-deficient fibroblasts or siRNA-mediated impairment of autophagy in hBMECs led to increased recovery of intracellular GBS. However, electron microscopy revealed that GBS was rarely found within double membrane autophagic structures even though we observed GBS-LC3 co-localization. These results suggest that although autophagy may act as a BBB cellular defense mechanism in response to invading and toxin-producing bacteria, GBS may actively thwart the autophagic pathway. PMID:25371213

  1. The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.

    PubMed

    Sistonen, P; Virtaranta-Knowles, K; Denisova, R; Kucinskas, V; Ambrasiene, D; Beckman, L

    1999-06-01

    Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. PMID:10364680

  2. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Pereira, Maria IA; Fernandes, Heloise P; de Thomaz, Andre A; Cesar, Carlos L; Santos, Beate S; Barjas-Castro, Maria L; Fontes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC) antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I) lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion, this methodology with high sensibility and specificity can be applied to study a variety of RBC antigens, and, as a quantitative tool, can help in achieving a better comprehension of the antigen expression patterns on RBC membranes. PMID:26185442

  3. Affinities of human histo-blood group antigens for norovirus capsid protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Kitova, Elena N; Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Boraston, Alisdair B; Klassen, John S

    2015-01-01

    The binding profiles of many human noroviruses (huNoVs) for human histo-blood group antigens have been characterized. However, quantitative-binding data for these important virus–host interactions are lacking. Here, we report on the intrinsic (per binding site) affinities of HBGA oligosaccharides for the huNoV VA387 virus-like particles (VLPs) and the associated subviral P particles measured using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The affinities of 13 HBGA oligosaccharides, containing A, B and H epitopes, with variable sizes (disaccharide to tetrasaccharide) and different precursor chain types (types 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6), were measured for the P particle, while the affinities of the A and B trisaccharides and A and B type 6 tetrasaccharides for the VLP were determined. The intrinsic affinities of the HBGA oligosaccharides for the P particle range from 500 to 2300 M−1, while those of the A and B trisaccharides and the A and B type 6 tetrasaccharides for the VLP range from 1000 to 4000 M−1. Comparison of these binding data with those measured previously for the corresponding P dimer reveals that the HBGA oligosaccharides tested exhibit similar intrinsic affinities for the P dimer and P particle. The intrinsic affinities for the VLP are consistently higher than those measured for the P particle, but within a factor of three. While the cause of the subtle differences in HBGA oligosaccharide affinities for the P dimer and P particle and those for the VLP remains unknown, the present data support the use of P dimers or P particles as surrogates to the VLP for huNoV-receptor-binding studies. PMID:25395406

  4. Tulane Virus Recognizes the A Type 3 and B Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Huang, Pengwei; Zou, Lu; Lowary, Todd L.; Tan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tulane virus (TV), the prototype of the Recovirus genus in the calicivirus family, was isolated from the stools of rhesus monkeys and can be cultivated in vitro in monkey kidney cells. TV is genetically closely related to the genus Norovirus and recognizes the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), similarly to human noroviruses (NoVs), making it a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, the precise structures of HBGAs recognized by TV remain elusive. In this study, we performed binding and blocking experiments on TV with extended HBGA types and showed that, while TV binds all four types (types 1 to 4) of the B antigens, it recognizes only the A type 3 antigen among four types of A antigens tested. The requirements for HBGAs in TV replication were demonstrated by blocking of TV replication in cell culture using the A type 3/4 and B saliva samples. Similar results were also observed in oligosaccharide-based blocking assays. Importantly, the previously reported, unexplained increase in TV replication by oligosaccharide in cell-based blocking assays has been clarified, which will facilitate the application of TV as a surrogate for human NoVs. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of the role of HBGAs in NoV infection has been significantly advanced in the past decade, but direct evidence for HBGAs as receptors for human NoVs remains lacking due to a lack of a cell culture method. TV recognizes HBGAs and can replicate in vitro, providing a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, TV binds to some but not all saliva samples from A-positive individuals, and an unexplained observation of synthetic oligosaccharide blocking of TV binding has been reported. These issues have been resolved in this study. PMID:25392226

  5. Affinities of recombinant norovirus P dimers for human blood group antigens

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ling; Kitov, Pavel I; Kitova, Elena N; Tan, Ming; Wang, Leyi; Xia, Ming; Jiang, Xi; Klassen, John S

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs), the major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis, recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or attachment factors. To gain a deeper understanding of the interplay between NoVs and their hosts, the affinities of recombinant P dimers (P2's) of a GII.4 NoV (VA387) to a library of 41 soluble analogs of HBGAs were measured using the direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry assay. The HBGAs contained the A, B, H and Lewis epitopes, with variable sizes (2–6 residues) and different types (1–6). The results reveal that the P2's exhibit a broad specificity for the HBGAs and bind to all of the oligosaccharides tested. Overall, the affinities are relatively low, ranging from 400 to 3000 M−1 and are influenced by the chain type: 3 > 1 ≈ 2 ≈ 4 ≈ 5 ≈ 6 for H antigens; 6 > 1 ≈ 3 ≈ 4 ≈ 5 > 2 for A antigens; 3 > 1 ≈ 4 ≈ 5 ≈ 6 > 2 for B antigens, but not by chain length. The highest-affinity ligands are B type 3 (3000 ± 300 M−1) and A type 6 (2350 ± 60 M−1). While the higher affinity to the type 3 H antigen was previously observed, preferential binding to the types 6 and 3 antigens with A and B epitopes, respectively, has not been previously reported. A truncated P domain dimer (lacking the C-terminal arginine cluster) exhibits similar binding. The central-binding motifs in the HBGAs were identified by molecular-docking simulations. PMID:23118206

  6. Blood group antigen studies using CdTe quantum dots and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Pereira, Maria I A; Fernandes, Heloise P; de Thomaz, Andre A; Cesar, Carlos L; Santos, Beate S; Barjas-Castro, Maria L; Fontes, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    New methods of analysis involving semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots [QDs]) as fluorescent probes have been highlighted in life science. QDs present some advantages when compared to organic dyes, such as size-tunable emission spectra, broad absorption bands, and principally exceptional resistance to photobleaching. Methods applying QDs can be simple, not laborious, and can present high sensibility, allowing biomolecule identification and quantification with high specificity. In this context, the aim of this work was to apply dual-color CdTe QDs to quantify red blood cell (RBC) antigen expression on cell surface by flow cytometric analysis. QDs were conjugated to anti-A or anti-B monoclonal antibodies, as well as to the anti-H (Ulex europaeus I) lectin, to investigate RBCs of A1, B, A1B, O, A2, and Aweak donors. Bioconjugates were capable of distinguishing the different expressions of RBC antigens, both by labeling efficiency and by flow cytometry histogram profile. Furthermore, results showed that RBCs from Aweak donors present fewer amounts of A antigens and higher amounts of H, when compared to A1 RBCs. In the A group, the amount of A antigens decreased as A1 > A3 > AX = Ael, while H antigens were AX = Ael > A1. Bioconjugates presented stability and remained active for at least 6 months. In conclusion, this methodology with high sensibility and specificity can be applied to study a variety of RBC antigens, and, as a quantitative tool, can help in achieving a better comprehension of the antigen expression patterns on RBC membranes. PMID:26185442

  7. Chemical Amplification with Encapsulated Reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Koemer, Steffi; Craig, Stephen; Lin, Shirley; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Autocatalysis and chemical amplification are characteristic properties of living systems, and they give rise to behaviors such as increased sensitivity, responsiveness, and self-replication. Here we report a synthetic system in which a unique form of compartmentalization leads to nonlinear, autocatalytic behavior. The compartment is a reversibly formed capsule in which a reagent is sequestered. Reaction products displace the reagent from the capsule into solution and the reaction rate is accelerated. The resulting self-regulation is sensitive to the highly selective molecular recognition properties of the capsule.

  8. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  9. Typing of Blood-Group Antigens on Neutral Oligosaccharides by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Shuang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Yibing; Mulloy, Barbara; Zhan, Xiaobei; Chai, Wengang

    2013-01-01

    Blood-group antigens, such as those containing fucose and bearing the ABO(H)- and Lewis-type determinants expressed on the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids, and also on unconjugated free oligosaccharides in human milk and other secretions, are associated with various biological functions. We have previously shown the utility of negative-ion electrospay ionization tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) for typing of Lewis (Le) determinants, e.g. Lea, Lex, Leb, and Ley on neutral and sialylated oligosaccharide chains. In the present report we extended the strategy to characterization of blood-group A-, B- and H-determinants on type 1 and type 2, and also on type 4 globoside chains to provide a high sensitivity method for typing of all the major blood-group antigens, including the A, B, H, Lea, Lex, Leb, and Ley determinants, present in oligosaccharides. Using the principles established we identified two minor unknown oligosaccharide components present in the products of enzymatic synthesis by bacterial fermentation. We also demonstrated that the unique fragmentations derived from the D- and 0,2A-type cleavages observed in ESI-CID-MS/MS, which are important for assigning blood-group and chain types, only occur under the negative-ion conditions for reducing sugars but not for reduced alditols or under positive-ion conditions. PMID:23692402

  10. Rapid transdermal bloodless and reagent-free malaria detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Campbell, Kelly M.; Constantinou, Pamela E.; Braam, Janet; Olson, John S.; Ware, Russell E.; Sullivan, David S.; Lapotko, Dmitri

    2014-02-01

    Successful diagnosis, screening, and elimination of malaria critically depend on rapid and sensitive detection of this dangerous infection, preferably transdermally and without sophisticated reagents or blood drawing. Such diagnostic methods are not currently available. Here we show that the high optical absorbance and nanosize of endogenous heme nanoparticles called hemozoin, a unique component of all blood-stage malaria parasites, generate a transient vapor nanobubble around hemozoin in response to a short and safe near-infrared picosecond laser pulse. The acoustic signals of these malaria-specific nanobubbles provided the first transdermal non-invasive and rapid detection of a malaria infection as low as 0.00034% in animals without using any reagents or drawing blood. These on-demand transient events have no analogs among current malaria markers and probes, can detect and screen malaria in seconds and can be realized as a compact, easy to use, inexpensive and safe field technology.

  11. Forearm oxygenation and blood flow kinetics during a sustained contraction in multiple ability groups of rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Simon; Stoner, Lee; Scarrott, Carl; Lucero, Adam; Witter, Trevor; Love, Richard; Dickson, Tabitha; Draper, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the physiological mechanisms that allow elite level climbers to maintain intense isometric contractions for prolonged periods of time are unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether blood flow or muscle oxidative capacity best governs performance. This study aimed to determine the haemodynamic kinetics of 2 forearm flexor muscles in 3 ability groups of rock climbers. Thirty-eight male participants performed a sustained contraction at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until volitional fatigue. Oxygen saturation and blood flow was assessed using near infrared spectroscopy and Doppler ultrasound. Compared to control, intermediate, and advanced groups, the elite climbers had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher strength-to-weight ratio (MVC/N), de-oxygenated the flexor digitorum profundus significantly (P < 0.05) more (32, 34.3, and 42.8 vs. 63% O2, respectively), and at a greater rate (0.32, 0.27, and 0.34 vs. 0.77 O2%·s(-1), respectively). Furthermore, elite climbers de-oxygenated the flexor carpi radialis significantly (P < 0.05) more and at a greater rate than the intermediate group (36.5 vs. 14.6% O2 and 0.43 vs. 0.1O2%·s(-1), respectively). However, there were no significant differences in total forearm ∆ blood flow. An increased MVC/N is not associated with greater blood flow occlusion in elite climbers; therefore, oxidative capacity may be more important for governing performance. PMID:25311579

  12. Evaluation of novel derivatisation reagents for the analysis of oxysterols

    SciTech Connect

    Crick, Peter J.; Aponte, Jennifer; Bentley, T. William; Matthews, Ian; Wang, Yuqin; Griffiths, William J.

    2014-04-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New derivatisation reagents for LC–MS analysis of oxysterols. • New reagents based on Girard P give high ion-currents and informative LC–MS{sup n} spectra. • Permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. • New reagents offer greater scope for incorporation of isotope labels. - Abstract: Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol that are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. They are also ligands to nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors. Analysis of oxysterols in biological systems is challenging due to their low abundance coupled with their lack of a strong chromophore and poor ionisation characteristics in mass spectrometry (MS). We have previously used enzyme-assisted derivatisation for sterol analysis (EADSA) to identify and quantitate oxysterols in biological samples. This technique relies on tagging sterols with the Girard P reagent to introduce a charged quaternary ammonium group. Here, we have compared several modified Girard-like reagents and show that the permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. However, we find that the reagent can be extended to include sites for potential stable isotope labels without a loss of performance.

  13. Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chanzu, Nadia Musimbi; Mwanda, Walter; Oyugi, Julius; Anzala, Omu

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed ‘secretors’) while 20% do not (termed ‘non-secretors’). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status. Objective To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Methodology This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18–65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7%) were secretors and 68 (24.3%) were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7%) versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8%) (p = 0.029) Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%), in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066), AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355), and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028). Conclusion This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

  14. Immunosuppressive protocols for transplantation and certain hematologic malignancies can prevent the primary immune response to the D blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Seager, Adair; Sandler, S G

    2013-01-01

    A review of the published literature on Rh alloimmunization reveals that its incidence varies with the volume of infused D+ red blood cells (RBCs), the probable Rh genotype of the RBCs, and the immune competency of the D- recipient. Among the reports of Rh alloimmunization on different clinical circumstances, we identified five studies in which a combined total of 62 D- recipients of hematopoetic stem cell or solid -organ transplants were transfised with D+ RBCs and none (0%) formed anti-D. The observation that immunosuppressive protocols developed to prevent rejection of tissue and organ transplants also prevented alloimmunization to the D blood group antigen raises the possibility of practical applications in blood transfusion practice. PMID:24325172

  15. Production of soluble recombinant proteins with Kell, Duffy and Lutheran blood group antigen activity, and their use in screening human sera for Kell, Duffy and Lutheran antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ridgwell, K; Dixey, J; Scott, M L

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to show that soluble recombinant (sr) proteins can mimic blood group antigens and be used to screen human sera for blood-group-specific antibodies. The blood of all pregnant women and pretransfusion patients should be screened for blood-group-specific antibodies to identify and monitor pregnancies at risk of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN), and to prevent haemolytic transfusion reactions. Current antibody screening and identification methods use human red blood cell panels, which can complicate antibody identification if more than one antibody specificity is present. COS-7 cells were transfected to produce sr forms of the extracellular domains of the red blood cell membrane proteins that express Kell, Duffy or Lutheran blood group antigens. These sr proteins were used to screen for and identify anti-Kell, anti-Duffy or anti-Lutheran blood-group-specific allo-antibodies in human sera by haemagglutination inhibition and in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). There is a positive correlation (correlation coefficient 0.605, P value 0.002) between antibody titre by standard indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) and signal intensity in the ELISA test. This work shows that sr proteins can mimic blood group antigens and react with human allogeneic antibodies, and that such proteins could be used to develop solid-phase, high-throughput blood group antibody screening and identification platforms. PMID:17725551

  16. Similar Blood Pressure Values Across Racial and Economic Groups: Baseline Data from a Group Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Barry L.; Coffey, Christopher S.; Uribe, Liz; James, Paul A.; Egan, Brent M.; Ardery, Gail; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Ecklund, Dixie; Weg, Mark Vander; Vaughn, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines baseline characteristics from a prospective, cluster-randomized trial in 32 primary care offices. Offices were first stratified by percent minorities and level of clinical pharmacy services and then randomized into one of three study groups. The only differences between randomized arms were for marital status (p=0.03) and type of insurance coverage (p<0.001). BPs were similar in Caucasians and minority subjects, primarily Blacks, who were hypertensive at baseline. On multivariate analyses, subjects who were ≥ 65 years of age had higher systolic BP (SBP) (152.4 ± 14.3 mm Hg), but lower diastolic BP (DBP) (77.3 ± 11.8 mm Hg) compared to those <65 years of age (147.4 ± 15.0/88.6 ± 10.6 mm Hg, p<0.001 for both SBP and DBP). Other factors significantly associated with higher SBP were a longer duration of hypertension (p=0.04) and lower basal metabolic index (BMI) (p=0.011). Subjects with diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD) had a lower SBP than those without these conditions (p<0.0001). BP was similar across racial and socioeconomic groups for subjects with uncontrolled hypertension in primary care suggesting that subjects with uncontrolled hypertension and an established primary care relationship likely have different reasons for poor BP control than other patient populations. PMID:23730989

  17. New preparation of diethyl methylformylphosphonate dimethylhydrazone: A reagent for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phosphonate reagent, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone contains a protected aldehyde group instead of the usual ester group. It can be used for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to a, ß-unsaturated aldehydes. The reagent can be prepared in good overall yield (82%) and...

  18. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes. PMID:26527682

  19. Association of ABO and Colton Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms With Hematological Traits Variation

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Shirin; Mashayekhi, Amir; Fatahi, Neda; Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hematological parameters are appraised routinely to determine overall human health and to diagnose and monitor certain diseases. In GWASs, more than 30 loci carrying common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymorphisms have been identified related to hematological traits. In this study, we investigated the contribution of ABO rs2073823 along with AQP1 rs1049305 and rs10244884 polymorphisms in hematological traits variation in a cohort of Iranian healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 168 healthy volunteer. Genotyping was performed by ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Complete blood analyses were conducted for the participants. Significant association was observed between AQP1 rs1049305 and the hematological traits including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count (P = 0.012, 0.008, and 0.011, respectively). The AQP1 rs10244884 status was also significantly linked to hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in the study cohort (P = 0.015 and 0.041, respectively). Furthermore, ABO rs2073823 polymorphism was identified as a hemoglobin and hematocrit levels modifier (both with P = 0.004). AQP1 and ABO variants appear to predict hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but not other erythrocyte phenotype parameters including red blood cell counts and red blood cell indices. PMID:26632894

  20. New phosphonate reagents for aldehyde homologation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New phosphonate reagents were developed for the two-carbon homologation of aldehydes to unbranched- or methyl-branched unsaturated aldehydes. The phosphonate reagents, diethyl methylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone and diethyl ethylformyl-2-phosphonate dimethylhydrazone, contained a protected...

  1. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice. Their group models, which were represented by discourse and blood circulation diagrams, were analyzed for the development of the framework that informed the model evaluation levels and epistemological features. The model evaluation levels were categorized into levels one to four based on the following evaluation criteria: no evaluation, authoritative sources, superficial criteria, and more comprehensive criteria. The qualities of group models varied with the criteria of model evaluation. While students who used authoritative sources for evaluating the group model appeared to have an absolutist epistemology, students who evaluated according to the superficial criteria and more comprehensive criteria appeared to have an evaluative epistemology. Furthermore, groups with Level four showed a chain reaction of cognitive reasoning during the modeling practice concerning practical epistemology. The findings have implications for science teachers and education researchers who want to understand the context for developing students' practical epistemologies.

  2. Role of family susceptibility, occupational and family histories and individuals' blood groups in the development of silicosis.

    PubMed

    Noweir, M H; Moselhi, M; Amine, E K

    1980-11-01

    A previous investigation has shown that family susceptibility and occupational and family histories have a decisive role in the development of byssinosis among workers exposed to flax dust. Results of investigation of silicosis in 814 male workers exposed to silica-bearing dust showed that family susceptibility has an important role in the development of silicosis among examined workers, and workers whose fathers had an occupational history of exposure to silica-bearing dust were more resistant to the development of the disease than those with non-exposed fathers. The degree of consanguinity of parents and individuals' blood groups, also, have a role. Workers with cousin parents were relatively highly susceptible to the development of silicosis as well as workers with blood groups "O" or "AB". It has been concluded that the investigated factors might have a role in the development of other occupational diseases and further investigations are indicated. PMID:6255981

  3. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans

    PubMed Central

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Botswana is among the world’s countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. Methods 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. Results The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. Conclusion The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic. PMID:26900853

  4. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  5. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  6. Expression of blood group antigens in urinary tract tumours: prospective fluorescence study using cryostat sections of fresh frozen tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, S J; Abel, P; Henderson, D; Jones, N; Feizi, T

    1986-01-01

    Cryostat sections of fresh frozen tissues were used in a prospective study of blood group H and A antigen fluorescence in 73 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. The aim was to evaluate antigen expression without subjecting the tumour tissues to organic solvents that extract blood group active glycolipids. Deletion of the genetically predicted antigen was twice as common in tumours of pT1 or greater stage than those of pTa stage and also twice as common in poorly differentiated than in moderately well differentiated tumours. The considerable heterogeneity and overlap, however, in patterns of reactivity in tumours of various histopathological stages and grades and the effect of secretor status on antigenicity meant that there was no obvious antigenic feature that correlated precisely with invasive stage or differentiation grade. It remains to be determined whether the antigen positive and antigen negative tumours represent different disease entities with differing clinical courses. Our results indicate, however, that studies of the blood group antigens in urinary tract tumours are more likely to be of value in research into biochemical disorders in the neoplastic process than in routine clinical assessment as a guide to treatment. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3540013

  7. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion's Disease in Amazonas, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Luis; Escobar, Jorge; Fernandez, Miguel; Solano, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Carrion's disease (CD), is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase). Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only) and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P > 0.05) between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru. PMID:24847360

  8. Glucose buffer is suitable for blood group conversion with α-N acetylgalactosaminidase and α-galactosidase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Su-Bo; Bao, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Hui; Wang, Ying-Li; Tan, Ying-Xia; Ji, Shou-Ping; Gong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that the buffer plays a key role in the enzymatic reaction involved in blood group conversion. In previous study, we showed that a glycine buffer is suitable for A to O or B to O blood group conversion. In this study, we investigated the use of 5% glucose and other buffers for A to O or B to O blood group conversion by α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase or α-galactosidase. Materials and methods We compared the binding ability of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase/α-galactosidase with red blood cells (RBC) in different reaction buffers, such as normal saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a disodium hydrogen phosphate-based buffer (PCS), and 5% commercial glucose solution. The doses of enzymes necessary for the A/B to O conversion in different reaction buffers were determined and compared. The enzymes’ ability to bind to RBC was evaluated by western blotting, and routine blood typing and fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to evaluate B/A to O conversion efficiency. Results The A to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.06 mg/mL pRBC). B to O conversion efficiency in glucose buffer was also similar to that in glycine buffer with the same dose (>0.005 mg/mL pRBC). Most enzymes could bind with RBC in glycine or glucose buffer, but few enzymes could bind with RBC in PBS, PCS, or normal saline. Conclusion These results indicate that 5% glucose solution provides a suitable condition for enzymolysis, especially for enzymes combining with RBC. Meanwhile, the conversion efficiency of A/B to O was similar in glucose buffer and glycine buffer. Moreover, 5% glucose solution has been used for years in venous transfusion, it is safe for humans and its cost is lower. Our results do, therefore, suggest that 5% glucose solution could become a novel suitable buffer for A/B to O blood group conversion. PMID:24333060

  9. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group. PMID:27045129

  10. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in Mauritania: results of first nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A

    2012-04-01

    There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population. PMID:22128837

  11. Blood group O alleles in Native Americans: implications in the peopling of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Mena, Benito; Estrada, F Javier; Ulloa-Arvizu, Raúl; Guido, Miriam; Méndez, Rocío; Coral, Ramón; Canto, Thelma; Granados, Julio; Rubí-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    All major ABO blood alleles are found in most populations worldwide, whereas the majority of Native Americans are nearly exclusively in the O group. O allele molecular characterization could aid in elucidating the possible causes of group O predominance in Native American populations. In this work, we studied exon 6 and 7 sequence diversity in 180 O blood group individuals from four different Mesoamerican populations. Additionally, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity and population structure including South American populations was performed. Results revealed no significant differences among Mesoamerican and South American groups, but showed significant differences within population groups attributable to previously detected differences in genetic drift and founder effects throughout the American continent. Interestingly, in all American populations, the same set of haplotypes O(1), O(1v), and O(1v(G542A)) was present, suggesting the following: (1) that they constitute the main genetic pool of the founding population of the Americas and (2) that they derive from the same ancestral source, partially supporting the single founding population hypothesis. In addition, the consistent and restricted presence of the G542A mutation in Native Americans compared to worldwide populations allows it to be employed as an Ancestry informative marker (AIM). Present knowledge of the peopling of the Americas allows the prediction of the way in which the G542A mutation could have emerged in Beringia, probably during the differentiation process of Asian lineages that gave rise to the founding population of the continent. PMID:19862808

  12. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Class II (special controls/guidance documents), when the analyte is used in blood banking tests that... recommended or required testing in order to safeguard the blood supply or establish the safe use of blood and blood products (e.g., tests for hepatitis or tests for identifying blood groups). (c) Date of 510(k),...

  13. Monoclonal reagents for rhesus-D typing of Irish patients and donors: a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, M

    2000-01-01

    Polyclonal anti-D reagents have been largely replaced by monoclonal reagents; however, although generally very potent, they can exhibit some variation in activity, particularly in the detection of weak Rhesus (Rh) D-positive cells. Hence, although patients and donors previously typed as Rh-D-negative (Du positive) are now being typed as Rh-D-positive, it is likely that two monoclonal reagents selected for Rh-D typing may give anomalous results. This has led to confusion in testing patients and donors in Irish laboratories. To address this problem, 29 commercially available monoclonal and monoclonal/polyclonal anti-D reagents were evaluated for reactivity with partial D and efficiency of weak-D detection, using the manual tube technique. The anti-D reagents used in column technologies (Biovue and Diamed) also were evaluated. Testing was limited by the availability of partial-D cells. The reagents directly agglutinated the majority of partial-D cells, with the exception of DVI, which required the indirect antiglobulin test for detection. Totem (Diagast) and Z039 (Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service) both directly agglutinated DVI. The weak-D detection rate for a number of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reagents was improved by incubation of initially negative tests. Sedimentation techniques, recommended for a number of reagents, were unsuitable for weak-D or partial-D detection. There were indications that IgM/IgG reagents gave lower direct-agglutination weak-D detection rates than did IgM reagents, although Totem and Novaclone produced results matching those of the IgM reagents. Laboratories should be aware of the guidelines for Rh-D typing of patients and donors, and select anti-D reagents accordingly. PMID:10912289

  14. Monoclonal platelet antigen capture assays (MAIPA) and reagents: a statement.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C; Freedman, J; Foxcroft, Z; Husebekk, A; Metcalfe, P; Muniz-Diaz, E; Ouwehand, W; Panzer, S; Rozman, P; Skogen, B

    2007-11-01

    This statement concerning the monoclonal-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) has been written on behalf of the International Society of Blood Transfusion--Working Party on Platelet Immunology. The MAIPA technique is considered as the gold standard reference technique in platelet immunology. The assay performed with reagents labelled for 'research only' is acceptable as long as it is regularly evaluated by participation of laboratories in national or international workshops held with reference laboratories. PMID:18070272

  15. Impact of antigenic exposures and role of molecular blood grouping in enhancing transfusion safety in chronically transfused thalassemics

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Agrawal, Soma; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red cell alloimmunization is an acknowledged complication of blood transfusion. Current transfusion practices for thalassemia do not cater to this risk. Serological phenotyping is usually not reliable in these cases unless performed before the first transfusion. Under such circumstances, molecular blood grouping is an effective alternative. Aim: To perform molecular blood group genotyping in chronically transfused thalassemia patients and assess the risk of antigenic exposure and incidence of alloimmunization with current transfusion protocols. Materials and Methods: Molecular blood group genotyping was performed for 47 chronically transfused thalassemia patients. Their 1-year transfusion records were retrieved to assess the antigenic exposure and the frequency thereof. Results: Of 47 patients, 6 were already alloimmunized (3 with anti-E and 3 with anti-K) and were receiving the corresponding antigen negative units. We observed that random selection of ABO and Rh D matched units resulted in 57.7% ±8.26% chance of Rh and Kell phenotype matching also. Forty-four patients had received one or more antigenic exposures at least once. The 6 already alloimmunized patients were further exposed to antigens other than the ones they were immunized to. During the study period, only one patient developed an alloantibody, anti-E with exposure to antigens C (92%) and/or E (32%) at each transfusion. Conclusion: Several factors apart from mere antigen exposure may influence the development of alloimmunization as most of our patients received antigenic exposures but not alloimmunized. Our data provide an impetus for future large-scale studies to understand the development of alloimmunization in such patients. PMID:27605852

  16. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    PubMed

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. PMID:27282078

  17. Organometallic Palladium Reagents for Cysteine Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Transition-metal based reactions have found wide use in organic synthesis and are used frequently to functionalize small molecules.1,2 However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal based reactions to modify complex biomolecules3,4, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature, and mild pH) and the existence of multiple, reactive functional groups found in biopolymers. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation reactions. The bioconjugation reaction is rapid and robust under a range of biocompatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants, and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the new bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as a new set of benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications. PMID:26511579

  18. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M; Pentelute, Bradley L; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-10-29

    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications. PMID:26511579

  19. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-10-01

    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications.

  20. A comparative analysis of arterial blood flow in unexplained infertility, tubal infertility and fertile groups.

    PubMed

    Zebitay, A G; Tutumlu, M; Verit, F F; Ilhan, G K; Gungor, E S; Cetin, O; Vuruşkan, E

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare ovarian (O), uterine (U) and spiral (S) artery (A) resistance of patients diagnosed as fertile, unexplained infertility (UI) and tubal factor infertility (TFI) in the peri-implantation period and independent from the impact of the treatment. UI (n = 70), TFI (n = 75) and fertile (n = 72) patients' ovarian, uterine and spiral artery pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI) and the endometrial thickness, serum estradiol and progesterone levels were compared. The specificity and sensitivity values were calculated according to determined cutoff values. Both TFI and control groups' UA PI values were significantly lower than the UI group's PI values. The highest UA RI values were found in UI group and the lowest values were in the control group. UI and TFI groups' OA PI/RI values were significantly higher than the control group. Both the control and TFI groups' SA PI/RI values were significantly lower than UI group's PI/RI values. UI patients' uterine and spiral arteries PI values >1.86 and >0.85, RI values >0.80 and >0.53 can be used as a valuable test showing reduced uterine perfusion. Ovarian artery PI values  >0.96 and RI values  >0.58 can be used as tests showing decreased ovarian perfusion in patients with TFI. In these patients, embryo cryopreservation can be considered. PMID:26699267

  1. Exposure and Risk Factors to Coxiella burnetii, Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among Volunteer Blood Donors in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Noden, Bruce H.; Tshavuka, Filippus I.; van der Colf, Berta E.; Chipare, Israel; Wilkinson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia) are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG) in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS). Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8%) had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16), and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100) for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P<0.021). Donors with occupations involving animals (P>0.012), especially cattle (P>0.006), were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013) and typhus (P<0.011) group rickettsiae. Three (2.9%) samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms. PMID:25259959

  2. Copper-Catalyzed Difluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with (Difluoromethyl)zinc Reagent.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Hiroki; Ishii, Koki; Aikawa, Kohsuke; Mikami, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    The combination of difluoroiodomethane and zinc dust or diethylzinc can readily lead to (difluoromethyl)zinc reagents. Therefore, the first copper-catalyzed difluoromethylation of aryl iodides with the zinc reagents is accomplished to afford the difluoromethylated arenes. The reaction proceeds efficiently through the ligand/activator-free operation without addition of ligands for copper catalyst (e.g., phen and bpy) and activators for zinc reagent (e.g., KF, CsF, and NaO-t-Bu). Moreover, transmetalation of the CF2H group from zinc reagent to copper catalyst proceeds even at room temperature to form the cuprate [Cu(CF2H)2](-). PMID:27442584

  3. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gerd K.; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M.; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the “tucked under” conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes. PMID:26527682

  4. [The biological significance of the genetically determined Se-se human blood group and its effect on the antibody formation process in donors immunized with staphylococcal anatoxin].

    PubMed

    Patoka, V V

    1999-01-01

    82 blood donors have been observed, 63 of them were immunized. Blood group ABO(H), secreting group Se--se and Staphylococcus antibody contents (anti-alpha-staphylolysins) were determined in all the donors. It was found out that the donors-secretors with A(II) blood group exhibited the antibody-production increasing. It is supposed that the secreting of group-specific substance A, that has structural elements similar those of staphylococcus into saliva promotes antibody production increase against staphylococcus. The mechanism of such specific stimulation remains to be unknown and requires further studying. PMID:10687067

  5. Chemoselective Schwartz Reagent Mediated Reduction of Isocyanates to Formamides.

    PubMed

    Pace, Vittorio; de la Vega-Hernández, Karen; Urban, Ernst; Langer, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Addition of the in situ generated Schwartz reagent to widely available isocyanates constitutes a chemoselective, high-yielding, and versatile approach to the synthesis of variously functionalized formamides. Steric and electronic factors or the presence of sensitive functionalities (esters, nitro groups, nitriles, alkenes) do not compromise the potential of the method. Full preservation of the stereochemical information contained in the starting materials is observed. The use of formamides in the nucleophilic addition of organometallic reagents (Chida-Sato allylation, Charette-Huang addition to imidoyl triflate activated amides, Matteson homologation of boronic esters) is briefly investigated. PMID:27218199

  6. Blood Group Discrepancy-First Sign of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Child.

    PubMed

    Datta, Suvro Sankha; Reddy, Mahua; Basu, Sabita; Krishnan, Shekhar

    2016-06-01

    A 12-year-old male child was presented in the emergency with features of anemia and mild icterus on day+67 of HSCT. The child was suffering from Fanconi anemia and undergone HSCT from ABO-matched, fully HLA matched sibling donor. The diagnosis of mixed type AIHA due to cytomegalovirus reactivation was made in the immunohematology laboratory and blood group discrepancy was the first sign of AIHA in this patient. Though the cold agglutinin titer was not significant but the clinical symptoms and laboratory evidences were suggestive of significant hemolysis due to underlying IgG autoantibody. In addition the high complement avidity of IgM autoantibody might also be a contributing factor for clinically significant hemolysis in this case. The patient was successfully treated with phenotype matched blood transfusion, rituximab and oral steroid therapy. PMID:27408394

  7. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  8. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  9. Novel association of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble P-selectin with the ABO blood group in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Qun; Zhuang, Yunlong; Chen, Yuanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the ABO gene can affect circulating expression levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in Caucasians. However, several factors may affect the association, including the distribution and variations of the ABO gene, ethnic diversity and the inflammatory response status. The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue in Asian subjects of various blood groups. A total of 800 blood samples were randomly selected from healthy blood donors. The ABO blood groups were examined using standard serological tests, and ABO genotypes of group A and group AB specimens were analyzed. Plasma concentrations of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin were detected by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In healthy Chinese individuals, blood group A was detected to be significantly associated with lower circulating expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin, compared with group O. Individuals with ≥1 A1 allele had significantly lower expression levels of sICAM-1 and sP-selectin compared with all other ABO groups. The data indicate the significant association of ABO blood group antigens with sICAM-1 and sP-selectin expression levels in a healthy Chinese population, independent of the specific variations and distributions of ABO blood groups among ethnic populations. This result provides evidence for the previously unidentified role of ABO blood group antigens in the regulation of the inflammatory adhesion process. Accordingly, it can be proposed that ABO blood groups may require consideration when soluble adhesion molecules are identified as predictors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27446295

  10. The αGal Epitope of the Histo-Blood Group Antigen Family Is a Ligand for Bovine Norovirus Newbury2 Expected to Prevent Cross-Species Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zakhour, Maha; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Charpilienne, Annie; Langpap, Brigitte; Poncet, Didier; Peters, Thomas; Bovin, Nicolai; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Among Caliciviridae, the norovirus genus encompasses enteric viruses that infect humans as well as several animal species, causing gastroenteritis. Porcine strains are classified together with human strains within genogroup II, whilst bovine norovirus strains represent genogroup III. Various GI and GII human strains bind to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family which may be shared among mammalian species. Genetic relatedness of human and animal strains as well as the presence of potentially shared ligands raises the possibility of norovirus cross-species transmission. In the present study, we identified a carbohydrate ligand for the prototype bovine norovirus strain Bo/Newbury2/76/UK (NB2). Attachment of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the NB2 strain to bovine gut tissue sections showed a complete match with the staining by reagents recognizing the Galα1,3 motif. Alpha-galactosidase treatment confirmed involvement of a terminal alpha-linked galactose. Specific binding of VLPs to the αGal epitope (Galα3Galβ4GlcNAcβ-R) was observed. The binding of Galα3GalαOMe to rNB2 VLPs was characterized at atomic resolution employing saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. Transfection of human cells with an α1,3galactosyltransferase cDNA allowed binding of NB2 VLPs, whilst inversely, attachment to porcine vascular endothelial cells was lost when the cells originated from an α1,3galactosyltransferase KO animal. The αGal epitope is expressed in all mammalian species with the exception of the Hominidaea family due to the inactivation of the α1,3galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1). Accordingly, the NB2 carbohydrate ligand is absent from human tissues. Although expressed on porcine vascular endothelial cells, we observed that unlike in cows, it is not present on gut epithelial cells, suggesting that neither man nor pig could be infected by the NB2 bovine strain. PMID:19578439

  11. Comparison Between Conventional and Automated Techniques for Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Experience from a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Swarupa Nikhil; Sharma, Jayashree H; Jose, Julie; Modi, Charusmita J

    2015-01-01

    Context: The routine immunohematological tests can be performed by automated as well as manual techniques. These techniques have advantages and disadvantages inherent to them. Aims: The present study aims to compare the results of manual and automated techniques for blood grouping and crossmatching so as to validate the automated system effectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 samples were subjected to blood grouping by the conventional tube technique (CTT) and the automated microplate LYRA system on Techno TwinStation. A total of 269 samples (multitransfused patients and multigravida females) were compared for 927 crossmatches by the CTT in indirect antiglobulin phase against the column agglutination technique (CAT) performed on Techno TwinStation. Results: For blood grouping, the study showed a concordance in results for 942/1000 samples (94.2%), discordance for 4/1000 (0.4%) samples and uninterpretable result for 54/1000 samples (5.4%). On resolution, the uninterpretable results reduced to 49/1000 samples (4.9%) with 951/1000 samples (95.1%) showing concordant results. For crossmatching, the automated CAT showed concordant results in 887/927 (95.6%) and discordant results in 3/927 (0.32%) crossmatches as compared to the CTT. Total 37/927 (3.9%) crossmatches were not interpretable by the automated technique. Conclusions: The automated system shows a high concordance of results with CTT and hence can be brought into routine use. However, the high proportion of uninterpretable results emphasizes on the fact that proper training and standardization are needed prior to its use. PMID:26417159

  12. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children. PMID:27215601

  13. Activities of potential therapeutic and prophylactic antibiotics against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from neutropenic patients receiving ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, P H; Patel, S; Whiley, R A; Hardie, J M; Gillespie, S H; Kibbler, C C

    1993-01-01

    All 47 sequential blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from febrile neutropenic patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and imipenem. Resistance to benzylpenicillin (MIC for 50% of isolates [MIC50], 0.125 microgram/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml) was common. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at a 2:1 ratio by weight), azlocillin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin, with azithromycin showing comparable activity. The MIC90 of sparfloxacin was 1 microgram/ml; those for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were > 16 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:8285642

  14. Prognostic value of ABO blood group in patients with early stage cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy with pelvic node dissection.

    PubMed

    Hanprasertpong, Jitti; Jiamset, Ingporn; Atjimakul, Thiti

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of ABO blood groups in early-stage cervical cancer patients. The cohort included 413 patients diagnosed with stages IA2-IB1 cervical cancer who received a radical hysterectomy between 2002 and 2014. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were 93.13 and 96.81 % for blood group O, 87.68 and 88.22 % for blood group A, 81.66 and 89.40 % for blood group B, and 83.12 and 94.12 % for blood group AB groups, respectively. Patients were stratified for analysis as either blood group O or non-O. The 5-year RFS and OS were 93.13 and 96.81 % for blood group O and 83.66 and 89.76 % for blood group non-O, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age (P = 0.025), histology (P = 0.020), and deep stromal invasion (P = 0.006) were independent adverse prognostic factors for RFS, while the statistically significant independent prognostic factors for OS were age (P = 0.007) and parametrial involvement (P < 0.001). The Cox model did not show any significant effects of non-O blood group on survival outcome. However, a time-varying-effect Cox model revealed that the non-O blood group was associated with a worse RFS (hazard ratio (HR) 2.69, 95 % confidence interval (95%CI) 1.12-6.46, P = 0.017) and OS (HR 3.13, 95%CI 0.88-11.16, P = 0.053) during the first 5 years. These findings suggest that early-stage cervical cancer patients with a non-O blood group have poorer RFS than the O blood group, which is evidence during the first 5 years. PMID:26678885

  15. Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups

    PubMed Central

    Jafar, Tazeen H.; Jehan, Imtiaz; Liang, Feng; Barbier, Sylvaine; Islam, Muhammad; Bux, Rasool; Khan, Aamir Hameed; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Poulter, Neil; Chaturvedi, Nish; Ebrahim, Shah

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP) is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the combined home health education (HHE) and trained general practitioner (GP) intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than no intervention (usual care) in lowering systolic BP among adults with hypertension in urban Pakistan. However, it was not clear whether the effect would be sustained after the cessation of intervention. We conducted 7 years follow-up inclusive of 5 years of post intervention period of COBRA trial participants to assess the effectiveness of the interventions on BP during extended follow-up. Methods A total of 1341 individuals 40 years or older with hypertension (systolic BP 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or greater, or already receiving treatment) were followed by trained research staff masked to randomization status. BP was measured thrice with a calibrated automated device (Omron HEM-737 IntelliSense) in the sitting position after 5 minutes of rest. BP measurements were repeated after two weeks. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the primary outcome of change in systolic BP from baseline to 7- year follow-up. The multivariable model was adjusted for clustering, age at baseline, sex, baseline systolic and diastolic BP, and presence of diabetes. Findings After 7 years of follow-up, systolic BP levels among those randomised to combined HHE plus trained GP intervention were significantly lower (2.1 [4.1–0.1] mm Hg) compared to those randomised to usual care, (P = 0.04). Participants receiving the combined intervention compared to usual care had a greater reduction in LDL-cholesterol (2.7 [4.8 to 0.6] mg/dl. Conclusions The benefit in systolic BP reduction observed in the original cohort assigned to the combined intervention was attenuated but still

  16. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    PubMed Central

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  17. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roberta G; Pearson, Gail D; Barst, Robyn J; Child, John S; del Nido, Pedro; Gersony, Welton M; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Myerson, Merle; Neish, Steven R; Sahn, David J; Verstappen, Amy; Warnes, Carole A; Webb, Catherine L

    2006-02-21

    The Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) was convened in September 2004 under the sponsorship of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the Office of Rare Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, to make recommendations on research needs. The purpose of the Working Group was to advise the NHLBI on the current state of the science in ACHD and barriers to optimal clinical care, and to make specific recommendations for overcoming those barriers. The members of the Working Group were chosen to provide expert input on a broad range of research issues from both scientific and lay perspectives. The Working Group reviewed data on the epidemiology of ACHD, long-term outcomes of complex cardiovascular malformations, issues in assessing morphology and function with current imaging techniques, surgical and catheter-based interventions, management of related conditions including pregnancy and arrhythmias, quality of life, and informatics. After research and training barriers were discussed, the Working Group recommended outreach and educational programs for adults with congenital heart disease, a network of specialized adult congenital heart disease regional centers, technology development to support advances in imaging and modeling of abnormal structure and function, and a consensus on appropriate training for physicians to provide care for adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:16487831

  18. A study of linkage relationships of blood group P with naked neck, silkie feathering, and recessive white in chicken.

    PubMed

    Bitgood, J J; Dochnahl, J; Schlafly, P; Briles, R W; Briles, W E

    1984-03-01

    Linkage relationships of blood group P (Ea-P), naked neck (Na), silkie feathering (h), and recessive white plumage (c) were studied to attempt to clarify the h-Na-Ea-P region of linkage group III of the chicken. The Na-Ea-P linkage values obtained in this test agreed with previous reports, and pooled data were used to recalculate a map distance of 27.9 +/- 2.3 map units between these two loci. A significant chi square for linkage was calculated between Na and c; however, because of the relatively low numbers of progeny tested, the high linkage value calculated, and the absence of detectable linkage between c and the other marker genes, this was probably a chance deviation. All other linkage relationships appeared negative, supporting the current suggested linear order of these loci as h-Na-Ea-P with c not being in this chromosomal region. PMID:6718311

  19. Blood parameters in fattening pigs fed whole-ear corn silage and housed in group pens or in metabolic cages.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Petrera, F; Dal Prà, A; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of whole-ear corn silage (WECS) in diets for advanced fattening heavy pigs (substitution for part of the dry corn and wheat bran) allocated or not in metabolic cages on the main blood parameters. The high-moisture shelled corn is largely used in pig feeding while WECS is less often used despite the fact that it increases the DM crop yield. Three experimental diets were fed to 27 barrows (Italian Large White × Italian Duroc), with an average BW of 98.2 (±5.6) kg at the start of the trial, and randomly allotted to 3 experimental groups including a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals (corn, barley, and wheat, 80.2% DM in total), soybean meal (9% DM), wheat bran (8% DM), minerals and supplements (2.8% DM), and 2 diets containing WECS (15 or 30% DM referred to as 15WECS and 30WECS, respectively) in partial or complete substitution for wheat bran and corn meal. The pigs were randomly housed in 9 pens with 3 animals per pen and 3 pens per dietary treatment. Six pigs per each of the 3 treatments were moved from the pens to individual metabolic cages for 3 consecutive periods (2 pigs per treatment per period). Each period lasted 14 d, and blood was collected at the start and at the end of the periods. Blood was drawn from the jugular vein before feed distribution in the morning, at 14 d intervals, and analyzed for hematological, metabolic, and serum protein profiles. The effect of the metabolic cage housing was included in the statistical model to compare the results obtained in the 2 different environments of restrained and group-housed barrows. The WECS affected the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The main diet effect on plasma metabolites was recorded for plasma NEFA, with higher values in WECS diets compared with the CON. The metabolic cage housing affected both hematological (red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit) and metabolic (protein and

  20. Renewable Reagent Fiber Optic Based Ammonia Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Richard J.; Burgess, Lloyd W.

    1990-02-01

    Many fiber optic based chemical sensors have been described which rely on a reagent chemistry fixed at the fiber endface to provide analyte specificity. In such systems, problems involving probe-to-probe reproducibility, reagent photolability and reagent leaching are frequently encountered. As a result, calibration and standardization of these sensors becomes difficult or impossible and thus inhibits their application for long term in situ chemical monitoring. Many of these problems can be addressed and several additional advantages gained by continuously renewing the reagent chemistry. To illustrate this concept, a fiber optic ammonia sensor is described in which the reagent is delivered under direct control to a sensing volume of approximately 400 nanoliters located at the probe tip. Using an acid-base indicator (bromothymol blue) as the reagent, the sample ammonia concentrations are related to modulations in light intensity with a lower limit of detection of 10 ppb. The sensor performance was studied with respect to reagent pH, concentration and reagent delivery rate. Compared with previous fiber optic ammonia sensors, the ability to reproducibly renew the reagent has resulted in improvements with respect to response and return times, probe-to-probe reproducibility, probe lifetime and flexibility of use.

  1. [State of the nonspecific humoral factors of the body's natural resistance in patients with suppurative and septic infections having various ABO system blood groups].

    PubMed

    Romanov, V A; Malafeeva, E V; Belokurov, Iu N; Gramenitskii, A B

    1979-12-01

    The results of surveying 140 patients with severe purulent and septic infections of staphylococcal etiology, when compared with the distribution of the blood groups (as classified according to the ABO system) in 180 healthy donors, revealed that generalized purulent infections occurred most frequently in patients with blood groups A (II) and AB (IV), and more seldom in patients with blood groups O (I) and B (III). The average content of lysozyme, complement and normal antibodies to E. coli, as well as the average level of general bactericidal activity in the blood sera of the patients were considerably lower than in the blood sera of healthy donors; at the same time content of lysozyme, complement and normal antibodies in the blood sera of patients having different groups of blood did not reflect the degree of their predisposition or resistance to staphylococcal infections. The general bactericidal activity of the blood serum was found to correlate with the degree of predisposition or resistance to purulent septic infections of staphylococcal etiology to a greater extent than other characteristics. PMID:390943

  2. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Vivek, S; Jain, Jithesh; Simon, Sequiera Peter; Battur, Hemanth; Supreetha, S; Haridas, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was an association between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups. Materials & Methods: An epidemiological study was was carried out on 220 subjects who were randomly selected from individuals referred for periodontal treatment or for other reasons regarding Oral health at Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences. Results: The findings of our study revealed that subject’s blood group O (65.8) and Rh positive (73.33%) had a greater propensity for periodontitis. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed blood groups and Rh factor can act as a determinant of periodontitis. How to cite this article: Vivek S, Jain J, Simon SP, Battur H, Supreetha S, Haridas R. Association of ABO Blood Group and Rh factor with Periodontal Disease in a Population of Virajpet, Karnataka: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):30-34. PMID:24155617

  3. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189

  4. U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagents Network: Progress with poultry immune reagents development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease research is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for veterinary animal species. In 2006, U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (VIRN) Consortium (www.vetimm.org) was developed to develop immune reagents against ma...

  5. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in adults undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective cohort study of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-06-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P < 0.001). Effective autoregulation was found in a blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200). PMID:26285741

  6. TREATMENT OF MTBE USING FENTON'S REAGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the removal of MTBE from water, using Fenton's Reagent. Although complete mineralization of MTBE by Fenton's Reagent was not achieved, greater than 99% destruction of MTBE was realized. This was accomplished at a Fe+2:H2O2 ratio of 1:1 and one hour of contact...

  7. Thioamination of Alkenes with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Mizar, Pushpak; Niebuhr, Rebecca; Hutchings, Matthew; Farooq, Umar; Wirth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An efficient thioamination of alkenes mediated by iodine(III) reagents is described. The use of different sulfur nucleophiles allows the flexible synthesis of 1,2-aminothiols from alkenes. By employing chiral iodine(III) reagents, a stereoselective version of the thioamination protocol has also been developed. PMID:26660291

  8. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  9. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Complement reagent. 866.4100 Section 866.4100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents §...

  13. Acute kernicterus in a neonate with O/B blood group incompatibility and a mutation in SLC4A1.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Reading, N Scott; Agarwal, Archana M; Eggert, Larry D; Prchal, Josef T

    2013-08-01

    We cared for a term female newborn, who at 108 hours of age, with a total serum bilirubin of 15.4 mg/dL, was discharged from the hospital on home phototherapy. At a return appointment 44 hours later, her total serum bilirubin was 41.7 mg/dL and signs of acute kernicterus were present. Maternal/fetal blood group O/B incompatibility was identified, with a negative direct antiglobulin test, which was positive on retesting. She had abundant spherocytes on blood smear, and these persisted at follow-up, but neither parent had spherocytes identified. A heterozygous SLC4A1(E508K) mutation (gene encoding erythrocyte membrane protein band 3) was found, and in silico predicted to result in damaged erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein function. No mutations were identified in other red cell cytoskeleton genes (ANK1, SPTA1, SPTB, EPB41, EPB42) and the UGT1A1 promoter region was normal. Neurologic follow-up at 2 and 4 months showed developmental delays consistent with mild kernicterus. PMID:23878048

  14. Binding specificity of P[8] VP8* proteins of rotavirus vaccine strains with histo-blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoman; Guo, Nijun; Li, Dandi; Jin, Miao; Zhou, Yongkang; Xie, Guangcheng; Pang, Lili; Zhang, Qing; Cao, Youde; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    RotaTeq(®) and Rotarix™ are two common human rotavirus (RV) vaccines currently on the market worldwide. Recent studies indicate histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) may be attachment factors for RVs. The P[8] VP8* proteins of RotaTeq and Rotarix were expressed and purified, and their binding specificities were evaluated. Saliva-based binding assays showed that the VP8* proteins bound to the saliva samples of secretors irrespective of ABO blood types. However, in the oligosaccharide binding assay, the VP8* proteins displayed no specific binding to the HBGAs tested, including Lewis b and H1. The structure of RotaTeq P[8] VP8* was solved at 1.9Å. Structural comparisons revealed that the putative receptor binding site was different to that of other genotypes and displayed a novel potential binding region. These findings indicate RotaTeq and Rotarix may have better efficiency in areas with a high percentage of secretors. PMID:27209447

  15. A reagent for the one-step preparation of potassium acyltrifluoroborates (KATs) from aryl- and heteroarylhalides.

    PubMed

    Erős, Gábor; Kushida, Yo; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2014-07-14

    Potassium acyltrifluoroborates (KATs) are fascinating functional groups whose further exploration is limited by poor synthetic access. Documented herein is the design and synthesis of a new reagent for their one-step preparation from aryl- and heteroarylhalides. The reagent is a stable, soluble zwitterion prepared by S-alkylation of a novel thioformamide trifluoroboronate. The KATs are prepared by adding one equivalent of nBuLi to a mixture of the aryl halide and the reagent at -78 °C. This protocol is suitable for the preparation of KATs containing pyridines, esters, nitro groups, and halides. PMID:24888578

  16. Genetic survey of an isolated community in Bali, Indonesia. I. Blood groups, serum proteins and hepatitis B serology.

    PubMed

    Breguet, G; Ney, R; Grimm, W; Hope, S L; Kirk, R L; Blake, N M; Narendra, I B; Toha, A

    1982-01-01

    320 adults and children of an isolated community of Bali, Indonesia, have been tested for blood groups ABO, Rh, MNS, P, Lewis, Duffy, Kell, for haptoglobin and transferrin and for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies. Phenotype distribution and gene frequencies are given for the total population tested and for two subgroups representative of the inbred population of the isolate and of the non-inbred part of the population. Significant differences between the two subgroups show a clear genetic drift in the inbred population. The study brings biological support to the ethnological hypothesis of population migrations in this area. Tests for hepatitis B surface antigen reveal a lower prevalence of the disease than in most other south-east Asian populations. PMID:7068159

  17. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O: their changes associated with human cancer.

    PubMed

    Hakomori, S

    1999-12-01

    Three areas of research involved in blood group (or histo-blood group) ABO antigens and their genes, developed by our research group, are reviewed: (1) Antigen structures. The structural basis of A and H, A(1) and A(2), i and I antigens expressed in erythrocyte membranes. Major carriers of A and H determinants in erythrocytes are type 2 chain poly-LacNAc, short vs. long and unbranched vs. branched structures termed A(a), A(b), A(c), A(d) and H(1), H(2), H(3), H(4). Regular A (A(1)) and weak A (A(2)) were identified respectively as repetitive A (type 3 chain A) and A-associated H. A(1)- and A(2)-specific type 3 chain A and H, type 1 chain (representing Lewis blood group antigens), and type 4 chain (globo-series antigen; an extremely minor component in erythrocytes) are all glycosphingolipids. A and H determinants in fetal and newborn erythrocytes are carried by unbranched poly-LacNAc, whereas these determinants in adult erythrocytes are carried by branched poly-LacNAc. (2) ABO genes. A few cDNAs encoding A enzyme (UDP-GalNAc: H-a-GalNAc transferase) were cloned based on the amino acid sequence of purified A enzyme and their structures were compared with those of homologous cDNA from blood cells of B and O individuals (genotype BB, OO). Four nucleotide substitutions and four corresponding amino acid sequences essential for expression of A(1) allele and B allele, and differences between A and B enzymes, were identified. Amino acids 266 and 268, i.e. Leu and Gly for A enzyme vs. Met and Ala for B enzyme, were dominant in determining A vs. B activity (presumably recognizing UDP-GalNAc vs. UDP-Gal). The A(2) allele was characterized by deletion of the termination codon, extending nucleotides up to 1128 and thus encoding 21 extra amino acids at the C terminus, which may affect (diminish) the dominant function of amino acids 266 and 268. Typical O allele (O(1)) is characterized by deletion of nucleotide 261 G, causing frame shift and encoding of an entirely different

  18. Fetal blood grouping using cell free DNA - an improved service for RhD negative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bills, V L; Soothill, P W

    2014-04-01

    Red cell alloimmunisation involves the transplacental movement of maternally derived red cell antibodies into the fetal circulation, causing red cell haemolysis, fetal anaemia and ultimately fetal death. Current standard UK practice is to prevent sensitisation to the D antigen by administering anti-D at about 28 weeks' gestation to all RhD negative pregnancies. The determination of fetal blood group by non-invasive cell free fetal DNA testing offers an improved and more efficient service to RhD negative pregnant women and avoids the potential iatrogenic harm associated with standard practice. It also has significantly improved the management of women with red cell alloimunisation to D and other antigens. This review summarises the past and future management of red cell alloimmunisation during pregnancy and the impact of ffDNA tests. PMID:24679596

  19. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  20. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  1. [Population genetics and etho-historical considerations of the uniqueness of the Prasun Kafirs and the Kalash (central Hindu Kush) with regard to the ABO blood group system].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, W

    1980-06-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the quite rare distribution pattern of ABO blood group genes (p > 0.5000, q < 0.1000 and r < 0.5000) among the Prasun Kafirs and the Kalsh of the central Hindu Kush from the point of view of population genetics and ethnohistory. If we consider the different age groups of the Prasun sample it will be observed that there is a marked increase in the frequency of blood group gene A and a corresponding decrease in blood group gene O as we proceed from older to younger age groups. These changes cna be readily explained on the basis of a prenatal selection through mother-child incompatibility. Because of the relatively small starting value of r < 0.5 a selection takes place against O, resulting in an increase of the blood group gene A. The differences in the gene frequencies among the various age groups are so large that apart from mother-child incompatibility other selective factors may have been involved, as for example the smallpox epidemics in the 1930's and in the beginning of the 1940's. Moreover, significant differences in blood group distribution were secured between the upper and lower valley samples which do not accord with the close marital relationships and the relatively long history of the settlement. It must be assumed therefore that particularly the greater frequency of the blood group gene B in the lower portion of the valley is to be attributed to marital relationships with other Kafir tribes or other ethnic groups (Pathans) which have become more frequent since the islamization at the end of the last century. In the case of the Kalash an age and regional differentiation is only possible to a limited extent. Nevertheless it must be assumed that the extremely high A frequency and the lower O and B frequencies are caused by the same genetic and ethnohistorical factors as it is the case with the Prasun Kafirs. PMID:6999977

  2. Adapter Reagents for Protein Site Specific Dye Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darren A.; Evans, Eric G. B.; Kasza, Tomas; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Dawson, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    Chemoselective protein labeling remains a significant challenge in chemical biology. Although many selective labeling chemistries have been reported, the practicalities of matching the reaction with appropriately functionalized proteins and labeling reagents is often a challenge. For example, we encountered the challenge of site specifically labeling the cellular form of the murine Prion protein with a fluorescent dye. To facilitate this labeling, a protein was expressed with site specific p-acetylphenylalanine. However, the utility of this aceto-phenone reactive group is hampered by the severe lack of commercially available aminooxy fluorophores. Here we outline a general strategy for the efficient solid phase synthesis of adapter reagents capable of converting maleimido-labels into aminooxy or azide functional groups that can be further tuned for desired length or solubility properties. The utility of the adapter strategy is demonstrated in the context of fluorescent labeling of the murine Prion protein through an adapted aminooxy-Alexa dye. PMID:24599728

  3. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 9% A+ 31% A- 6% B+ 9% B- 2% AB+ 3% AB- 1% Blood Group Compatibility There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion. Rollover blood group to view compatibility. RED BLOOD CELLS WHOLE BLOOD PLASMA Donor O Group O can donate red blood ...

  4. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-11-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  5. Effect of Thiol-Binding Reagents on the Metabolism of Thiosulfate and Tetrathionate by Thiobacillus neapolitanus

    PubMed Central

    Trudinger, P. A.

    1965-01-01

    Trudinger, P. A. (Division of Plant Industry, Canberra, Australia). Effect of thiol-binding reagents on the metabolism of thiosulfate and tetrathionate by Thiobacillus neapolitanus. J. Bacteriol. 89:617–625. 1965.—Iodoacetamide, N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), p-chloromercuribenzoate (CMB), Mercurochrome, and HgCl2 inhibited the oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfate by Thiobacillus neapolitanus; tetrathionate accumulated under these conditions. High concentrations of the thiol-binding reagents lowered the rate of oxidation of thiosulfate to tetrathionate; inhibition by CMB was reversed by high concentrations of thiosulfate. Relatively low concentrations of the thiol-binding reagents completely inhibited the oxidation and anaerobic metabolism of tetrathionate. Similar reagents had no effect on a soluble thiosulfate-oxidizing enzyme. Inhibition by thiol-binding reagents was overcome by washing the bacteria with Na2S or thioethanol after their exposure to the inhibitors. Under some conditions, the addition of thiosulfate or tetrathionate to bacterial suspensions before the addition of the thiol-binding reagents prevented the inhibition of thiosulfate and tetrathionate metabolism by these reagents. Thiosulfate catalyzed a rapid chemical breakdown of NEM and reacted with iodoacetamide. A complex between thiosulfate and mercuribenzoate was demonstrated. Three types of thiol group appear to be associated with the metabolism of thiosulfate and tetrathionate; one of these types may be located at the bacterial cell membrane. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that thiols (or disulfide groups) are binding sites for the substrates. PMID:14273636

  6. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. Methods We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18–80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl Halides with (Difluoromethyl)zinc Reagent.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Serizawa, Hiroki; Ishii, Koki; Mikami, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    The palladium-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with (difluoromethyl)zinc reagent bearing a diamine such as TMEDA is achieved to provide the difluoromethylated aromatic compounds in good to excellent yields. The advantages of (difluoromethyl)zinc reagent are that (1) the derivatives, which possess different stability and reactivity, can be readily prepared via ligand screening and (2) transmetalation of a difluoromethyl group from the zinc reagent to palladium catalyst efficiently proceeds without an activator. PMID:27442347

  8. Predicting the Origins of Anti-Blood Group Antibody Specificity: A Case Study of the ABO A- and B-Antigens.

    PubMed

    Makeneni, Spandana; Ji, Ye; Watson, David C; Young, N Martin; Woods, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system in human transfusion medicine. Here, we explore the specificity of antibody recognition toward ABO blood group antigens using computational modeling and biolayer interferometry. Automated docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the origin of the specificity of an anti-blood group A antibody variable fragment (Fv AC1001). The analysis predicts a number of Fv-antigen interactions that contribute to affinity, including a hydrogen bond between a His(L49) and the carbonyl moiety of the GalNAc in antigen A. This interaction was consistent with the dependence of affinity on pH, as measured experimentally; at lower pH there is an increase in binding affinity. Binding energy calculations provide unique insight into the origin of interaction energies at a per-residue level in both the scFv and the trisaccharide antigen. The calculations indicate that while the antibody can accommodate both blood group A and B antigens in its combining site, the A antigen is preferred by 4 kcal/mol, consistent with the lack of binding observed for the B antigen. PMID:25202309

  9. A Bioorthogonal Reaction of N-Oxide and Boron Reagents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Justin; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2015-12-21

    The development of bioorthogonal reactions has classically focused on bond-forming ligation reactions. In this report, we seek to expand the functional repertoire of such transformations by introducing a new bond-cleaving reaction between N-oxide and boron reagents. The reaction features a large dynamic range of reactivity, showcasing second-order rate constants as high as 2.3×10(3)  M(-1)  s(-1) using diboron reaction partners. Diboron reagents display minimal cell toxicity at millimolar concentrations, penetrate cell membranes, and effectively reduce N-oxides inside mammalian cells. This new bioorthogonal process based on miniscule components is thus well-suited for activating molecules within cells under chemical control. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the metabolic diversity of nature enables the use of naturally occurring functional groups that display inherent biocompatibility alongside abiotic components for organism-specific applications. PMID:26568479

  10. Exclusion of linkage between alcoholism and the MNS blood group region on chromosome 4q in multiplex families

    SciTech Connect

    Neiswanger, K.; Kaplan, B.; Hill, S.Y.

    1995-02-27

    Polymorphic DNA markers on the long arm of chromosome 4 were used to examine linkage to alcoholism in 20 multiplex pedigrees. Fifteen loci were determined for 124 individuals. Lod scores were calculated assuming both dominant and recessive disease modes of inheritance, utilizing incidence data by age and gender that allow for correction for variable age of onset and frequency of the disorder by gender. Under the assumption that alcoholism is homogeneous in this set of pedigrees, and that a recessive mode with age and gender correction is the most appropriate, the total lod scores for all families combined were uniformly lower than -2.0. This suggests an absence of linkage between the putative alcoholism susceptibility gene and markers in the region of the MNS blood group (4q28-31), a region for which we had previously found suggestive evidence of linkage to alcoholism. The 100 cM span of chromosome 4 studied includes the class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) loci. Using the recessive mode, no evidence for linkage to alcoholism was found for the markers tested, which spanned almost the entire long arm of chromosome 4. Under the dominant mode, no evidence for linkage could be found for several of the markers. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Philipp; Steck, Natalie; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M; Vallance, Bruce A; Baines, John F; Grassl, Guntram A

    2015-07-01

    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations. PMID:26133982

  12. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Seidel, Janice A.; Künzel, Sven; Bhullar, Kirandeep; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, Andre; Johnsen, Jill M.; Vallance, Bruce A.; Baines, John F.; Grassl, Guntram A.

    2015-01-01

    Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2) are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations. PMID:26133982

  13. Structural insight in histo-blood group binding by the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Bouckaert, Julie; Coddens, Annelies; Tran, Thao; Panjikar, Santosh; De Kerpel, Maia; Cox, Eric; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2012-10-01

    F18-positive enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are responsible for post-weaning diarrhoea and oedema disease in pigs and lead to severe production losses in the farming industry. F18 fimbriae attach to the small intestine of young piglets by latching onto glycosphingolipids with A/H blood group determinants on type 1 core. We demonstrate the N-terminal domain of the F18 fimbrial subunit FedF to be responsible for ABH-mediated attachment and present its X-ray structure in ligand-free form and bound to A and B type 1 hexaoses. The FedF lectin domain comprises a 10-stranded immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich. Three linear motives, Q(47) -N(50), H(88) -S(90) and R(117) -T(119), form a shallow glycan binding pocket near the tip of the domain that is selective for type 1 core glycans in extended conformation. In addition to the glycan binding pocket, a polybasic loop on the membrane proximal surface of FedF lectin domain is shown to be required for binding to piglet enterocytes. Although dispensable for ABH glycan recognition, the polybasic surface adds binding affinity in the context of the host cell membrane, a mechanism that is proposed to direct ABH-glycan binding to cell-bound glycosphingolipids and could allow bacteria to avoid clearance by secreted glycoproteins. PMID:22812428

  14. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  15. Crystallographic analysis of the NNA7 Fab and proposal for the mode of human blood-group recognition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kefang; Song, Shuh Chyung; Spitalnik, Steven L; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    The NNA7 Fab antibody fragment recognizes the human N-type blood-group antigen comprised of the N-terminal glycopeptide of glycophorin A (GPA). A mutant form of this Fab fragment, NNA7-G91S, exhibits markedly reduced antigen binding. To provide insight into how these Fab fragments recognize this glycopeptide antigen, the crystal structures of NNA7 and NNA7-G91S were solved and refined to 1.83 and 1.97 A resolution, respectively. Both molecules are composed of the same heavy (H) chain Fd fragment, but each contains a slightly different light (L) chain owing to the G91S substitution. Specifically, the G91S mutation pushes the backbone of the neighboring H chain away from complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the L-chain variable region, allowing an additional glycerol cryoprotectant molecule to enter the antigen-combining site near the putative location of O-linked glycosylation. Each Fab fragment also possesses a well defined 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) molecule trapped in its antigen-combining site, as well as a crystallographic symmetry-related molecule comprising an amino-acid sequence that is virtually identical to the N-terminus of GPA. The MES molecule interacts with the H-chain CDR in a manner reminiscent of antibody-carbohydrate complexes. These results suggest a model for recognition of the glycopeptide antigen that accounts for the deleterious effect of the G91S substitution. PMID:16204891

  16. Cyclic Hypervalent Iodine Reagents for Atom-Transfer Reactions: Beyond Trifluoromethylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yifan; Hari, Durga Prasad; Vita, Maria Victoria; Waser, Jerome

    2016-03-24

    Hypervalent iodine compounds are privileged reagents in organic synthesis because of their exceptional reactivity. Among these compounds, cyclic derivatives stand apart because of their enhanced stability. They have been widely used as oxidants, but their potential for functional-group transfer has only begun to be investigated recently. The use of benziodoxol(on)es for trifluoromethylation (Togni's reagents) is already widely recognized, but other transformations have also attracted strong interest recently. In this Review, the development in the area since 2011 will be presented. After a short summary of synthetic methods to prepare benziodoxol(on)e reagents, their use to construct carbon-heteroatom and carbon-carbon bonds will be presented. In particular, the introduction of alkynes by using ethynylbenziodoxol(on)e (EBX) reagents has been highly successful. Breakthroughs in the introduction of alkoxy, azido, difluoromethyl, and cyano groups will also be described. PMID:26880486

  17. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status

    PubMed Central

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; van Doorn, Leen Jan; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-01-01

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For this study we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared with subjects carrying cagA− strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95%CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (P=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status. PMID:23319424

  18. Correlates of blood pressure in community-dwelling older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Tell, G S; Rutan, G H; Kronmal, R A; Bild, D E; Polak, J F; Wong, N D; Borhani, N O

    1994-01-01

    Although elevated blood pressure is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly, little information exists on the distribution and risk factor correlates of blood pressure in this group. As part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of 5201 men and women aged 65 to 101 years, we investigated correlates of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for all participants and a subgroup of 2482 without coronary heart disease and not on antihypertensive therapy (the "healthier" subgroup). In the total group, independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure included heart rate, aortic root dimension, creatinine, hematocrit, alcohol use, and black race (positive associations) and internal carotid artery wall thickness, mitral early/late peak flow velocity, white blood cell count, cigarette smoking, and age (negative associations). Positive predictors of systolic blood pressure included mitral late peak flow velocity, left ventricular mass, common carotid artery wall thickness, serum albumin, factor VII, diabetes, alcohol use, and age; negative predictors were coronary heart disease, uric acid, height, and smoking. In the healthier subgroup, positive predictors of diastolic blood pressure included heart rate, hematocrit, serum albumin, creatinine, and body weight, whereas mitral early/late peak flow velocity, serum potassium, smoking, and age inversely related to diastolic pressure. For the same group, common carotid artery wall thickness, left ventricular mass, serum albumin, factor VII, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and age were directly related to systolic blood pressure, whereas serum potassium was inversely related. Both systolic and diastolic pressures varied considerably by geographic site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8282331

  19. Membrane-based, dry-reagent prothrombin time tests.

    PubMed

    Zweig, S E; Meyer, B G; Sharma, S; Min, C; Krakower, J M; Shohet, S B

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a prototype membrane-based, dry-reagent prothrombin time assay for whole blood. This system uses an asymmetric polysulfone membrane to separate plasma from red blood cells, and works with samples as small as 10 microliters. The membrane contains calcium and thromboplastin, and permits the reactions of the complete extrinsic pathway to occur with minimal distortion from membrane surface interactions. Thrombin generation is monitored optically using a rhodamine-110-based fluorescent thrombin substrate. Fluorescence kinetics are analyzed to produce a prothrombin-time--equivalent parameter that can be converted to an international normalized ratio (INR) value. The system provides results that correlate well with conventional liquid phase prothrombin time assays (R2 = 0.96). PMID:8739001

  20. A new derivatization reagent for LC-MS/MS screening of potential genotoxic alkylation compounds.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, A M; Niederländer, H A G; Siebum, A H G; Vervaart, M A T; de Jong, G J

    2013-02-23

    A screening method for trace analysis of potentially genotoxic alkylating compounds has been developed using butyl 1-(pyridin-4-yl) piperidine 4-carboxylate (BPPC) as a new, selective pre-column derivatization reagent for their subsequent analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The new derivatization reagent is a modification of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (4-DMAP) previously used for the determination of potentially genotoxic compounds. By using the new reagent the screening potential was enhanced without compromising reactivity. Derivatization at a high pH value was carried out and the reaction time at 60°C was 24h to anticipate for alkyl chlorides showing to be less reactive. The new reagent was designed to obtain reagent related fragmentation of the whole reagent as well as a side group of the reagent. Collision energies for detection of alkylating components derivatized using the new reagent are shown to be significantly more universal than with 4-DMAP. Neutral loss scanning on the fragmentation related to the build in side group remedies shortcomings in the screening for alkyl halides observed when using 4-DMAP. The new approach allows for screening of alkyl halides and alkyl sulfonates at trace levels down to 1 mg kg(-1) and target analysis at about a factor of 10 lower without a significant effect of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) matrix. The synthesis of the reagent, investigation of reactivity, the specificity of the fragmentation of derivatives and screening conditions in MS/MS analysis are described. PMID:23245244

  1. Consumption of lead-shot cervid meat and blood lead concentrations in a group of adult Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H M; Dahl, H; Brantsæter, A L; Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Bernhoft, A; Oftedal, B; Lande, U S; Alexander, J; Haugen, M; Ydersbond, T A

    2013-11-01

    Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6 µg/L (7.5 and 39 µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption. PMID:24119336

  2. Nitronyl nitroxides, a novel group of protective agents against oxidative stress in endothelial cells forming the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Blasig, I E; Mertsch, K; Haseloff, R F

    2002-11-01

    Nitronyl nitroxides (NN) effectively decompose free radicals (. As brain endothelium, forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is both the main source and the target of reactive species during cerebral oxidative stress, we studied the effect of NN on brain endothelial cells injured by the mediator of oxidative stress H(2)O(2) (. H(2)O(2) caused hydroxyl radical generation, lipid peroxidation, membrane dysfunction, membrane leak and cell death, concentration dependently. Due to 0.5 mM H(2)O(2), oxy-radical-induced membrane phospholipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) increased to 0.61+/-0.04 nmol/mg protein vs control (0.32+/-0.03, p<0.05), cells lost cytosolic proteins into the medium and viability decreased to 28+/-2% of control (p<0.05). Permeability through the endothelial monolayer (measure for the tightness of the BBB) rose to 250+/-40% after 0.15 mM H(2)O(2) (p<0.001). Addition of 10 microM of the NN 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-diphenyl-4-methoxy-2-imidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (NN-2), 1 mM phenylbutyl nitrone (PBN), or 10 microM of the lazaroid U83836E improved cell viability during incubation with 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) to 57+/-1%, 49+/-2%, and 42+/-3% (p<0.05, vs drug-free H(2)O(2) group). The permeability enhancement by 0.15 mM H(2)O(2) was reduced to 171+/-21%, 170+/-25%, and 118+/-32% (p<0.05 vs drug-free H(2)O(2) group). Generally, the assumption is supported that during cerebral oxidative stress the protection should also be directed to the cells of the BBB, which can be provided by antioxidative approaches. NN represent a new group of antioxdatively acting cytoprotectiva improving the survival and function of the endothelium against oxidative stress. PMID:12423670

  3. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent. (a) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is...

  4. 21 CFR 864.8100 - Bothrops atrox reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bothrops atrox reagent. 864.8100 Section 864.8100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8100 Bothrops atrox reagent. (a) Identification. A Bothrops atrox reagent is...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist...

  6. Unnatural Isotopic Composition of Lithium Reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, H.P.; Coplen, T.B.; Wang, Q. Zh; Wang, Y.-H.

    1997-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of 39 lithium reagents from several manufacturers indicates that seven were artificially depleted in 6Li significantly in excess of the variation found in terrestrial materials. The atomic weight of lithium in analyzed reagents ranged from 6.939 to 6.996, and ??7-Li, reported relative to L-SVEC lithium carbonate, ranged from -11 to +3013???. This investigation indicates that 6Li-depleted reagents are now found on chemists' shelves, and the labels of these 6Li-depleted reagents do not accurately reflect the atomic and (or) molecular weights of these reagents. In 1993, IUPAC issued the following statement: "Commercially available Li materials have atomic weights that range between 6.94 and 6.99; if a more accurate value is required, it must be determined for the specific material." This statement has been found to be incorrect In two of the 39 samples analyzed, the atomic weight of Li was in excess of 6.99.

  7. Synergistic effect of high-mobility group box-1 and lipopolysaccharide on cytokine induction in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Appavoo, Elamurugan; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Muneeswaran, Narayanan Selvaraj; Kondabattula, Ganesh; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Kishore, Subodh

    2016-03-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the potent endogenous adjuvants released by necrotic and activated innate immune cells. HMGB1 modulates innate and adaptive immune responses in humans and mice by mediating immune cells crosstalk. However, the immuno-modulatory effects of HMGB1 in the bovine immune system are not clearly known. In this study, the effect of bovine HMGB1 alone or in combination with LPS on the expression kinetics of cytokines upon in vitro stimulation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated by quantitative PCR assay. The biological activity of bovine HMGB1 expressed in this prokaryotic expression system was confirmed by its ability to induce nitric oxide secretion in RAW 264.7 cells. The present results indicate that HMGB1 induces a more delayed TNF-α response than does LPS in stimulated PBMCs. However, IFN-γ, IFN-β and IL-12 mRNA transcription peaked at 6 hr post stimulation after both treatments. Further, HMGB1 and LPS heterocomplex up-regulated TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12 mRNA expression significantly than did individual TLR4 agonists. The heterocomplex also enhanced the expression of TLR4 on bovine PBMCs. In conclusion, the data indicate that HMGB1 and LPS act synergistically and enhance proinflammatory cytokines, thereby eliciting Th1 responses in bovine PBMCs. These results suggest that HMGB1 can act as an adjuvant in modulating the bovine immune system and thus lays a foundation for using HMGB1 as an adjuvant in various bovine vaccine preparations. PMID:26639899

  8. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane. PMID:27095709

  9. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables. PMID:27046032

  10. U.S. VETERINARY IMMUNE REAGENTS NETWORK: PROGRESS WITH POULTRY IMMUNE REAGENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease control is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for ruminants, swine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species. Sets of reagents, i.e., monoclonal (mAb) and polyclonal antibodies, that can identify the major leukocyt...

  11. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal). PMID:27214089

  12. Flotation selectivity of novel alkyl dicarboxylate reagents for apatite-calcite separation.

    PubMed

    Karlkvist, Tommy; Patra, Anuttam; Rao, Kota Hanumantha; Bordes, Romain; Holmberg, Krister

    2015-05-01

    The investigation aims to demonstrate the conceptual thoughts behind developing mineral specific reagents for use in flotation of calcium containing ores. For this purpose, a series of dicarboxylate-based surfactants with varying distance between the carboxylate groups (one, two or three methylene groups) was synthesized. A surfactant with the same alkyl chain length but with only one carboxylate group was also synthesized and evaluated. The adsorption behavior of these new reagents on pure apatite and pure calcite surfaces was studied using Hallimond tube flotation, FTIR and ζ potential measurements. The relation between the adsorption behavior of a given surfactant at a specific mineral surface and its molecular structure over a range of concentrations and pH values, as well as the region of maximum recovery, was established. It was found that one of the reagents, with a specific distance between the carboxylate groups, was much more selective for a particular mineral surface than the other homologues. For example, out of the four compounds synthesized, only the one where the carboxylate groups were separated by a single methylene group floated apatite but not calcite, whereas calcite was efficiently floated with the monocarboxylic reagent, but not with the other reagents synthesized. This selective adsorption of a given surfactant to a particular mineral surface relative to other mineral surfaces as evidenced in the flotation studies was substantiated by ζ potential and infra-red spectroscopy data. PMID:25596367

  13. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  14. Ethnic differences in the expression of blood group antigens in the salivary gland secretory cells from German and Japanese non-secretor individuals.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, A; Nishi, K; Fukunaga, T; Rand, S; Brinkmann, B

    1996-08-01

    Type 1 ABO blood group antigens (peripheral core structure: Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc beta 1-R) are expressed mainly in endodermally-derived tissues, but are not synthesized in mesodermally-derived tissues. In the former tissues, H type 1 antigen is generated largely by alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase encoded by secretor (Se) gene and acting on the terminal galactose of the type 1 precursor chain. This theory has been generally accepted, and it seems that the expression of ABO blood group antigens is absent, or expressed at a low level, in these tissues from non-secretor individuals. In this immunohistochemical study on the secretory cells of salivary glands, we found ethnic difference between German and Japanese non-secretor individuals in the expression of blood group antigens: i.e. the expression of the type 1 blood group antigens is present in these cells from Japanese non-secretor individuals but absent from German. A possible explanation is that another alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase, independent of the secretor gene, is present in Japanese non-secretor individuals. PMID:8872110

  15. Arginine selective reagents for ligation to peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Darren A; Ng, Raymond; Dawson, Philip E

    2016-05-01

    A new class of arginine-specific bioconjugation reagents for protein labeling has been developed. This method utilizes a triazolyl-phenylglyoxal group on the probe molecule that reacts selectively with the guandinyl group of Arg residues in a protein or peptide. The reaction proceeds in neutral to basic bicarbonate buffers and is selective for arginine residues in peptides and folded proteins. Importantly, the triazolyl-phenylglyoxal group can be introduced into complex molecules containing alkyne groups using CuAAC chemistry, providing a robust approach for the generation of phenylglyoxal reactive groups into molecules to be covalently attached onto the surface of proteins. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27005702

  16. American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, and International Myeloma Working Group Consensus Conference on Salvage Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Giralt, Sergio; Garderet, Laurent; Durie, Brian; Cook, Gordon; Gahrton, Gosta; Bruno, Benedetto; Hari, Paremesweran; Lokhorst, Henk; McCarthy, Phillip; Krishnan, Amrita; Sonneveld, Pieter; Goldschmidt, Harmut; Jagannath, Sundar; Barlogie, Bart; Mateos, Maria; Gimsing, Peter; Sezer, Orhan; Mikhael, Joseph; Lu, Jin; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Mazumder, Amitabha; Palumbo, Antonio; Abonour, Rafat; Anderson, Kenneth; Attal, Michel; Blade, Joan; Bird, Jenny; Cavo, Michele; Comenzo, Raymond; de la Rubia, Javier; Einsele, Hermann; Garcia-Sanz, Ramon; Hillengass, Jens; Holstein, Sarah; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Joshua, Douglas; Koehne, Guenther; Kumar, Shaji; Kyle, Robert; Leleu, Xavier; Lonial, Sagar; Ludwig, Heinz; Nahi, Hareth; Nooka, Anil; Orlowski, Robert; Rajkumar, Vincent; Reiman, Anthony; Richardson, Paul; Riva, Eloisa; Miguel, Jesus San; Turreson, Ingemar; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David; Bensinger, William; Qazilbash, Muzaffer; Efebera, Yvonne; Mohty, Mohamed; Gasparreto, Christina; Gajewski, James; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Bredeson, Chris; Moreau, Phillipe; Pasquini, Marcelo; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Stadtmauer, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the upfront setting in which the role of high-dose therapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as consolidation of a first remission in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is well established, the role of high-dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic HCT has not been extensively studied in MM patients relapsing after primary therapy. The International Myeloma Working Group together with the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation convened a meeting of MM experts to: (1) summarize current knowledge regarding the role of autologous or allogeneic HCT in MM patients progressing after primary therapy, (2) propose guidelines for the use of salvage HCT in MM, (3) identify knowledge gaps, (4) propose a research agenda, and (5) develop a collaborative initiative to move the research agenda forward. After reviewing the available data, the expert committee came to the following consensus statement for salvage autologous HCT: (1) In transplantation-eligible patients relapsing after primary therapy that did NOT include an autologous HCT, high-dose therapy with HCT as part of salvage therapy should be considered standard; (2) High-dose therapy and autologous HCT should be considered appropriate therapy for any patients relapsing after primary therapy that includes an autologous HCT with initial remission duration of more than 18 months; (3) High-dose therapy and autologous HCT can be used as a bridging strategy to allogeneic HCT; (4) The role of postsalvage HCT maintenance needs to be explored in the context of well-designed prospective trials that should include new agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, immune-modulating agents, and oral proteasome inhibitors; (5) Autologous HCT consolidation should be explored as a strategy to develop novel conditioning regimens or post-HCT strategies in patients with short

  17. American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, and International Myeloma Working Group Consensus Conference on Salvage Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sergio; Garderet, Laurent; Durie, Brian; Cook, Gordon; Gahrton, Gosta; Bruno, Benedetto; Hari, Paremesweran; Lokhorst, Henk; McCarthy, Phillip; Krishnan, Amrita; Sonneveld, Pieter; Goldschmidt, Harmut; Jagannath, Sundar; Barlogie, Bart; Mateos, Maria; Gimsing, Peter; Sezer, Orhan; Mikhael, Joseph; Lu, Jin; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Mazumder, Amitabha; Palumbo, Antonio; Abonour, Rafat; Anderson, Kenneth; Attal, Michel; Blade, Joan; Bird, Jenny; Cavo, Michele; Comenzo, Raymond; de la Rubia, Javier; Einsele, Hermann; Garcia-Sanz, Ramon; Hillengass, Jens; Holstein, Sarah; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Joshua, Douglas; Koehne, Guenther; Kumar, Shaji; Kyle, Robert; Leleu, Xavier; Lonial, Sagar; Ludwig, Heinz; Nahi, Hareth; Nooka, Anil; Orlowski, Robert; Rajkumar, Vincent; Reiman, Anthony; Richardson, Paul; Riva, Eloisa; San Miguel, Jesus; Turreson, Ingemar; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David; Bensinger, William; Qazilbash, Muzaffer; Efebera, Yvonne; Mohty, Mohamed; Gasparreto, Christina; Gajewski, James; LeMaistre, Charles F; Bredeson, Chris; Moreau, Phillipe; Pasquini, Marcelo; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Stadtmauer, Edward

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the upfront setting in which the role of high-dose therapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as consolidation of a first remission in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is well established, the role of high-dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic HCT has not been extensively studied in MM patients relapsing after primary therapy. The International Myeloma Working Group together with the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation convened a meeting of MM experts to: (1) summarize current knowledge regarding the role of autologous or allogeneic HCT in MM patients progressing after primary therapy, (2) propose guidelines for the use of salvage HCT in MM, (3) identify knowledge gaps, (4) propose a research agenda, and (5) develop a collaborative initiative to move the research agenda forward. After reviewing the available data, the expert committee came to the following consensus statement for salvage autologous HCT: (1) In transplantation-eligible patients relapsing after primary therapy that did NOT include an autologous HCT, high-dose therapy with HCT as part of salvage therapy should be considered standard; (2) High-dose therapy and autologous HCT should be considered appropriate therapy for any patients relapsing after primary therapy that includes an autologous HCT with initial remission duration of more than 18 months; (3) High-dose therapy and autologous HCT can be used as a bridging strategy to allogeneic HCT; (4) The role of postsalvage HCT maintenance needs to be explored in the context of well-designed prospective trials that should include new agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, immune-modulating agents, and oral proteasome inhibitors; (5) Autologous HCT consolidation should be explored as a strategy to develop novel conditioning regimens or post-HCT strategies in patients with short

  18. Generation of blood group specificity: new insights from structural studies on the complexes of A- and B-reactive saccharides with basic winged bean agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Kiran A; Katiyar, Samiksha; Surolia, Avadhesha; Vijayan, Mamannamana; Suguna, Kaza

    2007-08-15

    Basic winged bean agglutinin binds A-blood group substance with higher affinity and B-blood group substance with lesser affinity. It does not bind the O substance. The crystal structures of the lectin, complexed with A-reactive and B-reactive di and tri saccharides, have been determined. In addition, the complexes of the lectin with fucosylated A-trisaccharides and B-trisaccharides and with a variant of the A-trisaccharide have been modeled. These structures and models provide valuable insights into the structural basis of blood group specificities. All the four carbohydrate binding loops of the lectin contribute to the primary combining site while the loop of variable length contributes to the secondary binding site. In a significant advance to the current understanding, the interactions at the secondary binding site also contribute substantially, albeit in a subtle manner, to determine the blood group specificity. Compared with the interactions of the B-trisaccharide with the lectin, the third sugar residue of the A-reactive trisacharide forms an additional hydrogen bond with a lysine residue in the variable loop. In the former, the formation of such a hydrogen bond is prevented by a shift in the orientation of third sugar resulting from an internal hydrogen bond in it. The formation of this bond is also facilitated by an interaction dependent change in the rotamer conformation of the lysyl residue of the variable loop. Thus, the difference in the interactions at the secondary site is generated by coordinated movements in the ligand as well as the protein. A comparison of the crystal structure and the model of the complex involving the variant of the A-trisaccharide results in the delineation of the relative contributions of the interactions at the primary and the secondary sites in determining blood group specificity. PMID:17510954

  19. Calibration of NIRS-measured hemodynamics with best-matched hemoglobin extinction coefficients and group statics on human-blood-model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Sun, Yunlong; Li, Kai; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Junpeng

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been extensively developed for in-vivo measurements of tissue vascular oxygenation, breast tumor detection, and functional brain imaging, by groups of physicists, biomedical engineers, and mathematicians. To quantify concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin (hemodynamics), extinction coefficients of hemoglobin (ɛ) have to be employed. However, it is still controversial what ɛ values should be used and relatively what calibration should be done in NIRS quantification to achieve the highest precision, although that the differences in ɛ values among published data resulted in ~20% variation in quantification of hemoglobin concentration is reported based a single human blood test. We collected 12 blood samples from 12 healthy people, and with each blood sample performed blood tissue model experiments. 4 teams of published extinction value widely used in NIRS fields were employed respectively in our quantification. Calibrations based least square analysis and regression between real and estimated hemodynamics for 12 subjects were performed with each team of ɛ values respectively. We found that: Moaveni's ɛ values contributed to highest accuracy; Regression method produced quite effective calibration, and when it combined with Moaveni's ɛ values, the calibration reduced the std/mean of estimation by two orders of magnitude. Thus Moaveni's ɛ values are most recommended to use in NIRS quantification, especially with our calibration matrix based on regression analysis with a group of subjects' blood sample.

  20. New reagents, new reactions: Computers in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dessy, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    There is a new reagent in chemical reaction vessels-the computer. From data collection, through information processing, to knowledge creation the computer is an integral partner of today`s chemist. Despite its ability to be a Sorcerer`s Apprentice, it has become a leading weapon in overcoming some of the fiscal and technical demands placed upon research and development teams by global competition. In the process it is forcing changes in our work habits that arc, stressing both the Corporation and the individual, this article explores the uses, abuses, and possible future of the new reagent, and explores the meta-physics of the electronic web. 42 refs.

  1. Hemozoin-generated vapor nanobubbles for transdermal reagent- and needle-free detection of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y.; Campbell, Kelly M.; Constantinou, Pamela E.; Braam, Janet; Olson, John S.; Ware, Russell E.; Sullivan, David J.; Lapotko, Dmitri O.

    2014-01-01

    Successful diagnosis, screening, and elimination of malaria critically depend on rapid and sensitive detection of this dangerous infection, preferably transdermally and without sophisticated reagents or blood drawing. Such diagnostic methods are not currently available. Here we show that the high optical absorbance and nanosize of endogenous heme nanoparticles called “hemozoin,” a unique component of all blood-stage malaria parasites, generates a transient vapor nanobubble around hemozoin in response to a short and safe near-infrared picosecond laser pulse. The acoustic signals of these malaria-specific nanobubbles provided transdermal noninvasive and rapid detection of a malaria infection as low as 0.00034% in animals without using any reagents or drawing blood. These on-demand transient events have no analogs among current malaria markers and probes, can detect and screen malaria in seconds, and can be realized as a compact, easy-to-use, inexpensive, and safe field technology. PMID:24379385

  2. Hemozoin-generated vapor nanobubbles for transdermal reagent- and needle-free detection of malaria.

    PubMed

    Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina Y; Campbell, Kelly M; Constantinou, Pamela E; Braam, Janet; Olson, John S; Ware, Russell E; Sullivan, David J; Lapotko, Dmitri O

    2014-01-21

    Successful diagnosis, screening, and elimination of malaria critically depend on rapid and sensitive detection of this dangerous infection, preferably transdermally and without sophisticated reagents or blood drawing. Such diagnostic methods are not currently available. Here we show that the high optical absorbance and nanosize of endogenous heme nanoparticles called "hemozoin," a unique component of all blood-stage malaria parasites, generates a transient vapor nanobubble around hemozoin in response to a short and safe near-infrared picosecond laser pulse. The acoustic signals of these malaria-specific nanobubbles provided transdermal noninvasive and rapid detection of a malaria infection as low as 0.00034% in animals without using any reagents or drawing blood. These on-demand transient events have no analogs among current malaria markers and probes, can detect and screen malaria in seconds, and can be realized as a compact, easy-to-use, inexpensive, and safe field technology. PMID:24379385

  3. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  4. Variant ABO Blood Group Alleles, Secretor Status and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Results from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Kraft, Peter; Xu, Mousheng; Steplowski, Emily; Olsson, Martin L.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea; Petersen, Gloria; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Austin, Melissa A.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chanock, Stephen J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Overvad, Kim; Patel, Alpa V.; Sanchéz, Maria-José; Sansbury, Leah; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slimani, Nadia; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Visvanathan, Kala; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Watters, Joanne; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Subjects with non-O ABO blood group alleles have increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Glycosyltransferase activity is greater for the A1 versus A2 variant, while O01 and O02 variants are nonfunctioning. We hypothesized: (1) A1 allele would confer greater risk than A2 allele, (2) protective effect of the O allele would be equivalent for O01 and O02 variants, (3) secretor phenotype would modify the association with risk. Methods We determined ABO variants and secretor phenotype from single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABO and FUT2 genes in 1533 cases and 1582 controls from 12 prospective cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer were calculated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk was observed in participants with A1, but not A2 alleles. Compared to subjects with genotype O/O, genotypes A2/O, A2/A1, A1/O, and A1/A1 had ORs of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–1.26), 1.46 (95%CI, 0.98–2.17), 1.48 (95%CI, 1.23–1.78), and 1.71 (95%CI, 1.18–2.47). Risk was similar for O01 and O02 variant O alleles. Compared to O01/O01, the ORs for each additional allele of O02, A1, and A2 were 1.00 (95%CI, 0.87–1.14), 1.38 (95%CI, 1.20–1.58), and 0.96 (95%CI, 0.77–1.20); P-value, O01 versus O02=0.94, A1 versus A2=0.004. Secretor phenotype was not an effect modifier (P-interaction=0.63). Conclusions Among participants in a large prospective cohort consortium, ABO allele subtypes corresponding to increased glycosyltransferase activity were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. Impact These data support the hypothesis that ABO glycosyltransferase activity influences pancreatic cancer risk, rather than actions of other nearby genes on chromosome 9q34. PMID:20971884

  5. Heterobifunctional reagents: A new approach to radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Liu, Z.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    The use of bifunctional chelate such as the cyclic anhydride of DTPA for radiolabeling antibodies (Abs) may lead to homopolymerization, and intra- or intermolecular cross-linking, with resulting denaturation and decrease immunoreactivity of Abs. The authors, therefore, investigated the use of heterobifunctional reagents, whereby one group selectively couples to the amino group of the Ab and the other group to the radiometal for Ab labeling. One such reagent, 2,6-Dioxo-N-(carboxymethyl)morphine (DCM) was synthesized by reacting nitrilotriacetic acid with acetic anhydride. The other agent tested was commercially available N-Succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). These agents were evaluated independently for their ability to label a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to a melanoma associated antigen (Ag). Labeling proceeded at a 2mg/ml concentration of the Ab, at HEPES pH 8.2, and 7.0, respectively, at room temperature for 30 min. The conjugate subsequently was labeled with Tc-99m or In-111. For comparison, the same labeled Abs also were prepared by using the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Binding of the Ab to melanoma cells and control cells then was assayed. The results of cell binding experiments (N=3 per agent) in the region of Ag excess (X+-SD) were as follows: 62.6 +- 2.83% for Tc-99m-DCM-MoAb and 41.3+-1.84% for Tc-99m-SPDP-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for Tc-99m-DTPA-MoAb (p<0.01); 56.2 +- 2.97% for In-111-DCM-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for In-111-DTPA-M0Ab. Binding of all agents to the control lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. These results suggest that heterobifunctional reagents can reduce the loss of immunoreactivity of labeled MoAbs.

  6. Chemical enhancement of fingermark in blood on thermal paper.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungwook; Seo, Jin Yi

    2015-12-01

    Chemical enhancement methods for fingermark in blood deposited on the surface of a thermal paper substrate were examined. The blood-sensitive reagents compared were LCV (leuco crystal violet), Amido black and Hungarian red. Fingermark in blood on the surface of thermal paper can be fixed with 2% 5-sulfosalicylic acid solution. LCV was found as an inadequate blood staining reagent because of bubbling, diffusion, and blurring on the surface of thermal paper. Hungarian red was also an inadequate blood staining reagent because excess Hungarian red on the surface of thermal paper was not washed away in the de-staining procedure. Amido black was the best staining reagent among three staining reagents compared. The maximum dilution ratio visible to the naked eye after Amido black staining was 1 in 80 for the thermally sensitive surface and 1 in 20 for the thermally non-sensitive surface. PMID:26540182

  7. Tuning Hydrophobicity in Abiotic Affinity Reagents: Polymer Hydrogel Affinity Reagents for Molecules with Lipid-like Domains.

    PubMed

    Chou, Beverly; Mirau, Peter; Jiang, Tian; Wang, Szu-Wen; Shea, Kenneth J

    2016-05-01

    Hydrophobic interactions often dominate the associative forces between biomacromolecules. A synthetic affinity reagent must be able to exploit and optimize these interactions. We describe synthesis of abiotic affinity reagents that sequester biomacromolecules with lipid-like domains. NIPAm-based copolymer nanoparticles (NPs) containing C4-C8 hydrophobic groups were evaluated for their affinity for lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the lipophilic component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal affinity was found for NPs incorporating a linear C4 hydrocarbon group. 1D and 2D (1)H NMR studies revealed that in water, the longer chain (C6 and C8) alkyl groups in the hydrogel NPs were engaged in intrachain association, rendering them less available to interact with LPS. Optimal LPS-NP interaction requires maximizing hydrophobicity, while avoiding side chain aggregation. Polymer compositions with high LPS binding were grafted onto agarose beads and evaluated for LPS clearance from solution; samples containing linear C4 groups also showed the highest LPS clearance capacity. PMID:27064286

  8. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS DISINFECTING AGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was conducted as an EPA in-house research, assisted by the on-site contractor, US Infrastructure, Inc. (USI) located in Edison, NJ. The Fenton's reagent (e.g., H2O2, ferrous iron Fe(aq)+2) is an alternative method of chemical oxidation. Hydroxyl radicals (OH ), gen...

  9. USE OF FENTON'S REAGENT AS A DISINFECTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewage samples obtained from a wastewater treatment facility were disinfected by the Fenton's Reagent of several different compositions. The pre-settled samples contained both suspended solids (SS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at concentrations of 28 and 290 mg/L,...

  10. AQUEOUS RELAXATION REAGENTS IN NITROGEN-15 NMR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electron-nuclear relaxation times T(1)supe's for 15N and 13C in natural abundance are measured for a series of amines in aqueous solution using Gd(III) complexes of a series of polyaminocarboxylate ligands as paramagnetic relaxation reagents (PARRs). The PARRs are classified by t...

  11. DEGRADATION OF MTBE INTERMEDIATES USING FENTON'S REAGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a previous study, the chemical oxidation of MTBE at low concentrations in water using the Fenton's reagent (FR) was investigated. At certain reaction conditions the process achieved 99.99% degradation of MTBE but it did not result in complete MTBE mineralization. In the pres...

  12. Remarks on preparation of indandione detection reagents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepan, J.; Kral, V.

    1985-01-01

    A modified Claisen condensation with sliced sodium at a higher temperature was recommended for the production of ungranulated charcoal. A new ninhydrin production method by oxidation of benzaldiketohydrinden using available reagents was tried and was unsuccessful. Triketohydrinden was obtained by boiling ninhydrin in acetic acid anhydrides.

  13. Metal Nitrite: A Powerful Oxidizing Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Baidya, Mahiuddin; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and simple source of nitroso reagents and their oxidation reactions are described. The combination of a Lewis acid and a metal nitrite is applied to the oxidation of silyl enol ethers. Amino acid and peptide derivatives were easily accessed through in situ C-C bond cleavage of fully substituted silyl enol ethers upon oxidation. PMID:21830770

  14. Tetramethyleneethane Equivalents: Recursive Reagents for Serialized Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New reactions and reagents that allow for multiple bond-forming events per synthetic operation are required to achieve structural complexity and thus value with step-, time-, cost-, and waste-economy. Here we report a new class of reagents that function like tetramethyleneethane (TME), allowing for back-to-back [4 + 2] cycloadditions, thereby amplifying the complexity-increasing benefits of Diels–Alder and metal-catalyzed cycloadditions. The parent recursive reagent, 2,3-dimethylene-4-trimethylsilylbutan-1-ol (DMTB), is readily available from the metathesis of ethylene and THP-protected 4-trimethylsilylbutyn-1-ol. DMTB and related reagents engage diverse dienophiles in an initial Diels–Alder or metal-catalyzed [4 + 2] cycloaddition, triggering a subsequent vinylogous Peterson elimination that recursively generates a new diene for a second cycloaddition. Overall, this multicomponent catalytic cascade produces in one operation carbo- and heterobicyclic building blocks for the synthesis of a variety of natural products, therapeutic leads, imaging agents, and materials. Its application to the three step synthesis of a new solvatochromic fluorophore, N-ethyl(6-N,N-dimethylaminoanthracene-2,3-dicarboximide) (6-DMA), and the photophysical characterization of this fluorophore are described. PMID:25961416

  15. Chemistry Students' Erroneous Conceptions of Limiting Reagent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, K. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study of 32 University of Transkei (South Africa) freshmen's conceptualization of "limiting reagent," a basic concept in chemistry, based on student responses to two written test questions and clinical interviews. Results indicated that a high percentage of students had misconceptions and could not apply the concept successfully. Makes…

  16. Variation in blood sample collection for determination of hemodialysis adequacy. Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed

    Beto, J A; Bansal, V K; Ing, T S; Daugirdas, J T

    1998-01-01

    Inadequate dialysis has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. The accurate estimation of dialysis adequacy, measured either as a calculated urea kinetics (Kt/V) or a simple urea reduction ratio (URR) is dependent on the proper collection of blood samples for predialysis and postdialysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determination. Because no established protocol exists for blood sampling, we surveyed the study cohort of dialysis centers participating in the National Kidney Foundation Council on Renal Nutrition National Research Question Collaborative Study to determine the comparability of BUN data that were collected to calculate URR to determine adequacy of dialysis. Surveys were completed by 100% of the 202 units participating: 195 in the United States (from 43 states) and seven from Canada, treating approximately 15,000 hemodialysis patients in total. The distribution of the sample by the type of facility mirrored that of 1996 United States Renal Data System (USRDS) Annual Report facilities data. Results showed a 5.0% error in predialysis blood draw and an 8.4% to 41.6% error in the postdialysis counterpart. There was a large variability in the observed postdialysis methods in general. Dilution of predialysis sample with either heparin or saline will falsely underestimate Kt/V and URR. The presence of access-derived, recirculated blood in the postdialysis sample will falsely overestimate Kt/V and URR. Excessive delay in drawing postdialysis sample will reduce Kt/V and URR because of urea rebound. Adoption by all dialysis providers of a uniform blood sample draw procedure will result in a consistency necessary to allow reliable and valid comparison of adequacy of dialysis parameters within and between ESRD patients, units, and clinical trials. PMID:9428465

  17. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  18. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  19. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  1. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  2. Targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR): protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of hypertension with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower systolic blood pressure for at least one year. However, few people in high risk groups have been evaluated to date and previous work suggests a smaller effect size in these groups. This trial therefore aims to assess the added value of self-management in high risk groups over and above usual care. Methods/Design The targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR) trial will be a pragmatic primary care based, unblinded, randomised controlled trial of self-management of blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. Eligible patients will have a history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease and will be recruited from primary care. Participants will be individually randomised to either usual care or self-management. The primary outcome of the trial will be difference in office SBP between intervention and control groups at 12 months adjusted for baseline SBP and covariates. 540 patients will be sufficient to detect a difference in SBP between self-management and usual care of 5 mmHg with 90% power. Secondary outcomes will include self-efficacy, lifestyle behaviours, health-related quality of life and adverse events. An economic analysis will consider both within trial costs and a model extrapolating the results thereafter. A qualitative analysis will gain insights into patients’ views, experiences and decision making processes. Discussion The results of the trial will be directly applicable to primary care in the UK. If successful, self-management of blood pressure in people with stroke and other high risk conditions would be applicable to many hundreds of thousands of individuals in the UK and beyond. Trial Registration ISRCTN87171227 PMID:23522245

  3. Chemoselective N-Deacetylation of Protected Nucleosides and Nucleotides Promoted by Schwartz's Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Valentina; Serpi, Michaela; McGuigan, Christopher; Pertusati, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Protection and deprotection strategies involving the N-acetyl group are widely utilized in nucleoside and nucleotide chemistry. Herein, we present a mild and selective N-deacetylation methodology, applicable to purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, by means of Schwartz's reagent, compatible with most of the common protecting groups used in nucleoside chemistry. PMID:26492555

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Binding of GII.4 Norovirus Variants onto Human Blood Group Antigens▿

    PubMed Central

    de Rougemont, A.; Ruvoen-Clouet, N.; Simon, B.; Estienney, M.; Elie-Caille, C.; Aho, S.; Pothier, P.; Le Pendu, J.; Boireau, W.; Belliot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children and adults. For the last 2 decades, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) NoVs have been circulating worldwide. GII.4 NoVs can be divided into variants, and since 2002 they have circulated in the population before being replaced every 2 or 3 years, which raises questions about the role of their histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) ligands in their evolution. To shed light on these questions, we performed an analysis of the interaction between representative GII.4 variants and HBGAs, and we determined the role of selected amino acids in the binding profiles. By mutagenesis, we showed that there was a strict structural requirement for the amino acids, directly implicated in interactions with HBGAs. However, the ablation of the threonine residue at position 395 (ΔT395), an epidemiological feature of the post-2002 variants, was not deleterious to the binding of the virus-like particle (VLP) to the H antigen, while binding to A and B antigens was severely hampered. Nevertheless, the ΔT395 VLPs gained the capacity to bind to the Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in comparison with the wild-type VLP, demonstrating that amino acid residues outside the HBGA binding site can modify the binding properties of NoVs. We also analyzed the attachment of baculovirus-expressed VLPs from six variants (Bristol, US95/96, Hunter, Yerseke, Den Haag, and Osaka) that were isolated from 1987 to 2007 to phenotyped saliva samples and synthetic HBGAs. We showed that the six variants could all attach to saliva of secretors irrespective of the ABO phenotype and to oligosaccharides characteristic of the secretor phenotype. Interestingly, Den Haag and Osaka variants additionally bound to carbohydrates present in the saliva of Lewis-positive nonsecretors. The carbohydrate binding profile and the genetic and mutagenesis analysis suggested that GII.4 binding to Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens might be a by-product of the

  5. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  6. The A0 blood group genotype modifies the jejunal glycomic binding pattern profile of piglets early associated with a simple or complex microbiota.

    PubMed

    Priori, D; Colombo, M; Koopmans, S-J; Jansman, A J M; van der Meulen, J; Trevisi, P; Bosi, P

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif is an important determinant of the bacterial-host interaction and may be affected in pigs by gut microbiota and by blood group genotype. The aim was to study the effect of intestinal association with different microbiota and A0 blood group genotypes on the expressed glycomic pattern in the small intestine. Twelve caesarean-derived pigs previously associated with a simple association (SA) or complex association (CA) microbiota were selected at 26 to 37 d of age. In each subject, different jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with enterotoxigenic K88 (ETEC), ETEC fimbriae (F4), (LAM), or a saline control. The piglets were genotyped for A0 blood group and the glycomic profile was evaluated by microscopic screening of lectin binding: peanut agglutinin (PNA), which is galactose specific; agglutinin I (UEA), which is fucose specific; lectin II (MALii), which is sialic acid specific; concavalin A, which is mannose specific; soybean agglutinin (SBA), which is -acetyl-galactosamine specific; and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which is -acetyl-glucosamine specific. A0 pigs had fewer UEA-positive cells, MALii-positive cells ( < 0.001), and SBA-positive cells ( < 0.10) than 00 pigs. Simple association pigs had more SBA positive cells ( < 0.01) than CA pigs. Enterotoxigenic K88-perfused intestinal loops had fewer UEA-positive cells ( < 0.01) and WGA positive cells ( < 0.001) cells and more PNA positive cells (only in SA pigs, < 0.01). No effects of introduction of F4 and LAM in the intestinal lumen were observed. The porcine A0 blood group genotype and the luminal presence of ETEC strongly affected the jejunal mucosa glycomic pattern profile whereas an early oral simple or complex microbial association had limited effects. Pig genetic background has relevance on the cross talk between intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif and ETEC and, ultimately, on the gut microbial colonization in later life. PMID:27065129

  7. The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) binds to blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A; Bianchet, Mario A; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B H; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2013-08-23

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is "hijacked" by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 "self"-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  8. Radiation-induced nausea and vomiting: Is ABO blood group as important as radiation and patient-related factors? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohsen; Namimoghadam, Amir; Korouni, Roghaye; Fashiri, Paria; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Elahimanesh, Farideh; Amiri, Fatemeh; Moradi, Ghobad

    2016-08-01

    Despite the improvements in cancer screening and treatment, it still remains as one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Nausea and vomiting as the side effects of different cancer treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy, are multifactorial and could affect the treatment continuation and patient quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the possible linkage between ABO blood groups and radiation-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV), also its incidence and affecting factors.One hundred twenty-eight patients referring to Tohid hospital of Sanandaj, Iran, were selected and the patients and treatment-related factors were determined in a cross-sectional study. Patients' nausea and vomiting were recorded from the onset of treatment until 1 week after treatment accomplishment. Also, previous possible nausea and vomiting were recorded. The frequencies of nausea and vomiting and their peak time were examined during the treatment period.The association between ABO blood group and the incidence of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) were significant and it seems that A blood group patients are the most vulnerable individuals to these symptoms. The association between Rhesus antigen and the time of maximum severity of RINV may indicate that Rhesus antigen affects the time of maximum severity of RINV. The incidence of RINV was not affected by karnofsky performance status, but it was related to the severity of RINV. Furthermore, among the factors affecting the incidence of nausea and vomiting, nausea and vomiting during patient's previous chemotherapy, radiotherapy region, and background gastrointestinal disease were shown to be three important factors.In addition to familiar RINV-affecting factors, ABO blood group may play an important role and these results address the needs for further studies with larger sample size. PMID:27495037

  9. Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Appella, Ettore; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

  10. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  11. Coexpression of binding sites for A(B) histo-blood group trisaccharides with galectin-3 and Lag antigen in human Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Smetana, K; Holíková, Z; Klubal, R; Bovin, N V; Dvoránková, B; Bartůnková, J; Liu, F T; Gabius, H J

    1999-10-01

    Galectin-3 is an immunomodulatory protein with binding capacity for various glycoconjugates including IgE. It has been shown to be produced by epidermal keratinocytes and is present on the surfaces of skin Langerhans cells (LC). Therefore, it may have a role in the pathogenesis of various skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To study the expression of galectin-3 in LC, we used, in addition to specific antibodies, a panel of synthetic, carrier-immobilized, specific oligosaccharides of the A- and B-histo-blood group, which are recognized by this lectin. In the mean time, Birbeck granules were visualized with an anti-Lag antibody. The double labeling experiments showed a remarkable colocalization of signals for Lag antigen (Birbeck granules) and galectin-3, as well as the binding sites for A- and B-histo-blood group trisaccharides. The specificity of the oligosaccharide binding was demonstrated by the lack of binding by Le(c), Le(d) (H blood group antigen), and sLe(x), which are not recognized by galectin-3. These results suggest that galectin-3 is present in Birbeck granules, where it retains reactivity for its glycoligands. PMID:10534121

  12. Determination of ABO blood group genotypes using the real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification method

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO; ZHU, JUANLI; YANG, JIANGCUN; WAN, YINSHENG; MA, TING; CUI, YALI

    2015-01-01

    ABO genotyping is commonly used in several situations, including blood transfusion, personal identification and disease detection. The present study developed a novel method for ABO genotyping, using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). This method allows the simultaneous determination of six ABO genotypes under 40 min at a constant temperature of 62°C. The genotypes of 101 blood samples were determined to be AA (n=6), AO (n=38), BB (n=12), BO (n =29), AB (n=8) and OO (n=8) by the LAMP assay. The results were compared with the phenotypes determined by serological assay and the genotypes determined by direct sequencing, and no discrepancies were observed. This novel and rapid method, with good accuracy and reasonably cost effective, provides a supplement to routine serological ABO typing and may also be useful in other point-of-care testing. PMID:26238310

  13. SMIM1 is a type II transmembrane phosphoprotein and displays the Vel blood group antigen at its carboxyl-terminus.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Lionel; Kelley, Liam P; Helias, Virginie; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Ballif, Bryan A

    2015-11-30

    Disruption of SMIM1, encoding small integral membrane protein 1, is responsible for the Vel-negative blood type, a rare but clinically-important blood type. However, the exact nature of the Vel antigen and how it is presented by SMIM1 are poorly understood. Using mass spectrometry we found several sites of phosphorylation in the N-terminal region of SMIM1 and we found the initiating methionine of SMIM1 to be acetylated. Flow cytometry analyses of human erythroleukemia cells expressing N- or C-terminally Flag-tagged SMIM1, several point mutants of SMIM1, and a chimeric molecule between Kell and SMIM1 demonstrated that SMIM1 carries the Vel antigen as a type II membrane protein with a predicted C-terminal extracellular domain of only 3-12 amino acids. PMID:26452714

  14. The Grignard Reagent: Preparation, Structure, and Some Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orchin, Milton

    1989-01-01

    The Grignard reagent used in the laboratory synthesis of organic compounds is the product resulting from the reaction of an alkyl or aryl halide with elemental magnesium. Describes the structure, formation, and some reactions of the reagent. (YP)

  15. CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESES

    EPA Science Inventory

    CLAY AND CLAY-SUPPORTED REAGENTS HAVE BEEN USED EXTENSIVELY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANIC TRANSFORMATIONS. THIS OVERVIEW DESCRIBES THE SALIENT STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS CLAY MATERIALS AND EXTENDS THE DISCUSSION TO PILLARED CLAYS AND REAGENTS SUPPORTED ON CLAY MATERIALS. A VARIET...

  16. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  17. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  18. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  19. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  20. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration,...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  9. Swine Toolkit Progress for US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (http://www.umass.edu/vetimm/) was established to address the lack of immunological reagents for veterinary species. Within this context, plans are underway to produce sets of reagents needed to evaluate immune changes during disease and following vaccination...

  10. A comparison of different pre-lysis methods and extraction kits for recovery of Streptococcus agalacticae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus) DNA from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Burke, Rachael M; McKenna, James P; Cox, Ciara; Coyle, Peter V; Shields, Michael D; Fairley, Derek J

    2016-10-01

    Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp). Mechanical pre-lysis increased yields of bacterial genomic DNA by 51.3 fold (95% confidence interval; 31.6-85.1, p<0.001) and pre-lysis with achromopeptidase by 6.1 fold (95% CI; 4.2-8.9, p<0.001), compared with no pre-lysis. Differences in yield due to pre-lysis were 2-3 fold larger than differences in yield between extraction methods. Including a pre-lysis step can improve the limits of detection of GBS using PCR or other molecular methods without need for culture. PMID:27546716

  11. Prevalence, control and awareness of high blood pressure among Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Joffres, M R; Hamet, P; Rabkin, S W; Gelskey, D; Hogan, K; Fodor, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of elevated blood pressure (BP) among Canadian adults and to determine the level of control, treatment, awareness and prevalence of other risk factors among adults with high BP. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Nine Canadian provinces, from 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of 26,293 men and women aged 18 to 74 years was selected from the health insurance registers in each province. For 20,582 subjects, BP was measured at least twice. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire and recorded two BP measurements using a standardized technique. Two further BP readings, anthropometric measurements and a blood specimen for lipid analysis were obtained from those subjects who attended a clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP, prevalence of elevated BP using different criteria, and prevalence of smoking, elevated blood cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity and presence of diabetes by high BP status are reported. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen percent of men and 13% of women had diastolic BP of 90 mm Hg or greater or were on treatment (or both). About 26% of these subjects were unaware of their hypertension, 42% were being treated and their condition controlled, 16% were treated and not controlled, and 16% were neither treated nor controlled. Use of non-pharmacologic treatment of high BP with or without medication was low (22%). Hypertensive subjects showed a higher prevalence of elevated total cholesterol, high body mass index, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle than normotensive subjects. Most people with elevated BP were in the 90 to 95 mm Hg range for diastolic pressure and 140 to 160 mm Hg range for systolic pressure. Prevalence of high isolated systolic BP sharply increased in men (40%) and women (49%) 65 to 74 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively low level of control of elevated BP calls for population and individual strategies, stressing a

  12. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells: Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma) Group B – has only the B antigen on ...

  13. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  14. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  15. ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in a French Caucasian Population of 633 Patients Living in the Same Geographic Area

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Mélanie; Souza, Carlos; Santulli, Pietro; Lafay-Pillet, Marie-Christine; de Ziegler, Dominique; Chapron, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The identification of epidemiological factors increasing the risk of endometriosis could shorten the time to diagnosis. Specific blood groups may be more common in patients with endometriosis. Study Design. We designed a cross-sectional study of 633 Caucasian women living in the same geographic area. Study group included 311 patients with histologically proven endometriosis. Control group included 322 patients without endometriosis as checked during surgery. Frequencies of ABO and Rhesus groups in the study and control groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results. We observed a higher proportion of Rh-negative women in the study group, as compared to healthy controls. Multivariate analysis showed that Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis (aOR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.20–2.90). There was no significant difference in ABO group distribution between patients and controls. There was no difference when taking into account either the clinical forms (superficial endometriosis, endometrioma, and deep infiltration endometriosis) or the rAFS stages. Conclusion. Rh-negative women are twice as likely to develop endometriosis. Chromosome 1p, which contains the genes coding for the Rhesus, could also harbor endometriosis susceptibility genes. PMID:25243164

  16. Copper-catalyzed coupling of triaryl- and trialkylindium reagents with aryl iodides and bromides through consecutive transmetalations.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Surendra; Gurung, Santosh K; Dickie, Diane A; Giri, Ramesh

    2014-10-20

    An efficient copper(I)-catalyzed coupling of triaryl and trialkylindium reagents with aryl iodides and bromides is reported. The reaction proceeds at low catalyst loadings (2 mol%) and generally only requires 0.33 equivalents of the triorganoindium reagent with respect to the aryl halide as all three organic nucleophilic moieties of the reagent are transferred to the products through consecutive transmetalations. The reaction tolerates a variety of functional groups and sterically hindered substrates. Furthermore, preliminary mechanistic studies that entailed the synthesis and characterization of potential reaction intermediates offered a glimpse of the elementary steps that constitute the catalytic cycle. PMID:25213151

  17. The relation between gastric acid secretion and body habitus, blood groups, smoking, and the subsequent development of dyspepsia and duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Novis, B. H.; Marks, I. N.; Bank, S.; Sloan, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-six students free of gastrointestinal disease were studied to establish normal acid secretion values for healthy male and female students by the augmented histamine test and to re-examine the relationship between gastric acid secretion and ABO blood groups, body weight, fat-free body mass, height, degree of ectomorphy and mesomorphy, the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and serum cholesterol. A prospective study was then carried out on gastric acid secretion and the subsequent development after 10 years of duodenal ulcers or dyspepsia. Young, healthy medical students have a fairly high mean basal and maximal acid output. There was very little difference in the mean acid outputs of the various ABO blood groups. A significant correlation was shown between acid output and body weight and fat-free body mass, but not with the other measurements of body build. Basal acid output was also related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Three students who subsequently developed duodenal ulcers all had a preexistent high level of acid secretion. The acid output was, however, similar in the groups who developed significant or minor dyspepsia or who remained asymptomatic. PMID:4696532

  18. Reaction of Glyconitriles with Organometallic Reagents: Access to Acyl β-C-Glycosides.

    PubMed

    Guisot, Nicolas E S; Ella Obame, Idriss; Ireddy, Prathap; Nourry, Arnaud; Saluzzo, Christine; Dujardin, Gilles; Dubreuil, Didier; Pipelier, Muriel; Guillarme, Stéphane

    2016-03-18

    A new strategy for the synthesis of acyl β-C-glycosides is described. The reactivity of glyconitriles toward organometallic reagents such as organomagnesium or organolithium derivatives was studied, affording acyl β-C-glycosides in moderate to good yields. In this study, glycal formation was efficiently prevented by deprotonating the hydroxyl group in position 2 of the glyconitriles during the process. PMID:26926714

  19. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.S.; Pelzig, M.; Glass, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonsulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use with small arginine-containing molecules, because the sulfonic acid group of the reagent is a convenient handle for analytical and preparative separation of products. Camphorquinonesulfonylnorleucine is more useful for work with large polypeptides and proteins, because hydrolysates of modified proteins may be analyzed for norleucine to determine the extent of arginine modification. The adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are stable to 0.5 M hydroxylamine solutions at pH 7, the recommended conditions for cleavage of the corresponding cyclohexanedione adducts. At pH 8-9 the adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are cleaved by o-phenylenediamine. The modification and regeneration of arginine, of the dipeptide arginylaspartic acid, of ribonuclease S-peptide, and of soybean trypsin inhibitor are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagents.The use of camphorquinonesulfonyl chloride to prepare polymers containing arginine-specific ligands is discussed.

  20. Modular Approach to 9-Monosubstituted Fluorene Derivatives Using Mo(V) Reagents.

    PubMed

    Franzmann, Peter; Trosien, Simon; Schubert, Moritz; Waldvogel, Siegfried R

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative coupling using molybdenum(V) reagents provides fast access to highly functionalized 9-monosubstituted fluorenes. This synthetic approach is highly modular, is high yielding, and tolerates a variety of labile moieties, e.g. amides or iodo groups. The established protocol leads to promising precursors for pharmacologically important analogues of melatonin. PMID:26913835

  1. Copper nanoparticle-catalyzed cross-coupling of alkyl halides with Grignard reagents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Chung, Young Keun

    2013-12-01

    A cross-coupling reaction between alkyl bromides and chlorides and various Grignard reagents was carried out in the presence of commercially available copper or copper oxide nanoparticles as a catalyst and an alkyne additive. The catalytic system shows high activity, a broad scope, and good functional group tolerance. PMID:24146018

  2. The O-Linked Glycome and Blood Group Antigens ABO on Mucin-Type Glycoproteins in Mucinous and Serous Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Vitiazeva, Varvara; Kattla, Jayesh J.; Flowers, Sarah A.; Lindén, Sara K.; Premaratne, Pushpa; Weijdegård, Birgitta; Sundfeldt, Karin; Karlsson, Niclas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated proteins where the glycosylation has been shown to play an important role in cancer. Normal epithelial ovarian cells do not express secreted mucins, but their abnormal expression has previously been described in epithelial ovarian cancer and may relate to tumor formation and progression. The cyst fluids were shown to be a rich source for acidic glycoproteins. The study of these proteins can potentially lead to the identification of more effective biomarkers for ovarian cancer. Methods In this study, we analyzed the expression of the MUC5AC and the O-glycosylation of acidic glycoproteins secreted into ovarian cyst fluids. The samples were obtained from patients with serous and mucinous ovarian tumors of different stages (benign, borderline, malignant) and grades. The O-linked oligosaccharides were released and analyzed by negative-ion graphitized carbon Liquid Chromatography (LC) coupled to Electrospray Ionization tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The LC-ESI-MSn of the oligosaccharides from ovarian cyst fluids displayed differences in expression of fucose containing structures such as blood group ABO antigens and Lewis-type epitopes. Results The obtained data showed that serous and mucinous benign adenomas, mucinous low malignant potential carcinomas (LMPs, borderline) and mucinous low-grade carcinomas have a high level of blood groups and Lewis type epitopes. In contrast, this type of fucosylated structures were low abundant in the high-grade mucinous carcinomas or in serous carcinomas. In addition, the ovarian tumors that showed a high level of expression of blood group antigens also revealed a strong reactivity towards the MUC5AC antibody. To visualize the differences between serous and mucinous ovarian tumors based on the O-glycosylation, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using mass spectrometry average compositions (MSAC). Conclusion Mucinous benign and LMPs along with mucinous low-grade carcinomas

  3. Identification of novel rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus B-cell epitopes and their interaction with host histo-blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanhua; Wang, Fang; Fan, Zhiyu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xing; Wei, Houjun; Xue, Jiabin; Xu, Weizhong; Qiu, Rulong

    2016-02-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), results in the death of millions of adult rabbits worldwide, with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. The sole capsid protein, VP60, is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, and the more exposed P domain likely contains determinants for cell attachment and antigenic diversity. Nine mAbs against VP60 were screened and identified. To map antigenic epitopes, a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated proteins spanning VP60 were expressed. The minimal determinants of the linear B-cell epitopes of VP60 in the P domain, N(326)PISQV(331), D(338)MSFV(342) and K(562)STLVFNL(569), were recognized by one (5H3), four (1B8, 3D11, 4C2 and 4G2) and four mAbs (1D4, 3F7, 5G2 and 6B2), respectively. Sequence alignment showed epitope D(338)MSFV(342) was conserved among all RHDV isolates. Epitopes N(326)PISQV(331) and K(562)STLVFNL(569) were highly conserved among RHDV G1-G6 and variable in RHDV2 strains. Previous studies demonstrated that native viral particles and virus-like particles (VLPs) of RHDV specifically bound to synthetic blood group H type 2 oligosaccharides. We established an oligosaccharide-based assay to analyse the binding of VP60 and epitopes to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Results showed VP60 and its epitopes (aa 326-331 and 338-342) in the P2 subdomain could significantly bind to blood group H type 2. Furthermore, mAbs 1B8 and 5H3 could block RHDV VLP binding to synthetic H type 2. Collectively, these two epitopes might play a key role in the antigenic structure of VP60 and interaction of RHDV and HBGA. PMID:26612210

  4. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products. PMID:22727006

  5. Blood thicker than water: kinship, disease prevalence and group size drive divergent patterns of infection risk in a social mammal

    PubMed Central

    Delahay, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of social- and kin-structuring of populations for the transmission of wildlife disease is widely assumed but poorly described. Social structure can help dilute risks of transmission for group members, and is relatively easy to measure, but kin-association represents a further level of population sub-structure that is harder to measure, particularly when association behaviours happen underground. Here, using epidemiological and molecular genetic data from a wild, high-density population of the European badger (Meles meles), we quantify the risks of infection with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of tuberculosis) in cubs. The risk declines with increasing size of its social group, but this net dilution effect conceals divergent patterns of infection risk. Cubs only enjoy reduced risk when social groups have a higher proportion of test-negative individuals. Cubs suffer higher infection risk in social groups containing resident infectious adults, and these risks are exaggerated when cubs and infectious adults are closely related. We further identify key differences in infection risk associated with resident infectious males and females. We link our results to parent–offspring interactions and other kin-biased association, but also consider the possibility that susceptibility to infection is heritable. These patterns of infection risk help to explain the observation of a herd immunity effect in badgers following low-intensity vaccination campaigns. They also reveal kinship and kin-association to be important, and often hidden, drivers of disease transmission in social mammals. PMID:27440666

  6. Blood thicker than water: kinship, disease prevalence and group size drive divergent patterns of infection risk in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Benton, Clare H; Delahay, Richard J; Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Wilson, Alastair J; Burke, Terry A; Hodgson, Dave

    2016-07-27

    The importance of social- and kin-structuring of populations for the transmission of wildlife disease is widely assumed but poorly described. Social structure can help dilute risks of transmission for group members, and is relatively easy to measure, but kin-association represents a further level of population sub-structure that is harder to measure, particularly when association behaviours happen underground. Here, using epidemiological and molecular genetic data from a wild, high-density population of the European badger (Meles meles), we quantify the risks of infection with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of tuberculosis) in cubs. The risk declines with increasing size of its social group, but this net dilution effect conceals divergent patterns of infection risk. Cubs only enjoy reduced risk when social groups have a higher proportion of test-negative individuals. Cubs suffer higher infection risk in social groups containing resident infectious adults, and these risks are exaggerated when cubs and infectious adults are closely related. We further identify key differences in infection risk associated with resident infectious males and females. We link our results to parent-offspring interactions and other kin-biased association, but also consider the possibility that susceptibility to infection is heritable. These patterns of infection risk help to explain the observation of a herd immunity effect in badgers following low-intensity vaccination campaigns. They also reveal kinship and kin-association to be important, and often hidden, drivers of disease transmission in social mammals. PMID:27440666

  7. Evaluation of multi-target immunogenic reagents for the detection of latent and body fluid-contaminated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Lam, Rolanda; Hofstetter, Oliver; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude; Spindler, Xanthe

    2016-07-01

    Fingermark enhancement reagents capable of molecular recognition offer a highly selective and sensitive method of detection. Antibodies and aptamers provide a high degree of adaptability for visualisation, allowing for the selection of the most appropriate visualisation wavelength for a particular substrate without the need for specialist equipment or image processing. However, the major hurdle to overcome is the balance between sensitivity and selectivity. Single-target molecular recognition is highly specific, purported to have better detection limits than chemical reactions or stains, and can provide information about the donor or activity, but often results in incomplete ridge pattern development. Consequently, the development and evaluation of multi-target biomolecular reagents for fingermark enhancement was investigated, with the focus on endogenous eccrine secretions. To assess the suitability of the immunogenic reagents for potential operational use, a variety of parameters (i.e., processing time, fixing and working solution conditions) were optimised on a wide range of non-porous and semi-porous substrates. The relative performance of immunogenic reagents was compared to that of routine techniques applied to latent marks and marks in blood, semen and saliva. The incorporation of these novel reagents into routine technique sequences was also investigated. The experimental results indicated that the multi-target immunogenic reagents were not a suitable alternative to routine detection methods or sequences, but may have promise as a "last resort" method for difficult substrates or cases. PMID:27174074

  8. Metal-free direct trifluoromethylation of activated alkenes with Langlois' reagent leading to CF3-containing oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wen, Jiangwei; Yang, Daoshan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Mengyuan; Dong, Ruimei; Wang, Hua

    2014-05-01

    A metal-free and cost-effective synthesis protocol has been initially proposed for the construction of CF3-containing oxindoles via the direct oxidative trifluoromethylation of activated alkenes with Langlois' reagent (CF3SO2Na). The present methodology, which utilizes very cheap CF3 reagent and a simple oxidant, provides a convenient and practical approach to CF3-containing oxindoles with a wide variety of functional groups. PMID:24689970

  9. Silyl Glyoxylates. Conception and Realization of Flexible Conjunctive Reagents for Multicomponent Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Gregory R.; Greszler, Stephen N.; Linghu, Xin; Malinowski, Justin T.; Nicewicz, David A.; Satterfield, Andrew D.; Schmitt, Daniel C.; Steward, Kimberly M.

    2012-01-01

    This Perspective describes the discovery and development of silyl glyoxylates, a new family of conjunctive reagents for use in multicomponent coupling reactions. The selection of the nucleophilic and electrophilic components determines whether the silyl glyoxylate reagent will function as a synthetic equivalent to the dipolar glycolic acid synthon, the glyoxylate anion synthon, or the α-keto ester homoenolate synthon. The ability to select for any of these reaction modes has translated to excellent structural diversity in the derived three- and four-component coupling adducts. Preliminary findings on the development of catalytic reactions using these reagents are detailed, as are the design and discovery of new reactions directed toward particular functional group arrays embedded within bioactive natural products. PMID:22414181

  10. Preparation, characterization and feasibility study of dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose as a novel crosslinking reagent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhao; Peng, Yanfei; Han, Baoqin; Li, Zhuoyue; Li, Xiuhua; Liu, Wanshun

    2016-02-10

    The natural biopolymers usually need to be chemically modified by crosslinking reagents to improve their mechanical properties. In the present research, the feasibility of using the dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) as a crosslinking reagent was systematically studied. DCMC was prepared by oxidizing carboxymethyl cellulose using sodium periodate. The formation of dialdehyde groups was confirmed by FTIR and the degree of oxidation was determined. The biocompatibility of DCMC was investigated by evaluating its cytotoxicity to L929 fibroblasts and histocompatibility in rat model via intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. DCMC-crosslinked carboxymethyl chitosan (DCMC-CMCTS) was prepared and characterized using the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked CMCTS (GA-CMCTS) as control. The result demonstrated that DCMC was non-cytotoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. The DCMC-CMCTS displayed significantly better thermostability, swelling capacity and cyto-compatibility compared with GA-CMCTS. Our data provided experimental basis for the future application of DCMC as a novel crosslinking reagent. PMID:26686173

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Oxy-Alkynylation of Diazo Compounds with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents.

    PubMed

    Hari, Durga Prasad; Waser, Jerome

    2016-02-24

    Alkynes have found widespread applications in synthetic chemistry, biology, and materials sciences. In recent years, methods based on electrophilic alkynylation with hypervalent iodine reagents have made acetylene synthesis more flexible and efficient, but they lead to the formation of one equivalent of an iodoarene as side-product. Herein, a more efficient strategy involving a copper-catalyzed oxy-alkynylation of diazo compounds with ethynylbenziodoxol(on)e (EBX) reagents is described, which proceeds with generation of nitrogen gas as the only waste. This reaction is remarkable for its broad scope in both EBX reagents and diazo compounds. In addition, vinyl diazo compounds gave enynes selectively as single geometric isomers. The functional groups introduced during the transformation served as easy handles to access useful building blocks for synthetic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:26870873

  12. New fluorescent hydrazide reagents for the oxidized 3′-terminus of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Reines, Scott A.; Cantor, Charles R.

    1974-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of four new fluorescent reagents capable of forming moderately stable links to the 3′ oxidized end of RNA are reported. All are hydrazide derivatives: pyrene butyric acid hydrazide, proflavine monosemicarbazide, proflavine monosuccinic acid hydrazide, and anthracene-9-carboxaldehyde carbohydrazone. In addition, procedures are given for coupling the bifunctional reagent carbohydrazide to the 3′ end of RNA. These carbohydrazide adducts can easily be coupled in turn to a wide variety of fluorescent reagents having specificity for aliphatic amino groups, including isothiocyanates and sulfonyl halides. Thus a route exists for the preparation of an enormous variety of 3′ fluorescent labeled RNAs. The carbohyrazide adducts are also useful for other synthetic procedures such as preparation of covalent tRNA dimers. PMID:10793756

  13. Polymeric reagents with propane-1,3-dithiol functions and their precursors for supported organic syntheses

    PubMed

    Bertini; Lucchesini; Pocci; De Munno A

    2000-08-11

    Reliable completely odorless syntheses of soluble copolymeric reagents of styrene type containing propane-1,3-dithiol functions able to convert carbonyl compounds into 1,3-dithiane derivatives and to support other useful transformations are reported together with their progenitor copolymers containing benzenesulfonate or thioacetate groups perfectly stable in open air and suitable for unlimited storage. The effectiveness of the prepared reagents as tools for polymer-supported syntheses to produce ketones by aldehyde umpolung and alkylation is tested in the conversion of benzaldehyde to phenyl n-hexyl ketone starting from copolymers with different contents of active units and molecular weights. To facilitate the adaptation of the prepared soluble copolymeric reagents to other possible applications, a table of solvents and nonsolvents is presented. PMID:10956461

  14. [Sulfonylureas in today's blood glucose lowering therapy. New data on advantages and potential barriers of an "old" antidiabetic group].

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gábor

    2015-03-29

    Sulfonylurea compounds have been basic elements of antidiabetic treatment in type 2 diabetes for a long time. However, with the introduction of incretin type insulin secretagogues it is often arises, whether is still there a place for sulfonylureas in the today's therapy. To answer this question the author overviews general pharmaceutical characteristics of the sulfonylurea compounds as well as individual particularities of the second generation derivatives used at present in Hungary. The author details also the most important differences between incretin type drugs - first of all dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors - and sulfonylureas. On the basis of available data it can be concluded in accordance with the latest international guidelines, that sulfonylureas have still role in the blood glucose lowering therapy of type 2 diabetes, though they became somewhat pushed back among insulin secretagogue type drugs. If a sulfonylurea compound is the drug of choice, it is important to select the appropriate molecule (in case of normal renal function gliclazide or glimepiride). It is also important to re-educate the patient, as well as to apply the minimal dose providing the desired glycaemic effect. PMID:25796278

  15. Hereditary aspects of duodenal ulceration: pepsin 1 secretion in relation to ABO blood groups and ABH secretor status.

    PubMed Central

    Waft, L; Roberts, N B; Taylor, W H

    1979-01-01

    Pepsin 1, the ulcer-associated pepsin, occurred significantly more frequently in the gastric juice of those patients with duodenal ulcer who did not secrete A, B, or H antigens into gastric juice than in those secreting these antigens. This observation may explain the increased proportion of such non-secretors among patients with duodenal ulceration. In patients with gastric ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia, and in a miscellaneous group of patients, there was no association of pepsin 1 secretion with secretor status, suggesting that the association noted in duodenal ulceration is an indirect rather than a direct one. No increase of pepsin 1 occurred in group O patients with peptic ulcer, so that the increased proportion of such patients in peptic ulcer does not arise from differences in pepsin 1 secretion. PMID:119857

  16. Characterization of recombinant alpha-galactosidase for use in seroconversion from blood group B to O of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A; Leng, L; Monahan, C; Zhang, Z; Hurst, R; Lenny, L; Goldstein, J

    1996-03-15

    Alpha-Galactosidase (alpha-GAL) purified from green coffee bean cleaves the terminal galactose residues from the surface of group B erythrocytes, thereby converting these cells serologically to group O cells. Such enzymatically converted red cells have been transfused into group A and O recipients as part of the first phase of FDA-approved clinical trials. Recently we expressed the recombinant alpha-GAL (r)alpha-GAL) in large quantities in a methylotrophic yeast strain Pichia pastoris and purified the protein to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on a macro prep S50 column. Purified (r)alpha-GAL, migrating as a single band of 41 kDa on a SDS-PAGE, appears to be identical to its native counterpart in specific activity (32 U/mg) and kinetic parameters (K(m) =0.363 mM and V(max) = 46.9 U/mg). Both enzymes demonstrate the same pH profile in the pH range from 2 to 9, with an optimal pH at 6.4 when tested with the substrate p-nitrophenol-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. Furthermore, as with its native counterpart, (r)alpha-GAL specifically cleaves alpha-linked terminal galactose residues from group B red cells without affecting other major antigens on the red cell surface. In addition, we developed a method for using RT-PCR to detect possible DNA contamination in the purified protein preparation, which is one of the concerns for in vivo studies. Thus, with a simple procedure for over-expression and purification of (r)alpha-GAL from P. pastoris culture, one can readily obtain the enzyme needed for large-scale sero-conversion of red cells. PMID:8619622

  17. [The heart pumping function and the systemic regulation of blood circulation in groups of heart surgery patients].

    PubMed

    Knyshov, H V; Palets', B L; Nastenko, Ie A; Maksymenko, V B

    1996-01-01

    General properties of cardiovascular system functioning in the groups of postoperative patients in the cardiac surgery clinic were studied using the information technology (IT), combined the methods of cluster and nonlinear regression analysis and computer simulation. It was shown, that in all five separated groups of observations (clusters) the direct dependency of cardiac (CI) and stroke (SI) indexes on central venous pressure (CVP) was determined by the variations of total peripheral resistance and reactions of venous tone (u), contractility (E) and heart rate (HR), oriented on the stabilisation of mean aortic pressure (AP) on approximately the same level. Significant differences between the characteristics CI(CVP), SI(CVP) in the groups were determined by the level of E (especially of the right ventricle) and diastolic tone of the heart. Correlation of the cardiac (E,HR) and vascular (u) components of Ap regulation changed correspondingly the heart functional state. Proposed approach and IT may be used in such clinical and experimental research where considerable volume of observations is combined with the great variation of data and, correspondingly, a poor definition level of system behavior. PMID:9044808

  18. Electrodialytic reagent introduction in flow systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Santosh K; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-05-15

    We report on electrodialytic introduction of ionizable molecules of significant size (e.g., 4-(2-pyridyl(azo) resorcinol, PAR)) in capillary scale flow systems. Such reagent introduction can be conducted without volumetric dilution, easily programmed through current control and with excellent mixing characteristics. Electrodialytic transport of large hydrophobic aromatic ions through conventional aromatic ion exchangers is inefficient. Such ions are strongly retained by hydrophobic and pi-pi interactions. An external electric field cannot modulate this retention. We show that the electrodialytic introduction of aromatic dye anions is readily possible through both unmodified cellulose dialysis membranes and through cellulose membranes modified with methacrylate skeleton anion exchangers. The applied electrodialysis current conveniently controls the reagent flux. Although the applied voltage is sufficient to cause electrolytic production of hydrogen and oxygen; the gases are generated outside the flowstream of interest. The present device was constructed with a sub-microliter internal volume. We show capillary scale trace analysis of transition metals. A limit of detection of 0.5 fmol Zn (S/N = 3) is demonstrated with a capillary scale flow injection system with a simple light emitting diode based detector. PMID:20423104

  19. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (−10.83 ± 2.13 vs. −2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (−11.26 ± 2.13 vs. −3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (−10.87 ± 2.39 vs. −0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  20. Hemocytes and Plasma of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Display a Diverse Repertoire of Sulfated and Blood Group A-modified N-Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Simone; Jin, Chunsheng; Hykollari, Alba; Gregorich, Daniel; Giomarelli, Barbara; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has become a useful model system for glycan-dependent host-parasite interactions due to the hijacking of the oyster galectin CvGal1 for host entry by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, the causative agent of Dermo disease. In this study, we examined the N-glycans of both the hemocytes, which via CvGal1 are the target of the parasite, and the plasma of the oyster. In combination with HPLC fractionation, exoglycosidase digestion, and fragmentation of the glycans, mass spectrometry revealed that the major N-glycans of plasma are simple hybrid structures, sometimes methylated and core α1,6-fucosylated, with terminal β1,3-linked galactose; a remarkable high degree of sulfation of such glycans was observed. Hemocytes express a larger range of glycans, including core-difucosylated paucimannosidic forms, whereas bi- and triantennary glycans were found in both sources, including structures carrying sulfated and methylated variants of the histo-blood group A epitope. The primary features of the oyster whole hemocyte N-glycome were also found in dominin, the major plasma glycoprotein, which had also been identified as a CvGal1 glycoprotein ligand associated with hemocytes. The occurrence of terminal blood group moieties on oyster dominin and on hemocyte surfaces can account in part for their affinity for the endogenous CvGal1. PMID:23824194

  1. The Hidden Conformation of Lewis x, a Human Histo-Blood Group Antigen, Is a Determinant for Recognition by Pathogen Lectins.

    PubMed

    Topin, Jérémie; Lelimousin, Mickaël; Arnaud, Julie; Audfray, Aymeric; Pérez, Serge; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne

    2016-07-15

    Histo-blood group epitopes are fucosylated branched oligosaccharides with well-defined conformations in solution that are recognized by receptors, such as lectins from pathogens. We report here the results of a series of experimental and computational endeavors revealing the unusual distortion of histo-blood group antigens by bacterial and fungal lectins. The Lewis x trisaccharide adopts a rigid closed conformation in solution, while crystallography and molecular dynamics reveal several higher energy open conformations when bound to the Ralstonia solanacearum lectin, which is in agreement with thermodynamic and kinetic measurements. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations confirm rare transient Le(x) openings in solution, frequently assisted by distortion of the central N-acetyl-glucosamine ring. Additional directed molecular dynamic trajectories revealed the role of a conserved tryptophan residue in guiding the fucose into the binding site. Our findings show that conformational adaptation of oligosaccharides is of paramount importance in cell recognition and should be considered when designing anti-infective glyco-compounds. PMID:27198630

  2. Hemocytes and plasma of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) display a diverse repertoire of sulfated and blood group A-modified N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Simone; Jin, Chunsheng; Hykollari, Alba; Gregorich, Daniel; Giomarelli, Barbara; Vasta, Gerardo R; Wilson, Iain B H; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-08-23

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has become a useful model system for glycan-dependent host-parasite interactions due to the hijacking of the oyster galectin CvGal1 for host entry by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, the causative agent of Dermo disease. In this study, we examined the N-glycans of both the hemocytes, which via CvGal1 are the target of the parasite, and the plasma of the oyster. In combination with HPLC fractionation, exoglycosidase digestion, and fragmentation of the glycans, mass spectrometry revealed that the major N-glycans of plasma are simple hybrid structures, sometimes methylated and core α1,6-fucosylated, with terminal β1,3-linked galactose; a remarkable high degree of sulfation of such glycans was observed. Hemocytes express a larger range of glycans, including core-difucosylated paucimannosidic forms, whereas bi- and triantennary glycans were found in both sources, including structures carrying sulfated and methylated variants of the histo-blood group A epitope. The primary features of the oyster whole hemocyte N-glycome were also found in dominin, the major plasma glycoprotein, which had also been identified as a CvGal1 glycoprotein ligand associated with hemocytes. The occurrence of terminal blood group moieties on oyster dominin and on hemocyte surfaces can account in part for their affinity for the endogenous CvGal1. PMID:23824194

  3. The human Kell blood group binds the erythroid 4.1R protein: new insights into the 4.1R-dependent red cell membrane complex.

    PubMed

    Azouzi, Slim; Collec, Emmanuel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Protein 4.1R plays an important role in maintaining the mechanical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. We analysed the expression of Kell blood group protein in erythrocytes from a patient with hereditary elliptocytosis associated with complete 4.1R deficiency (4.1(-) HE). Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses revealed a severe reduction of Kell. In vitro pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments from erythrocyte membranes showed a direct interaction between Kell and 4.1R. Using different recombinant domains of 4.1R and the cytoplasmic domain of Kell, we demonstrated that the R(46) R motif in the juxta-membrane region of Kell binds to lobe B of the 4.1R FERM domain. We also observed that 4.1R deficiency is associated with a reduction of XK and DARC (also termed ACKR1) proteins, the absence of the glycosylated form of the urea transporter B and a slight decrease of band 3. The functional alteration of the 4.1(-) HE erythrocyte membranes was also determined by measuring various transport activities. We documented a slower rate of HCO3 (-) /Cl(-) exchange, but normal water and ammonia transport across erythrocyte membrane in the absence of 4.1. These findings provide novel insights into the structural organization of blood group antigen proteins into the 4.1R complex of the human red cell membrane. PMID:26455906

  4. The Reagent-sorption Technology of Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatov, I. M.; Laguntsov, N. I.; Neschimenko, Y. P.; Feklistov, D. Y.

    The main purpose of this work is to intensify and to improve the efficiency of water treatment processes as well as to combine optimally modern techniques and technological devices in water treatment processes. Offered comprehensive hybrid water treatment developing technology of different origin is based on the combination of the treatment by reagent and membrane electro dialysis. In offered technology, of water treatment as a reagent is proposed to use alumino-silicic reagent, which simultaneously is coagulant, flocculant and adsorbent.

  5. Mass spectrometry evidence for cisplatin as a protein cross-linking reagent

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huilin; Zhao, Yao; Phillips, Hazel I. A.; Qi, Yulin; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Sadler, Peter J.; O’Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin is a potent anti-cancer drug, which functions by cross-linking adjacent DNA guanine residues. However within one day of injection, 65~98% of the platinum in the blood plasma is protein-bound. It is generally accepted that cisplatin binds to methionine and histidine residues, but what is often underappreciated is that platinum from cisplatin has a 2+ charge and can form up to four bonds. Thus, it has the potential to function as a cross-linker. In this report, the cross-linking ability of cisplatin is demonstrated by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry (MS) with the use of standard peptides, the 16.8 kDa protein calmodulin (CaM), but was unsuccessful for the 64 kDa protein hemoglobin. The high resolution and mass accuracy of FTICR MS along with the high degree of fragmentation of large peptides afforded by collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) are shown to be a valuable means of characterizing cross-linking sites. Cisplatin is different from current cross-linking reagents by targeting new functional groups, thioethers, and imidazoles groups, which provides complementarity with existing cross-linkers. In addition, platinum(II) inherently has two positive charges which enhance the detection of cross-linked products. Higher charge states not only promote the detection of cross-linking products with less purification, but result in more comprehensive MS/MS fragmentation and can assist the assignment of modification sites. Moreover, the unique isotopic pattern of platinum flags cross-linking products and modification sites by mass spectrometry. PMID:21591778

  6. Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret; Farooqi, Azhar; Carr, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0

  7. Feasibility of a structured group education session to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease: an open randomised pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jo; Khunti, Kamlesh; Stone, Margaret; Farooqi, Azhar; Carr, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test, at pilot level, a structured group educational intervention to improve self-management of blood pressure in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The current paper explores patient acceptability of the intervention. Design This was an open randomised pilot trial. Participants were randomly assigned to either: A control group (n=41) receiving standard clinical management of hypertension. An intervention group (n=40) receiving standard clinical care plus the educational intervention. Setting Renal outpatient clinics at a single study centre. Participants Patients with early CKD and hypertension were identified and approached for recruitment. Intervention An evidence-based structured group educational intervention (CHEERS) using the principles of social cognitive theory to improve knowledge and self-management skills. Outcomes Recruitment, uptake of the intervention and patient satisfaction were evaluated to explore patient acceptability of the intervention and to determine any differences between patients regarding recruitment and retention. Measures Data on age, sex and ethnicity were collected for all patients approached to take part. For recruited patients, data were also collected on self-efficacy (ability to self-manage). Reasons given by patients declining to take part were recorded. Patients attending the educational session also completed an evaluation form to assess satisfaction. Results A total of 267 patients were approached, and 30% were randomly assigned. Lack of time (48%) and lack of interest (44%) were the main reasons cited for non-participation in the study. Men were significantly more likely to be recruited (p=0.048). The intervention was rated enjoyable and useful by 100% of participants. However, 37.5% of the intervention group failed to attend the educational session after recruitment. Participants failing to attend were significantly more likely to be older (p=0.039) and have lower self-efficacy (p=0

  8. Phenylethynyl endcapping reagents and reactive diluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A phenylethynyl composition which can be used to endcap nucleophilic species is employed in the production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers exclusively. These phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers display unique thermal characteristics, as exemplified by the model compound, 4-phenoxy 4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, which is relatively stable at 200 C, but reacts at 350 C. In addition, a reactive diluent was prepared which decreases the melt viscosity of the phenylethynyl terminated oligomers and subsequently reacts therewith to increase density of the resulting thermoset. The novelty of this invention resides in the phenylethynyl composition used to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent was also employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to increase the crosslink density of the resulting thermoset. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  9. Prussian Blue as a Prebiotic Reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, M.; Menor-Salván, C.; Osuna-Esteban, S.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.

    2009-12-01

    Ferrocyanide has been proposed as a potential prebiotic reagent and the complex salt Prussian Blue, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3, might be an important reservoir of HCN, in the early Earth. HCN is considered the main precursor of amino acids and purine and pyrimidine bases under prebiotic conditions. Recently, we observed the formation of Prussian Blue in spark discharge experiments using saline solutions of ferrous chloride, FeCl2. Using Prussian Blue as starting material in ammonium suspensions, we obtained organic compounds containing nitrogen. These results seem to indicate that Prussian Blue could have been first, a sink of HCN, and then in subsequent reactions, triggered by pH fluctuations, it might have lead to organic life precursors.

  10. RNA SHAPE chemistry with aromatic acylating reagents.

    PubMed

    Nodin, Laura; Noël, Olivier; Chaminade, Françoise; Maskri, Ouerdia; Barbier, Vincent; David, Olivier; Fossé, Philippe; Xie, Juan

    2015-02-01

    As chemical methods for RNA secondary structure determination, SHAPE chemistry (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) has been developed to specifically target flexible nucleotides (often unpaired nucleotides) independently to their purine or pyrimidine nature. In order to improve the specificity of acylating reagents towards unpaired nucleotides, we have explored the reactivity of symmetric anhydrides, acyl fluorides, active esters like succinimidyl ester and cyanomethyl esters for 2'-O-acylation reaction. Among the tested compounds, only the acyl fluoride 4 showed a low reactivity (compared to NMIA). However, this study is the first to show that nucleophilic catalysts like DMAP greatly improved the selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation by symmetric anhydrides, acyl fluorides and succinimidyl ester, with the 2-fluorobenzoic anhydride 5 being the most reactive. PMID:25557357

  11. Advances in synthetic peptides reagent discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial display technology offers a number of advantages over competing display technologies (e.g, phage) for the rapid discovery and development of peptides with interaction targeted to materials ranging from biological hazards through inorganic metals. We have previously shown that discovery of synthetic peptide reagents utilizing bacterial display technology is relatively simple and rapid to make laboratory automation possible. This included extensive study of the protective antigen system of Bacillus anthracis, including development of discovery, characterization, and computational biology capabilities for in-silico optimization. Although the benefits towards CBD goals are evident, the impact is far-reaching due to our ability to understand and harness peptide interactions that are ultimately extendable to the hybrid biomaterials of the future. In this paper, we describe advances in peptide discovery including, new target systems (e.g. non-biological materials), advanced library development and clone analysis including integrated reporting.

  12. Aminoazoles as Key Reagents in Multicomponent Heterocyclizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebanov, Valentin A.; Gura, Katerina A.; Desenko, Sergey M.

    Because of the significant role in biological processes in living cells and the diverse types of physiological activities, heterocyclic compounds are in focus of intense investigations by academic and applied-oriented chemists. Considerably, a scientific renaissance of heterocycles during the last decades is closely related to the development of multicomponent approaches to their synthesis. Multicomponent methodology fundamentally different from two-component or sequential processes together with other innovative synthetic methods like microwave- and ultrasonic-assisted reactions offer some new possibilities in constructing heterocyclic systems with high level of molecular diversity and complexity. An overview of known multicomponent heterocyclizations using aminoazoles as a key reagent and their rich synthetic potential for obtaining five-, six-, and seven-membered heterocycles is presented. A special attention is paid to the tuning of chemo- and regio- and positional selectivity of some reactions as well as to the application of nonclassical activation methods based on microwave and ultrasonic irradiation.

  13. New Supercharging Reagents Produce Highly Charged Protein Ions in Native Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Going, Catherine C.; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of two new supercharging reagents for producing highly charged ions by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and reactivities were investigated. In aqueous solution, 2-thiophenone and 4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (HD) at a concentration of 2% by volume can increase the average charge of cytochrome c and myoglobin by up to 163%, resulting in even higher charge states than those that are produced from water/methanol/acid solutions in which proteins are denatured. The greatest extent of supercharging occurs in pure water, but these supercharging reagents are also highly effective in aqueous solutions containing 200 mM ammonium acetate buffer commonly used in native mass spectrometry (MS). These reagents are less effective supercharging reagents than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate (PC) when ions are formed from water/methanol/acid. The extent to which loss of the heme group from myoglobin occurs is related to the extent of supercharging. Results from guanidine melts of cytochrome c monitored with tryptophan fluorescence show that the supercharging reagents PC, sulfolane and HD are effective chemical denaturants in solution. These results provide additional evidence for the role of protein structural changes in the electrospray droplet as the primary mechanism for supercharging with these reagents in native MS. These results also demonstrate that for at least some proteins, the formation of highly charged ions from native MS is no longer a significant barrier for obtaining structural information using conventional tandem MS methods. PMID:26421324

  14. New supercharging reagents produce highly charged protein ions in native mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Going, Catherine C; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of two new supercharging reagents for producing highly charged ions by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and reactivities were investigated. In aqueous solution, 2-thiophenone and 4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (HD) at a concentration of 2% by volume can increase the average charge of cytochrome c and myoglobin by up to 163%, resulting in even higher charge states than those that are produced from water/methanol/acid solutions in which these proteins are denatured. The greatest extent of supercharging occurs in pure water, but these supercharging reagents are also highly effective in aqueous solutions containing 200 mM ammonium acetate buffer commonly used in native mass spectrometry (MS). These reagents are less effective supercharging reagents than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate (PC) when ions are formed from water/methanol/acid. The extent to which loss of the heme group from myoglobin occurs is related to the extent of supercharging. Results from guanidine melts of cytochrome c monitored with tryptophan fluorescence show that the supercharging reagents PC, sulfolane and HD are effective chemical denaturants in solution. These results provide additional evidence for the role of protein structural changes in the electrospray droplet as the primary mechanism for supercharging with these reagents in native MS. These results also demonstrate that for at least some proteins, the formation of highly charged ions from native MS is no longer a significant barrier for obtaining structural information using conventional tandem MS methods. PMID:26421324

  15. Block synthesis of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides related to the human ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Ivan M; Korchagina, Elena Yu; Popova, Inna S; Tyrtysh, Tatiana V; Paramonov, Alexander S; Bovin, Nicolai V

    2016-07-22

    Herein we report the synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycosides of A (type 2) and B (type 2) tetrasaccharides via [3 + 1] block scheme. Peracetylated trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides were used as glycosyl donors. The well-known low reactivity of 4-OH group of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine forced us to test four glucosamine derivatives (3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc and 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl β-glycosides of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc, 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3, and 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2) to select the best glycosyl acceptor for the synthesis of type 2 tetrasaccharides. The desired tetrasacchrides were not isolated, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycosyde of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAcβ was glycosylated. Glycosylation of 3-Bz-1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivative resulted in α-glycoside as a major product. High stereospecificity was achieved only in the synthesis of B (type 2) tetrasaccharide, when 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcNAc2β was applied as the glycosyl acceptor (β/α 5:1), whereas glycosylation with trichloroacetimidate of A trisaccharide was not stereospecific (β/α 1.3:1). Glycosylation of 3-trifluoroacetamidopropyl glycoside of 3-Ac-6-Bn-GlcN3β with trichloroacetimidates of A and B trisaccharides provided the same stereochemical yield (β/α 1.5:1). PMID:27196314

  16. High Mobility Group Box 1-Protein expression in canine haematopoietic cells and influence on canine peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Altmann, S; Lange, S; Pommerencke, J; Murua Escobar, H; Bullerdiek, J; Nolte, I; Freund, M; Junghanss, C

    2008-12-15

    High Mobility Group Box 1-Protein (HMGB1) is a nuclear chromosomal protein occurring ubiquitary in mammalian tissues. HMGB1 demonstrates cytokine function and induces inflammation when actively released by haematopoietic cells or passively released during cell necrosis. This study aimed at the determination of HMGB1 expression in different cell types and at the evaluation of the role of HMGB1 in PBMC proliferation. Therefore we investigated the HMGB1 mRNA expression level in different canine haematopoietic cell types and the influence of exogenous rhHMGB1 on canine PBMC proliferation. Differentiated haematopoietic blood cells showed lower relative HMGB1 expression levels compared to CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells. Relative HMGB1 expression seemed also to decrease during differentiation of CD34+ stem cells into dendritic cells. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes and granulocytes showed a lower relative HMGB1 expression in comparison to CD3+ T-lymphocytes. When exogenous rhHMGB1 at low concentrations was added to single PBMC cultures an increase of proliferation was obvious. However, in higher concentrations HMGB1 lost its stimulative effect. In conclusion, HMGB1 is broadly expressed in canine haematopoietic cells with highest levels in haematopoietic stem cells. HMGB1 induced directly PBMC proliferation. PMID:18762340

  17. Structures of a human blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a photo-activatable UDP-Gal derivative reveal two different binding conformations

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, René; Batot, Gaëlle; Mannerstedt, Karin; Imberty, Anne; Breton, Christelle; Hindsgaul, Ole; Royant, Antoine; Palcic, Monica M.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs) catalyse the sequential addition of monosaccharides to specific acceptor molecules and play major roles in key biological processes. GTs are classified into two main families depending on the inverted or retained stereochemistry of the glycosidic bond formed during the reaction. While the mechanism of inverting enzymes is well characterized, the precise nature of retaining GTs is still a matter of much debate. In an attempt to clarify this issue, studies were initiated to identify reaction-intermediate states by using a crystallographic approach based on caged substrates. In this paper, two distinct structures of AA(Gly)B, a dual-specificity blood group synthase, are described in complex with a UDP-galactose derivative in which the O6′′ atom is protected by a 2-nitrobenzyl group. The distinct conformations of the caged substrate in both structures of the enzyme illustrate the highly dynamic nature of its active site. An attempt was also made to photolyse the caged compound at low temperature, which unfortunately is not possible without damaging the uracil group as well. These results pave the way for kinetic crystallography experiments aiming at trapping and characterizing reaction-intermediate states in the mechanism of enzymatic glycosyl transfer. PMID:25084373

  18. pap-2-encoded fimbriae adhere to the P blood group-related glycosphingolipid stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 in the human kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Karr, J F; Nowicki, B J; Truong, L D; Hull, R A; Moulds, J J; Hull, S I

    1990-01-01

    A subtype of P fimbriae, encoded by the pap-2 gene cluster, has been analyzed for agglutination of erythrocytes and for binding to cryostat sections of the human kidney. We have demonstrated that pap-2-encoded fimbriae are capable of binding to erythrocytes from some animal species and to human erythrocytes which express globoside and the LKE (stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 [SSEA-4]) antigen. The pap-2 fimbriae bind to Bowman's capsule in the human kidney. Monoclonal antibodies directed against glycosphingolipids were used for the detection of specific P blood group-related antigens in the human kidney and on erythrocytes. Preincubation of kidney sections with monoclonal antibody MC813-70, which binds to the SSEA-4 antigen, inhibited adherence of purified pap-2-encoded fimbriae to Bowman's capsule. We suggest that one receptor for pap-2-encoded fimbriae is the antigen known as LKE (Luke) on human erythrocytes or SSEA-4 in the tissues. Images PMID:1979319

  19. Galectin CvGal2 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Displays Unique Specificity for ABH Blood Group Oligosaccharides and Differentially Recognizes Sympatric Perkinsus Species.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Tasumi, Satoshi; Pasek, Marta; Banerjee, Aditi; Shridhar, Surekha; Wang, Lai-Xi; Bianchet, Mario A; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are highly conserved lectins that are key to multiple biological functions, including pathogen recognition and regulation of immune responses. We previously reported that CvGal1, a galectin expressed in phagocytic cells (hemocytes) of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), is hijacked by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it causes systemic infection and death. Screening of an oyster hemocyte cDNA library revealed a novel galectin, which we designated CvGal2, with four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). Phylogentic analysis of the CvGal2 CRDs suggests close relationships with homologous CRDs from CvGal1. Glycan array analysis, however, revealed that, unlike CvGal1 which preferentially binds to the blood group A tetrasaccharide, CvGal2 recognizes both blood group A and B tetrasaccharides and related structures, suggesting that CvGal2 has broader binding specificity. Furthermore, SPR analysis demonstrated significant differences in the binding kinetics of CvGal1 and CvGal2, and structural modeling revealed substantial differences in their interactions with the oligosaccharide ligands. CvGal2 is homogeneously distributed in the hemocyte cytoplasm, is released to the extracellular space, and binds to the hemocyte surface. CvGal2 binds to P. marinus trophozoites in a dose-dependent and β-galactoside-specific manner. Strikingly, negligible binding of CvGal2 was observed for Perkinsus chesapeaki, a sympatric parasite species mostly prevalent in the clams Mya arenaria and Macoma balthica. The differential recognition of Perkinsus species by the oyster galectins is consistent with their relative prevalence in oyster and clam species and supports their role in facilitating parasite entry and infectivity in a host-preferential manner. PMID:26158802

  20. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section... solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer... solutions shall not be used....