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Sample records for blood platelet function

  1. Thrombocytopenia model with minimal manipulation of blood cells allowing whole blood assessment of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann Skipper, Mette; Rubak, Peter; Halfdan Larsen, Ole; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2016-06-01

    In vitro models of thrombocytopenia are useful research tools. Previously published models have shortcomings altering properties of platelets and other blood components. The aim of the present study was to develop a whole blood method to induce thrombocytopenia with minimal manipulation, and to describe platelet function in induced thrombocytopenia in individuals with healthy platelets. Hirudin anticoagulated blood was obtained from 20 healthy volunteers. One part of the blood was gently centrifuged at 130g for 15 minutes. The platelet-rich plasma was replaced with phosphate-buffered saline to establish thrombocytopenia. Various levels of thrombocytopenia were achieved by combining different volumes of baseline whole blood and thrombocytopenic blood. Platelet counts were measured by flow cytometry (Navios, Beckman Coulter) and routine haematological analyser (Sysmex XE-5000). Platelet function was analysed by impedance aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer, Roche) and by flow cytometry (Navios, Beckman Coulter) using collagen, adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 and ristocetin as agonists. Median baseline platelet count was 227×10(9)/l. The in vitro model yielded median platelet counts at 51×10(9)/l (range 26-93×10(9)/l). We observed minor, yet significant, changes in platelet size and maturity from baseline to modelled thrombocytopenia. In the thrombocytopenic samples, significant and positive linear associations were found between platelet count and platelet aggregation across all agonists (all p-values<0.001). Platelet function assessed by flow cytometry showed minimal alterations in the thrombocytopenic samples. A new whole blood-based model of thrombocytopenia was established and validated. This new model serves as a useful future tool, particularly to explore platelet function in patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:26555800

  2. Functional assay of antiplatelet drugs based on margination of platelets in flowing blood.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Colin D; Fogelson, Aaron L; Hlady, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    A novel functional assay of antiplatelet drug efficacy was designed by utilizing the phenomena of platelet margination in flowing blood and transient platelet contacts with surface-immobilized platelet agonists. Flow margination enhances transient contacts of platelets with the walls of flow chambers covered with surface-immobilized proteins. Depending on the type and the surface density of the immobilized agonists, such transient interactions could "prime" the marginated platelet subpopulation for enhanced activation and adhesion downstream. By creating an upstream surface patch with an immobilized platelet agonist, platelet flow margination was used to test how effective antiplatelet drugs are in suppressing downstream platelet activation and adhesion. The platelet adhesion downstream was measured by a so-called "capture" patch region close to the distal end of the flow chamber. Platelet adhesion downstream was found to be dose-dependent on the upstream surface coverage of the "priming" patch, with immobilized fibrinogen acting as a platelet agonist. Several antiplatelet agents (acetylsalicylic acid, eptifibatide, and tirofiban) were evaluated for their efficacy in attenuating downstream adhesion after upstream platelet priming. The activation of the platelet population was found to be dependent on both the extent of the upstream agonist stimulus and the antiplatelet drug concentration. Such a relationship provides an opportunity to measure the efficacy of specific antiplatelet agents against the type and concentration of upstream platelet agonists. PMID:27030476

  3. Variability in platelet responses to collagen--comparison between whole blood perfusions, traditional platelet function tests and PFA-100.

    PubMed

    Lepäntalo, A; Beer, J H; Siljander, P; Syrjälä, M; Lassila, R

    2001-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the results obtained in platelet function tests and whole blood perfusions are associated with those in platelet function analyser (PFA)-100. We used collagen type I monomers and fibrils to analyse the distinct roles of glycoprotein (GP) Ia/IIa and other collagen receptors in flowing blood under a high shear rate (1600/s) and in aggregation studies. Also, anticoagulation [citrate vs. D-phenylalanyl-1-prolyl-1 arginine chloromethyl ketone (PPACK)] was varied to enhance the functions of GP Ia/IIa, since it has been shown that the cation-poor environment of citrated blood impairs GP Ia/IIa-dependent platelet recruitment. Large interindividual variability (45-fold) was detected in deposition of platelets in whole blood perfusions over collagen monomers, whereas this variation was only fourfold in fibrils. In PFA, this variation was reduced to 2.5-fold. However, platelet deposition on monomers is associated with epinephrine-enhanced PFA (r=-.49, P<.03), whereas platelet deposition on fibrils is correlated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-enhanced PFA (r=-.47, P<.05), suggesting a distinct synergism between epinephrine and monomers (GP Ia/IIa) as well as ADP with fibrils (other collagen receptors). Donors with 807 C/C polymorphism of GP Ia (n=14) had longer lag phase in aggregation experiments compared with C/T (n=7) both by monomers and fibrils (P<.04), but these polymorphisms with their mild impact on GP Ia/IIa activity did not markedly differ in other tests. In conclusion, the results obtained in perfusion studies and PFA experiments correlated, but PFA fails to reveal the large-scale variability related to collagen-induced platelet responses. PMID:11457470

  4. Blood rheology and platelet function in untreated early-stage essential hypertensives complicated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Hiroko; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Kinuno, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Hiroko; Masutani, Toshitaka; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether hemorheology and platelet function are affected in essential hypertensives (EHTs) of the World Health Organization stage I when complicated with metabolic syndrome (Mets). In 156 untreated EHTs, blood viscosity and platelet surface markers were determined. Blood viscosity was significantly elevated in 54 subjects with Mets compared with 102 subjects without Mets. Hematocrit and plasma viscosity increased in the group with Mets, although red blood cell rigidity index "k" did not differ between groups. As a whole group, blood viscosity correlated positively with hematocrit and plasma viscosity. Additionally, plasma viscosity correlated positively with plasma leptin, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment index, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen, but negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In contrast, no differences were seen in platelet surface markers between groups. In conclusion, EHTs of the early stage complicated with Mets are characterized by increased blood viscosity due to hemoconcentration and increased plasma viscosity. PMID:22570768

  5. Examination of platelet function in whole blood under dynamic flow conditions with the cone and plate(let) analyzer: effect of erythrocytosis and thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Peerschke, Ellinor I; Silver, Richard T; Weksler, Babette B; Yin, Wei; Bernhardt, Bernard; Varon, David

    2007-03-01

    We studied cone and plate(let) analysis (CPA) for evaluating global platelet function in whole blood under arterial flow conditions (approximately 1,800 seconds(-1)). CPA allows direct visualization and quantitation of platelet adhesion (surface coverage [SC]) and determination of average aggregate size (AS) following brief shearing of a small blood sample (3.2% sodium citrate) in plastic wells. By using blood from healthy volunteers manipulated to alter platelet or RBC counts and blood from patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), quantitative and qualitative changes in SC and AS were observed. Thrombocytosis resulted in increased SC, whereas erythrocytosis increased AS. The RBC volume (mean corpuscular volume) had no effect. It is interesting that differences in CPA AS were discerned among subgroups of patients with MPD undergoing different treatment regimens. These studies suggest that CPA platelet deposition patterns may provide novel insight into global platelet function during hemodynamic flow. PMID:17276938

  6. Effects of the new glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin on platelet function and blood coagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Agnelli, G; Longetti, M; Guerciolini, R; Menichetti, F; Grasselli, S; Boldrini, F; Bucaneve, G; Nenci, G G; Del Favero, A

    1987-01-01

    Teicoplanin, a new glycopeptide antibiotic, is structurally related to ristocetin, an antibiotic known to induce human platelet agglutination and, thus, thrombocytopenia and thromboembolic side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of teicoplanin on platelet function in vitro and ex vivo and on blood coagulation ex vivo. In the in vitro studies, spontaneous platelet aggregation; platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, and ristocetin; and the release of beta-thromboglobulin from platelets were assessed. Platelets from healthy subjects were incubated with teicoplanin at final concentrations of 100, 1,500, 5,000, and 10,000 micrograms/ml. The maximal achievable concentration with therapeutic doses is 100 micrograms/ml. When compared with saline, teicoplanin at concentrations of 100 and 1,500 micrograms/ml had no effect on platelet function, but at concentrations of 5,000 and 10,000 micrograms/ml, it induced greater spontaneous platelet aggregation (P less than 0.01) and inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, and ristocetin (P less than 0.01). Teicoplanin at concentrations of 100, 1,500, and 5,000 micrograms/ml did not induce the release of beta-thromboglobulin, in contrast to teicoplanin at a concentration of 10,000 micrograms/ml and ristocetin at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml (P less than 0.01). In the ex vivo studies, platelet count, bleeding time, plasma beta-thromboglobulin, platelet aggregation induced by ADP, ristocetin, and epinephrine, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin clotting time, and serum fibrinogen degradation products were evaluated at days 0, 3, and 6 and at 72 h after the end of therapy. All subjects completed the study without evidence of side effects. When compared with the pretreatment values, none of the values from these assays showed a significant change at any time during and after treatment. We concluded that platelet function and blood coagulation are not affected by

  7. Diminished adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils with CD47 functionalized blood contacting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Finley, Matthew J; Rauova, Lubica; Alferiev, Ivan S; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2012-08-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein that, through signaling mechanisms mediated by signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα1), functions as a biological marker of 'self-recognition'. We showed previously that inflammatory cell attachment to polymeric surfaces is inhibited by the attachment of biotinylated recombinant CD47 (CD47B). We test herein the hypothesis that CD47 modified blood conduits can reduce platelet and neutrophil activation under clinically relevant conditions. We appended a poly-lysine tag to the C-terminus of recombinant CD47 (CD47L) allowing for covalent linkage to the polymer. SIRPα1 expression was confirmed in isolated platelets. We then compared biocompatibility between CD47B and CD47L functionalized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces and unmodified control PVC surfaces. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of blood cell attachment to CD47B and CD47L surfaces, via scanning electron microscopy, showed strikingly fewer platelets attached to CD47 modified surfaces compared to control. Flow cytometry analysis showed that activation markers for neutrophils (CD62L) and platelets (CD62P) exposed to CD47 modified PVC were equivalent to freshly acquired control blood, while significantly elevated in the unmodified PVC tubing. In addition, ethylene oxide gas sterilization did not inhibit the efficacy of the CD47 modification. In conclusion, CD47 modified PVC inhibits both the adhesion and activation of platelets and neutrophils. PMID:22613135

  8. Evaluation of store lesion in platelet obtained by apheresis compared to platelet derived from whole blood and its impact on the in vitro functionality.

    PubMed

    Quintero, M; Núñez, M; Mellado, S; Maldonado, M; Wehinger, S

    2015-12-01

    Platelet units for transfusion purposes are obtained manually from whole blood or by apheresis, in an automated process. In both methods, platelets during storage present a characteristics grouped under the name "storage lesion" that are associated with adverse effects on platelet units. Oxidative stress has been claimed to be one of major causes, leading to activation and apoptosis processes affecting their post transfusion functionality. In this work, we observed an association between apheresis and a reduced presence of oxidative stress and better results in functional markers in stored platelets, compared to manually obtained platelets. Then, apheresis which would ensure a greater number of functional platelets during the 5 days of storage, compared to concentrates obtained from whole blood. PMID:26043812

  9. Platelet function and ageing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris I

    2016-08-01

    There are clear age-related changes in platelet count and function, driven by changes in hematopoietic tissue, the composition of the blood and vascular health. Platelet count remains relatively stable during middle age (25-60 years old) but falls in older people. The effect of age on platelet function is slightly less clear. The longstanding view is that platelet reactivity increases with age in an almost linear fashion. There are, however, serious limitations to the data supporting this dogma. We can conclude that platelet function increases during middle age, but little evidence exists on the changes in platelet responsiveness in old age (>75 years old). This change in platelet function is driven by differential mRNA and microRNA expression, an increase in oxidative stress and changes in platelet receptors. These age-related changes in platelets are particularly pertinent given that thrombotic disease and use of anti-platelet drugs is much more prevalent in the elderly population, yet the majority of platelet research is carried out in young to middle-aged (20-50 years old) human volunteers and young mice (2-6 months old). We know relatively little about exactly how platelets from people over 75 years old differ from those of middle-aged subjects, and we know even less about the mechanisms that drive these changes. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will provide substantial understanding in how cell signalling changes during ageing and will enable the development of more precise anti-platelet therapies. PMID:27068925

  10. Functional Comparison of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell- and Blood-Derived GPIIbIIIa Deficient Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jessica; Sandrock-Lang, Kirstin; Gärtner, Florian; Jung, Christian Billy; Zieger, Barbara; Parrotta, Elvira; Kurnik, Karin; Sinnecker, Daniel; Wanner, Gerhard; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Massberg, Steffen; Moretti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) represent a versatile tool to model genetic diseases and are a potential source for cell transfusion therapies. However, it remains elusive to which extent patient-specific hiPSC-derived cells functionally resemble their native counterparts. Here, we generated a hiPSC model of the primary platelet disease Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), characterized by dysfunction of the integrin receptor GPIIbIIIa, and compared side-by-side healthy and diseased hiPSC-derived platelets with peripheral blood platelets. Both GT-hiPSC-derived platelets and their peripheral blood equivalents showed absence of membrane expression of GPIIbIIIa, a reduction of PAC-1 binding, surface spreading and adherence to fibrinogen. We demonstrated that GT-hiPSC-derived platelets recapitulate molecular and functional aspects of the disease and show comparable behavior to their native counterparts encouraging the further use of hiPSC-based disease models as well as the transition towards a clinical application. PMID:25607928

  11. Acquired platelet function defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... dark black, or tarry bowel movements ; or vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds Nosebleeds ... Tests that may done include: Bleeding time Platelet aggregation test Platelet count PT and PTT

  12. The Hydraulic Permeability of Blood Clots as a Function of Fibrin and Platelet Density

    PubMed Central

    Wufsus, A.R.; Macera, N.E.; Neeves, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow within blood clots is a biophysical mechanism that regulates clot growth and dissolution. Assuming that a clot can be modeled as a porous medium, the physical property that dictates interstitial fluid flow is the hydraulic permeability. The objective of this study was to bound the possible values of the hydraulic permeability in clots formed in vivo and present relationships that can be used to estimate clot permeability as a function of composition. A series of clots with known densities of fibrin and platelets, the two major components of a clot, were formed under static conditions. The permeability was calculated by measuring the interstitial fluid velocity through the clots at a constant pressure gradient. Fibrin gels formed with a fiber volume fraction of 0.02–0.54 had permeabilities of 1.2 × 10−1–1.5 × 10−4μm2. Platelet-rich clots with a platelet volume fraction of 0.01–0.61 and a fibrin volume fraction of 0.03 had permeabilities over a range of 1.1 × 10−2–1.5 × 10−5μm2. The permeability of fibrin gels and of clots with platelet volume fraction of <0.2 were modeled as an array of disordered cylinders with uniform diameters. Clots with a platelet volume fraction of >0.2 were modeled as a Brinkman medium of coarse solids (platelets) embedded in a mesh of fine fibers (fibrin). Our data suggest that the permeability of clots formed in vivo can vary by up to five orders of magnitude, with pore sizes that range from 4 to 350 nm. These findings have important implications for the transport of coagulation zymogens/enzymes in the interstitial spaces during clot formation, as well as the design of fibrinolytic drug delivery strategies. PMID:23601328

  13. Measurement of platelet aggregation functions using whole blood migration ratio in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hong Seog; Choi, Sung Hyuk; Han, Miran; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Cho, Chi Hyun; An, Seong Soo A; Lim, Chae Seung; Shin, Sehyun

    2015-09-25

    Platelets play a major role in maintaining endothelial integrity and hemostasis. Of the various soluble agonists, ADP is an important in vivo stimulus for inducing platelet aggregation. In this study, a simple, rapid, and affordable method was designed for testing bleeding time (BT) and platelet aggregation with a two-channel microfluidic chip. Whole blood migration ratio (MR) from a microchip system was evaluated in comparison to the closure time (CT) from PFA-100 assays (Siemens, Germany) and CD62P expression on platelets. To induce platelet aggregation, a combination of collagen (1.84 mg/ml) and ADP (37.5 mg/ml) were used as agonists. After adding the agonists to samples, whole blood MR from the microchip system was measured. The outcome of the assessment depended on reaction time and agonist concentration. MR of whole blood from the microchip system was significantly correlated with CT from PFA-100 (r = 0.61, p <  0.05, n = 60). In addition, MR was negatively correlated with CD62P expression (r =-0.95, p <  0.05, n = 60). These results suggest that the measurement of MR using agonists is an easy, simple and efficient method for monitoring platelet aggregation in normal and ADP-receptors defective samples, along with the BT test. Thus, usage of the current microfluidic method could expand to diverse applications, including efficacy assessments in platelet therapy. PMID:26444593

  14. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  15. Human blood platelets at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, D. MACN.; Ausprunk, D.; Blevins, D.; Chao, F. C.; Curby, W.

    1987-01-01

    A set of freshly collected and separated human platelet suspensions were transported, in three types of plastic containers, on a 6 day, 2 hr mission of the orbiter Columbia to study the effect of prolonged exposure of human blood cells to microgravity. A controlled environment at a temperature of 22 + or - 1 deg with air flow was provided and another set of samples held on the ground acted as controls. Paired comparisons of platelets at ug versus controls at lxg revealed superior platelet survival at microgravity. When viewed in terms of plastic type, ug platelets in containers fabricated from PVC-TOTM displayed the best overall postflight viability.

  16. A shear gradient-activated microfluidic device for automated monitoring of whole blood haemostasis and platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhishek; Graveline, Amanda; Waterhouse, Anna; Vernet, Andyna; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of blood haemostasis is essential for the management of patients who use extracorporeal devices, receive anticoagulation therapy or experience coagulopathies. However, current monitoring devices do not measure effects of haemodynamic forces that contribute significantly to platelet function and thrombus formation. Here we describe a microfluidic device that mimics a network of stenosed arteriolar vessels, permitting evaluation of blood clotting within small sample volumes under pathophysiological flow. By applying a clotting time analysis based on a phenomenological mathematical model of thrombus formation, coagulation and platelet function can be accurately measured in vitro in patient blood samples. When the device is integrated into an extracorporeal circuit in pig endotoxemia or heparin therapy models, it produces real-time readouts of alterations in coagulation ex vivo that are more reliable than standard clotting assays. Thus, this disposable device may be useful for personalized diagnostics and for real-time surveillance of antithrombotic therapy in clinic. PMID:26733371

  17. A shear gradient-activated microfluidic device for automated monitoring of whole blood haemostasis and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhishek; Graveline, Amanda; Waterhouse, Anna; Vernet, Andyna; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of blood haemostasis is essential for the management of patients who use extracorporeal devices, receive anticoagulation therapy or experience coagulopathies. However, current monitoring devices do not measure effects of haemodynamic forces that contribute significantly to platelet function and thrombus formation. Here we describe a microfluidic device that mimics a network of stenosed arteriolar vessels, permitting evaluation of blood clotting within small sample volumes under pathophysiological flow. By applying a clotting time analysis based on a phenomenological mathematical model of thrombus formation, coagulation and platelet function can be accurately measured in vitro in patient blood samples. When the device is integrated into an extracorporeal circuit in pig endotoxemia or heparin therapy models, it produces real-time readouts of alterations in coagulation ex vivo that are more reliable than standard clotting assays. Thus, this disposable device may be useful for personalized diagnostics and for real-time surveillance of antithrombotic therapy in clinic. PMID:26733371

  18. Preparation of washed platelets from non-anticoagulated human blood.

    PubMed

    Bowry, S K; Müller-Berghaus, G

    1986-09-15

    Sodium citrate is almost always used to anticoagulate blood for the preparation of washed platelet suspensions. Several adverse effects of citrate on platelet functional responses have been reported. We investigated the extent of activation of platelets and plasmatic coagulation during the preparation of washed platelets from human blood to which no anticoagulant was added. Washed platelets from native blood (PNB) were prepared by passing freshly-drawn human blood rapidly through a mixed Sephadex G-25/G-50 column to remove divalent cations. Gel-filtered blood (GFB), diluted by the elution medium containing 0.35% albumin and 2U/ml apyrase, was obtained within 5 minutes of venepuncture. Using CaCl2, the GFB was found to contain a mean of 1.65 X 10 mM calcium. Fibrinopeptide A measurements indicated less activation of plasmatic coagulation in GFB than in citrated blood. Measurements of beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4 during the various stages of the preparation of PNB showed no platelet activation. No platelet aggregates, as measured by the platelet aggregate ratio method, were observed in GFB. Transmission electron microscopy showed intact discoid platelets similar to those in platelet-rich plasma. The reduced activation of platelets and of plasmatic coagulation was due to the more effective removal of calcium ions from the blood by gel filtration than chelation by citrate. PNB may thus provide a model for studying the requirements for calcium in platelet function in the absence of any citrate-platelet interactions. PMID:2945282

  19. Platelet Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the clotting process in the body ( in vivo ). A person with normal platelet function test results may still experience excessive bleeding or inappropriate clotting during and after a surgery. Most samples for platelet function testing are only stable for a very short period ...

  20. Platelet Activation Test in Unprocessed Blood (Pac-t-UB) to Monitor Platelet Concentrates and Whole Blood of Thrombocytopenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; van Holten, Thijs C.; Fleurke, Ger-Jan; Remijn, Jasper A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Platelet concentrate transfusion is the standard treatment for hemato-oncology patients to compensate for thrombocytopenia. We have developed a novel platelet activation test in anticoagulated unprocessed blood (pac-t-UB) to determine platelet function in platelet concentrates and in blood of thrombocytopenic patients. Methods We have measured platelet activity in a platelet concentrate and in anticoagulated unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion thrombocytopenic patient. Results Our data show time-dependent platelet activation by GPVI agonist (collagen related peptide; CRP), PAR-1 agonist (SFLLRN), P2Y12 agonist (ADP), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) in a platelet concentrate. Furthermore, pac-t-UB showed time-dependent platelet activation in unprocessed blood of a post-transfusion patient with thrombocytopenia. Testing platelet function by different agonists in relation to storage show that 3-day-old platelet concentrates are still reactive to the studied agonists. This reactivity rapidly drops for each agonists during longer storage. Discussion Pac-t-UB is a novel tool to estimate platelet function by different agonists in platelet concentrates and in unprocessed blood of thrombocytopenic patients. In the near future, we will validate whether pac-t-UB is an adequate test to monitor the quality of platelet concentrates and whether pac-t-UB predicts the bleeding risk of transfused thrombocytopenic patients. PMID:23652405

  1. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  2. [Assessment of platelet function in man].

    PubMed

    Gaussem, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of platelet function was primarily designed to explore patients with hemostatic disorders, but is becoming important for the monitoring of anti platelet agents, mostly aspirin and clopidogrel. Beside platelet counting, morphological analysis and bleeding time, a number of dedicated platelet function instruments are now available, generally allowing a rapid evaluation of platelet function in whole blood. The other tests including aggregometry and ELISA measurement of activation markers are generally restricted to specialized laboratories. Although aggregometry is still considered as the "gold standard", the recently developed flow cytometric-based platelet function analysis provides a wide choice of tests that assess the number of surface receptors, the measure of secretion and aggregation, the quantification of microparticules and leukocyte-platelet aggregates. It also allows the measure of the function of the ADP receptor P2Y12 by the phosphorylation level of the VASP protein, method currently under evaluation to monitor the platelet response to clopidogrel treatment. PMID:17243268

  3. Platelet function tests: a comparative review

    PubMed Central

    Paniccia, Rita; Priora, Raffaella; Alessandrello Liotta, Agatina; Abbate, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    In physiological hemostasis a prompt recruitment of platelets on the vessel damage prevents the bleeding by the rapid formation of a platelet plug. Qualitative and/or quantitative platelet defects promote bleeding, whereas the high residual reactivity of platelets in patients on antiplatelet therapies moves forward thromboembolic complications. The biochemical mechanisms of the different phases of platelet activation – adhesion, shape change, release reaction, and aggregation – have been well delineated, whereas their complete translation into laboratory assays has not been so fulfilled. Laboratory tests of platelet function, such as bleeding time, light transmission platelet aggregation, lumiaggregometry, impedance aggregometry on whole blood, and platelet activation investigated by flow cytometry, are traditionally utilized for diagnosing hemostatic disorders and managing patients with platelet and hemostatic defects, but their use is still limited to specialized laboratories. To date, a point-of-care testing (POCT) dedicated to platelet function, using pertinent devices much simpler to use, has now become available (ie, PFA-100, VerifyNow System, Multiplate Electrode Aggregometry [MEA]). POCT includes new methodologies which may be used in critical clinical settings and also in general laboratories because they are rapid and easy to use, employing whole blood without the necessity of sample processing. Actually, these different platelet methodologies for the evaluation of inherited and acquired bleeding disorders and/or for monitoring antiplatelet therapies are spreading and the study of platelet function is strengthening. In this review, well-tried and innovative platelet function tests and their methodological features and clinical applications are considered. PMID:25733843

  4. Platelet Function Tests in Bleeding Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Riitta

    2016-04-01

    Functional disorders of platelets can involve any aspect of platelet physiology, with many different effects or outcomes. These include platelet numbers (thrombocytosis or thrombocytopenia); changes in platelet production or destruction, or capture to the liver (Ashwell receptor); altered adhesion to vascular injury sites and/or influence on hemostasis and wound healing; and altered activation or receptor functions, shape change, spreading and release reactions, procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity. Procoagulant membrane alterations, and generation of thrombin and fibrin, also affect platelet aggregation. The above parameters can all be studied, but standardization and quality control of assay methods have been limited despite several efforts. Only after a comprehensive clinical bleeding assessment, including family history, information on drug use affecting platelets, and exclusion of coagulation factor, and tissue deficits, should platelet function testing be undertaken to confirm an abnormality. Current diagnostic tools include blood cell counts, platelet characteristics according to the cell counter parameters, peripheral blood smear, exclusion of pseudothrombocytopenia, whole blood aggregometry (WBA) or light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet-rich plasma, luminescence, platelet function analysis (PFA-100) for platelet adhesion and deposition to collagen cartridges under blood flow, and finally transmission electron microscopy to exclude rare structural defects leading to functional deficits. The most validated test panels are included in WBA, LTA, and PFA. Because platelets are isolated from their natural environment, many simplifications occur, as circulating blood and interaction with vascular wall are omitted in these assays. The target to reach a highly specific platelet disorder diagnosis in routine clinical management can be exhaustive, unless needed for genetic counseling. The elective overall assessment of platelet function disorder

  5. Platelet function defects in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailidis, D P; Jenkins, W J; Barradas, M A; Jeremy, J Y; Dandona, P

    1986-01-01

    Platelet function in alcoholic patients was assessed on admission and during abstinence in hospital. On admission platelets from these patients were significantly less responsive (percentage aggregation and thromboxane A2 release) to conventional in vitro aggregating agents (adrenaline, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen) than platelets from healthy, moderate drinkers. Initially, platelet counts in platelet rich plasma tended to be low and the Simplate II bleeding times frequently prolonged. Platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release, however, were inhibited even in patients with normal platelet counts on admission. Platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 release returned to normal or became hyper-responsive during two to three weeks of abstinence. Platelet counts rose during this period, the largest responses occurring in those patients with the lowest counts on admission. Bleeding times reverted to normal during abstinence and correlated significantly with changes in platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 release, and platelet count and with the estimated ethanol consumption during the week before admission. Chronic, heavy alcohol ingestion evidently exerts an inhibitory effect on platelet function even in the absence of alcohol in the blood, and this phenomenon is reversible on abstaining. The impaired platelet function, together with the reduced platelet count, may contribute to the bleeding diathesis associated with chronic alcoholism and to the increased incidence and recurrence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage associated with excessive alcohol intake. PMID:3094624

  6. Acquisition and aggregation of canine blood platelets: basic mechanisms of function and differences because of breed origin.

    PubMed

    Clemmons, R M; Meyers, K M

    1984-01-01

    A method for obtaining reliable blood platelet yields in canine platelet-rich plasma, using increased sodium citrate concentration, is presented. Maintaining a quiet environment or anesthetizing the animals with thiamylal sodium aids in collection of platelets. Aggregation of platelets from 60 dogs of various breeds in response to arachidonic acid, collagen, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and serotonin was monitored. Canine platelets reversibly or irreversibly aggregated to arachidonic acid. The percentage of arachidonate-irreversible platelets varied from 0% to 100% depending upon the breed of dogs examined. Arachidonate-irreversible platelets also aggregated irreversibly at lower concentrations of collagen and exhibited biphasic irreversible aggregation to adenosine diphosphate and serotonin. Serotonin-induced irreversible aggregation was dependent upon receptor activation and upon arachidonic acid metabolism. Irreversible aggregation to serotonin was associated with release of 3H-serotonin and thromboxane B2 formation, indicating that a couple between the serotonergic receptor and arachidonic acid metabolism may exist. PMID:6422804

  7. Platelet utilization: a Canadian Blood Services research and development symposium.

    PubMed

    Webert, Kathryn E; Alam, Asim Q; Chargé, Sophie B; Sheffield, William P

    2014-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding platelet biology and in strengthening the clinical evidence base around platelet transfusion thresholds and appropriate platelet dosing. Platelet alloimmunization rates have also declined. Nevertheless, controversies and uncertainties remain that are relevant to how these products can best be used for the benefit of platelet transfusion recipients. Platelets are unique among the blood products directly derived from whole blood or apheresis donations in requiring storage, with shaking, at ambient temperature. Storage is accordingly constrained between the need to limit the growth of any microbes in the product and the need to minimize losses in platelet function associated with storage. Proteomic and genomic approaches are being applied to the platelet storage lesion. Platelet inventory management is made challenging by these constraints. Although bacterial screening has enhanced the safety of platelet transfusions, pathogen reduction technology may offer further benefits. Continuing clinical investigations are warranted to understand the value of transfusing platelets prophylactically or only in response to bleeding in different patient groups and how best to manage the most grievously injured trauma patients. Patients refractory to platelet transfusions also require expert clinical management. The engineering of platelet substitute products is an active area of research, but considerable hurdles remain before any clinical uses may be contemplated. Roles for platelets in biological areas distinct from hemostasis are also emerging. Platelet utilization is variably affected by all of the above factors, by demographic changes, by new medications, and by new patient care approaches. PMID:24629305

  8. The role of peroxides as modulators of human blood platelet function

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, R.L.; Hess, M.L. )

    1990-02-26

    The ability to peroxidize lipid in the vicinity of arterial walls has been demonstrated through oxidation of the LDL-particle by monocytes/macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. The authors questioned what effect increased levels of peroxides might have on platelet function. Platelet aggregation, studied trubidometrically, was initiated by arachidonic acid (AA) alone or in the presence of a low concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, (which by itself could not initiate aggregation). Aggregation was analyzed quantitatively by measuring the time it took to reach 1/2 the maximal extent of aggregation (T1/2Max). Using the minimal concentration of AA still able to initiate aggregation (0.2-0.45 mM) the T1/2Max was 112{+-}35 (n=10). With 50% of the respective AA conc. plus 17 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the T1/2Max was 52{+-}21. Under similar circumstances, the amount of AA able to initiate aggregation could be reduced by 80% with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. These effects could be duplicated by glucose oxidase, 0.015-0.15 IU, and could be eliminated by the addition of catalase (<25 U/ml) at any time prior to the start of aggregation. With non-aggregating concentrations of AA alone, synthesis of Thromboxane B{sub 2} was negligible; with aggregation by the same AA plus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} it was 550{+-}79 pg/10{sup 3} platelets. Both aggregation and TxB{sub 2} synthesis were completely inhibited by aspirin or indomethacin, and by the antioxidants phenol and nor-dihydroguaretic acid, at concentrations known to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In platelets with a defect in the second wave of ADP induced aggregation, but having normal aggregation with added AA (indicating the cyclooxygenase-thromboxane axis was intact), sub-aggregating concentrations of AA, plus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in brisk aggregation.

  9. Failure of platelet parameters and biomarkers to correlate platelet function to severity and etiology of heart failure in patients enrolled in the EPCOT trial. With special reference to the Hemodyne hemostatic analyzer. Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry for the Assessment of Platelet Function in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, Victor L; McKenzie, Marcus E; Meister, Andrew F; Fuzaylov, Sergey Y; Gurbel, Paul A; Atar, Dan; Gattis, Wendy A; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2002-01-01

    Data from small studies have suggested the presence of platelet abnormalities in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We sought to characterize the diagnostic utility of different platelet parameters and platelet-endothelial biomarkers in a random outpatient CHF population investigated in the EPCOT ('Whole Blood Impedance Aggregometry for the Assessment of Platelet Function in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure') Trial. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of platelet contractile force (PCF), whole blood aggregation, shear-induced closure time, expression of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa, and P-selectin in 100 consecutive patients with CHF. Substantial interindividual variability of platelet characteristics exists in patients with CHF. There were no statistically significant differences when patients were grouped according to incidence of vascular events, emergency revascularization needs, survival, or etiology of heart failure. Aspirin use did not affect instrument readings either. PCF correlates very poorly with whole blood aggregometry (r(2) = 0.023), closure time (r(2) = 0.028), platelet GP IIb/IIIa (r(2) = 0.0028), and P-selectin (r(2) = 0.002) expression. Furthermore, there was no correlation with brain natriuretic peptide concentrations, a marker of severity and prognosis in heart failure reflecting the neurohumoral status. Patients with heart failure enrolled in the EPCOT Trial exhibited a marginal, sometimes oppositely directed change in platelet function, challenging the diagnostic utility of these platelet parameters and biomarkers to serve as useful tools for the identification of platelet abnormalities, for predicting clinical outcomes, or for monitoring antiplatelet strategies in this population. The usefulness of these measurements for assessing platelets in the different clinical settings remains to be explored. Taken together, opposite to our expectations, major clinical characteristics of heart failure did not correlate well with

  10. Rupture Forces among Human Blood Platelets at different Degrees of Activation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Palankar, Raghavendra; Bui, Van-Chien; Medvedev, Nikolay; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about mechanics underlying the interaction among platelets during activation and aggregation. Although the strength of a blood thrombus has likely major biological importance, no previous study has measured directly the adhesion forces of single platelet-platelet interaction at different activation states. Here, we filled this void first, by minimizing surface mediated platelet-activation and second, by generating a strong adhesion force between a single platelet and an AFM cantilever, preventing early platelet detachment. We applied our setup to measure rupture forces between two platelets using different platelet activation states, and blockade of platelet receptors. The rupture force was found to increase proportionally to the degree of platelet activation, but reduced with blockade of specific platelet receptors. Quantification of single platelet-platelet interaction provides major perspectives for testing and improving biocompatibility of new materials; quantifying the effect of drugs on platelet function; and assessing the mechanical characteristics of acquired/inherited platelet defects. PMID:27146004

  11. Rupture Forces among Human Blood Platelets at different Degrees of Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Palankar, Raghavendra; Bui, Van-Chien; Medvedev, Nikolay; Greinacher, Andreas; Delcea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about mechanics underlying the interaction among platelets during activation and aggregation. Although the strength of a blood thrombus has likely major biological importance, no previous study has measured directly the adhesion forces of single platelet-platelet interaction at different activation states. Here, we filled this void first, by minimizing surface mediated platelet-activation and second, by generating a strong adhesion force between a single platelet and an AFM cantilever, preventing early platelet detachment. We applied our setup to measure rupture forces between two platelets using different platelet activation states, and blockade of platelet receptors. The rupture force was found to increase proportionally to the degree of platelet activation, but reduced with blockade of specific platelet receptors. Quantification of single platelet-platelet interaction provides major perspectives for testing and improving biocompatibility of new materials; quantifying the effect of drugs on platelet function; and assessing the mechanical characteristics of acquired/inherited platelet defects. PMID:27146004

  12. Microfluidics for simultaneous quantification of platelet adhesion and blood viscosity

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Eunseop; Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Platelet functions, including adhesion, activation, and aggregation have an influence on thrombosis and the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a new microfluidic-based method is proposed to estimate platelet adhesion and blood viscosity simultaneously. Blood sample flows into an H-shaped microfluidic device with a peristaltic pump. Since platelet aggregation may be initiated by the compression of rotors inside the peristaltic pump, platelet aggregates may adhere to the H-shaped channel. Through correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) can be estimated without labeling platelets. The platelet function is estimated by determining the representative index IA·T based on APlatelet and contact time. Blood viscosity is measured by monitoring the flow conditions in the one side channel of the H-shaped device. Based on the relation between interfacial width (W) and pressure ratio of sample flows to the reference, blood sample viscosity (μ) can be estimated by measuring W. Biophysical parameters (IA·T, μ) are compared for normal and diabetic rats using an ex vivo extracorporeal model. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the platelet adhesion and blood viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under ex vivo conditions. PMID:27118101

  13. Microfluidics for simultaneous quantification of platelet adhesion and blood viscosity.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Eunseop; Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Platelet functions, including adhesion, activation, and aggregation have an influence on thrombosis and the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a new microfluidic-based method is proposed to estimate platelet adhesion and blood viscosity simultaneously. Blood sample flows into an H-shaped microfluidic device with a peristaltic pump. Since platelet aggregation may be initiated by the compression of rotors inside the peristaltic pump, platelet aggregates may adhere to the H-shaped channel. Through correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) can be estimated without labeling platelets. The platelet function is estimated by determining the representative index IA·T based on APlatelet and contact time. Blood viscosity is measured by monitoring the flow conditions in the one side channel of the H-shaped device. Based on the relation between interfacial width (W) and pressure ratio of sample flows to the reference, blood sample viscosity (μ) can be estimated by measuring W. Biophysical parameters (IA·T, μ) are compared for normal and diabetic rats using an ex vivo extracorporeal model. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the platelet adhesion and blood viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under ex vivo conditions. PMID:27118101

  14. Extending The Shelf Life Of Blood Platelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.

  15. The effects of cytochalasin D and abciximab on hemostasis in canine whole blood assessed by thromboelastography and the PFA-100® platelet function analyzer system.

    PubMed

    Brainard, Benjamin M; Abed, Janan M; Koenig, Amie

    2011-07-01

    The selective inhibition of platelet function in whole blood coagulation testing may allow insights into the nature of hypercoagulability in dogs with critical illness. To determine the effects of cytochalasin D and abciximab on hemostatic parameters in canine citrated whole blood, an in-vitro study was designed using thromboelastography (TEG) and a platelet function analyzer (PFA-100®). 8 clinically healthy mixed breed dogs donated blood that was anticoagulated with 3.2% sodium citrate in a 9:1 blood-to-citrate ratio. Addition of cytochalasin D to citrated whole blood from 6 dogs at concentrations ranging from 0 µg/ml to 10 µg/ml caused a maximal reduction of TEG maximum amplitude (MA) at a concentration of 7.5 µg/ml (52.7 ± 4.3 to 14.3 ± 7.8 mm). Addition of abciximab to canine citrated whole blood at concentrations of either 20 µg/ml or 40 µg/ml did not affect the TEG tracing; however, addition of abciximab to citrated canine whole blood at concentrations of 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml significantly prolonged PFA-100 closure times (72.5 ± 15 to 149.2 ± 91 sec and 275.6 ± 54 sec, respectively, P < 0.04). Inhibition of canine platelet function by cytochalasin D is demonstrated by TEG, but abciximab did not change TEG tracings. Abciximab does, however, inhibit platelet aggregation under shear stress as measured by the PFA-100. Inhibition of canine platelet function with cytochalasin D may allow further TEG studies in dogs with clinical disease. PMID:21908311

  16. Assessment of blood clot formation and platelet receptor function ex vivo in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Collins, K S; Balasubramaniam, K; Viswanathan, G; Natasari, A; Tarn, J; Lendrem, D; Mitchell, S; Zaman, A; Ng, W F

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) shares clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is associated with an increased thromboembolic risk; however, it is unclear whether pSS patients are susceptible to thromboembolic diseases. In this study, we examined ex vivo blood clot formation (clot strength, rates of clot formation and lysis) in pSS using thromboelastography (TEG) and platelet aggregation to common agonists using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA). We also investigated the relationship between TEG/MEA parameters and clinical/laboratory features of pSS. Design Case control. Setting Secondary care, single centre. Participants 34 pSS patients, 11 SLE patients and 13 healthy volunteers (all women) entered and completed the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes: TEG and MEA parameters between three subject groups. Secondary outcomes: The relationships between TEG/MEA and clinical/laboratory parameters analysed using bivariate correlation analysis with corrections for multiple testing. Results All TEG and MEA parameters were similar for the three subject groups. After corrections for multiple testing, interleukin (IL)-1α and Macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP)-1α remain correlated inversely with clot strength (r=−0.686, p=0.024 and r=−0.730, p=0.012, respectively) and overall coagulability (r=−0.640, p=0.048 and r=−0.648, p=0.048). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that several cytokines such as MIP-1α, IL-17a, IL-1α and Interferon (IFN)-γ may be key predictors of clot strength and overall coagulability in pSS. Conclusions Clot kinetics and platelet receptor function are normal in pSS. Several cytokines correlate with clot strength and overall coagulability in pSS. PMID:23793707

  17. Congenital platelet function defects

    MedlinePlus

    Kottke-Marchant K. Platelet disorders. In: Hsi ED, ed. Hematopathology . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 2. Nichols WL. Von Willebrand disease and hemorrhagic abnormalities of platelet ...

  18. Platelet aggregation test

    MedlinePlus

    The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a part of blood, clump together and cause blood to clot. ... Decreased platelet aggregation may be due to: Autoimmune ... Fibrin degradation products Inherited platelet function defects ...

  19. Mapuche Herbal Medicine Inhibits Blood Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H2O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H2O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  20. Mapuche herbal medicine inhibits blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Tarnow, Inge; Guzman, Alfonso; Mølgaard, Per; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    12 plant species traditionally used by the Mapuche people in Chile to treat wounds and inflammations have been evaluated for their direct blood platelet inhibition. Seven of the 12 tested plant species showed platelet inhibitory effect in sheep blood, and four of these were also able to inhibit the ADP- (5.0 μM) and collagen- (2.0 μg/mL) induced aggregations in human blood. These four species in respective extracts (in brackets) were Blechnum chilense (MeOH), Luma apiculata (H(2)O), Amomyrtus luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1) and Cestrum parqui (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1). The platelet aggregating inhibitory effects of A. luma (DCM : MeOH 1 : 1), and L. apiculata (H(2)O) were substantial and confirmed by inhibition of platelet surface activation markers. PMID:22028732

  1. Microfluidic Flow Chambers Using Reconstituted Blood to Model Hemostasis and Platelet Transfusion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Van Aelst, Britt; Feys, Hendrik B; Devloo, Rosalie; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Compernolle, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets prepared for transfusion gradually lose hemostatic function during storage. Platelet function can be investigated using a variety of (indirect) in vitro experiments, but none of these is as comprehensive as microfluidic flow chambers. In this protocol, the reconstitution of thrombocytopenic fresh blood with stored blood bank platelets is used to simulate platelet transfusion. Next, the reconstituted sample is perfused in microfluidic flow chambers which mimic hemostasis on exposed subendothelial matrix proteins. Effects of blood donation, transport, component separation, storage and pathogen inactivation can be measured in paired experimental designs. This allows reliable comparison of the impact every manipulation in blood component preparation has on hemostasis. Our results demonstrate the impact of temperature cycling, shear rates, platelet concentration and storage duration on platelet function. In conclusion, this protocol analyzes the function of blood bank platelets and this ultimately aids in optimization of the processing chain including phlebotomy, transport, component preparation, storage and transfusion. PMID:27023054

  2. Characteristics of rat platelets and relative contributions of platelets and blood coagulation to haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, O

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand some of the haemostatic mechanisms in rats for the interpretation of toxicological data, basic haemostatic parameters with a special emphasis on platelet functions were first measured in vitro. The results of reactions of rat platelets to many aggregating agents suggest that only ADP may be a consistently significant aggregator. The search for physiologic aggregators revealed ADP to be available from erythrocytes. Adhesion reaction also required ADP. Collagen was not considered to be essential for either reaction. Aggregation and adhesion were probably both reversible in flowing blood, while irreversible thrombi were formed in blood at rest ex vivo. Blood coagulation parameters determined revealed that the intrinsic pathway may be more important than the extrinsic one. The rate of intrinsic coagulation reaction was rapid, and plasma coagulation appeared to be of primary importance while the influence of platelet aggregation was minor. A simple model of rat haemostatic mechanism is proposed based on these results. Additionally, to define the relative contribution of platelets versus other cellular and plasma coagulation in vivo, rats were administered antiplatelet drugs (ticlopidine, suprofen and clopidogrel) and an anticoagulant (warfarin) intraperitoneally. Bleeding times (BTs) were significantly increased in all treated groups. ADP-induced platelet aggregations were significantly depressed by the administration of the three antiplatelet drugs, while kaolon-activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time were greatly increased in the warfarin-treated rats. The increase in BT may be due to the inhibition of platelet activity or blood coagulation defect in rats given antiplatelet drugs or warfarin, respectively. These results suggest that platelets play a key role in haemostasis in the rat. Two possible explanations of the disparity between in vitro and in vivo results may be that functional tests used here are not adequate to cover

  3. Effects of irradiation on platelet function

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, G.; Adams, G.A.; Labow, R.S.

    1988-09-01

    Current medical practice involves the irradiation of blood components, including platelet concentrates, before their administration to patients with severe immunosuppression. The authors studied the effect of irradiation on in vitro platelet function and the leaching of plasticizers from the bag, both immediately and after 5 days of storage. The platelet count, white cell count, pH, glucose, lactate, platelet aggregation and release reaction, and serotonin uptake were not altered by the irradiation of random-donor or apheresis units with 2000 rads carried out at 0 and 24 hours and 5 days after collection. The leaching of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate from the plastic bags followed by the conversion to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not increased by irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate platelet concentrates on the day of collection and subsequently store them for at least 5 days while maintaining in vitro function. This procedure could have considerable benefit for blood banks involved in the provision of many platelet products.

  4. Platelet function tests, independent of platelet count, are associated with bleeding severity in ITP

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Rachael F.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Brown, Travis; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients with similarly low platelet counts differ in their tendency to bleed. To determine if differences in platelet function in ITP patients account for this variation in bleeding tendency, we conducted a single-center, cross-sectional study of pediatric patients with ITP. Bleeding severity (assessed by standardized bleeding score) and platelet function (assessed by whole blood flow cytometry) with and without agonist stimulation was evaluated in 57 ITP patients (median age, 9.9 years). After adjustment for platelet count, higher levels of thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-stimulated percent P-selectin- and activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa–positive platelets were significantly associated with a lower bleeding score, whereas higher levels of immature platelet fraction (IPF), TRAP-stimulated platelet surface CD42b, unstimulated platelet surface P-selectin, and platelet forward light scatter (FSC) were associated with a higher bleeding score. Thus, platelet function tests related to platelet age (IPF, FSC) and activation through the protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) thrombin receptor (TRAP-stimulated P-selectin, activated GPIIb-IIIa, and CD42b), independent of platelet count, are associated with concurrent bleeding severity in ITP. These tests may be useful markers of future bleeding risk in ITP. PMID:26138687

  5. In vivo effects of eltrombopag on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia: no evidence of platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Psaila, Bethan; Bussel, James B.; Linden, Matthew D.; Babula, Bracken; Li, Youfu; Barnard, Marc R.; Tate, Chinara; Mathur, Kanika; Frelinger, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin-receptor agonist, on platelet function in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are not fully characterized. This study used whole blood flow cytometry to examine platelet function in 20 patients receiving eltrombopag treatment at days 0, 7, and 28. Platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa, P-selectin, and GPIb was measured with and without low and high adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) concentrations. Before eltrombopag treatment with no ex vivo agonist, platelet activation was higher in ITP patients than controls. Platelet GPIb and activated GPIIb/IIIa expression without added agonist was unchanged following eltrombopag treatment, whereas a slight increase in P-selectin was observed. Expression of P-selectin and activated GPIIb/IIIa in response to high-dose ADP was lower during eltrombopag treatment than at baseline. Eltrombopag led to a slight increase in platelet reactivity to TRAP only in responders to eltrombopag but not to levels above those in controls; whole blood experiments demonstrated that this increase was probably because of higher platelet counts rather than higher platelet reactivity. In conclusion, although thrombocytopenic ITP patients have higher baseline platelet activation than controls, eltrombopag did not cause platelet activation or hyper-reactivity, irrespective of whether the platelet count increased. PMID:22294727

  6. Transport of platelets in flowing blood.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, E C; Bilsker, D L; Waters, C M; Kippenhan, J S; Tilles, A W

    1987-01-01

    Distribution and transport of platelets in flowing blood were studied experimentally using suspensions of washed red cells and fluorescent latex beads as platelet analogues. Distributions of the platelet analogues were obtained from stroboscopic epifluorescence photomicrographs of flow in 50-micron channels and from images of the cut cross sections of cryogenically frozen thin-walled 200-micron tubes. Concentration profiles of platelet analogues had a substantial near-wall excess for situations with a substantial hematocrit (greater than 10%) and a substantial wall shear rate (greater than 400 s-1). The viscosity of the suspending fluid was found to affect the size of the near-wall excess and its shear-dependent onset. Additionally, the shear-rate dependence of the near-wall excess did not occur with suspensions of hardened red cells. The excess extended a substantial distance from the wall in the 200-micron tubes and a portion of the profile could be fitted to an exponential curve. The random walk model that is used to describe enhanced platelet diffusion is envisioned as a walk (lateral platelet motion) caused by shear-induced collisions with red cells. A more comprehensive random walk model that includes biased collisions produces an effective lateral motion of convective nature in addition to a diffusional motion; it is used to explain the observed nonuniform distributions of platelet analogues. PMID:3439741

  7. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-derived progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Perotti, Cesare; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Novara, Francesca; Visai, Livia; Moretta, Antonia; Del Fante, Claudia; Villa, Raffaella; Ball, Lynne M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms responsible for their immunomodulatory effects, which could be influenced by both the cell source and culture conditions. Design and Methods We tested the ability of a 5% platelet lysate-supplemented medium to support isolation and ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from full-term umbilical-cord blood. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells, in comparison with platelet lysate-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Results The success rate of isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood was in the order of 20%. These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. Although they have a low clonogenic efficiency, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells may possess high proliferative potential. The genetic stability of these cells from umbilical cord blood was demonstrated by a normal molecular karyotype; in addition, these cells do not express hTERT and telomerase activity, do express p16ink4a protein and do not show anchorage-independent cell growth. Concerning alloantigen-specific immune responses, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells were able to: (i) suppress T- and NK-lymphocyte proliferation, (ii) decrease cytotoxic activity and (iii) only slightly increase interleukin-10, while decreasing interferon-γ secretion, in mixed lymphocyte culture supernatants. While an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-specific inhibitor did not reverse mesenchymal stromal cell-induced suppressive effects, a prostaglandin E2-specific inhibitor hampered the suppressive effect of both umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells on alloantigen-induced cytotoxic activity. Mesenchymal stromal cells from both sources expressed HLA

  8. Changes in platelet function following cold storage of RBC suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Qian-Li; Li, Jian-Gang; Sun, Yang; Jin, Zhan-Kui; Gao, Ying; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Chen, Ping; Ma, Ting; Yang, Jiang-Cun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide a basis for the cold-storage of human platelets as a way to assess changes in platelet function. Methods: Red blood cell suspensions (11 U and 50 U) were randomly selected at different storage times (3-28 days) and evidence of platelet activation (CD62P) and thromboelastography (TEG) reaction times were investigated. Results: After 21 days of storage at 4°C, a large number of activated platelets (PAC1+62P+, PAC1-62P+) within the red blood cell suspension (RBCs) retained their function and had TEG-maximum amplitude (TEG-MA) indices in the normal range. Conclusion: We report that platelets in RBC suspensions retain high activity when stored at 4°C for 21 days. The results provide important information for studies that involve storing platelets under cold conditions. PMID:26770402

  9. Effects of argon laser on in vitro aggregation of platelets in platelet rich plasma and whole blood

    SciTech Connect

    Doerger, P.T.; Glueck, H.I.; McGill, M.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of an Argon laser on platelet aggregation were studied, since platelets may be exposed to laser energy when used intravascularly. Various preparations of platelets in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, with or without aspirin, were tested with the aggregating agents ADP, collagen, thrombin, and epinephrine. Simultaneous release of ATP was also measured in PRP. At relatively low levels of irradiation, platelet aggregation was potentiated. Enhancement was evidenced by an increase in percent aggregation, earlier onset of the reaction, and reduction in the amount of aggregating agent required. In PRP, the mechanism of laser potentiation appeared to be the release of endogenous ATP from platelets. At relatively high levels of irradiation, platelets were destroyed and aggregation abolished. In whole blood, the mechanism was somewhat more complicated since release of ATP occurred from RBCs as well as platelets. Spontaneous aggregation following laser treatment occurred in isolated instances in PRP and in every trial in whole blood preparations. Aspirin ingestion inhibited the laser's effects in PRP but not in whole blood. These results may have important clinical implications for laser angioplasty, and the potentiated aggregation response may prove useful in laboratory studies of platelet function.

  10. Antioxidant and antiaggregatory effects of an extract from Conyza canadensis on blood platelets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Nowak, Pawel; Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Gancarz, Roman; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2006-09-01

    The antioxidative activity of the polysaccharide extract from Conyza canadensis in blood platelets treated with peroxynitrite (ONOO-) was studied. Peroxynitrite as a strong biological oxidant has toxic effects on blood platelets and induces the oxidation of thiols, carbonylation and nitration of platelet proteins and lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess if the natural extract from herbal plant, Conyza Canadensis, may protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by ONOO-. In our study we measured oxidative damage of platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of this extract by estimation of the level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine (a marker of platelet protein nitration). We also used cytochrome c reduction method to test the ability of this extract to change O2-* generation in platelets. Moreover, we determined the effects of the extract on blood platelet aggregation induced by ADP. We observed that the extract from Conyza canadensis distinctly reduced oxidation and nitration of proteins in blood platelets treated with ONOO-(0.1mM) and O2-* production in these cells. The extract from Conyza canadensis also inhibited platelet aggregation. The ability of the extract to decrease O2-* generation in blood platelets supports the importance of free radicals in platelet functions, including aggregation process. The present study suggests that the natural polysaccharide extract from Conyza canadensis has antiaggregatory and antioxidative activities, and therefore may be beneficial in the prevention of peroxynitrite-related diseases, such as cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases. PMID:16973495

  11. Acquired platelet function defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the skin Gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in bloody, dark black, or tarry bowel movements ; or vomiting blood ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  12. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Bayat, Masume; Rahimi, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS), modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P > 0.05). At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion. PMID:24579044

  13. Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G M

    1999-06-01

    Appropriate laboratory testing for the platelet-type bleeding disorders hinges on an adequate assessment in the history and physical examination. Patients with histories and screening laboratory results consistent with coagulation disorders (hemophilia, disseminated intravascular coagulation) are not appropriate candidates for platelet function testing. In contrast, patients with a lifelong history of platelet-type bleeding symptoms and perhaps a positive family history of bleeding would be appropriate for testing. Figure 6 depicts one strategy to evaluate these patients. Platelet morphology can easily be evaluated to screen for two uncommon qualitative platelet disorders: Bernard-Soulier syndrome (associated with giant platelets) and gray platelet syndrome, a subtype of storage pool disorder in which platelet granulation is morphologically abnormal by light microscopy. If the bleeding disorder occurred later in life (no bleeding with surgery or trauma early in life), the focus should be on acquired disorders of platelet function. For those patients thought to have an inherited disorder, testing for vWD should be done initially because approximately 1% of the population has vWD. The complete vWD panel (factor VIII coagulant activity, vWf antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity) should be performed because many patients will have abnormalities of only one particular panel component. Patients diagnosed with vWD should be classified using multimeric analysis to identify the type 1 vWD patients likely to respond to DDAVP. If vWD studies are normal, platelet aggregation testing should be performed, ensuring that no antiplatelet medications have been ingested at least 1 week before testing. If platelet aggregation tests are normal and if suspicion for an inherited disorder remains high, vWD testing should be repeated. The evaluation of thrombocytopenia may require bone marrow examination to exclude primary hematologic disorders. If future studies with thrombopoietin assays

  14. Dynamic light scattering can determine platelet function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nathan

    2011-10-01

    Platelet transfusions are life-saving procedures for patients who are bleeding or undergoing chemotherapy. The effectiveness of transfusions depends on the number of platelets transfused and the platelet function. Platelet function correlates with proportion of discoid to activated platelets, morphology response to temperature stress, and inversely correlates with microparticle content. ThromboLUX is a novel device that determines platelet function by measuring all of these characteristics using dynamic light scattering (DLS). During periods of stress, such as decreased temperature, cytoskeletal rearrangements will cause normal, discoid platelets to activate and become spiny spheres. The formation of pseudopods of various lengths facilitates the clotting cascade and also increases the apparent size of platelets. ThromboLUX uses a 37-20-37 C temperature cycle that mimics the bleeding, storage, and transfusion process. As the temperature fluctuates, DLS will measure the changing platelet hydrodynamic radius and the size of any microparticles present. ThromboLUX analysis of platelet concentrates in vitro would allow determination of high platelet function units before transfusion and would therefore improve transfusion outcomes and patient safety. This study examined how DLS is able to distinguish between discoid and activated platelets as well as measure the parameters that contribute to high platelet function.

  15. Effect of circulating epinephrine on platelet function and hematocrit.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, S E; Weder, A B; Egan, B; Neubig, R; Zweifler, A J; Julius, S

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the effect of raising arterial plasma epinephrine within the lower pathophysiological concentration range on various indicators of blood platelet function and hematocrit. Epinephrine was raised over 60 minutes by a stepwise increasing intravenous infusion in 40 healthy men aged 20 to 40 years. Platelet count increased progressively with increasing arterial epinephrine to a maximal change of 69 +/- 6 x 10(9)/L in EDTA-anticoagulated blood and a maximal change of 42 +/- 6 x 10(9)/L in acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD)-anticoagulated blood, and the weight of circulating platelets increased by 29% (P < .001). Platelet size increased significantly in EDTA and decreased in ACD, and the difference between EDTA and ACD was significant (P < .0001) for both count and size, suggesting that epinephrine not only recruits platelets into the circulation but also induces some microaggregation in vivo or adhesion ex vivo. Aggregation of platelets in vitro induced by epinephrine decreased (P < .003 for delta optical density and P = .038 for maximal optical density) after epinephrine infusion compared with saline but did not change when stimulated with ADP or collagen. These findings suggest a selective downregulation of the epinephrine-activating mechanisms concomitant with a rise in the platelet content of epinephrine by 81% (P < .001) and no change in the platelet sodium-proton membrane exchange. The release of granular content (beta-thromboglobulin and platelet factor 4) to the circulation in response to epinephrine was not significant. Thus, under acute conditions it seems that the platelets may protect themselves against inappropriate overstimulation by epinephrine. The importance of platelet epinephrine uptake is still unknown, but sodium-proton exchange does not seem to be involved in regulating the effects of circulating epinephrine on platelet function. Epinephrine has a pronounced effect on raising hematocrit (maximal change of 1.74 +/- 0.13 x 10(-2), P < .0001

  16. Comparative rheology of the adhesion of platelets and leukocytes from flowing blood: why are platelets so small?

    PubMed

    Watts, Tim; Barigou, Mostafa; Nash, Gerard B

    2013-06-01

    We investigated rheological adaptation of leukocytes and platelets for their adhesive functions in inflammation and hemostasis, respectively. Adhesion and margination of leukocytes or platelets were quantified for blood perfused through capillaries coated with P-selectin or collagen, when flow rate, suspending phase viscosity, red cell aggregation, or rigidity was modified. Independent variation of shear rate and shear stress indicated that the ability of platelets to attach at higher levels than leukocytes was largely attributable to their smaller size, reducing their velocity before attachment, and, especially, drag after attachment. Increasing red cell aggregation increased the number of marginated and adhering leukocytes but inhibited platelet adhesion without effect on the number marginated. Increasing red cell rigidity tended to inhibit leukocyte adhesion but promote platelet adhesion. The effects on platelets may be explained by changes in the depth of the near-wall, red cell-depleted layer; broadening (or narrowing) this layer to greater (or less) than the platelet diameter would decrease (or increase) the normal force applied by red blood cells and make attachment less (or more) efficient. Thus different adhesive capabilities of leukocytes and platelets may arise from their differences in size, both directly because of influence on cell velocity and force experienced at the wall and indirectly through effects of size on margination in the bloodstream and interaction with the cell-free layer. In addition, red cell aggregation (of hitherto uncertain physiological significance) may be useful in promoting leukocyte adhesion in inflamed venules but inhibiting unwanted platelet deposition in veins. PMID:23585130

  17. Blood coagulation and platelet adhesion on polyaniline films.

    PubMed

    Humpolíček, Petr; Kuceková, Zdenka; Kašpárková, Věra; Pelková, Jana; Modic, Martina; Junkar, Ita; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Lehocký, Marián

    2015-09-01

    Polyaniline is a promising conducting polymer with still increasing application potential in biomedicine. Its surface modification can be an efficient way how to introduce desired functional groups and to control its properties while keeping the bulk characteristics of the material unchanged. The purpose of the study was to synthetize thin films of pristine conducting polyaniline hydrochloride, non-conducting polyaniline base and polyaniline modified with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPSA) and investigate chosen parameters of their hemocompatibility. The modification was performed either by introduction of PAMPSA during the synthesis or by reprotonation of polyaniline base. The polyaniline hydrochloride and polyaniline base had no impact on blood coagulation and platelet adhesion. By contrast, the polyaniline reprotonated with PAMPSA completely hindered coagulation thanks to its interaction with coagulation factors Xa, Va and IIa. The significantly lower platelets adhesion was also found on this surface. Moreover, this film maintains its conductivity at pH of 6, which is an improvement in comparison with standard polyaniline hydrochloride losing most of its conductivity at pH of 4. Polyaniline film with PAMPSA introduced during synthesis had an impact on platelet adhesion but not on coagulation. The combined conductivity, anticoagulation activity, low platelet adhesion and improved conductivity at pH closer to physiological, open up new possibilities for application of polyaniline reprotonated by PAMPSA in blood-contacting devices, such as catheters or blood vessel grafts. PMID:26119372

  18. Platelet Serotonin Transporter Function Predicts Default-Mode Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kasess, Christian H.; Meyer, Bernhard M.; Hofmaier, Tina; Diers, Kersten; Bartova, Lucie; Pail, Gerald; Huf, Wolfgang; Uzelac, Zeljko; Hartinger, Beate; Kalcher, Klaudius; Perkmann, Thomas; Haslacher, Helmuth; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kasper, Siegfried; Freissmuth, Michael; Windischberger, Christian; Willeit, Matthäus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Esterbauer, Harald; Brocke, Burkhard; Moser, Ewald; Sitte, Harald H.; Pezawas, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is abundantly expressed in humans by the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 and removes serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space. A blood-brain relationship between platelet and synaptosomal 5-HT reuptake has been suggested, but it is unknown today, if platelet 5-HT uptake can predict neural activation of human brain networks that are known to be under serotonergic influence. Methods A functional magnetic resonance study was performed in 48 healthy subjects and maximal 5-HT uptake velocity (Vmax) was assessed in blood platelets. We used a mixed-effects multilevel analysis technique (MEMA) to test for linear relationships between whole-brain, blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and platelet Vmax. Results The present study demonstrates that increases in platelet Vmax significantly predict default-mode network (DMN) suppression in healthy subjects independent of genetic variation within SLC6A4. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses indicate that platelet Vmax is related to global DMN activation and not intrinsic DMN connectivity. Conclusion This study provides evidence that platelet Vmax predicts global DMN activation changes in healthy subjects. Given previous reports on platelet-synaptosomal Vmax coupling, results further suggest an important role of neuronal 5-HT reuptake in DMN regulation. PMID:24667541

  19. Scalable evaluation of platelet aggregation by the degree of blood migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Suk-Heung; Lim, Chae-Seung; Shin, Sehyun

    2013-12-01

    Platelet aggregation plays a key role in vascular thrombosis. Antiplatelet drug therapy is commonly used for the prevention of abnormal platelet aggregation. So, measuring platelet aggregation function is critically important in clinical field. Here, we introduce a scalable evaluation method of platelet aggregation measured with the degree of blood migration through microchannel in a microfluidic chip. Unlike conventional methods that require expertise with system physics to operate devices, our approach is using microfluidics system, which requires only a syringe vacuum. The scalable migration factors, migration distance and touchdown time, are capable of distinguishing various antiplatelet drug effects under microfluidics and would be effective for the quick and easy evaluation of quantitative platelet aggregation.

  20. Function of human platelets during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, V L; Hicks, R E; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Colman, R W

    1977-06-01

    The interaction between human platelets and nonbiologic surfaces was studied during in vitro recirculation of 500 ml of fresh, heparinized human blood in four different perfusion circuits. Circuits differed in surface area (0.1 m2 or 0.9 m2) and in surface composition. No important differences were observed between standard silicone-rubber and filler-free, silicone-rubber surfaces. Platelet counts decreased to 85% of control in 0.1- m2 circuits, but retained normal sensitivity to aggregating agents and released only small amounts of platelet factor 4 (PF4). In contrast, platelet counts in 0.9-m2 circuits decreased to 20% of control within 2 min and platelet sensitivity was depressed out of proportion to the fall in platelet count. Plasma PF4 progressively increased and platelet PF4 content progressively decreased during 6 h of recirculation. The results indicate that human platelets may exist in three conditions during extracorporeal circulation. Some platelets are unaltered, some are less sensitive to aggregating agents, and others have undergone extensive release. The ratio of blood volume to surface area appears to be an important determinant of platelet-surface interaction. PMID:18017

  1. Micro-scale dynamic simulation of erythrocyte-platelet interaction in blood flow.

    PubMed

    AlMomani, T; Udaykumar, H S; Marshall, J S; Chandran, K B

    2008-06-01

    Platelet activation, adhesion, and aggregation on the blood vessel and implants result in the formation of mural thrombi. Platelet dynamics in blood flow is influenced by the far more numerous erythrocytes (RBCs). This is particularly the case in the smaller blood vessels (arterioles) and in constricted regions of blood flow (such as in valve leakage and hinge regions) where the dimensions of formed elements of blood become comparable with that of the flow geometry. In such regions, models to predict platelet motion, activation, aggregation and adhesion must account for platelet-RBC interactions. This paper studies platelet-RBC interactions in shear flows by performing simulations of micro-scale dynamics using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. A level-set sharp-interface immersed boundary method is employed in the computations in which RBC and platelet boundaries are tracked on a two-dimensional Cartesian grid. The RBCs are assumed to have an elliptical shape and to deform elastically under fluid forces while the platelets are assumed to behave as rigid particles of circular shape. Forces and torques between colliding blood cells are modeled using an extension of the soft-sphere model for elliptical particles. RBCs and platelets are transported under the forces and torques induced by fluid flow and cell-cell and cell-platelet collisions. The simulations show that platelet migration toward the wall is enhanced with increasing hematocrit, in agreement with past experimental observations. This margination is seen to occur due to hydrodynamic forces rather than collisional forces or volumetric exclusion effects. The effect of fluid shear forces on the platelets increases exponentially as a function of hematocrit for the range of parameters covered in this study. The micro-scale analysis can be potentially employed to obtain a deterministic relationship between fluid forces and platelet activation and aggregation in blood flow past cardiovascular implants

  2. Role of platelet function and platelet membrane glycoproteins in children with primary immune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Bai, Jing; Guo, Qu-Lian; Huang, Zhe; Yang, Hong; Bai, Yong-Qi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and understand changes in platelet functions prior to and after the treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children. An automatic hematology analyzer and whole blood flow cytometry were used to detect immature platelet fraction (IPF), IPC and membrane glycoproteins (CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b) in ITP children (ITP group), children with complete response after ITP treatment (ITP-CR group) and children with elective surgery (normal control group). The results showed that, levels of platelet count (PLT) and plateletcrit in the ITP group were lower alhtough the levels of mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) were higher than those in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. PLT in the ITP-CR group was lower than that in the normal controls. Additionally, IPF% was higher in the normal control and ITP-CR groups, IPC was lower in the ITP group compared to the normal control and ITP-CR groups. Furthermore, prior to ADP activation, the expression levels of CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b in the ITP group were lower in ITP group than those in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. The expression level of PAC-1 was lower in the ITP-CR and normal control groups. No differences were identified in CD62p and CD42b expression levels. Following ATP activation, CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b expression in the ITP group was lower than that in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. PAC-1 expression was lower while CD62p expression was higher in the ITP-CR group compared to the normal control group. In conclusion, the activation of platelets in ITP children was low. Decreased platelet function, platelet parameters and platelet glycoproteins may be used as markers for monitoring the treatment efficacy in ITP children. PMID:27431926

  3. Three-dimensional multi-scale model of deformable platelets adhesion to vessel wall in blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Zhiliang; Kim, Oleg; Alber, Mark

    2014-08-01

    When a blood vessel ruptures or gets inflamed, the human body responds by rapidly forming a clot to restrict the loss of blood. Platelets aggregation at the injury site of the blood vessel occurring via platelet-platelet adhesion, tethering and rolling on the injured endothelium is a critical initial step in blood clot formation. A novel three-dimensional multi-scale model is introduced and used in this paper to simulate receptor-mediated adhesion of deformable platelets at the site of vascular injury under different shear rates of blood flow. The novelty of the model is based on a new approach of coupling submodels at three biological scales crucial for the early clot formation: novel hybrid cell membrane submodel to represent physiological elastic properties of a platelet, stochastic receptor-ligand binding submodel to describe cell adhesion kinetics and lattice Boltzmann submodel for simulating blood flow. The model implementation on the GPU cluster significantly improved simulation performance. Predictive model simulations revealed that platelet deformation, interactions between platelets in the vicinity of the vessel wall as well as the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors played significant roles in platelet adhesion to the injury site. Variation of the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors as well as changes of platelet stiffness can represent effects of specific drugs reducing or enhancing platelet activity. Therefore, predictive simulations can improve the search for new drug targets and help to make treatment of thrombosis patient-specific. PMID:24982253

  4. A Mathematical Model and Numerical Method for Studying Platelet Adhesion and Aggregation during Blood Clotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.

    1984-10-01

    The repair of small blood vessels and the pathological growth of internal blood clots involve the formation of platelet aggregates adhering to portions of the vessel wall. Our microscopic model represents blood by a suspension of discrete massless platelets in a viscous incompressible fluid. Platelets are initially noncohesive; however, if stimulated by an above-threshold concentration of the chemical ADP or by contact with the adhesive injured region of the vessel wall, they become cohesive and secrete more ADP into the fluid. Cohesion between platelets and adhesion of a platelet to the injured wall are modeled by creating elastic links. Repulsive forces prevent a platelet from coming too close to another platelet or to the wall. The forces affect the fluid motion in the neighborhood of an aggregate. The platelets and secreted ADP both move by fluid advection and diffusion. The equations of the model are studied numerically in two dimensions. The platelet forces are calculated implicitly by minimizing a nonlinear energy function. Our minimization scheme merges Gill and Murray's ( Math. Programming7 (1974) , 311) modified Newton's method with elements of the Yale sparse matrix package. The stream-function' formulation' of the Stokes' equations for the fluid motion under the influence of platelet forces is solved using Bjorstad's biharmonic solver ("Numerical Solution of the Biharmonic Equation," Ph. D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1980). The ADP transport equation is solved with an alternating-direction implicit scheme. A linked-list data structure is introduced to keep track of changing platelet states and changing configurations of interplatelet links. Results of calculations with healthy platelets and with diseased platelets are presented.

  5. Point-of-care platelet function tests: detection of platelet inhibition induced by nonopioid analgesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Scharbert, Gisela; Gebhardt, Kristina; Sow, Zacharia; Duris, Monika; Deusch, Engelbert; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2007-12-01

    Detection of platelet inhibition is of clinical relevance in the preinterventional risk-benefit assessment in chronic low-back-pain patients scheduled for invasive pain therapy. We evaluated the sensitivity of various point-of-care platelet function tests for the detection of platelet inhibition induced by nonopioid analgesic drugs. After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, citrated whole blood from 40 patients with chronic unspecific low back pain was investigated before and 30 min after intravenous infusion of the study medication consisting of diclofenac 75 mg (plus orphenadrin 30 mg; Neodolpasse; Fresenius Kabi Austria GmbH, Austria), parecoxib 40 mg (Dynastat; Pharmacia Europe EEIG, UK), paracetamol 1 g (Perfalgan; Bieffe Medital S.P.A., Italy), or normal saline in a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Platelet function was assessed using the PFA-100 platelet function analyzer and thromboelastometry, as well as impedance aggregometry (in the last 17 patients recruited after it became commercially available). Sensitivity for detecting diclofenac-induced platelet inhibition was 85% for the PFA-100 using epinephrine as agonist and 94% for arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry. ADP-induced platelet function tests, as well as cytochalasin D-modified thromboelastometry were unreliable. All tests had a low incidence of false-positive test results after normal saline. Paracetamol and parecoxib had no significant platelet inhibiting effect. The PFA-100 using epinephrine as agonist and arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry are recommended for the detection of cyclooxygenase-I-inhibiting effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac. Our findings confirm that a single rescue dose of paracetamol and parecoxib has no antiplatelet effect. PMID:17982319

  6. [Improvement in cryopreservation of blood platelets].

    PubMed

    Zhiburt, E B; Vil'ianinov, V N; Kaleko, S P; Sidorkevich, S V; Petrenko, G I; Bagautdinov, Sh M; Kuz'min, N S

    2000-01-01

    The first Russian solution Krimolit designed for cryopreservation of platelet concentrates down -196 degrees C was clinically tested. The therapeutical efficacy of the cryopreserved platelets was evaluated on the basis of clinical and laboratory monitoring of transfusions in 20 cancer hematological patients. They were found to have the same therapeutical action as fresh cells. The introduction of cryopreserved platelets into clinical practice allows one to form stores and to transfuse autological cells. Krimolit is recommended for clinical application. PMID:10740789

  7. Effects of microgravity and hypergravity on platelet functions.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kesheng; Wang, Yuedan; Yan, Rong; Shi, Quanwei; Wang, Zhicheng; Yuan, Yanhong; Cheng, Hong; Li, Suping; Fan, Yubo; Zhuang, Fengyuan

    2009-05-01

    Many serious thrombotic and haemorrhagic diseases or fatalities have been documented in human being exposed to microgravity or hypergravity environments, such as crewmen in space, roller coaster riders, and aircrew subjected to high-G training. Some possible related organs have been examined to explore the mechanisms underlying these gravity change-related diseases. However, the role of platelets which are the primary players in both thrombosis and haemostasis is unknown. Here we show that platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or collagen and platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) were significantly decreased after platelets were exposed to simulated microgravity. Conversely, these platelet functions were increased after platelets were exposed to hypergravity. The tail bleeding time in vivo was significantly shortened in mice exposed to high-G force, whereas, was prolonged in hindlimb unloaded mice. Furthermore, three of 23 mice died after 15 minutes of -8 Gx stress. Platelet thrombi disseminated in the heart ventricle and blood vessels in the brain, lung, and heart from the dead mice. Finally, glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha surface expression and its association with the cytoskeleton were significantly decreased in platelets exposed to simulated microgravity, and obviously increased in hypergravity-exposed platelets. These data indicate that the platelet functions are inhibited in microgravity environments, and activated under high-G conditions, suggesting a novel mechanism for gravity change-related haemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases. This mechanism has important implications for preventing and treating gravity change-related diseases, and also suggests that special attentions should be paid to human actions under different gravity conditions. PMID:19404544

  8. P2 receptors and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Béatrice; Gachet, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Following vessel wall injury, platelets adhere to the exposed subendothelium, become activated and release mediators such as TXA(2) and nucleotides stored at very high concentration in the so-called dense granules. Released nucleotides and other soluble agents act in a positive feedback mechanism to cause further platelet activation and amplify platelet responses induced by agents such as thrombin or collagen. Adenine nucleotides act on platelets through three distinct P2 receptors: two are G protein-coupled ADP receptors, namely the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor subtypes, while the P2X(1) receptor ligand-gated cation channel is activated by ATP. The P2Y(1) receptor initiates platelet aggregation but is not sufficient for a full platelet aggregation in response to ADP, while the P2Y(12) receptor is responsible for completion of the aggregation to ADP. The latter receptor, the molecular target of the antithrombotic drugs clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor, is responsible for most of the potentiating effects of ADP when platelets are stimulated by agents such as thrombin, collagen or immune complexes. The P2X(1) receptor is involved in platelet shape change and in activation by collagen under shear conditions. Each of these receptors is coupled to specific signal transduction pathways in response to ADP or ATP and is differentially involved in all the sequential events involved in platelet function and haemostasis. As such, they represent potential targets for antithrombotic drugs. PMID:21792575

  9. ABO blood group as a model for platelet glycan modification in arterial thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Hanrui; Reilly, John P.; Chrisitie, Jason D.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Kumagai, Tadahiro; Azadi, Parastoo; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood groups have long been associated with cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and acute coronary syndromes. Many studies over the years have shown type O blood group to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to non-type O blood groups. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Although ABO blood group is associated with variations in concentrations of circulating von Willebrand Factor and other endothelial cell adhesion molecules, ABO antigens are also present on several platelet surface glycoproteins and glycosphingolipids. As we highlight in this platelet-centric review, these glycomic modifications may impact platelet function in arterial thrombosis. More broadly, improving our understanding of the role of platelet glycan modifications in acute coronary syndromes may inform future diagnostics and therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26044584

  10. A computer planning model for blood platelet production and distribution.

    PubMed

    Sirelson, V; Brodheim, E

    1991-08-01

    We consider a class of policies for stocking hospital blood banks with units of random donor platelet concentrate ('Platelets') based upon scheduled daily deliveries from a regional blood center to replenish the platelet inventory to a fixed 'base stock' level. The measures of interest are the 'shortage rate' (the proportion of days for which the on-hand inventory at the hospital blood bank is insufficient to meet the demand) and the 'outdate rate' (the proportion of total units shipped which are not transfused within the usable life span of 5 days). Our principal results give a predictive model which relates the base stock level to the shortage rate and outdate rate. Our model uses only the mean daily demand as a parameter. It provides a basis to unify the results from other studies which have demonstrated improvements in platelet inventory management in particular hospitals and blood centers. PMID:1752123

  11. Mathematical model and numerical method for studying platelet adhesion and aggregation during blood clotting

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelson, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    The repair of small blood vessels and the pathological growth of internal blood clots involve the formation of platelet aggregates adhering to portions of the vessel wall. Our microscopic model represents blood by a suspension of discrete massless platelets in a viscous incompressible fluid. Platelets are initially noncohesive; however, if stimulated by an above-threshold concentration of the chemical ADP or by contact with the adhesive injured region of the vessel wall, they become cohesive and secrete more ADP into the fluid. Cohesion between platelets and adhesion of a platelet to the injured wall are modeled by creating elastic links. Repulsive forces prevent a platelet from coming too close to another platelet or to the wall. The forces affect the fluid motion in the neighborhood of an aggregate. The platelets and secreted ADP both move by fluid advection and diffusion. The equations of the model are studied numerically in two dimensions. The platelet forces are calculated implicitly by minimizing a nonlinear energy function. Our minimization scheme merges Gill and Murray's (Math. Programming 7 (1974), 311) modified Newton's method with elements of the Yale sparse matix package. The stream-function formulation of the Stokes' equations for the fluid motion under the influence of platelet forces is solved using Bjorstad's biharmonic solver (''Numerical Solution of the Biharmonic Equation,'' Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1980). The ADP transport equation is solved with an alternating-direction implicit scheme. A linked-list data structure is introduced to keep track of changing platelet states and changing configurations of interplatelet links.

  12. Which is the best anticoagulant for whole blood aggregometry platelet function testing? Comparison of six anticoagulants and diverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas Friedrich Christoph; Neubauer, Horst; Franken, Cora Christina; Krüger, Jan-Christoph; Mügge, Andreas; Meves, Saskia Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Major hindrances of impedance aggregometry are caused by limited storage time and the requirement of ex vivo anticoagulation. Data on the influence of different anticoagulants and storage conditions are rare and incomplete. This study has systematically examined the influence of six different anticoagulants (sodium and lithium heparin, 20 µg/mL and 45 µg/mL r-hirudin, benzylsulfonyl-D-Arg-Pro-4-amidinobenzylamide (BAPA), and citrate) on the results of Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) induced measurements using multiple-electrode impedance aggregometer (MEA). Measurements were carried out in a time frame of 0 min up to 48 h after blood withdrawal. In addition, the influence of storage temperatures of 4°C and 37°C was evaluated. Results of ADP-induced tests significantly varied within the first 30 min in all tested anticoagulants, in citrated blood even within the first 60 min. They remained stable up to 2 h in 20 µg/mL r-hirudin and BAPA, 4 h in citrate, 8 h in 45 µg/mL r-hirudin, and lithium heparin and up to a maximum of 12 h in sodium heparin anticoagulated blood. The analysis of AA-induced tests revealed no significantly different results up to 6 h when BAPA was used, 8 h in lithium heparin, 20 µg/mL r-hirudin and citrate, 12 h in 45 µg/mL r-hirudin, and even 24 h in sodium heparin-anticoagulated samples. A storage temperature of either 4°C or 37°C in contrast to room temperature had a negative influence on the stability of results. In conclusion, sodium heparin and 45 µg/mL r-hirudin as anticoagulants guarantee the longest storage time for impedance aggregometry. PMID:21999185

  13. Topographic Cues Reveal Two Distinct Spreading Mechanisms in Blood Platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, Rabea; Köster, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Blood platelets are instrumental in blood clotting and are thus heavily involved in early wound closure. After adhering to a substrate they spread by forming protrusions like lamellipodia and filopodia. However, the interaction of these protrusions with the physical environment of platelets while spreading is not fully understood. Here we dynamically image platelets during this spreading process and compare their behavior on smooth and on structured substrates. In particular we analyze the temporal evolution of the spread area, the cell morphology and the dynamics of individual filopodia. Interestingly, the topographic cues enable us to distinguish two spreading mechanisms, one that is based on numerous persistent filopodia and one that rather involves lamellipodia. Filopodia-driven spreading coincides with a strong response of platelet morphology to the substrate topography during spreading, whereas lamellipodia-driven spreading does not. Thus, we quantify different degrees of filopodia formation in platelets and the influence of filopodia in spreading on structured substrates.

  14. Topographic Cues Reveal Two Distinct Spreading Mechanisms in Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Sandmann, Rabea; Köster, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets are instrumental in blood clotting and are thus heavily involved in early wound closure. After adhering to a substrate they spread by forming protrusions like lamellipodia and filopodia. However, the interaction of these protrusions with the physical environment of platelets while spreading is not fully understood. Here we dynamically image platelets during this spreading process and compare their behavior on smooth and on structured substrates. In particular we analyze the temporal evolution of the spread area, the cell morphology and the dynamics of individual filopodia. Interestingly, the topographic cues enable us to distinguish two spreading mechanisms, one that is based on numerous persistent filopodia and one that rather involves lamellipodia. Filopodia-driven spreading coincides with a strong response of platelet morphology to the substrate topography during spreading, whereas lamellipodia-driven spreading does not. Thus, we quantify different degrees of filopodia formation in platelets and the influence of filopodia in spreading on structured substrates. PMID:26934830

  15. Platelets mediate lymphovenous hemostasis to maintain blood-lymphatic separation throughout life.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul R; Rawnsley, David R; Jakus, Zoltán; Yang, Yiqing; Sweet, Daniel T; Fu, Jianxin; Herzog, Brett; Lu, MinMin; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Oliver, Guillermo; Makinen, Taija; Xia, Lijun; Kahn, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Mammals transport blood through a high-pressure, closed vascular network and lymph through a low-pressure, open vascular network. These vascular networks connect at the lymphovenous (LV) junction, where lymph drains into blood and an LV valve (LVV) prevents backflow of blood into lymphatic vessels. Here we describe an essential role for platelets in preventing blood from entering the lymphatic system at the LV junction. Loss of CLEC2, a receptor that activates platelets in response to lymphatic endothelial cells, resulted in backfilling of the lymphatic network with blood from the thoracic duct (TD) in both neonatal and mature mice. Fibrin-containing platelet thrombi were observed at the LVV and in the terminal TD in wild-type mice, but not Clec2-deficient mice. Analysis of mice lacking LVVs or lymphatic valves revealed that platelet-mediated thrombus formation limits LV backflow under conditions of impaired valve function. Examination of mice lacking integrin-mediated platelet aggregation indicated that platelet aggregation stabilizes thrombi that form in the lymphatic vascular environment to prevent retrograde blood flow. Collectively, these studies unveil a newly recognized form of hemostasis that functions with the LVV to safeguard the lymphatic vascular network throughout life. PMID:24292710

  16. Platelet functional and transcriptional changes induced by intralipid infusion.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Lea M; Vitseva, Olga; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Kucukural, Alper; Mick, Eric; Hamburg, Naomi; Vita, Joseph; Freedman, Jane E

    2016-06-01

    Multiple studies have shown the effects of long-term exposure to high-fat or western diets on the vascular system. There is limited knowledge on the acute effects of high circulating fat levels, specifically on platelets, which have a role in many processes, including thrombosis and inflammation. This study investigated the effects of acute, high-fat exposure on platelet function and transcript profile. Twenty healthy participants were given an intravenous infusion of 20% Intralipid emulsion and heparin over 6 hours. Blood samples were taken prior to and the day after infusion to measure platelet function and transcript expression levels. Platelet aggregation was not significantly affected by Intralipid infusion, but, when mitochondria function was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or oligomycin, platelet aggregation was higher in the post-infusion state compared to baseline. Through RNA sequencing, and verified by RT-qPCR, 902 miRNAs and 617 mRNAs were affected by Intralipid infusion. MicroRNAs increased include miR-4259 and miR-346, while miR-517b and miR-517c are both decreased. Pathway analysis identified two clusters significantly enriched, including cell motility. In conclusion, acute exposure to high fat affects mitochondrial-dependent platelet function, as well as the transcript profile. PMID:26940969

  17. Sodium-hydrogen exchange and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Rosskopf, D

    1999-07-01

    On stimulation of platelets with agonists, for example, thrombin, a rapid rise in intracellular pH is observed. This alkalinization is mediated by an increase in transport activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform NHE1. In addition to this Na(+)/H(+) exchange mechanism, platelets express bicarbonate/chloride exchangers, which also contribute to pH(i) homeostasis. The main functions of NHE1 in platelets include pH(i) control, volume regulation, and participation in cell signaling. The isoform NHE1 is highly sensitive toward inhibition by EIPA, Hoe694, and Hoe642. The regulation of NHE1 activity is complex and is not completely understood. It includes the MAP kinase cascade, the Ca/calmodulin system, several heterotrimeric G proteins (Galpha12, Galpha13, Galphaq, and Galphai), small G proteins (ras, cdc42, rhoA), and downstream kinases (e.g., p160ROCK). Volume challenges stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins, which ultimately activate NHE1. Thrombin, thromboxane, platelet-activating factor, angiotensin II, endothelin, phorbol ester, and Ca(2+) ionophors stimulate NHE1 activity in platelets. Blockade of platelet NHE1 can inhibit platelet activation. With the development of highly specific NHE1 inhibitors, detailed investigation of the relationships between NHE1 activity and platelet activation now becomes feasible. PMID:10481210

  18. Detection and effects on platelet function of anti-platelet antibody in mule foals with experimentally induced neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, S; Gaunt, S D; McClure, J J; Oliver, J

    1999-01-01

    Horse mares carrying mule foals were immunized during the last trimester of pregnancy with whole acid-citrate-dextrose-anticoagulated donkey blood to experimentally induce neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurred in the neonatal mule foals born to immunized horse mares within 24 hours after ingestion of their dams' colostrum. Mule foals born to mares not immunized with donkey blood did not develop thrombocytopenia. These findings suggest that antibodies may have been directed against a donkey platelet antigen present in the mule foals but not present in their dams. The objectives of this study were to determine whether anti-platelet antibody could be detected in mule foals with experimentally induced neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, to identify any platelet proteins recognized by serum antibody in these foals, and to determine if platelet function was altered by sera from these mule foals. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated significantly higher absorption at 1:200 of platelet-bindable immunoglobulin G in serum from thrombocytopenic mule foals, compared with nonthrombocytopenic mule foals. Sera from thrombocytopenic and nonthrombocytopenic mule foals produced similar binding patterns in western immunoblots with donkey platelet proteins separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Maximal platelet aggregation and relative slope of aggregation in response to collagen were significantly inhibited after incubation with sera from thrombocytopenic mule foals. These results suggest that mule foals with induced alloimmune thrombocytopenia have serum antibodies that bind to platelets and may compete with collagen binding sites to impair platelet aggregation. PMID:10587252

  19. Inherited Platelet Function Disorders: Algorithms for Phenotypic and Genetic Investigation.

    PubMed

    Gresele, Paolo; Bury, Loredana; Falcinelli, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    Inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs) manifest with mucocutaneous bleeding and are frequently difficult to diagnose due to their heterogeneity, the complexity of the platelet activation pathways and a lack of standardization of the platelet function laboratory assays and of their use for this purpose. A rational diagnostic approach to IPFDs should follow an algorithm where clinical examination and a stepwise laboratory evaluation play a crucial role. A streamlined panel of laboratory tests, with consecutive steps of increasing level of complexity, allows the phenotypic characterization of most IPFDs. A first-line diagnosis of a significant fraction of the IPFD may be made also at nonspecialized centers by using relatively simple tests, including platelet count, peripheral blood smear, light transmission aggregometry, measurement of platelet granule content and release, and the expression of glycoproteins by flow cytometry. Some of the most complex, second- and third-step tests may be performed only in highly specialized laboratories. Genotyping, including the widespread application of next-generation sequencing, has enabled discovery in the last few years of several novel genes associated with platelet disorders and this method may eventually become a first-line diagnostic approach; however, a preliminary clinical and laboratory phenotypic characterization nowadays still remains crucial for diagnosis of IPFDs. PMID:26962877

  20. Influence of gold nanoparticles on platelets functional activity in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Akchurin, George G.; Ivanov, Alexey N.; Kirichuk, Vyacheslav F.; Terentyuk, George S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolay G.

    2008-02-01

    Now in the leading biomedical centers of the world approved new technology of laser photothermal destruction of cancer cells using plasmon gold nanoparticles. Investigations of influence of gold nanoparticles on white rat platelets aggregative activity in vitro have been made. Platelet aggregation was investigated in platelet rich plasma (PRP) with help of laser analyzer 230 LA <>, Russia). Aggregation inductor was ADP solution in terminal concentration 2.5 micromole (<>, Russia). Gold nanoshells soluted in salt solution were used for experiments. Samples of PRP were incubated with 50 or 100 μl gold nanoshells solution in 5 minute, after that we made definition ADP induced platelet aggregation. We found out increase platelet function activity after incubation with nanoparticles solution which shown in maximum ADP-induced aggregation degree increase. Increase platelet function activity during intravenous nanoshells injection can be cause of thrombosis on patients. That's why before clinical application of cancer cell destruction based on laser photothermal used with plasmon gold nanoparticles careful investigations of thrombosis process and detail analyze of physiological blood parameters are very necessary.

  1. Circulating and platelet-derived microparticles in human blood enhance thrombosis on atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Badimon, Lina

    2012-12-01

    Plaque rupture followed by thrombosis is the underlying cause of the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Circulating microparticles (cMPs), membrane blebs released into blood by activated cells, have been associated to vascular diseases. Specifically, high levels of platelet-derived microparticles (pMPs) have been found in patients with coronary disease. However, it is unknown whether microparticles have a contributing role to the development of damaged vessel wall-induced arterial thrombi. The aim of this proof of concept study was to investigate whether an increased number of cMPs and pMPs could functionally contribute to blood thrombogenicity on areas of arterial damage. Microparticles were isolated from blood of healthy volunteers and were characterised by flow cytometry. Effects of microparticles on platelet deposition were assessed under controlled flow conditions exposing damaged arterial wall in the Badimon perfusion chamber and collagen type-I in the flat perfusion chamber to human blood. Platelet deposition on damaged arteries was significantly increased in cMP- and pMP-enriched bloods (p<0.05). pMPs also induced increase in platelet (p<0.05) and fibrin (p<0.05) deposition on human atherosclerotic arteries and in platelet adhesion to purified collagen surfaces. pMP-enriched blood induced a dose-dependent shortening of epinephrine/collagen closure time evaluated by PFA-100 (p<0.001), increased low-dose ADP-induced platelet aggregation by LTA (p<0.05), and decreased clotting time by thromboelastography (p<0.01). In conclusion, an increased content of cMPs and pMPs, even in normal blood conditions, enhance platelet deposition and thrombus formation. This study shows for the first time that, beyond biomarkers of cell activation, blood microparticles have functional effects on cardiovascular atherothrombotic disease. PMID:23138460

  2. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets.

    PubMed

    Pineda, A A; Zylstra, V W; Clare, D E; Dewanjee, M K; Forstrom, L A

    1989-01-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous 111In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% [p less than 0.001] vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% [p greater than 0.1], respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake. PMID:2749876

  3. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  4. Role of platelet function and platelet membrane glycoproteins in children with primary immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Bai, Jing; Guo, Qu-Lian; Huang, Zhe; Yang, Hong; Bai, Yong-Qi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine and understand changes in platelet functions prior to and after the treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children. An automatic hematology analyzer and whole blood flow cytometry were used to detect immature platelet fraction (IPF), IPC and membrane glycoproteins (CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b) in ITP children (ITP group), children with complete response after ITP treatment (ITP-CR group) and children with elective surgery (normal control group). The results showed that, levels of platelet count (PLT) and plateletcrit in the ITP group were lower alhtough the levels of mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR) were higher than those in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. PLT in the ITP-CR group was lower than that in the normal controls. Additionally, IPF% was higher in the normal control and ITP-CR groups, IPC was lower in the ITP group compared to the normal control and ITP-CR groups. Furthermore, prior to ADP activation, the expression levels of CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b in the ITP group were lower in ITP group than those in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. The expression level of PAC-1 was lower in the ITP-CR and normal control groups. No differences were identified in CD62p and CD42b expression levels. Following ATP activation, CD62p, PAC-1 and CD42b expression in the ITP group was lower than that in the normal control and ITP-CR groups. PAC-1 expression was lower while CD62p expression was higher in the ITP-CR group compared to the normal control group. In conclusion, the activation of platelets in ITP children was low. Decreased platelet function, platelet parameters and platelet glycoproteins may be used as markers for monitoring the treatment efficacy in ITP children. PMID:27431926

  5. Evaluation of a BED-SIDE platelet function assay: performance and clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wei C; Walker, C Ty; Obilby, David; Wash, Mark M; Carville, David G M; Guyer, Kirk E; Bates, Eric R

    2002-01-01

    Platelets have a pivotal role in the initial defense against insult to the vasculature and are also recognized of critical importance in the acute care settings of percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiopulmonary bypass. In these environments both platelet count and function may be markedly compromised. Unfortunately, current assays to evaluate the parameters of platelet count and function are of limited utility for bed-side testing. Moreover, it is suggested that there may be significant inter patient variation in response to antiplatelet therapy that may be exacerbated by other agents (e.g. heparin) that are routinely administered during cardiac intervention. Here we describe a practical, rapid and user-friendly whole blood platelet function assay that has been developed for use in bed-side settings. Platelet agonists were formulated with an anticoagulant and lyophilized in blood collection tubes standardised to receive a l mL fresh whole blood sample. In the presence of an agonist, platelets are activated and interact (aggregate). Using traditional cell counting principles, non-aggregated platelets are counted whereas aggregated platelets are not. The percentage (%) of functional platelets in reference to a baseline tube may then be determined. Results are available within four minutes. Platelet aggregation in whole blood demonstrated good correlation with turbidometric aggregometry for both ADP (r=0.91) and collagen (r=0.88). Moreover, in clinical settings where antiplatelet agents were administered, this rapid, bed-side, platelet function assay demonstrated utility in monitoring patient response to these therapies. This novel bed-side assay of platelet function is extremely suitable for the clinical environment with a rapid turn-around time. In addition, it provides a full haematology profile, including platelet count, and should permit enhancement of transfusion and interventional decisions. PMID:17890800

  6. Serotonin Uptake Is Largely Mediated by Platelets versus Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT), a primary target for many antidepressants, is expressed in the brain and also in peripheral blood cells. Although platelet SERT function is well accepted, lymphocyte SERT function has not been definitively characterized. Due to their small size, platelets often are found in peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparations aimed at isolating lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages. The presence of different cells makes it difficult to assign SERT expression and function to specific cell types. Here, we use flow cytometry and IDT307, a monoamine transporter substrate that fluoresces after uptake into cells, to investigate SERT function in lymphocyte and platelet populations independently, as well as simultaneously without prior isolation. We find that murine lymphocytes exhibit temperature-dependent IDT307 transport but uptake is independent of SERT. Lack of measurable SERT function in lymphocytes was corroborated by chronoamperometry using serotonin as a substrate. When we examined rhesus and human mixed blood cell populations, we found that platelets, and not lymphocytes, were primary contributors to SERT function. Overall, these findings indicate that lymphocyte SERT function is minimal. Moreover, flow cytometry, in conjunction with the fluorescent transporter substrate IDT307, can be widely applied to investigate SERT in platelets from populations of clinical significance. PMID:23336055

  7. STIM and Orai in platelet function.

    PubMed

    Varga-Szabo, David; Braun, Attila; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2011-09-01

    Physiological platelet activation and thrombus formation are essential to stop bleeding in case of vascular injury, whereas inadequate triggering of the same process in diseased vessels can lead to fatal thromboembolism and tissue ischemia of vital organs. A central step in platelet activation is agonist-induced elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. This happens on the one hand through the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores and on the other hand through Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space. In platelets, the major Ca(2+) influx pathway is the so-called store operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), induced by store depletion. Studies in the last five years discovered the molecular background of platelet SOCE. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and Orai1, two so far unknown molecules, got in the focus of research. STIM1 was found to be the Ca(2+) sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, whereas Orai1 was identified as the major store operated Ca(2+) (SOC) channel in the plasma membrane. These two molecules and their role in platelet function and thrombus formation are the topic of the present review with a special focus on apoptosis and apoptosis-like processes in platelet physiology. PMID:21616531

  8. Simulation of the Effect of Red Blood Cell Collisions on Platelet Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgibbon, Sean; Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2012-11-01

    The adsorption of platelets to the endothelial wall is an important first step in the clotting process, which is critical to stopping blood loss after trauma. Initial platelet arrest is controlled by very short range interaction between two proteins, von Willibrand Factor and GPIb, so the rate of platelet adsorption is expected to be strongly dependent on the rate at which the platelets sample the wall. With Peclet numbers in the range (103 - 105) , simple diffusive arguments are not sufficient to explain the high rates of platelet adsorption. Using Stokes flow simulations, we show that the platelets' wall sampling rate is significantly increased by interactions with red blood cells. Our simulation models platelets as rigid bodies suspended in a Stokesian linear shear flow. We solve for the flow using standard boundary integral techniques with the appropriate single wall bounded Green's function. Receptor-ligand interactions are represented as Hookean springs with characteristic lifetimes, sizes, and stiffness coefficients. Drag forces are calculated with the reciprocal theorem, and RBC collisions are modelled as AR processes extracted from the large scale suspension simulations of Zhao et al.

  9. Platelet Function During Hypothermia in Experimental Mock Circulation.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Sven; Stevens, Kris; Kicken, Cécile; Simons, Antoine; Marcus, Abraham; Lancé, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Alterations in platelet function are a common finding in surgical procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia. Although the combined impact of hypothermia and artificial circulation on platelets has been studied before, the ultimate strategy to safely minimize the risk for bleeding and thrombosis is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mock circulation loop to study the impact of hypothermia for platelet-related hemostatic changes. Venous blood was collected from healthy adult humans (n = 3). Closed mock circulation loops were assembled, each consisting of a centrifugal pump, an oxygenator with integrated heat exchanger, and a hardshell venous reservoir. The experiment started with the mock circulation temperature set at 37°C (T0 [0 h]). Cooling was then initiated at T1 (+2 h), where temperature was adjusted from 37°C to 32°C. Hypothermia was maintained from T2 (+4 h) to T3 (+28 h). From that point in time, rewarming from 32°C to 37°C was initiated with similar speed as cooling. From time point T4 (+30 h), normothermia (37°C) was maintained until the experiment ended at T5 (+32 h). Blood samples were analyzed in standard hematological tests: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (arachidonic acid [AA], adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen [COL], thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide-14 [TRAP]), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) (AA, ADP, COL, TRAP), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) (EXTEM, FIBTEM, PLTEM). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count decrease more substantially during temperature drop (37-32°C) than during hypothermia maintenance. Hb and Hct continue to follow this trend during active rewarming (32-37°C). PC increase from the moment active rewarming was initiated. None of the values return to the initial values. LTA values demonstrate a similar decrease in aggregation after stimulation with the platelet agonists between the start of the mock circulation and the start of cooling. Except

  10. New gene functions in megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation

    PubMed Central

    Gieger, Christian; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Cvejic, Ana; Tang, Weihong; Porcu, Eleonora; Pistis, Giorgio; Serbanovic-Canic, Jovana; Elling, Ulrich; Goodall, Alison H.; Labrune, Yann; Lopez, Lorna M.; Mägi, Reedik; Meacham, Stuart; Okada, Yukinori; Pirastu, Nicola; Sorice, Rossella; Teumer, Alexander; Voss, Katrin; Zhang, Weihua; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Bis, Joshua C.; Ellinghaus, David; Gögele, Martin; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Langenberg, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; O’Reilly, Paul F.; Shin, So-Youn; Esko, Tõnu; Hartiala, Jaana; Kanoni, Stavroula; Murgia, Federico; Parsa, Afshin; Stephens, Jonathan; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Allayee, Hooman; Attwood, Antony; Balkau, Beverley; Bastardot, François; Basu, Saonli; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bomba, Lorenzo; Bonnefond, Amélie; Cambien, François; Chambers, John C.; Cucca, Francesco; D’Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; de Boer, Rudolf A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Erdmann, Jeanette; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feng, Wei; Folsom, Aaron R.; Frazer, Ian H.; Gibson, Quince D.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hammond, Chris; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hersch, Micha; Illig, Thomas; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Jolley, Jennifer; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lloyd-Jones, Heather; Lumley, Thomas; Mangino, Massimo; Maschio, Andrea; Leach, Irene Mateo; McKnight, Barbara; Memari, Yasin; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nauck, Matthias; Navis, Gerjan; Nöthlings, Ute; Nolte, Ilja M.; Porteous, David J.; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Pullat, Janne; Ring, Susan M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sala, Cinzia; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Schlessinger, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, James; Smith, Nicholas L.; Snieder, Harold; Starr, John M.; Stumvoll, Michael; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Taylor, Kent; Tenesa, Albert; Thein, Swee Lay; Tönjes, Anke; Uda, Manuela; Ulivi, Sheila; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Völker, Uwe; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yang, Tsun-Po; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zitting, Paavo; Bradley, John R.; Dedoussis, George V.; Gasparini, Paolo; Hazen, Stanley L.; Metspalu, Andres; Pirastu, Mario; Shuldiner, Alan R.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Deary, Ian J.; Franke, Andre; Froguel, Philippe; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meisinger, Christa; Psaty, Bruce M.; Spector, Timothy D.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Akkerman, Jan-Willem N.; Ciullo, Marina; Deloukas, Panos; Greinacher, Andreas; Jupe, Steve; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Khadake, Jyoti; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Penninger, Josef; Prokopenko, Inga; Stemple, Derek; Toniolo, Daniela; Wernisch, Lorenz; Sanna, Serena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Rendon, Augusto; Ferreira, Manuel A.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Soranzo, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are the second most abundant cell type in blood and are essential for maintaining haemostasis. Their count and volume are tightly controlled within narrow physiological ranges, but there is only limited understanding of the molecular processes controlling both traits. Here we carried out a high-powered meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 66,867 individuals of European ancestry, followed by extensive biological and functional assessment. We identified 68 genomic loci reliably associated with platelet count and volume mapping to established and putative novel regulators of megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation. These genes show megakaryocyte-specific gene expression patterns and extensive network connectivity. Using gene silencing in Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster, we identified 11 of the genes as novel regulators of blood cell formation. Taken together, our findings advance understanding of novel gene functions controlling fate-determining events during megakaryopoiesis and platelet formation, providing a new example of successful translation of GWAS to function. PMID:22139419

  11. Sub-cellular modeling of platelet transport in blood flow through microchannels with constriction.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Alireza; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-05-11

    Platelet transport through arterial constrictions is one of the controlling processes influencing their adhesive functions and the formation of thrombi. We perform high-fidelity mesoscopic simulations of blood flow in microchannels with constriction, resembling arterial stenoses. The wall shear rates inside the constrictions reach levels as high as ≈8000 s(-1), similar to those encountered in moderate atherosclerotic plaques. Both red blood cells and platelets are resolved at sub-cellular resolution using the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. We perform a systematic study on the red blood cell and platelet transport by considering different levels of constriction, blood hematocrit and flow rates. We find that higher levels of constriction and wall shear rates lead to significantly enhanced margination of platelets, which may explain the experimental observations of enhanced post-stenosis platelet aggregation. We also observe similar margination effects for stiff particles of spherical shapes such as leukocytes. To our knowledge, such numerical simulations of dense blood through complex geometries have not been performed before, and our quantitative findings could shed new light on the associated physiological processes such as ATP release, plasma skimming, and thrombus formation. PMID:27087267

  12. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    PubMed

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  13. Multiscale Particle-Based Modeling of Flowing Platelets in Blood Plasma Using Dissipative Particle Dynamics and Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Na; Slepian, Marvin J.; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2014-01-01

    We developed a multiscale particle-based model of platelets, to study the transport dynamics of shear stresses between the surrounding fluid and the platelet membrane. This model facilitates a more accurate prediction of the activation potential of platelets by viscous shear stresses - one of the major mechanisms leading to thrombus formation in cardiovascular diseases and in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. The interface of the model couples coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The CGMD handles individual platelets while the DPD models the macroscopic transport of blood plasma in vessels. A hybrid force field is formulated for establishing a functional interface between the platelet membrane and the surrounding fluid, in which the microstructural changes of platelets may respond to the extracellular viscous shear stresses transferred to them. The interaction between the two systems preserves dynamic properties of the flowing platelets, such as the flipping motion. Using this multiscale particle-based approach, we have further studied the effects of the platelet elastic modulus by comparing the action of the flow-induced shear stresses on rigid and deformable platelet models. The results indicate that neglecting the platelet deformability may overestimate the stress on the platelet membrane, which in turn may lead to erroneous predictions of the platelet activation under viscous shear flow conditions. This particle-based fluid-structure interaction multiscale model offers for the first time a computationally feasible approach for simulating deformable platelets interacting with viscous blood flow, aimed at predicting flow induced platelet activation by using a highly resolved mapping of the stress distribution on the platelet membrane under dynamic flow conditions. PMID:25530818

  14. Development of a New Method for Platelet Function Test and Its Shearing Condition in Microfludic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Kim, Gyehyu; Choi, Seawhan; Shin, Sehyun; Korea University Department of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2015-11-01

    Platelet is a crucial blood cell on hemostasis. As platelet exposed to high shear stress, it can be activated showing morphological and functional changes to stop bleeding. When platelet is abnormal, there is high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, quick and precise assay for platelet function is important in clinical treatment. In this study, we design a microfluidic system, which can test platelet function exposed with the stimulation of shear and agonists. The microfluidic system consists of three parts: 1) a shear mechanism with rotating stirrer; 2) multiple microchannels to flow samples and to stop; 3) camera-interfaced migration distance(MD) analyzing system. When sheared blood is driven by pressure through the microchannel, shear-activated platelets adhere to a collagen-coated surface, causing blood flow to significantly slow and eventually stop. As the micro-stirrer speed increases, MD decreases exponentially at first, but it increases beyond a critical rpm after all. These results are coincident with data measured by FACS flowcytometry. These results imply that the present system could quantitatively measure the degree of activation, aggregation and adhesion of platelets and that blood MD is potent index for measuring the shear-dependence of platelet function.

  15. Pleural tissue repair with cord blood platelet gel

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Lorenzo; Parazzi, Valentina; Damarco, Francesco; Righi, Ilaria; Santambrogio, Luigi; Rebulla, Paolo; Gatti, Stefano; Ferrero, Stefano; Nosotti, Mario; Lazzari, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged air leak is the major cause of morbidity after pulmonary resection. In this study we used in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate an innovative approach based on the use of human umbilical cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods In vitro, a scratch assay was performed to test the tissue repair capability mediated by cord blood platelet gel compared to the standard culture conditions using human primary mesothelial cells. In vivo, an iatrogenic injury was made to the left lung of 54 Wistar rats. Cord blood platelet gel was placed on the injured area only in treated animals and at different times histological changes and the presence of pleural adhesions were evaluated. In addition, changes in the pattern of soluble inflammatory factors were investigated using a multiplex proteome array. Results In vitro, mesothelial cell damage was repaired in a shorter time by cord blood platelet gel than in the control condition (24 versus 35 hours, respectively). In vivo, formation of new mesothelial tissue and complete tissue recovery were observed at 45±1 and 75±1 hours in treated animals and at 130±2.5 and 160±6 hours in controls, respectively. Pleural adhesions were evident in 43% of treated animals compared to 17% of controls. No complications were observed. Interestingly, some crucial soluble factors involved in inflammation were significantly reduced in treated animals. Discussion Cord blood platelet gel accelerates the repair of pleural damage and stimulates the development of pleural adhesions. Both properties could be particularly useful in the management of prolonged air leak, and to reduce inflammation. PMID:23736928

  16. Differences in Platelet Function In Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and Myelodysplasia Compared to Equally Thrombocytopenic Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Psaila, Bethan; Bussel, James B.; Frelinger, Andrew L.; Babula, Bracken; Linden, Matthew D.; Li, Youfu; Barnard, Marc R.; Tate, Chinara; Feldman, Eric J.; Michelson, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe thrombocytopenia is a major risk factor for haemorrhage, and yet platelet function and bleeding risk at low platelet counts are poorly understood because of limitations of platelet function testing at very low platelet counts. Objectives To examine and compare platelet function in severely thrombocytopenic patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplasia (MDS) to patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Methods Whole blood flow cytometric measurement of platelet activation and platelet reactivity to agonists was correlated with the immature platelet fraction (IPF) and bleeding symptoms. Results Compared with patients with ITP, patients with AML/MDS had smaller platelets, lower IPF, and substantially lower platelet surface expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb both with and without addition of ex vivo ADP or TRAP. In both ITP and AML/MDS, increased platelet surface GPIb on circulating platelets and expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb on ex vivo activated platelets correlated with a higher IPF. Whereas platelet reactivity was higher for AML/MDS patients with bleeding than those with no bleeding, platelet reactivity was lower for ITP patients with bleeding than those with no bleeding. Conclusions AML/MDS patients have lower in vivo platelet activation and ex vivo platelet reactivity than patients with ITP. The proportion of newly-produced platelets correlates with the expression of platelet surface markers of activation. These differences might contribute to differences in bleeding tendency between AML/MDS and ITP. This study is the first to define differences in platelet function between AML/MDS patients and ITP patients with equivalent degrees of thrombocytopenia. PMID:21920014

  17. Proteins, Platelets, and Blood Coagulation at Biomaterial Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Chong; Bauer, James; Siedlecki, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood coagulation and platelet adhesion remain major impediments to the use of biomaterials in implantable medical devices. There is still significant controversy and question in the field regarding the role that surfaces play in this process. This manuscript addresses this topic area and reports on state of the art in the field. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of surface engineering and surface measurements that allow for control and observation of surface-mediated biological responses in blood and test solutions. Appropriate use of surface texturing and chemical patterning methodologies allow for reduction of both blood coagulation and platelet adhesion, and new methods of surface interrogation at high resolution allow for measurement of the relevant biological factors. PMID:25448722

  18. Mach-Zehnder interferometer for separation of platelets from red blood cells using dielectrophoretics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, M.; Narayan, K.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, separation of platelets from red blood cells using Mach-Zehnder interferometer is shown using Dielectrophoretics (DEP). The proposed model demonstrates continuous separation of platelets from red blood cells. Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) has two arms, in which sensing arm will sense according to the applied voltage and separate the platelets from mixed blood cells. The platelets and the red blood cells will flow in two outlets of MZI. Microfluidic device is used to separate the RBC's and the platelets from the mixed blood cells.

  19. Resveratrol preserves the function of human platelets stored for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Lannan, Katie L; Refaai, Majed A; Ture, Sara K; Morrell, Craig N; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P; Spinelli, Sherry L

    2016-03-01

    Stored platelets undergo biochemical, structural and functional changes that lead to decreased efficacy and safety of platelet transfusions. Not only do platelets acquire markers of activation during storage, but they also fail to respond normally to agonists post-storage. We hypothesized that resveratrol, a cardioprotective antioxidant, could act as a novel platelet storage additive to safely prevent unwanted platelet activation during storage, while simultaneously preserving normal haemostatic function. Human platelets treated with resveratrol and stored for 5 d released less thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin E2 compared to control platelets. Resveratrol preserved the ability of platelets to aggregate, spread and respond to thrombin, suggesting an improved ability to activate post-storage. Utilizing an in vitro model of transfusion and thromboelastography, clot strength was improved with resveratrol treatment compared to conventionally stored platelets. The mechanism of resveratrol's beneficial actions on stored platelets was partly mediated through decreased platelet apoptosis in storage, resulting in a longer half-life following transfusion. Lastly, an in vivo mouse model of transfusion demonstrated that stored platelets are prothrombotic and that resveratrol delayed vessel occlusion time to a level similar to transfusion with fresh platelets. We show resveratrol has a dual ability to reduce unwanted platelet activation during storage, while preserving critical haemostatic function. PMID:26683619

  20. Imaging and Elastometry of Blood Clots Using Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography and Labeled Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Wu, Gongting; Spivak, Dmitry; Tsui, Frank; Wolberg, Alisa S.; Fischer, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods for imaging and assessment of vascular defects are needed for directing treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. In this paper, we employ magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MMOCT) as a platform both to detect and to measure the elasticity of blood clots. Detection is enabled through the use of rehydrated, lyophilized platelets loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIO-RL platelets) that are functional infusion agents that adhere to sites of vascular endothelial damage. Evidence suggests that the sensitivity for detection is improved over threefold by magnetic interactions between SPIOs inside RL platelets. Using the same MMOCT system, we show how elastometry of simulated clots, using resonant acoustic spectroscopy, is correlated with the fibrin content of the clot. Both methods are based upon magnetic actuation and phase-sensitive optical monitoring of nanoscale displacements using MMOCT, underscoring its utility as a broad-based platform to detect and measure the molecular structure and composition of blood clots. PMID:23833549

  1. Platelets

    MedlinePlus

    ... are related to immunity and fighting infection. Platelet Production Platelets are produced in the bone marrow, the ... platelet destruction and also decreased bone marrow platelet production. These problems are caused by autoantibodies. Antibodies are ...

  2. Silica Nanoparticles Effects on Blood Coagulation Proteins and Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gryshchuk, Volodymyr; Galagan, Natalya

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with the blood coagulation is important prior to their using as the drug carriers or therapeutic agents. The aim of present work was studying of the primary effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on haemostasis in vitro. We studied the effect of SiNPs on blood coagulation directly estimating the activation of prothrombin and factor X and to verify any possible effect of SiNPs on human platelets. It was shown that SiNPs shortened coagulation time in APTT and PT tests and increased the activation of factor X induced by RVV possibly due to the sorption of intrinsic pathway factors on their surface. SiNPs inhibited the aggregation of platelet rich plasma induced by ADP but in the same time partially activated platelets as it was shown using flow cytometry. The possibility of SiNPs usage in nanomedicine is strongly dependant on their final concentration in bloodstream and the size of the particles that are used. However SiNPs are extremely promising as the haemostatic agents for preventing the blood loss after damage. PMID:26881078

  3. Changes in platelet morphology and function during 24 hours of storage.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Walter, M; Schulze, F; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    For in vitro studies assessing the interaction of platelets with implant materials, common and standardized protocols for the preparation of platelet rich plasma (PRP) are lacking, which may lead to non-matching results due to the diversity of applied protocols. Particularly, the aging of platelets during prolonged preparation and storage times is discussed to lead to an underestimation of the material thrombogenicity. Here, we study the influence of whole blood- and PRP-storage times on changes in platelet morphology and function. Blood from apparently healthy subjects was collected according to a standardized protocol and examined immediately after blood collection, four hours and twenty four hours later. The capability of platelets to adhere and form stable aggregates (PFA100, closure time) was examined in sodium citrate anticoagulated whole blood (WB) using the agonists equine type I collagen and epinephrine bitartrate (collagen/epinephrine) as well as equine type I collagen and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (collagen/ADP). Circulating platelets were quantified at each time point. Morphology of platelets and platelet aggregates were visualized microscopically and measured using an electric field multi-channel counting system (CASY). The percentage of activated platelets was assessed by means of P-selectin (CD62P) expression of circulating platelets. Furthermore, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release was measured in platelet poor plasma (PPP) at each time point. Whole blood PFA100 closure times increased after stimulation with collagen/ADP and collagen/epinephrine. Twenty four hours after blood collection, both parameters were prolonged pathologically above the upper limit of the reference range. Numbers of circulating platelets, measured in PRP, decreased after four hours, but no longer after twenty four hours. Mean platelet volumes (MPV) and platelet large cell ratios (P-LCR, 12 fL - 40 fL) decreased over time. Immediately after blood collection, no debris or platelet

  4. Bidirectional effects of dexmedetomidine on human platelet functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Shuji; Hirakata, Hideo; Sugita, Naoko; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Platelets express the imidazoline (I)-receptor, I1 and I2, as well as the α2-adrenoceptor. Although dexmedetomidine, a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist with some affinity for the I-receptor is expected to affect platelet function, the effects of dexmedetomidine on platelet functions remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on human platelet functions in vitro. The effects of dexmedetomidine on platelet aggregation were examined using aggregometers. The formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in platelets was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. In addition, P-selectin expression in platelets was estimated by flow cytometry. We showed that dexmedetomidine enhances platelet aggregation. But in the presence of yohimbine, an α2-antagonist, dexmedetomidine suppressed platelet aggregation. Efaroxan, an I1-antagonist, and methylene blue, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, abolished the suppressive effect of dexmedetomidine, whereas idazoxan, an I2-antagonist, showed no effect. Dexmedetomidine suppressed cAMP formation and enhanced P-selectin expression in platelets, and these effects were inhibited by yohimbine. Dexmedetomidine increased cGMP formation in platelets in the presence of yohimbine, and this increase was suppressed by efaroxan. These results demonstrated that dexmedetomidine has both enhancing and suppressive effects on human platelet functions through its action on the α2-adrenoceptor and on the I1-imidazoline receptor, respectively. PMID:26435028

  5. Mesoscopic Modeling of Blood Clotting: Coagulation Cascade and Platelets Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    The process of clot formation and growth at a site on a blood vessel wall involve a number of multi-scale simultaneous processes including: multiple chemical reactions in the coagulation cascade, species transport and flow. To model these processes we have incorporated advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) of multiple species into an extended version of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method which is considered as a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics method. At the continuum level this is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation plus one advection-diffusion equation for each specie. The chemistry of clot formation is now understood to be determined by mechanisms involving reactions among many species in dilute solution, where reaction rate constants and species diffusion coefficients in plasma are known. The role of blood particulates, i.e. red cells and platelets, in the clotting process is studied by including them separately and together in the simulations. An agonist-induced platelet activation mechanism is presented, while platelets adhesive dynamics based on a stochastic bond formation/dissociation process is included in the model.

  6. Cryopreservation of Autologous Blood (Red Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebine, Kunio

    Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis is still a problem in cardiovascular surgery. We initiated the cryopreservation of autologous blood for the transfusion in elective cardiovascular surgery since 1981. This study includes 152 surgical cases in which autologous frozen, allogeneic frozen, and/or allogeneic non-frozen blood were used. In the 152 surgical cases, there were 69 cases in which autologous blood only (Group I) was used; 12 cases with autologous and allogeneic frozen blood (Group II); 46 cases with autologous and allgeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group III); and 25 cases with allogeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group IV). No hepatitis developed in Groups I (0%) and II (0%), but there was positive hepatitis in Groups III (4.3%) and IV (8.0%) . In 357 cases of those who underwent surgery with allogeneic non-frozen whole blood during the same period, the incidence rate of hepatitis was 13.7% (49/357). Patients awaiting elective surgery can store their own blood in the frozen state. Patients who undergo surgery with the cryoautotransfusion will not produce any infections or immunologic reactions as opposed to those who undergo surgery with the allogeneic non-frozen blood.

  7. Red Blood Cell Hematocrit Influences Platelet Adhesion Rate in a Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, Andrew; Campbell, James; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Rodriguez, Armando; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The creation of a blood clot to stop bleeding involves platelets forming a plug at the site of injury. Red blood cells indirectly play a role in ensuring that the distribution of platelets across the height of the channel is not uniform - the contrast in deformability and size between platelets and red blood cells allows the platelets to preferentially marginate close to the walls. We perform 3D boundary integral simulations of a suspension of platelets and red blood cells in a periodic channel with a model that allows for platelet binding at the walls. The relative rate of platelet activity with varying hematocrit (volume fraction of red blood cells) is compared to experiments in which red blood cells and platelets flow through a channel coated with von Willebrand factor. In the simulations as well as the experiments, a decrease in hematocrit of red blood cells is found to reduce the rate at which platelets adhere to the channel wall in a manner that is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar. We conclude with a discussion of the tumbling and wobbling motions of platelets in 3D leading up to the time at which the platelets bind to the wall. Funded by Stanford Army High Performance Computing Research Center, experiments by US Army Institute of Surgical Research.

  8. Thrombin-Mediated Platelet Activation of Lysed Whole Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Comparison Between Platelet Activation Markers and Ultrastructural Alterations.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; van der Spuy, Wendy J; Kaberry, Lindsay L; Shayi, Millicent

    2016-06-01

    Platelet ultrastructural alterations representing spurious activation have been identified in pathological conditions. A limitation of platelet studies is that sample preparation may lead to artifactual activation processes which may confound results, impacting the use of scanning electron microscopy as a supplemental diagnostic tool. We used scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze platelet activation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood (WB) samples. PRP generated using a single high g force centrifugation, and WB samples treated with a red blood cell lysis buffer, were exposed to increasing concentrations of the agonist thrombin. Platelets in lysed WB samples responded to thrombin by elevating the activation marker CD62p definitively, with corresponding ultrastructural changes indicating activation. Conversely, CD62p expression in PRP preparations remained static. Ultrastructural analysis revealed fully activated platelets even under low concentration thrombin stimulation, with considerable fibrin deposition. It is proposed that the method for PRP production induced premature platelet activation, preventable by using an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and fibrin polymerization. Nevertheless, our results show a definitive correspondence between flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy in platelet activation studies, highlighting the potential of the latter technique as a supplemental diagnostic tool. PMID:27329313

  9. Variable Effect of P2Y12 Inhibition on Platelet Thrombus Volume in Flowing Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mendolicchio, G. L.; Zavalloni, D.; Bacci, M.; Corrada, E.; Marconi, M.; Lodigiani, C.; Presbitero, P.; Rota, L.; Ruggeri, Z. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) receive aspirin and P2Y12 ADP receptor inhibitors to reduce thrombotic complications. The choice of methodology for monitoring the effects of treatment and assessing its efficacy is still a topic of debate. We evaluated how decreased P2Y12 function influences platelet aggregate (thrombus) size measured ex vivo. Methods and Results We used confocal videomicroscopy to measure in real time the volume of platelet thrombi forming upon blood perfusion over fibrillar collagen type I at the wall shear rate of 1,500 s−1. The average volume was significantly smaller in 31 patients receiving aspirin and clopidogrel (19) or ticlopidine (12) than 21 controls, but individual values were above the lower limit of the normal distribution, albeit mostly within the lower quartile, in 61.3% of cases. Disaggregation of platelet thrombi at later perfusion times occurred frequently in the patients. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, reflecting P2Y12 inhibition, was also decreased in the patient group and only 22.6% of individual values were above the lower normal limit. We found no correlation between thrombus volume formed onto collagen fibrils and level of P2Y12 inhibition, suggesting that additional and individually variable factors can influence the inhibitory effect of treatment on platelet function. Conclusions Measuring platelet thrombus formation in flowing blood reflects the consequences of anti-platelet therapy in a manner that is not proportional to P2Y12 inhibition. Combining the results of the two assays may improve the assessment of thrombotic risk. PMID:21083646

  10. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T. )

    1990-02-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of (14C)serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of (14C)serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of (14C)serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of (14C)serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP.

  11. Lactodifucotetraose, a human milk oligosaccharide, attenuates platelet function and inflammatory cytokine release.

    PubMed

    Newburg, David S; Tanritanir, Ayse C; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2016-07-01

    Human milk strongly quenches inflammatory processes in vitro, and breastfed infants have lower incidence of inflammatory diseases than those fed artificially. Platelets from neonates, in contrast to those from adults, are less responsive to platelet agonists such as collagen, thrombin, ADP, and epinephrine. Breastfed infants absorb oligosaccharides intact from the human milk in their gut to the circulation. This study was to determine whether these oligosaccharides can attenuate platelet function and platelet secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins, and to identify the active component. The natural mixture of oligosaccharides from human milk and pure individual human milk oligosaccharides were tested for their ability to modulate responses of platelets isolated from human blood following exposure to thrombin, ADP, and collagen. Human milk and the natural mixture of human milk oligosaccharides inhibited platelet release of inflammatory proteins. Of the purified human milk oligosaccharides tested, only lactodifucotetraose (LDFT) significantly inhibited thrombin induced release of the pro-inflammatory proteins RANTES and sCD40L. LDFT also inhibited platelet adhesion to a collagen-coated surface, as well as platelet aggregation induced by ADP or collagen. These data indicate that LDFT may help modulate hemostasis by suppressing platelet-induced inflammatory processes in breastfed infants. This activity suggests further study of LDFT for its potential as a therapeutic agent in infants and adults. PMID:26743063

  12. Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Lim; Li, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics. PMID:24895576

  13. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  14. Effect in vitro on platelet function of two compounds developed from the pyrimido-pyrimidines

    PubMed Central

    Slater, S. D.; Turpie, A. G. G.; Douglas, A. S.; McNicol, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    VK 774 and VK 744, two new compounds developed from the pyrimido-pyrimidines, have been found to be powerful inhibitors of platelet function tested in vitro. They inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation, and the release of platelet factor 3 by kaolin, and VK 774 also reduces platelet adhesiveness and inhibits platelet aggregation (`snowstorm' effect) in the Chandler tube system. Although measured percentage whole blood clot retraction was uninfluenced by these drugs the clot produced with VK 774 was friable and soft. VK 774 appears to be the most powerful of these compounds reported so far, being active in some test systems at 10−6M, and, if the results of toxicity testing are satisfactory, it should be an important agent for therapeutic trial. PMID:5046075

  15. The effect of time of day and exercise on platelet functions and platelet-neutrophil aggregates in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Hatice; Kiliç, Nedret

    2005-12-01

    Platelet activation state changes by exercise. The effect of exercise time on platelet activation state and formation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates are not known yet. In this study the effect of exercise and time of day were examined on platelet activity with platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Ten moderately active males aged 27+/- 1.63 (mean+/-S.D.) years completed sub-maximal (70% VO(2max)) exercise trials for 30 min. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately post-exercise and after 30 min of recovery. Whole blood was analysed for haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean platelet count (MPV) and platelet aggregation (PA). Platelet-neutrophil aggregates and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) levels were assayed. Platelet count showed significant increase after morning exercise ((236+/- 32)x10(9) l(-1) versus (202+/- 34)x10(9) l(-1) baseline, p < 0.05). Exercise resulted in significantly lower MPV after the evening exercise (9.16+/- 0.5 fl versus 9.65+/- 0.36 fl, p < 0.05). Platelet aggregation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) decreased after morning exercise and the recovery aggregation levels were significantly different at two different times of the day (68+/- 20% a.m. versus 80+/- 12% p.m., p < 0.05). It was also showed that platelet-neutrophil aggregates increased significantly from baseline after both exercises. Exercise-induced platelet-neutrophil aggregates were higher in the evening (10.7+/- 1.3% p.m. versus 6.4+/- 1.8% a.m., p < 0.0001). It is therefore concluded that besides platelet-platelet aggregation, exercise can cause platelet- neutrophil aggregates. In addition, time of day has an effect on platelet activation related events. Circadian variations of physiological parameters may have an effect on thrombus formation by platelet activation. PMID:16311912

  16. Interaction of nanoparticles of ferric oxide with brain nerve terminals and blood platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticles of ferric oxide are the components of Lunar and Martian soil simulants. The observations suggest that exposure to Lunar soli simulant can be deleterious to human physiology and the components of lunar soil may be internalized by lung epithelium and may overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of nanoparticles of ferric oxide on the functional state of rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and rabbit blood platelets. Using photon correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrated the binding of nanoparticles of ferric oxide with nerve terminals and platelets. Nanoparticles did not depolarize the plasma membrane of nerve terminals and platelets that was shown by fluorimetry with potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G. Using pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, we revealed that the acidification of synaptic vesicles of nerve terminals and secretory granules of platelets did not change in the presence of nanoparticles. The initial velocity of uptake of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate was not influenced by nanoparticles of ferric oxide, whereas glutamate binding to nerve terminals was altered. Thus, it was suggested that nanoparticles of ferric oxide might disturb glutamate transport in the mammalian CNS.

  17. The interaction of selected semiconducting biomaterials with platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Gerhardt, Rosario A; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2005-09-01

    Copper and silicon are used as biomaterials in various forms. Silicon is a well-known semiconductor and has two distinct types (n-type and p-type), depending on the dopants used. The oxides (e.g., CuO and Cu2O) on the copper surface also behave as semiconductors. The electrochemical properties of these two selected semiconducting biomaterials were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and open-circuit potential (OCP) in an aerated Ringer's solution at 37 degrees C. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood from a healthy human donor were used to determine the degree of interaction with the selected semiconducting materials in vitro. Morphologies of adherent platelets and blood on these two biomaterials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicated that the degree of interaction is a function of the electrochemical properties of these two biomaterials. Platelets and blood were found to react strongly with p-type biomaterials while little or no sign of interaction with n-type biomaterials was demonstrated. The difference in PRP and whole blood reactions between p-type and n-type semiconductors was quantified to be significant as p<0.05. PMID:16010666

  18. The Genetics of Common Variation affecting Platelet Development, Function and Pharmaceutical Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Common variant effects on human platelet function and response to anti-platelet treatment have traditionally been studied using candidate gene approaches involving a limited number of variants and genes. These studies have often been undertaken in clinically defined cohorts. More recently, studies have applied genome-wide scans in larger population samples than prior candidate studies, in some cases scanning relatively healthy individuals. These studies demonstrate synergy with some prior candidate gene findings (e.g., GP6, ADRA2A) but also uncover novel loci involved in platelet function. Here, I summarise findings on common genetic variation influencing platelet development, function and therapeutics. Taken together, candidate gene and genome-wide studies begin to account for common variation in platelet function and provide information that may ultimately be useful in pharmacogenetic applications in the clinic. More than 50 loci have been identified with consistent associations with platelet phenotypes in ≥2 populations. Several variants are under further study in clinical trials relating to anti-platelet therapies. In order to have useful clinical applications, variants must have large effects on a modifiable outcome. Regardless of clinical applications, studies of common genetic influences, even of small effect, offer additional insights into platelet biology including the importance of intracellular signalling and novel receptors. Understanding of common platelet-related genetics remains behind parallel fields (e.g., lipids, blood pressure) due to challenges in phenotype ascertainment. Further work is necessary to discover and characterise loci for platelet function, and to assess whether these loci contribute to disease aetiologies or response to therapeutics. PMID:21781261

  19. Imipramine binding in subpopulations of normal human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1984-02-01

    Imipramine binding was studied in platelet membranes isolated with different proportions of heavy (young) and light (old) platelets. The B/sub max/, a measure of the number of binding sites, was greater in the heavier platelets than in the light platelets. However, the dissociation constant K/sub d/ (a reflection of the affinity of imipramine binding) was greater in the lighter platelets compared to the heavy platelets. These results indicate that differences in K/sub d/ and B/sub max/ in particular membrane preparation, could be due to the differences in the relative proportion of heavy and light platelets.

  20. Platelet Consumption by Arterial Prostheses: The Effects of Endothelialization and Pharmacologic Inhibition of Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laurence A.; Slichter, Sherrill J.; Sauvage, Lester R.

    1977-01-01

    The thrombogenic mechanism of arterial grafts has been studied by determining the relative utilization of platelets, fibrinogen and plasminogen by human arterial prostheses, and by direct examination of arterial grafts in a baboon model. Forty-one survival and turnover measurements of 51Crplatelets, 131I-fibrinogen and 125I-plasminogen in ten patients with aortofemoral knitted Dacron prostheses demonstrated platelet consumption after graft placement (platelet survival 4.2 days ± 0.5 and turnover 68,000 plat/ul/day ±10,000 compared with 8.2 days ± 0.3 and 35,000 plat/ul/day ± 5,000 respectively for control subjects with stable vascular disease, p < 0.01). In vitro platelet function test results were normal. Platelet consumption was interrupted by dipyridamole or a combination of dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid, and platelet survival normalized spontaneously during nine months postoperatively. No significantly increased consumption of fibrinogen or plasminogen was found in these patients with arterial grafts. Placement of impervious knitted Dacron velour aortic grafts in baboons reproduced platelet consumption that progressively normalized over six weeks postoperatively. Platelet survival measurements correlated directly with endothelial cell coverage of the graft luminal surface in these animals implying that endothelialization of the graft surface was also occurring postoperatively in patients. ImagesFig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:411428

  1. The caspase-3 inhibitor (peptide Z-DEVD-FMK) affects the survival and function of platelets in platelet concentrate during storage

    PubMed Central

    Shiri, Reza; Ahmadinejad, Minoo; Vaeli, Shahram; Tabatabaei, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Although apoptosis occurs in nucleated cells, studies show that this event also occurs in some anucleated cells such as platelets. During storage of platelets, the viability of platelets decreased, storage lesions were observed, and cells underwent apoptosis. We investigated the effects of caspase-3 inhibitor on the survival and function of platelets after different periods of storage. Methods Platelet concentrates were obtained from the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in plastic blood bags. Caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK) was added to the bags. These bags along with control bags to which no inhibitor was added were stored in a shaking incubator at 22℃ for 7 days. The effects of Z-DEVD-FMK on the functionality of platelets were analyzed by assessing their ability to bind to von Willebrand factor (vWF) and to aggregate in the presence of arachidonic acid and ristocetin. Cell survival was surveyed by MTT assay. Results At day 4 of storage, ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher in the inhibitor-treated (test) than in control samples; the difference was not significant at day 7. There was no significant difference in arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation between test and control samples. However, at day 7 of storage, the binding of platelets to vWF was significantly higher in test than in control samples. The MTT assay revealed significantly higher viability in test than in control samples at both days of study. Conclusion Treatment of platelets with caspase-3 inhibitor could increase their functionality and survival. PMID:24724067

  2. Metastasis: new functional implications of platelets and megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Raphael; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Platelets are essential components of hemostasis. Due to a plethora of factors released on activation, platelet functions are also connected to tumor growth, notably by acting on angiogenesis. It is now well recognized that major roles of platelets in the poor outcome of cancer patients occurs during hematogenous dissemination of cancer cells. In this review, we describe recent insights into the molecular mechanisms supporting the prometastatic activity of platelets. Platelets have been shown to promote survival of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the bloodstream by conferring resistance to the shear stress and attack from natural killer cells. Recently, platelets were found to promote and/or maintain the state of epithelial to mesenchymal transition on CTCs through platelet secretion of transforming growth factor β in response to CTC activation. At a later stage in the metastatic process, platelets promote extravasation and establishment of metastatic cells in distant organs as observed in bone. This particular environment is also the site of hematopoiesis, megakaryocytopoiesis, and platelet production. Increasing the number of megakaryocytes (MKs) in the bone marrow results in a high bone mass phenotype and inhibits skeletal metastasis formation of prostate cancer cells. As a result of their specific location in vascular niches in the bone marrow, MK activity might contribute to the "seed and soil" suitability between CTCs and bone. In conclusion, recent findings have made a great advance in our knowledge on how platelets contribute to the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells and that may support the development of new antimetastasis therapies. PMID:27154188

  3. Ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrate abrogates lymphocyte activation without affecting platelet function in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.A.; Duffy, B.F.; Rodey, G.G.

    1985-11-01

    We studied the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on platelet concentrates. Samples irradiated at 310 mm for 30 minutes at a dose of 1782 J per m2 showed no loss of platelet function in vitro as determined by adenosine diphosphate, collagen, or ristocetin-induced aggregation. Lymphocytes isolated from irradiated units were unable to act as responders or stimulators in a mixed-lymphocyte reaction. These data suggest that UV radiation of platelet concentrates may result in a cell suspension that is unable to evoke an immunological response.

  4. Ovine platelet function is unaffected by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the first 24 h.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rylan A; Foley, Samuel; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara; Dunster, Kimble R; McDonald, Charles; Fraser, John F

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated platelet dysfunction during short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and secondarily to determine if hyperoxaemia contributes to this dysfunction. Healthy sheep were anaesthetized and maintained on ECMO for either 2 or 24 h, with or without induction of smoke inhalation acute lung injury. A specialized animal-operating theatre was used to conduct the experimentation. Forty-three healthy female sheep were randomized into either a test or a control group. Following anaesthesia, test groups received ECMO ± smoke inhalation acute lung injury (SALI), whereas control groups were maintained with ventilation only ± SALI. Physiological, biochemical and coagulation data were obtained throughout via continuous monitoring and blood sampling. Platelet function was quantified through whole blood impedance aggregometry using Multiplate. Ovine platelet activity induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen was unaffected during the first 24 h of ECMO. However, progressive divergence of ADP-induced platelet activity was noted at cessation of the experiment. PaO2 was inversely related to ADP-dependent platelet activity in the ECMO groups--a relationship not identified in the control groups. ADP and collagen-dependent platelet activity are not significantly affected within the first 24 h of ECMO in sheep. However, dysfunction in ADP-dependent platelet activity may have continued to develop if observed beyond 24 h. Hyperoxaemia during ECMO does appear to affect how platelets react to ADP and may contribute to this developing dysfunction. Long-term animal models and investigation in clinical animals are warranted to fully investigate platelet function during ECMO. PMID:26196193

  5. Decreased platelet function in aortic valve stenosis: high shear platelet activation then inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. R.; Etherington, M. D.; Brant, J.; Watkins, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To elucidate the mechanism of the bleeding tendency observed in patients with aortic valve stenosis. DESIGN--A prospective study of high and low shear platelet function tests in vitro in normal controls compared with that in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis with a mean (SD) systolic gradient by Doppler of 75 (18) mm Hg before and at least 4 months after aortic valve replacement. SETTING--District general hospital. RESULTS--The patients showed reduced retention in the high shear platelet function tests. (a) Platelet retention in the filter test was 53.6 (12.6)% in patients with aortic valve stenosis and 84.8 (9.6)% in the controls (P < 0.001). (b) Retention in the glass bead column test was 49.8 (19.2) in the patients and 87.4 (8.7) in the controls (P < 0.001). (c) The standard bleeding time was longer in the patients (P < 0.06). Results of the high shear tests (a, b, and c) after aortic valve replacement were within the normal range. The platelet count was low but within the normal range before surgery and increased postoperatively (P < 0.01). There were no differences in the results of standard clotting tests, plasma and intraplatelet von Willebrand's factor, or in 15 platelet aggregation tests using five agonists between patients with aortic valve stenosis and controls. CONCLUSIONS--The high shear haemodynamics of aortic valve stenosis modify platelet function in vivo predisposing to a bleeding tendency. This abnormality of platelet function is detectable only in vitro using high shear tests. The abnormal function is reversed by aortic valve replacement. High shear forces in vitro activate and then inactivate platelets. By the same mechanisms aortic valve stenosis seems to lead to high shear damage in vivo, resulting in a clinically important bleeding tendency in some patients. PMID:8541170

  6. A standardized technique for efficient platelet and leukocyte collection using the Model 30 Blood Processor.

    PubMed

    Aisner, J; Schiffer, C A; Wolff, J H; Wiernik, P H

    1976-01-01

    The Model 30 Blood Processor is a safe and simple means of harvesting blood cell components. Presently cell collection depends on a visual assessment by the operator of the indistinct boundaries of cell fractions. To determine when each cell component could best be harvested, serial samples were taken from the output port at fixed intervals anf the results of counts and differentials were graphed and tabulated. Studies in normal donors were done using acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD), 2 per cent sodium citrate in 6 per cent hydroxyethyl starch (HES), or heparin as anticoagulants. There was considerable overlap between the latter part of the platelet band, the leukocyte band and the rising hematocrit with all three anticoagulants. Normally functional lymphocytes could be harvested efficiently (approximately 80%) using ACD or heparin. Platelets could be harvested from ACD very efficiently (approximately 90%). Granulocytes could not be harvested from ACD (less than 10%) since they were dispersed in the red blood cell (RBC) layer. Using HES, granulocytes could be harvested efficiently (approximately 70%) by extending collection into the RBC layer. Based on these data, a standard technique for cell collection has been devised. The flow rate is slowed to 20 ml/min and collection is carried 30 ml (90 seconds at a rate of 20 ml/min) for platelets. The RBC loss is approximately 6 to 8 and 2 to 3 ml/pass respectively. These studies indicate that the Model 30 is a highly efficient apparatus for blood cell separation, but the volume of blood processed is limited by the intermittent blood flow. PMID:62425

  7. Morphological and functional platelet abnormalities in Berkeley sickle cell mice.

    PubMed

    Shet, Arun S; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jirouskova, Marketa; Janczak, Christin A; Stevens, Jacqueline R M; Adamson, Adewole; Mohandas, Narla; Manci, Elizabeth A; Cynober, Therese; Coller, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Berkeley sickle cell mice are used as animal models of human sickle cell disease but there are no reports of platelet studies in this model. Since humans with sickle cell disease have platelet abnormalities, we studied platelet morphology and function in Berkeley mice (SS). We observed elevated mean platelet forward angle light scatter (FSC) values (an indirect measure of platelet volume) in SS compared to wild type (WT) (37+/-3.2 vs. 27+/-1.4, mean+/-SD; p<0.001), in association with moderate thrombocytopenia (505+/-49 x 10(3)/microl vs. 1151+/-162 x 10(3)/microl; p<0.001). Despite having marked splenomegaly, SS mice had elevated levels of Howell-Jolly bodies and "pocked" erythrocytes (p<0.001 for both) suggesting splenic dysfunction. SS mice also had elevated numbers of thiazole orange positive platelets (5+/-1% vs. 1+/-1%; p<0.001), normal to low plasma thrombopoietin levels, normal plasma glycocalicin levels, normal levels of platelet recovery, and near normal platelet life spans. Platelets from SS mice bound more fibrinogen and antibody to P-selectin following activation with a threshold concentration of a protease activated receptor (PAR)-4 peptide compared to WT mice. Enlarged platelets are associated with a predisposition to arterial thrombosis in humans and some humans with SCD have been reported to have large platelets. Thus, additional studies are needed to assess whether large platelets contribute either to pulmonary hypertension or the large vessel arterial occlusion that produces stroke in some children with sickle cell disease. PMID:18374611

  8. Misshapen/NIK-related kinase (MINK1) is involved in platelet function, hemostasis, and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ming; Luo, Dongjiao; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Qi; Hu, Mengjiao; Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Shuai; Huang, Qian; Niu, Yuxi; Lu, Linrong; Hu, Hu

    2016-02-18

    The sterile-20 kinase misshapen/Nck-interacting kinase (NIK)-related kinase 1 (MINK1) is involved in many important cellular processes such as growth, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and motility. Here, with MINK1-deficient (MINK1(-/-)) mice, we showed that MINK1 plays an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis via the regulation of platelet functions. In the tail-bleeding assay, MINK1(-/-) mice exhibited a longer bleeding time than wild-type (WT) mice (575.2 ± 59.7 seconds vs 419.6 ± 66.9 seconds). In a model of ferric chloride-induced mesenteric arteriolar thrombosis, vessel occlusion times were twice as long in MINK1(-/-) mice as in WT mice. In an in vitro microfluidic whole-blood perfusion assay, thrombus formation on a collagen matrix under arterial shear conditions was significantly reduced in MINK1(-/-) platelets. Moreover, MINK1(-/-) platelets demonstrated impaired aggregation and secretion in response to low doses of thrombin and collagen. Furthermore, platelet spreading on fibrinogen was largely hampered in MINK1(-/-) platelets. The functional differences of MINK1(-/-) platelets could be attributed to impaired adenosine 5'-diphosphate secretion. Signaling events associated with MINK1 appeared to involve extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and Akt. Hence, MINK1 may be an important signaling molecule that mediates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and participates in platelet activation and thrombus formation. PMID:26598717

  9. An ethanol extract of Ramulus mori improves blood circulation by inhibiting platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyun; Kwon, Gayeung; Park, Jieun; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Choe, Soo Young; Seo, Yoonhee; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Inappropriate platelet aggregation can cause blood coagulation and thrombosis. In this study, the effect of an ethanol extract of Ramulus mori (ERM) on blood circulation was investigated. The antithrombotic activity of ERM on rat carotid arterial thrombosis was evaluated in vivo, and the effect of ERM on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation time was evaluated ex vivo. To evaluate the safety of ERM, its cytotoxicity to platelets and its effect on tail bleeding time were assessed; ERM was not toxic to rat platelets and did not prolong bleeding time. Moreover, administering ERM to rats had a significant preventive effect on carotid arterial thrombosis in vivo, and significantly inhibited adenosine diphosphate- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo, whereas it did not prolong coagulation periods, such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results suggest that ERM is effective in improving blood circulation via antiplatelet activity rather than anticoagulation activity. PMID:26967156

  10. Interactions of human blood-platelets with vaccinia

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, C.E.B.

    1989-01-01

    These investigations were conducted to determine whether vaccinia (strain WR) adsorbs to the human platelet and alters specific platelet activities, namely, the uptake of {sup 14}C-serotonin, the release of {sup 14}C-serotonin and also the release of {sup 14}C-serotonin stimulated by thrombin. Vaccinia did not alter the platelet uptake of {sup 14}C-serotonin. To determine if vaccinia induces a release of {sup 14}C-serotonin from platelets, vaccinia was added to washed or unwashed {sup 14}C-serotonin labeled platelets, and the release of {sup 14}C-Serotonin into the supernatant was measured. Less than 8% of the {sup 14}C-Serotonin was released. The action of vaccinia to alter the platelet release of {sup 14}C-serotonin induced by thrombin was monitored by measuring the radioactivity released from thrombin stimulated {sup 14}C-serotonin labeled platelets incubated with or without vaccinia. Vaccinia inhibited the thrombin induced release of {sup 14}C-serotonin from platelets at a virus to platelet ratios of 5 through 80 plaque forming units (p.f.u.)/platelet. The inhibition was dose dependent. The binding of virus to platelets was determined by a plaque assay of a washed mixture of vaccinia virus and platelets. After inoculation of mixture onto a monolayer of BSC40 cells at a virus to platelet ratio of 0.1 p.f.u./platelet, 50 cell-bound-virus per 130,000-150,000 platelets were enumerated. Vaccinia was observed to inhibit the thrombin induced clot formation of plasma by a thrombin clotting time test. Scanning electron micrographs of the clot formed in the presence of vaccinia revealed a close packed fibrous structure lacking the cross-linked mesh-like pattern seen in a normal clot. Transmission electron micrographs showed an increase in the length and a close packing of the fibrin threads.

  11. Mice Lacking the ITIM-Containing Receptor G6b-B Exhibit Macrothrombocytopenia and Aberrant Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Jun; Bem, Danai; Finney, Brenda; Heising, Silke; Gissen, Paul; White, James G.; Berndt, Michael C.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Douglas, Michael R.; Campbell, Robert D.; Watson, Steve P.; Senis, Yotis A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are highly reactive cell fragments that adhere to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) and prevent excessive blood loss by forming clots. Paradoxically, megakaryocytes, which produce platelets in the bone marrow, remain relatively refractory to the ECM-rich environment of the bone marrow despite having the same repertoire of receptors as platelets. These include the ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif)–containing collagen receptor complex, which consists of glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and the Fc receptor γ-chain, and the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine–based inhibition motif)–containing receptor G6b-B. We showed that mice lacking G6b-B exhibited macrothrombocytopenia (reduced platelet numbers and the presence of enlarged platelets) and a susceptibility to bleeding as a result of aberrant platelet production and function. Platelet numbers were markedly reduced in G6b-B–deficient mice compared to those in wild-type mice because of increased platelet turnover. Furthermore, megakaryocytes in G6b-B–deficient mice showed enhanced metalloproteinase production, which led to increased shedding of cell-surface receptors, including GPVI and GPIba. In addition, G6b-B–deficient megakaryocytes exhibited reduced integrin-mediated functions and defective formation of proplatelets, the long filamentous projections from which platelets bud off. Together, these findings establish G6b-B as a major inhibitory receptor regulating megakaryocyte activation, function, and platelet production. PMID:23112346

  12. Platelet loss on exposure of citrated blood to various foreign surfaces.

    PubMed

    Perkins, H A; Rolfs, M R; Hymas, P G

    1975-01-01

    Citrated whole blood was rotated in tubes or closed loops of tubing and the percentage of platelets lost on exposure to the surface of the container was noted. Platelet loss in the presence of uncoated glass surfaces (mean loss 31%) was significantly less than in the presence of glass siliconed with two different reagents (82% and 86%). Platelets adhered to siliconed glass but not to uncoated glass. Other inert surfaces also resulted in a high degree of platelet loss: Teflon 90 per cent, silicone rubber 85 per cent, Parawax 84 per cent, polysytrene 82 per cent, polyethylene 79 per cent, polypropylene 60 per cent, and polycarbonate 58 per cent. One lot of polyvinyl chloride transfusion grade tubing resulted in only 2 per cent loss of platelets, but other lots varied between 35 and 84 per cent. Loss of platelets on exposure to the surface of plastic containers may have to be considered when evaluating new materials for preparation of blood components. PMID:804189

  13. Flow cytometric analysis of circulating platelet-monocyte aggregates in whole blood: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Harding, Scott A; Din, Jehangir N; Sarma, Jaydeep; Jessop, Alasdair; Weatherall, Mark; Fox, Keith A A; Newby, David E

    2007-08-01

    Platelet-monocyte aggregates are increasingly being used to quantify platelet activation. The variables that influence platelet-monocyte aggregates have not been well defined. We sought to determine the effect of blood collection, handling and processing techniques on detected levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates using a flow cytometric assay. Whole blood was labelled with anti-CD14-PE and anti-CD42a-FITC. Thereafter, samples were fixed and red cells lysed. Analysis was performed with the flow cytometer initially triggering on light scatter and then on FL-2 to identify CD14-PE positive monocytes. Platelet-monocyte aggregates were defined as monocytes positive for CD42a. The effect of collection, handling and processing techniques on this assay were assessed. Anticoagulation with heparin (20.1 +/- 2.0%), PPACK (16.8 +/- 1.9%), sodium citrate (12.3 +/- 1.6%) and EDTA (9.5 +/- 1.0%) resulted in markedly different levels of platelet-monocyte aggregation (P < 0.0001). Platelet-monocyte aggregation was higher in samples obtained from intravenous cannulae compared to those obtained by venepuncture (20.9 +/- 3.9% vs.13.8 +/- 2.4%, P = 0.03). For every 10 minutes of delay prior to processing platelet-monocyte aggregates increased by 2.8% (P = 0.0001) in PPACK anticoagulated blood and 1.7% (P = 0.01) in citrate anticoagulated blood. Erythrocyte lysis together with fixation does not affect platelet-monocyte aggregation. Platelet-monocyte aggregates remained stable over 24 hours when fixed and stored at 4 degrees C. Multiple handling and processing factors may affect platelet-monocyte aggregation. We recommend the measurement of platelet-monocyte aggregates on samples collected by direct venepuncture, using a direct thrombin inhibitor as the anticoagulant and minimising the time delay before sample fixation. PMID:17721630

  14. Desmopressin in vitro effects on platelet function, monitored with Multiplate, ROTEM and Sonoclot.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Kevin; Jensen, Hanna; Kander, Thomas; Schött, Ulf

    2016-07-01

    Background and aims The vasopressin analogue desmopressin has demonstrated efficacy in decreasing bleeding time by increasing the circulating levels of coagulation factor VIII and von Willebrand factor, but also by direct effects on platelets. Previous studies have demonstrated contrasting results regarding the effect of desmopressin on platelets in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-response effects of in vitro desmopressin in whole blood. Our hypothesis was that desmopressin could increase platelet function in anticoagulated whole blood being stored up to 4 hours. Methods Desmopressin was administered with up to four different concentrations to venous whole blood, sampled with standard vacutainer tubes from 10 healthy volunteers after consent. Platelet function was analyzed with three different point-of-care techniques: Multiplate platelet aggregometry with adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6, ristocetin and arachidonic acid agonists, tissue factor-activated thromboelastometry and Sonoclot glass bead viscoelastic coagulation tests at baseline and 4 hours later using different activator reagents. Results Thromboelastometry and Sonoclot did not show any significant change between baseline and 4 h later. A significant decrease in area under curve (AUC) could be seen with the Multiplate between baseline and after 4 h. Desmopressin did not improve any of these tests at baseline or during a 4 h storage and incubation period. Conclusion In vitro administered desmopressin could not increase normal platelet function or coagulation being measured with thromboelastometry and Sonoclot. Multiplate indicated decreased platelet aggregation over time, without any effect of in vitro added desmopressin. PMID:26923171

  15. Hemostatic Function, Survival, and Membrane Glycoprotein Changes in Young versus Old Rabbit Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Blajchman, Morris A.; Senyi, Andrew F.; Hirsh, Jack; Genton, Edward; George, James N.

    1981-01-01

    Although in vitro studies have demonstrated functional differences between young and old platelets, in vivo differences have not been precisely established. Therefore the in vivo hemostatic function of young and old platelets and the survival time have been examined in rabbits. The hemostatic function was measured by performing serial ear bleeding times in irradiation-induced thrombocytopenic rabbits. After irradiation with 930 rad the platelet count gradually diminished reaching a nadir (∼20 × 103/μl) at 10 d. The platelets present in the circulation, 7-10 d after irradiation, were considered old platelets, and the platelets present after recovery, 11-14 d postirradiation, young platelets. The measurement of platelet size was consistent with the hypothesis that platelets become smaller with age: the mean size was 3.84 μm3 for old platelets and 5.86 μm3 for young platelets. Regression analysis of the relationship between the bleeding time and the platelet count in 18 rabbits showed a significantly different slope for rabbits with predominantly old platelets compared with rabbits with predominantly young platelets (P < 0.001). Young platelets were more effective giving much shorter bleeding times than old platelets at comparable platelet counts. Survival times of young and old platelets were measured using platelets harvested on day 8 postirradiation (old platelets) and day 12 postirradiation (young platelets) that were labeled and then reinjected into normal recipient animals. The mean platelet survival time, calculated by gamma function, of old platelets was 28.8 h; of young platelets, 87.4 h; and of normally circulating heterogeneous platelets, (normal platelets) 53.0 h. Notably, the survival of old platelets was found to be exponential, and of young platelets, linear. Analysis of the membrane glycoproteins in young, old and normal platelets indicated that there was no qualitative difference amongst the young, normal, and old platelets. The relative

  16. Investigating the fluid mechanics behind red blood cell-induced lateral platelet motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl Erickson, Lindsay; Fogelson, Aaron

    2009-11-01

    Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting; they adhere to damaged tissue and release chemicals that activate other platelets. Yet in order to adhere, platelets must first come into contact with the injured vessel wall. Under arterial flow conditions, platelets have an enhanced concentration near blood vessel walls. This non-uniform cell distribution depends on the fluid dynamics of blood as a heterogeneous medium. We use a parallelized lattice Boltzmann-immersed boundary method to solve the flow dynamics of red cells and platelets in a periodic 2D vessel with no-slip boundary conditions. Red cells are treated as biconcave immersed boundary objects with isotropic Skalak membrane tension and an internal viscosity five times that of the surrounding plasma. Using this method we analyze the influence of shear rate, hematocrit, and red cell membrane properties on lateral platelet motion. We find that the effective diffusion of platelets is significantly lower near the vessel wall compared to the center of the vessel. Insight gained from this work could lead to significant improvements to current models for platelet adhesion where the presence of red blood cells is neglected due to computational intensity.

  17. The active metabolite of prasugrel inhibits ADP-stimulated thrombo-inflammatory markers of platelet activation: Influence of other blood cells, calcium, and aspirin.

    PubMed

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Jakubowski, Joseph A; Li, Youfu; Barnard, Marc R; Fox, Marsha L; Linden, Matthew D; Sugidachi, Atsuhiro; Winters, Kenneth J; Furman, Mark I; Michelson, Alan D

    2007-07-01

    The novel thienopyridine prodrug prasugrel, a platelet P2Y(12) ADP receptor antagonist, requires in vivo metabolism for activity. Although pharmacological data have been collected on the effects of prasugrel on platelet aggregation, there are few data on the direct effects of the prasugrel's active metabolite, R-138727, on other aspects of platelet function. Here we examined the effects of R-138727 on thrombo-inflammatory markers of platelet activation, and the possible modulatory effects of other blood cells, calcium, and aspirin. Blood (PPACK or citrate anticoagulated) from healthy donors pre- and post-aspirin was incubated with R-138727 and the response to ADP assessed in whole blood or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) by aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of leukocyte-platelet aggregates, platelet surface P-selectin, and GPIIb-IIIa activation. Low-micromolar concentrations of R-138727 resulted in a rapid and consistent inhibition of these ADP-stimulated thrombo-inflammatory markers. These rapid kinetics required physiological calcium levels, but were largely unaffected by aspirin. Lower IC(50) values in whole blood relative to PRP suggested that other blood cells affect ADP-induced platelet activation and hence the net inhibition by R-138727. R-138727 did not inhibit P2Y(12)-mediated ADP-induced shape change, even at concentrations that completely inhibited platelet aggregation, confirming the specificity of R-138727 for P2Y(12). In conclusion, R-138727, the active metabolite of prasugrel, results in rapid, potent, consistent, and selective inhibition of P2Y(12)-mediated up-regulation of thrombo-inflammatory markers of platelet activation. This inhibition is enhanced in the presence other blood cells and calcium, but not aspirin. PMID:17598013

  18. Pathogen Inactivation of Platelet and Plasma Blood Components for Transfusion Using the INTERCEPT Blood System™

    PubMed Central

    Irsch, Johannes; Lin, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The transmission of pathogens via blood transfusion is still a major threat. Expert conferences established the need for a pro-active approach and concluded that the introduction of a pathogen inactivation/reduction technology requires a thorough safety profile, a comprehensive pre-clinical and clinical development and an ongoing hemovigilance program. Material and Methods The INTERCEPT Blood System utilizes amotosalen and UVA light and enables for the treatment of platelets and plasma in the same device. Preclinical studies of pathogen inactivation and toxicology and a thorough program of clinical studies have been conducted and an active he-movigilance-program established. Results INTERCEPT shows robust efficacy of inactivation for viruses, bacteria (including spirochetes), protozoa and leukocytes as well as large safety margins. Furthermore, it integrates well into routine blood center operations. The clinical study program demonstrates the successful use for very diverse patient groups. The hemovigilance program shows safety and tolerability in routine use. Approximately 700,000 INTERCEPT-treated products have been transfused worldwide. The system is in clinical use since class III CE-mark registration in 2002. The safety and efficacy has been shown in routine use and during an epidemic. Conclusion The INTERCEPT Blood System for platelets and plasma offers enhanced safety for the patient and protection against transfusion-transmitted infections. PMID:21779203

  19. Regional platelet concentration in blood flow through capillary tubes.

    PubMed

    Corattiyl, V; Eckstein, E C

    1986-09-01

    Platelet concentration was measured in samples from the various components of a bloodflow circuit, including the reservoir, the tube (with i.d. between 50 and 210 micron), and the discharge. The tube sample was collected by halting the flow and then flushing out a length of tube; thus, this sample collected equally from all radial locations. As the discharge sample was well mixed, it reflected the velocity field in the tube. Each reservoir sample was a traditional bulk collection. To ensure that the results represented the physical effects of flow on regional platelet concentration and could be interpreted with simple mass balance relationships, strong anticoagulation (sodium citrate and heparin) and platelet inhibition (prostaglandin E1) were used. Results for all tube diameters and for reservoir hematocrits from 5.5 to 77% and wall shear rates from 80 to 8000 sec-1 show that tubular platelet concentration is greater than reservoir or discharge platelet concentrations, which are equal. For platelet-rich plasma the tubular platelet concentration is decreased compared to the reservoir or discharge values. Mass balances show that the elevated tubular platelet concentration is due to an excess of platelets in radial locations with below average speeds; coupled with the need for red cells, this suggests that excess platelets have a near-wall location. Nonparametric statistical tests show that wall shear rate is a significant variable at a 0.05 confidence level; inner diameter is not found to be a significant variable, probably because of the limited diameter range studied and the experimental errors involved in determining platelet concentrations. PMID:3762431

  20. Relationship between the Increased Haemostatic Properties of Blood Platelets and Oxidative Stress Level in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with the Secondary Progressive Stage

    PubMed Central

    Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Miller, Sergiusz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with complex pathogenesis, different clinical courses and recurrent neurological relapses and/or progression. Despite various scientific papers that focused on early stage of MS, our study targets selective group of late stage secondary progressive MS patients. The presented work is concerned with the reactivity of blood platelets in primary hemostasis in SP MS patients. 50 SP MS patients and 50 healthy volunteers (never diagnosed with MS or other chronic diseases) were examined to evaluate the biological activity of blood platelets (adhesion, aggregation), especially their response to the most important physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen) and the effect of oxidative stress on platelet activity. We found that the blood platelets from SP MS patients were significantly more sensitive to all used agonists in comparison with control group. Moreover, the platelet hemostatic function was advanced in patients suffering from SP MS and positively correlated with increased production of O2−∙ in these cells, as well as with Expanded Disability Status Scale. We postulate that the increased oxidative stress in blood platelets in SP MS may be primarily responsible for the altered haemostatic properties of blood platelets. PMID:26064417

  1. How do the full-generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers activate blood platelets? Activation of circulating platelets and formation of "fibrinogen aggregates" in the presence of polycations.

    PubMed

    Watala, Cezary; Karolczak, Kamil; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Przygodzki, Tomasz; Maczynska, Katarzyna; Labieniec-Watala, Magdalena

    2016-04-30

    Direct use of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers as drugs may be limited, due to uncertain (cyto)toxicity. Peripheral blood components, which constitute the first line of a contact with administered pharmaceuticals, may become vastly affected by PAMAM dendrimers. The aim of this study was to explore how PAMAMs' polycationicity might affect blood platelet activation and reactivity, and thus trigger various haemostatic events. We monitored blood platelet reactivity in rats with experimental diabetes upon a long-term administration of the unmodified PAMAM dendrimers. In parallel, the effects on blood flow in a systemic circulation was recorded intravitally in mice administered with PAMAM G2, G3 or G4. Compounding was the in vitro approach to monitor the impact of PAMAM dendrimers on blood platelet activation and reactivity and on selected haemostatic and protein conformation parameters. We demonstrated the activating effects of polycations on blood platelets. Some diversity of the revealed outcomes considerably depended on the used approach and the particular technique employed to monitor blood platelet function. We discovered undesirable impact of plain PAMAM dendrimers on primary haemostasis and their prothrombotic influence. We emphasize the need of a more profound verifying of all the promising findings collected for PAMAMs with the use of well-designed in vivo preclinical studies. PMID:26319628

  2. Utility of the ISTH bleeding assessment tool in predicting platelet defects in participants with suspected inherited platelet function disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, G C; Lordkipanidzé, M; Watson on behalf of the uk gapp study group, S P

    2013-01-01

    Background The ISTH bleeding assessment tool (ISTH-BAT) was developed to record bleeding symptoms and to aid diagnosis in patients with a possible bleeding disorder. Objectives To investigate the utility of the ISTH-BAT in predicting functional defects in platelet activation in participants with suspected inherited platelet function disorders. Patients/Methods Participants with clinical evidence of excessive bleeding and suspected inherited platelet function disorders and healthy volunteers were recruited to the Genotyping and Phenotyping of Platelets study (GAPP; ISRCTN 77951167). The ISTH-BAT questionnaire was applied by a trained investigator prior to lumiaggregometry. Results One hundred participants were included (79 with suspected inherited platelet function disorders, and 21 healthy volunteers). The ISTH-BAT score in participants with suspected inherited platelet function disorders (median 12; interquartile range [IQR] 8–16) was significantly higher than in healthy volunteers (median 0; IQR 0–0). There was no difference between participants with suspected inherited platelet function disorders with a platelet defect detected by lumiaggregometry (median 11; IQR 8–16) and those with normal platelet function (median 12; IQR 8–14) (P > 0.05). The ISTH-BAT score was not associated with a demonstrable platelet defect on platelet function testing (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.501 [95% confidence interval 0.372–0.630, P = 0.98] and odds ratio 1.01 [95% confidence interval 0.93–1.09, P = 0.91]). Conclusions The ISTH-BAT is a powerful tool for documenting lifelong bleeding history. However, the score obtained is not predictive of the presence of a platelet defect on lumiaggregometry in patients with suspected inherited platelet function disorders. PMID:23809206

  3. Platelets and coronary artery disease: Interactions with the blood vessel wall and cardiovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Reinthaler, Markus; Braune, Steffen; Lendlein, Andreas; Landmesser, Ulf; Jung, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    In view of the rare presence of studies concerning platelet function as risk factor in atherosclerotic patients, processes underlying thromboembolic events are reviewed in this paper. The morphology and the structural organization-membrane receptors, the open canalicular and dense tubular systems, the cytoskeleton, mitochondria, granules, lysosomes, and peroxisomes-of platelets are described. Platelet function under physiological conditions in atherosclerosis and after implantation of cardiovascular devices is summarized. PMID:27277200

  4. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (p<0.001) decrement of donor blood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (p<0.001) when donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet

  5. Amikacin can be added to blood to reduce the fall in platelet count.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaomian; Wu, Xiaoli; Deng, Weixiong; Li, Jieqiu; Luo, Wenshen

    2011-10-01

    Our objective was to develop an effective method to prevent the fall in platelet count for patients with anticoagulant-dependent (AD) pseudothrombocytopenia, a spurious phenomenon due to anticoagulant-induced aggregation of platelets. We report a case of insidious multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in which AD pseudothrombocytopenia may be caused by 4 anticoagulants, eg, EDTA, sodium citrate, heparin, and sodium fluoride (NaF). Multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia was confirmed by finding clumped platelets on microscopic evaluation in 4 anticoagulated blood samples. With this case, we tried a variety of reagents, including aminoglycosides, eg, gentamicin and amikacin, vitamin B(6), and aminophylline to inhibit pseudothrombocytopenia. Except for amikacin, all reagents failed to prevent pseudothrombocytopenia. Microscopic examination of K(2)-EDTA-, heparin-, sodium citrate-, and NaF-anticoagulated blood samples showed massive platelet clumping, but no aggregate was seen in the anticoagulated blood with amikacin. When amikacin was added within 1 hour after blood sample withdrawal, platelet, WBC, and RBC counts and hemoglobin level, mean corpuscular volume, and mean platelet volume remained unchanged for up to 4 hours at room temperature. These findings suggest that amikacin could inhibit and dissociate pseudo platelet aggregation in multianticoagulant-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia and EDTA-induced pseudothrombocytopenia. PMID:21917689

  6. Activated Platelets in Heparinized Shed Blood: The “Second-Hit” of Acute Lung Injury in Trauma/Hemorrhagic Shock Models

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jeffrey N.; Moore, Ernest E.; Wohlauer, Max V.; Fragoso, Miguel; Gamboni, Fabia; Liang, Xiayuan; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The return of heparinized shed blood in trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) models remains controversial due to potential anti-inflammatory properties. Although ubiquitous as an anticoagulant, heparin is ineffective on cellular coagulation as an antithrombotic agent. Therefore, we hypothesized that returning heparinized shed blood would paradoxically enhance ALI following T/HS due to the infusion of activated platelets. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats, anesthetized with pentobarbital, underwent laparotomy and hemorrhage-induced shock (MAP of 30 mmHg × 45 min). Animals were resuscitated with a combination of normal saline (NS) and returned shed blood. Shed blood was collected in either 80U/kg of heparin, 800U/kgof heparin, citrate, or diluted 1:8 with NS. An additional group of animals were pretreated with a platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist (clopidogrel) prior to T/HS. BAL, lung MPO assays, pulmonary immunofluorescence, and blood smears were conducted. Results BAL protein increased in animals resuscitated with heparinized shed blood (p<0.0001). Blood smears and platelet function assays revealed platelet aggregates and increased platelet activation. Animals pretreated with a platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist were protected from post-injury ALI (p<0.0001). Animals with return of shed blood had increased pulmonary PMN sequestration (p<0.0001). Pulmonary immunofluorescence demonstrated microthrombi only in the T/HS group receiving heparinized shed blood (p<0.0001). Conclusion The return of heparinized shed blood functions as a “second-hit” to enhance ALI, with activated platelets propagating microthrombi and pulmonary PMN recruitment. PMID:21841533

  7. Developmental endothelial locus-1 modulates platelet-monocyte interactions and instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction in islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Kotlabova, Klara; Lim, Jong-Hyung; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Ferreira, Anaisa; Chen, Lan-Sun; Gercken, Bettina; Steffen, Anja; Kemter, Elisabeth; Klotzsche-von Ameln, Anne; Waskow, Claudia; Hosur, Kavita; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Ludwig, Barbara; Wolf, Eckhard; Hajishengallis, George; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2016-04-01

    Platelet-monocyte interactions are strongly implicated in thrombo-inflammatory injury by actively contributing to intravascular inflammation, leukocyte recruitment to inflamed sites, and the amplification of the procoagulant response. Instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) represents thrombo-inflammatory injury elicited upon pancreatic islet transplantation (islet-Tx), thereby dramatically affecting transplant survival and function. Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a functionally versatile endothelial cell-derived homeostatic factor with anti-inflammatory properties, but its potential role in IBMIR has not been previously addressed. Here, we establish Del-1 as a novel inhibitor of IBMIR using a whole blood-islet model and a syngeneic murine transplantation model. Indeed, Del-1 pre-treatment of blood before addition of islets diminished coagulation activation and islet damage as assessed by C-peptide release. Consistently, intraportal islet-Tx in transgenic mice with endothelial cell-specific overexpression of Del-1 resulted in a marked decrease of monocytes and platelet-monocyte aggregates in the transplanted tissues, relative to those in wild-type recipients. Mechanistically, Del-1 decreased platelet-monocyte aggregate formation, by specifically blocking the interaction between monocyte Mac-1-integrin and platelet GPIb. Our findings reveal a hitherto unknown role of Del-1 in the regulation of platelet-monocyte interplay and the subsequent heterotypic aggregate formation in the context of IBMIR. Therefore, Del-1 may represent a novel approach to prevent or mitigate the adverse reactions mediated through thrombo-inflammatory pathways in islet-Tx and perhaps other inflammatory disorders involving platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation. PMID:26676803

  8. Microfluidic assessment of functional culture-derived platelets in human thrombi under flow.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Viraj; Muthard, Ryan W; Li, Ruizhi; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-10-01

    Despite their clinical significance, human platelets are not amenable to genetic manipulation, thus forcing a reliance on mouse models. Culture-derived platelets (CDPs) from human peripheral blood CD34(+) cells can be genetically altered and may eventually be used for transfusions. By use of microfluidics, the time-dependent incorporation of CD41(+)CD42(+) CDPs into clots was measured using only 54,000 CDPs doped into 27 μL of human whole blood perfused over collagen at a wall shear rate of 100 sec(-1). With the use of fluorescence-labeled human platelets (instead of CDPs) doped between 0.25% and 2% of total platelets, incorporation was highly quantitative and allowed monitoring of the anti-αIIbβ3 antagonism that occurred after collagen adhesion. CDPs were only 15% as efficient as human platelets in their incorporation into human thrombi under flow, although both cell types were equally antagonized by αIIbβ3 inhibition. Transient transfection allowed the monitoring of GFP(+) human CDP incorporation into clots. This assay quantifies genetically altered CDP function under flow. PMID:26145051

  9. Identification of platelet function defects by multi-parameter assessment of thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    de Witt, Susanne M.; Swieringa, Frauke; Cavill, Rachel; Lamers, Moniek M. E.; van Kruchten, Roger; Mastenbroek, Tom; Baaten, Constance; Coort, Susan; Pugh, Nicholas; Schulz, Ansgar; Scharrer, Inge; Jurk, Kerstin; Zieger, Barbara; Clemetson, Kenneth J.; Farndale, Richard W.; Heemskerk, Johan W. M.; Cosemans, Judith M.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Assays measuring platelet aggregation (thrombus formation) at arterial shear rate mostly use collagen as only platelet-adhesive surface. Here we report a multi-surface and multi-parameter flow assay to characterize thrombus formation in whole blood from healthy subjects and patients with platelet function deficiencies. A systematic comparison is made of 52 adhesive surfaces with components activating the main platelet-adhesive receptors, and of eight output parameters reflecting distinct stages of thrombus formation. Three types of thrombus formation can be identified with a predicted hierarchy of the following receptors: glycoprotein (GP)VI, C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2)>GPIb>α6β1, αIIbβ3>α2β1>CD36, α5β1, αvβ3. Application with patient blood reveals distinct abnormalities in thrombus formation in patients with severe combined immune deficiency, Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia, Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome, May–Hegglin anomaly or grey platelet syndrome. We suggest this test may be useful for the diagnosis of patients with suspected bleeding disorders or a pro-thrombotic tendency. PMID:25027852

  10. Interaction of inorganic nanoparticles of lunar soil simulant with blood platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Kasatkina, Ludmila; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy; Slenzka, Klaus

    Blood platelets play a central role in the physiology of primary hemostasis and in the patholog-ical processes of arterial thrombosis. Also, blood platelets contain neuronal high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT 1 -3) and are able to uptake glutamate, thereby playing possible physiological role in extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the mammalian CNS as an additional powerful target for excessive neurotoxic glutamate accumulation and storage. The health effects of lunar soil exposure are almost completely unknown, whereas the observations suggest that it can be deleterious to human physiology. It is important that the components of lunar soil may be internalized with lipid fractions of the lung epithelium, which in turn may help ions to overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of JSC-1a Lunar Soil Simulant (LSS) (Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, USA) on platelets isolated from rabbit blood. We revealed that platelets were not indifferent to the expo-sure to LSS. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the incubation of platelets with LSS resulted in an upper shift of platelet spot in histograms presenting cell size (FS) and granularity (SS) as x and y coordinates, thereby demonstrating apparent increase in platelet granularity. Analysis of control platelet preparation did not reveal the alterations in platelet size and granularity during the same incubation period. LSS scatter per se did not cover area of platelet prepara-tion in histogram. Using Zetasizer Nanosystem (Malvern Instruments) with helium-neon laser for dynamic light scattering (DLS), the platelet size before and after the addition of LSS was measured. We have found the increase in the mean size of the population of platelets from 2.45 ±0.09 µm in control to 3.0 ± 0.25 µm in the presence of LSS. Thus, we report that inorganic nanoparticles of LSS bind to blood platelets and this fact may have considerable harmful conse-quences to human

  11. Catabolism of exogenously supplied thymidine to thymine and dihydrothymine by platelets in human peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Pero, R.W.; Johnson, D.; Olsson, A.

    1984-11-01

    The interference of platelets with the estimation of unscheduled DNA synthesis in human peripheral mononuclear leukocytes following genotoxic exposure was studied. A 96% reduction in the unscheduled DNA synthesis value was achieved by incubating (/sup 3/H)thymidine with platelet-rich plasma for 5 hr at 37 degrees. Using radioactive thymine-containing compounds, together with quantitative analyses based on thin-layer and ion-exchange chromatographies, we have shown that thymidine was converted to thymine which, in turn, was converted to dihydrothymine in platelet-rich plasma. The enzymes responsible were separated from platelet lysates by gel filtration and were identified as thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrothymine dehydrogenase. The phosphorylase reversibly catalyzed the formation of thymine from thymidine and converted bromodeoxyuridine to bromouracil. The dehydrogenase reversibly catalyzed the interconversion of thymine and dihydrothymine in a reaction dependent on NADP(H), and it was inhibited by diazouracil and by thymine. Nearly all the thymidine-catabolizing activity found in whole blood samples supplied exogenously with thymidine was accounted for by the platelets. Since most genetic toxicological tests that use blood samples do not involve removing platelets from the blood cell cultures, then it is concluded that precautions should be taken in the future to determine the influence of platelets on these test systems. This is particularly true for methods dependent on thymidine pulses such as unscheduled DNA synthesis, or those dependent on bromodeoxyuridine, such as sister chromatid exchanges, since this nucleoside is also a substrate for thymidine phosphorylase.

  12. Inhibitory effects of Cyperus digitatus extract on human platelet function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the mechanisms of antiplatelet action of Cyperus digitatus. The antiplatelet action of C. digitatus was studied on platelet function: secretion, adhesion, aggregation, and sCD40L release. The platelet ATP secretion and aggregation were significantly inhibited by CDA (ethyl acetate extract) at 0.1 mg/ml and after the incubation of whole blood with CDA, the platelet coverage was inhibited by 96 ± 3% (p < 0.001). At the same concentration, CDA significantly decreased sCD40L levels. The mechanism of antiplatelet action of CDA could be by NF-κB inhibition and that is cAMP independent. In conclusion, C. digitatus extract may serve as a new source of antiplatelet agents for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:25548968

  13. Effect of Red Blood Cells on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation in Tortuous Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, which can lead to myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombosis may form in tortuous microvessels, which are often seen throughout the human body, but the microscale mechanisms and processes are not well understood. In straight vessels, the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) is known to push platelets toward walls, which may affect platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. However in tortuous vessels, the effects of RBC interactions with platelets in thrombosis are largely unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to determine the physical effects of RBCs, platelet size, and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A discrete element computational model was used to simulate the transport, collision, adhesion, aggregation, and shear-induced platelet activation of hundreds of individual platelets and RBCs in thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Results showed that high shear stress near the inner sides of curved arteriole walls activated platelets to initiate thrombosis. RBCs initially promoted platelet activation, but then collisions of RBCs with mural thrombi reduced the amount of mural thrombus and the size of emboli. In the absence of RBCs, mural thrombus mass was smaller in a highly tortuous arteriole compared to a less tortuous arteriole. In the presence of RBCs however, mural thrombus mass was larger in the highly tortuous arteriole compared to the less tortuous arteriole. As well, smaller platelet size yielded less mural thrombus mass and smaller emboli, either with or without RBCs. This study shed light on microscopic interactions of RBCs and platelets in tortuous microvessels, which have implications in various pathologies associated with thrombosis and bleeding. PMID:25022613

  14. Protein kinase C translocation in human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hoauyan; Friedman, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and translocation in response to the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), serotonin (5-HT) and thrombin was assessed in human platelets. Stimulation with PMA and 5-HT for 10 minutes or thrombin for 1 minute elicited platelet PKC translocation from cytosol to membrane. The catecholamines, norepinephrine or epinephrine at 10 {mu}M concentrations did not induce redistribution of platelet PKC. Serotonin and the specific 5-HT{sub 2} receptor agonist, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-amino-propane (DOI) but not the 5-HT{sub 1A} or 5-HT{sub 1B} agonists, ({plus minus}) 8-hydroxy-dipropylamino-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) or 5-methoxy-3-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridin) 1H-indole succinate (RU 24969) induced dose-dependent PKC translocations. Serotonin-evoked PKC translocation was blocked by selective 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonists, ketanserin and spiroperidol. These results suggest that, in human platelets, PMA, thrombin and 5-HT can elicit PKC translocation from cytosol to membrane. Serotonin-induced PKC translocation in platelets is mediated via 5-HT{sub 2} receptors.

  15. Red cabbage anthocyanins as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Saluk, Joanna; Bijak, Michal; Posmyk, Malgorzata M; Zbikowska, Halina M

    2015-09-01

    LPS is a Gram-negative bacteria endotoxin, which is an important pro-inflammatory agent. Blood platelets take part both in inflammatory processes and in pathogenesis of septic shock following accumulation of LPS. As a platelet agonist LPS causes the intraplatelet overproduction of ROS/RNS that are responsible for adverse modifications in the structure of platelet compounds being associated with a development of platelet-dependent diseases. Existing evidence suggests that anthocyanins (ATH) are able to protect the circulatory system. The antioxidative properties of ATH are believed to be mainly responsible for their positive health effects. The main goal of the present in vitro study was to investigate the potential protective properties of red cabbage ATH against oxidative damage induced by LPS in blood platelets. Exposure of platelets to LPS resulted in carbonyl group increase, 3-nitrotyrosine formation, lipid peroxidation and O2(•-) generation. We have shown that ATH extract effectively decreased oxidative stress induced by LPSs. The in silico analysis demonstrated that both cyanin and LPS were located at the same region of human TLR4-MD-2 complex. Our findings suggest that there could be two-way ATH platelet protection mechanism, by their antioxidant properties and directly by binding with TLRs. PMID:26208857

  16. Platelet function in dogs with bacterial infections and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Abid, Monia; Kalbantner, Kerstin; Mischke, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of bacterial infections or leishmaniasis on primary haemostasis in dogs. Capillary bleeding time, automatic platelet function analysis (PFA-100), turbidimetric platelet aggregation, impedance aggregometry, platelet count and, in addition, the haematocrit were investigated in 25 dogs with bacterial infections or leishmaniasis . Results of these diseased dogs were compared to the control group and additionally classified into two subgroups based on criteria of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (groups "SIRS" and "Non-SIRS"). Dogs with infections had a significantly prolonged closure time of the PFA-100 using both cartridges (e. g., collagen/ADP: 83 [55-301] vs. 65 [47-99 s; median [minimum-maximum]; p < 0.0001), a significant decrease in maximal aggregation of the turbidimetric aggregometry (e. g., ADP-induced: 45.2 ± 26.8 vs. 67.3 ± 21.8%; mean ± SD; P = 0.003), a significant increase of collagen-induced impedance aggregometry and a significant suppression of arachidonic acid-induced impedance aggregometry. An enhanced collagen-induced impedance aggregation was the only significant difference between subgroups "SIRS"and "Non-SIRS". In conclusion, although individual tests indicate enhanced platelet aggregation, most of the in vitro tests revealed a normal to moderately reduced functionality. The reduced aggregabiity may partly indicate preactivation of platelets. PMID:26281441

  17. Modeling HIV-1 Induced Neuroinflammation in Mice: Role of Platelets in Mediating Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Letitia D.; Jackson, Joseph W.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of HIV-1 positive individuals developing some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is increasing. In these individuals, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised due to an increase in exposure to pro-inflammatory mediators, viral proteins, and virus released from infected cells. It has been shown that soluble CD40L (sCD40L) is released upon platelet activation and is an important mediator of the pathogenesis of HAND but the underlying mechanisms are unclear, emphasizing the need of an effective animal model. Here, we have utilized a novel animal model in which wild-type (WT) mice were infected with EcoHIV; a derivative of HIV-1 that contains a substitution of envelope protein gp120 with that of gp80 derived from murine leukemia virus-1 (MuLV-1). As early as two-weeks post-infection, EcoHIV led to increased permeability of the BBB associated with decreased expression of tight junction protein claudin-5, in CD40L and platelet activation-dependent manner. Treatment with an antiplatelet drug, eptifibatide, in EcoHIV-infected mice normalized BBB function, sCD40L release and platelet activity, thus implicating platelet activation and platelet-derived CD40L in virally induced BBB dysfunction. Our results also validate and underscore the importance of EcoHIV infection mouse model as a tool to explore therapeutic targets for HAND. PMID:26986758

  18. Platelet function during cardiopulmonary bypass using multiple electrode aggregometry: comparison of centrifugal and roller pumps.

    PubMed

    Kehara, Hiromu; Takano, Tamaki; Ohashi, Noburo; Terasaki, Takamitsu; Amano, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood trauma may be lower with centrifugal pumps (CPs) than with roller pumps (RPs) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), because, unlike RPs, CPs do not compress the tubing, and shear stress is considered lower in CPs than in RPs. However, relative platelet function remains unclear. Using multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), we compared platelet function with CP and RP. Ten swine underwent CPB for 3 h, with five weaned off using CP and five using RP. Platelet function was measured using MEA, as were hemoglobin concentration and platelet count, before sternotomy, after heparin infusion, 30 min and 3 h after starting CPB, after protamine infusion, and 60 min after stopping CPB. Platelet activation was initiated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid (AA), and thrombin receptor-activating protein 6 (TRAP). Fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF4), and β-thromboglobin (β-TG) concentrations were measured before sternotomy and 60 min after stopping CPB. In the CP group and using ADP, aggregation was significantly reduced 30 min (P = 0.019) and 3 h (P = 0.027) after starting CPB, recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB was stopped. In the RP group, aggregation was significantly decreased 30 min (P = 0.007) and 3 h (P = 0.003) after starting CPB and after protamine administration (P = 0.028). With AA, aggregation significantly decreased 30 min after starting CPB in both the CP (P = 0.012) and RP (P = 0.016) groups, slightly increasing 3 h after starting CPB and after protamine infusion, and recovering to baseline 60 min after CPB cessation. With TRAP, aggregation in the CP and RP groups decreased 30 min after starting the pump, although changes were not significant; aggregation gradually recovered after 3 h and returned to baseline 60 min after the pumps were stopped. There were no significant differences at all sampling points of MEA. In both groups, fibrinogen, PF4, and β-TG concentrations were similar 60 min after pump cessation and before sternotomy

  19. Perilla oil improves blood flow through inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang-Sei; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of perilla oil on the platelet aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo were investigated in comparison with aspirin, a well-known blood flow enhancer. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with perilla oil and aggregation inducers collagen or thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Perilla oil significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations, in which the thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were administered once daily by gavage with perilla oil for 1 week, carotid arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Perilla oil delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 0.5 mL/kg. In addition, a high dose (2 mL/kg) of perilla oil greatly prevented the occlusion, comparable to the effect of aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that perilla oil inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is proposed that perilla oil could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24707301

  20. Identification of D/sub 1/-like dopamine receptors on human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    De Keyser, J.; De Waele, M.; Convents, A.; Ebinger, G.; Vauquelin, G.

    1988-01-01

    Dopamine is able to inhibit the epinephrine-induced aggregation of human blood platelets, but the mechanism of action has not been elucidated. In this study the authors report that membranes from human blood platelets possess high affinity, saturable and stereoselective binding sites for the D/sub 1/ dopamine receptor antagonist (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390. (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 appeared to label a single class of binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 18.6 +- 1.6 fmolmg protein and a K/sub D/ of 0.8 nM. The potencies of different dopaminergic antagonists and agonists in displacing (/sup 3/H)SCH 23390 from blood platelet membranes were similar to those obtained for striatal membranes. Unlike the classically defined D/sub 1/ receptors, e.g. those in striatum, the D/sub 1/ receptor sites on platelets appeared no to be coupled to the adenylate cyclase system, hence the term D/sub 1/-like. The D/sub 1/ agonist SKF 38393 was more potent than dopamine in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by epinephrine, and the effects of dopamine and SKF 38393 were prevented by SCH 23390. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of dopamine on the epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation is mediated through these D/sub 1/-like receptors

  1. Multicentre standardisation of a clinical grade procedure for the preparation of allogeneic platelet concentrates from umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Rebulla, Paolo; Pupella, Simonetta; Santodirocco, Michele; Greppi, Noemi; Villanova, Ida; Buzzi, Marina; De Fazio, Nicola; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to a largely prevalent use for bleeding prophylaxis, platelet concentrates from adult blood have also been used for many years to prepare platelet gels for the repair of topical skin ulcers. Platelet gel can be obtained by activation of fresh, cryopreserved, autologous or allogeneic platelet concentrates with calcium gluconate, thrombin and/or batroxobin. The high content of tissue regenerative factors in cord blood platelets and the widespread availability of allogeneic cord blood units generously donated for haematopoietic transplant but unsuitable for this use solely because of low haematopoietic stem cell content prompted us to develop a national programme to standardise the production of allogeneic cryopreserved cord blood platelet concentrates (CBPC) suitable for later preparation of clinical-grade cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods Cord blood units collected at public banks with total nucleated cell counts <1.5×109, platelet count >150×109/L and volume >50 mL, underwent soft centrifugation within 48 hours of collection. Platelet-rich plasma was centrifuged at high speed to obtain a CBPC with target platelet concentration of 800–1,200×109/L, which was cryopreserved, without cryoprotectant, below −40 °C. Results During 14 months, 13 banks produced 1,080 CBPC with mean (± standard deviation) volume of 11.4±4.4 mL and platelet concentration of 1,003±229×109/L. Total platelet count per CBPC was 11.3±4.9×109. Platelet recovery from cord blood was 47.7±17.8%. About one-third of cord blood units donated for haematopoietic transplant could meet the requirements for preparation of CBPC. The cost of preparation was € 160.92/CBPC. About 2 hours were needed for one technician to prepare four CBPC. Discussion This study yielded valuable scientific and operational information regarding the development of clinical trials using allogeneic CBPC. PMID:26509822

  2. Genomic landscape of megakaryopoiesis and platelet function defects

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Elisa; Norfo, Ruggiero; Pennucci, Valentina; Zini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryopoiesis is a complex, stepwise process that takes place largely in the bone marrow. At the apex of the hierarchy, hematopoietic stem cells undergo a number of lineage commitment decisions that ultimately lead to the production of polyploid megakaryocytes. On average, megakaryocytes release 1011 platelets per day into the blood that repair vascular injuries and prevent excessive bleeding. This differentiation process is tightly controlled by exogenous and endogenous factors, which have been the topics of intense research in the hematopoietic field. Indeed, a skewing of megakaryocyte commitment and differentiation may entail the onset of myeloproliferative neoplasms and other preleukemic disorders together with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, whereas quantitative or qualitative defects in platelet production can lead to inherited platelet disorders. The recent advent of next-generation sequencing has prompted mapping of the genomic landscape of these conditions to provide an accurate view of the underlying lesions. The aims of this review are to introduce the physiological pathways of megakaryopoiesis and to present landmark studies on acquired and inherited disorders that target them. These studies have not only introduced a new era in the fields of molecular medicine and targeted therapies but may also provide us with a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying normal megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis that can inform efforts to create alternative sources of megakaryocytes and platelets. PMID:26787733

  3. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation during platelet storage: consequences for platelet recovery and hemostatic function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Duerschmied, Daniel; Brill, Alexander; Stefanini, Lucia; Schatzberg, Daphne; Cifuni, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Platelets undergo several modifications during storage that reduce their posttransfusion survival and functionality. One important feature of these changes, which are known as platelet storage lesion, is the shedding of the surface glycoproteins GPIb-α and GPV. We recently demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17) mediates mitochondrial injury-induced shedding of adhesion receptors and that TACE activity correlates with reduced posttransfusion survival of these cells. We now confirm that TACE mediates receptor shedding and clearance of platelets stored for 16 hours at 37°C or 22°C. We further demonstrate that both storage and mitochondrial injury lead to the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) in platelets and that TACE-mediated receptor shedding from mouse and human platelets requires p38 MAP kinase signaling. Protein kinase C, extracellular regulated-signal kinase MAPK, and caspases were not involved in TACE activation. Both inhibition of p38 MAPK and inactivation of TACE during platelet storage led to a markedly improved posttransfusion recovery and hemostatic function of platelets in mice. p38 MAPK inhibitors had only minor effects on the aggregation of fresh platelets under static or flow conditions in vitro. In summary, our data suggest that inhibition of p38 MAPK or TACE during storage may significantly improve the quality of stored platelets. PMID:19965619

  4. The influence of Rubus idaeus and Rubus caesius leaf extracts on platelet aggregation in whole blood. Cross-talk of platelets and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dudzinska, Dominika; Bednarska, Katarzyna; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Boguslawa; Watala, Cezary

    2016-07-01

    Recently, polyphenols have gained attention as potential natural cardioprotective therapeutics, due to their antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activity. Species belonging to the genus Rubus sp. have been reported to be a source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidative proprieties and beneficial biological activities. This study investigates the effects of leaf extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and European dewberry (Rubus caesius L.) on the reactivity of blood platelets. In ADP-stimulated blood, raspberry and dewberry extracts (15 µg/ml) markedly decreased platelet surface membrane expression of activated GPIIbIIIa receptor by 16% and 21%, respectively (P < 0.01) and significantly inhibited platelet aggregation (by 31-41% for raspberry and by 38-55% for dewberry, P < 0.01). In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the extracts had no effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The effectiveness of the extracts in whole blood and the lack of their activity in PRP indicate that leukocytes are likely to participate in the platelet response to the extracts. Our experiments show that the extracts significantly reduced the amount of free radicals released by activated neutrophils in whole blood (P < 0.001), as well as in suspensions of isolated neutrophils (P < 0.05). Moreover, the reduced number of neutrophils leads to the decreased efficiency of the extracts in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. In summary, our findings show that the raspberry and dewberry leaf extracts considerably modulated blood platelet reactivity in whole blood: they influenced blood platelet aggregation, possibly via the modulation of the redox status dependent on the oxidative activity of neutrophils. PMID:26836594

  5. Cathepsin G-Dependent Modulation of Platelet Thrombus Formation In Vivo by Blood Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Faraday, Nauder; Schunke, Kathryn; Saleem, Sofiyan; Fu, Juan; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Morrell, Craig; Dore, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are consistently associated with arterial thrombotic morbidity in human clinical studies but the causal basis for this association is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophils modulate platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo in a cathepsin G-dependent manner. Neutrophils enhanced aggregation of human platelets in vitro in dose-dependent fashion and this effect was diminished by pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G activity and knockdown of cathepsin G expression. Tail bleeding time in the mouse was prolonged by a cathepsin G inhibitor and in cathepsin G knockout mice, and formation of neutrophil-platelet conjugates in blood that was shed from transected tails was reduced in the absence of cathepsin G. Bleeding time was highly correlated with blood neutrophil count in wildtype but not cathepsin G deficient mice. In the presence of elevated blood neutrophil counts, the anti-thrombotic effect of cathepsin G inhibition was greater than that of aspirin and additive to it when administered in combination. Both pharmacologic inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence prolonged the time for platelet thrombus to form in ferric chloride-injured mouse mesenteric arterioles. In a vaso-occlusive model of ischemic stroke, inhibition of cathepsin G and its congenital absence improved cerebral blood flow, reduced histologic brain injury, and improved neurobehavioral outcome. These experiments demonstrate that neutrophil cathepsin G is a physiologic modulator of platelet thrombus formation in vivo and has potential as a target for novel anti-thrombotic therapies. PMID:23940756

  6. The in vitro effect of aspirin on increased whole blood platelet aggregation in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Norris, L A; Bonnar, J

    1994-05-01

    The effects of triphasic oral contraceptives on whole blood platelet aggregation in 36 Italian women are reported here. Aspirin's effects on platelet aggregation were also studied. 18 women took a triphasic oral contraceptive; 10 women took Trinordiol, while 8 took Trinovum for at least 90 days. The remaining 18 women took nothing and served as controls. The study was aligned with each woman's birth control pill cycle. Blood was taken daily on days 15-21 of their cycle. Either saline solution or acetylsalicylic acid was added to the blood samples and compared. All data was statistically analyzed using unpaired student's t-test. Effects of 3 aggregating agents, ADP, PAF, and EDTA, on platelet aggregation were studied. Arachidonic acid and adrenalin bitartrate were also studied in this manner. An increase in platelet aggregation was observed in women taking oral contraceptives. No difference was found between patients taking Trinordiol and those taking Trinovum. The results of this study indicate an increase in whole blood platelet sensitivity to collagen, adrenalin, and arachidonic acid when using oral contraceptives. Aspirin, at low doses, may have a role in preventing early thrombus formation in women taking oral contraceptives. PMID:8042198

  7. Platelet and red blood cell interactions and their role in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Olumuyiwa-Akeredolu, Oore-Ofe O; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-12-01

    Cytokines, lymphocytes, platelets and several biomolecules have long been implicated in the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the influences of antibody production and tagging, and cytokine, chemokine and enzyme production at specific rheumatoid joints were thought to be exclusive to the advancement of disease parameters. Another role player in RA is red blood cells (RBCs) which, of late, have been found to be involved in RA pathobiology, as there is a positive correlation between RBC counts and joint pathology, as well as with inflammatory biomarkers in the disease. There is also an association between RBC distribution width and the incidence of myocardial infarction amongst RA patients, and there is a change in the lipid distribution within RBC membranes. Of late, certain RBC-associated factors with previously obscure roles and cell-derived particles thought to be inconsequential to the other constituents of plasma were found to be active biomolecular players. Several of these have been discovered to be present in or originating from RBCs. Their influences have been shown to involve in membrane dynamics that cause structural and functional changes in both platelets and RBCs. RBC-derived microparticles are emerging entities found to play direct roles in immunomodulation via interactions with other plasma cells. These correlations highlight the direct influences of RBCs on exacerbating RA pathology. This review will attempt to shed more light on how RBCs, in the true inflammatory milieu of RA, are playing an even greater role than previously assumed. PMID:26059943

  8. A Real-Time Monitoring System to Assess the Platelet Aggregatory Capacity of Components of a Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Faiza Idris

    2016-01-01

    Native blood vessels contain both an antiaggregatory intimal layer, which prevents platelet activation in the intact vessel, and a proaggregatory medial layer, which stimulates platelet aggregation upon vascular damage. Yet, current techniques for assessing the functional properties of tissue-engineered blood vessels may not be able to assess the relative effectiveness of both these pro- and antiaggregatory properties of the vessel construct. In this study, we present a novel technique for quantitatively assessing the pro- and antiaggregatory properties of different three-dimensional blood vessel constructs made using a layered fabrication method. This technique utilizes real-time measurements of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling to assess platelet activation in fluorescently labeled human platelet suspensions using fluorescence spectrofluorimetry, while also permitting examination of thrombus formation upon the surface of the construct using fluorescent imaging of DiOC6-labeled platelets. Experiments using this method demonstrated that type I collagen hydrogels, commonly used as scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering, were unable to support significant platelet activation, while type I and III neo-collagen secreted from human coronary artery smooth muscle cells cultured within these hydrogels as the medial layer were able to support thrombus formation. The incorporation of an intimal layer consisting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on top of the medial layer inhibited platelet activation and aggregation. These data demonstrate that the methodology presented here is able to quantitatively compare the capacity of different constructs to trigger or prevent platelet activation. As such, this technique may provide a useful tool for standardizing the assessment of the functional properties of tissue-engineered blood vessel constructs developed using different culturing techniques. PMID:27260694

  9. A Real-Time Monitoring System to Assess the Platelet Aggregatory Capacity of Components of a Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Wall.

    PubMed

    Musa, Faiza Idris; Harper, Alan G S; Yang, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Native blood vessels contain both an antiaggregatory intimal layer, which prevents platelet activation in the intact vessel, and a proaggregatory medial layer, which stimulates platelet aggregation upon vascular damage. Yet, current techniques for assessing the functional properties of tissue-engineered blood vessels may not be able to assess the relative effectiveness of both these pro- and antiaggregatory properties of the vessel construct. In this study, we present a novel technique for quantitatively assessing the pro- and antiaggregatory properties of different three-dimensional blood vessel constructs made using a layered fabrication method. This technique utilizes real-time measurements of cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling to assess platelet activation in fluorescently labeled human platelet suspensions using fluorescence spectrofluorimetry, while also permitting examination of thrombus formation upon the surface of the construct using fluorescent imaging of DiOC6-labeled platelets. Experiments using this method demonstrated that type I collagen hydrogels, commonly used as scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering, were unable to support significant platelet activation, while type I and III neo-collagen secreted from human coronary artery smooth muscle cells cultured within these hydrogels as the medial layer were able to support thrombus formation. The incorporation of an intimal layer consisting of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on top of the medial layer inhibited platelet activation and aggregation. These data demonstrate that the methodology presented here is able to quantitatively compare the capacity of different constructs to trigger or prevent platelet activation. As such, this technique may provide a useful tool for standardizing the assessment of the functional properties of tissue-engineered blood vessel constructs developed using different culturing techniques. PMID:27260694

  10. Coated platelets function in platelet-dependent fibrin formation via integrin αIIbβ3 and transglutaminase factor XIII

    PubMed Central

    Mattheij, Nadine J.A.; Swieringa, Frauke; Mastenbroek, Tom G.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; May, Frauke; Baaten, Constance C.F.M.J.; van der Meijden, Paola E.J.; Henskens, Yvonne M.C.; Beckers, Erik A.M.; Suylen, Dennis P.L.; Nolte, Marc W.; Hackeng, Tilman M.; McCarty, Owen J.T.; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.; Cosemans, Judith M.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Coated platelets, formed by collagen and thrombin activation, have been characterized in different ways: i) by the formation of a protein coat of α-granular proteins; ii) by exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine; or iii) by high fibrinogen binding. Yet, their functional role has remained unclear. Here we used a novel transglutaminase probe, Rhod-A14, to identify a subpopulation of platelets with a cross-linked protein coat, and compared this with other platelet subpopulations using a panel of functional assays. Platelet stimulation with convulxin/thrombin resulted in initial integrin αIIbβ3 activation, the appearance of a platelet population with high fibrinogen binding, (independently of active integrins, but dependent on the presence of thrombin) followed by phosphatidylserine exposure and binding of coagulation factors Va and Xa. A subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets bound Rhod-A14 both in suspension and in thrombi generated on a collagen surface. In suspension, high fibrinogen and Rhod-A14 binding were antagonized by combined inhibition of transglutaminase activity and integrin αIIbβ3. Markedly, in thrombi from mice deficient in transglutaminase factor XIII, platelet-driven fibrin formation and Rhod-A14 binding were abolished by blockage of integrin αIIbβ3. Vice versa, star-like fibrin formation from platelets of a patient with deficiency in αIIbβ3 (Glanzmann thrombasthenia) was abolished upon blockage of transglutaminase activity. We conclude that coated platelets, with initial αIIbβ3 activation and high fibrinogen binding, form a subpopulation of phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets, and function in platelet-dependent star-like fibrin fiber formation via transglutaminase factor XIII and integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26721892

  11. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2013-12-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24396387

  12. Nattokinase improves blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja-Young; Kim, Tae-Su; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Kwang Sei; Park, Sung Kyeong; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nattokinase on the in vitro platelet aggregation and in vivo thrombosis were investigated in comparison with aspirin. Rabbit platelet-rich plasma was incubated with nattokinase and aggregation inducers collagen and thrombin, and the platelet aggregation rate was analyzed. Nattokinase significantly inhibited both the collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregations. Nattokinase also reduced thromboxane B2 formation from collagen-activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Rats were orally administered with nattokinase for 1 week, and their carotid arteries were exposed. Arterial thrombosis was induced by applying 35% FeCl3-soaked filter paper for 10 min, and the blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. Nattokinase delayed the FeCl3-induced arterial occlusion in a dose-dependent manner, doubling the occlusion time at 160 mg/kg. In addition, a high dose (500 mg/kg) of nattokinase fully prevented the occlusion, as achieved with aspirin (30 mg/kg). The results indicate that nattokinase extracted from fermented soybean inhibit platelet aggregation by blocking thromboxane formation, and thereby delay thrombosis following oxidative arterial wall injury. Therefore, it is suggested that nattokinase could be a good candidate without adverse effects for the improvement of blood flow. PMID:24396387

  13. Antiplatelet drugs in patients with enhanced platelet turnover: biomarkers versus platelet function testing.

    PubMed

    Freynhofer, Matthias K; Gruber, Susanne C; Grove, Erik L; Weiss, Thomas W; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt

    2015-08-31

    Platelets are key players in atherothrombosis. Antiplatelet therapy comprising aspirin alone or with P2Y12-inhibitors are effective for prevention of atherothrombotic complications. However, there is interindividual variability in the response to antiplatelet drugs, leaving some patients at increased risk of recurrent atherothrombotic events. Several risk factors associated with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR), including elevated platelet turnover, have been identified. Platelet turnover is adequately estimated from the fraction of reticulated platelets. Reticulated platelets are young platelets, characterised by residual messenger RNA. They are larger, haemostatically more active and there is evidence that platelet turnover is a causal and prognostic factor in atherothrombotic disease. Whether platelet turnover per se represents a key factor in pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of atherothrombotic diseases (with focus on acute coronary syndromes) or whether it merely facilitates insufficient platelet inhibition will be discussed in this state-of-the art review. PMID:26272640

  14. Visualization of nitric oxide production by individual platelets during adhesion in flowing blood.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Maria Rita; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Battiston, Monica; Momi, Stefania; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Miller, Edward Cole; De Zanet, Denise; Mazzucato, Mario; Gresele, Paolo; De Marco, Luigi

    2015-01-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) exerts vasodilatatory, antiplatelet, antioxidant, and antiproliferative effects. Endothelium-derived NO has been shown to be of crucial importance in cardiovascular protection, whereas evidence that NO is synthesized by platelets and regulates platelet function is still controversial. By using a sensitive and specific fluorescent probe, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM), we visualized NO production in individual platelets undergoing adhesion on a collagen substrate under flow conditions. NO production, monitored in real time, was dependent on the shear rates applied, increasing with the raising of the shear rates. Furthermore, NO production increased in the presence of l-arginine (nitric-oxide synthase [NOS] substrate), and it decreased in the presence of L-NG-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) (NOS inhibitor) but not of D-NG-monomethyl arginine (D-NMMA) (L-NMMA-inactive enantiomer). Platelet deposition, measured with mepacrine-labeled platelets, was inversely related to NO production. A correlation was evident between Ca(++) elevation and NO production, suggesting that platelet NO formation is triggered by intracytoplasmic Ca(++) elevation. Simultaneous measurement of NO and Ca(++) indicated that NO production in individual platelets is preceded by Ca(++) elevations, with a lag phase of 33 ± 9.5 s. Our studies provide the first direct demonstration of platelet NO production triggered by the interaction with an activating surface under flow and suggest that intraplatelet Ca(++) elevation elicits the production of NO which, in turn, modulates thrombus size. PMID:25480660

  15. The Actin and Myosin Filaments of Human and Bovine Blood Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Zucker-Franklin, Dorothea; Grusky, George

    1972-01-01

    The contractility of platelets has been attributed to an actomyosin-like protein which has been well defined on a physicochemical basis. Moreover, platelets contain ±80 A filaments which resemble actin filaments in smooth muscle. Studies were undertaken on human and bovine platelets to better define the morphologic structures which may subserve this contractile function. In order to identify actin, the ability of the filaments to react with heavy meromyosin (HMM) was tested. Accordingly, platelets were glycerinated and treated with HMM. In addition, platelet actin was extracted, reacted with HMM, and examined by negative staining. In both instances typical arrowhead structures with clearly defined polarity and a periodicity of ±360 A formed. As is the case with purified muscle actin, the complexes were dissociable with Mg-ATP. The formation of myosin-like filaments was observed when osmotically shocked platelets were incubated with MgCl2 and excess ATP. These “thick” filaments measured 250-300 A in width, tapered at both ends and often occurred in clumps. They resembled aggregates of thick filaments described in contracted smooth muscle. Extraction of platelets by methods suitable for the demonstration of myosin showed filaments with an average length of 0.3 μ, a smooth shaft, and frayed or bulbous ends. These appeared identical to those seen in synthetically prepared myosin of striated muscle. It is suggested that the filaments described here represent the actin and myosin of platelets. Images PMID:4333023

  16. Effect of Blood Shear Forces on Platelet Mediated Thrombosis Inside Arterial Stenosis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalej, Nabil

    Shear induced activation of platelets plays a major role in the onset of thrombosis in atherosclerotic arteries. Blood hemodynamics and its effect on platelet kinetics has been studied mainly in in vitro and in ex vivo experiments. We designed new in vivo methods to study blood hemodynamic effects on platelet kinetics in canine stenosed carotid arteries. A carotid artery-jugular vein anastomotic shunt was produced. Intimal damage and controlled variations in the degree of stenosis were produced on the artery. An inflatable cuff was placed around the jugular vein to control vascular resistance. An electromagnetic flowmeter was used to measure blood flow. Doppler ultrasound crystals were used to measure the velocity profiles inside and distal to the stenosis. Stenosis geometry was obtained using digital subtraction angiography and quantitative arteriography. Using these measurements we calculated the wall shear stress using the finite difference solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. To study platelet kinetics, autologous platelets were labeled with Indium Oxine and injected IV. A collimated Nal gamma counter was placed over the stenosis to detect radio-labeled platelet accumulation as platelet mediated thrombi formed in the stenosis. The radioactive count rate increased in an inverse parallel fashion to the decline in flow rate during thrombus formation. The platelet accumulation increased with the increase of percent stenosis and was maximal at the narrow portion of the stenosis. Acute thrombus formation leading to arterial occlusion was only observed for stenosis higher than 70 +/- 5%. Platelet accumulation rate was not significant until the pressure gradient across the stenosis exceeded 40 +/- 10 mmHg. Totally occlusive thrombus formation was only observed for shear stresses greater than a critical value of 100 +/- 10 Pa. Beyond this critical value acute platelet thrombus formation increased exponentially with shear. Increased shear stresses were found to

  17. Hemostatic function of apheresis platelets stored at 4 °C and 22 °C

    PubMed Central

    Reddoch, Kristin M.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Fedyk, Criselda G.; Aden, James K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Cap, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet refrigeration decreases the risk of bacterial contamination and may preserve function better than standard-of-care room temperature storage. Benefits could include lower transfusion-related complications, decreased costs, improved hemostasis in acutely bleeding patients, and extended shelf-life. In this study, we compared the effects of 22°C and 4°C storage on the functional and activation status of apheresis platelets (APs). Methods APs (n = 5 per group) were stored for 5 days at 22°C with agitation (RT) versus at 4°C with agitation (4C+AG) and without (4C). Measurements included platelet counts, mean platelet volume, blood gas analytes, aggregation response, thromboelastography, TxB2 and sCD40L release, activation markers and microparticle formation. Results Sample pH levels were within acceptable limits for storage products (pH 6.2-7.4). Platelet glucose metabolism (P < 0.05), aggregation response (ADP: RT 0; 4C+AG 5.0 ± 0.8; 4C 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05), and clot strength (MA: RT 58 ± 2; 4C+AG 63 ± 2; 4C 67 ± 2; P < 0.05) were better preserved at 4°C compared to RT storage. Refrigerated samples were more activated compared to RT (P < 0.05), although TxB2 (P < 0.05) and sCD40L release (P < 0.05) were higher at RT. Agitation did not improve the quality of 4°C-stored samples. Conclusion AP stored at 4°C maintain more viable metabolic characteristics, are hemostatically more effective, and release fewer pro-inflammatory mediators than AP stored at RT over 5 days. Given the superior bacteriologic safety of refrigerated products, these data suggest that cold-stored platelets may improve outcomes for acutely bleeding patients. PMID:24169210

  18. The effect of oral phenylbutazone on whole blood platelet aggregation in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M L; Searcy, G P; Olexson, D W

    1985-01-01

    Platelet aggregation to collagen, arachidonic acid and adenosine diphosphate was evaluated in six dogs using a whole blood electronic aggregometer. The six dogs were then given phenylbutazone orally according to four different dosage levels and durations of treatment. Aggregation responses were measured at established intervals of time following phenylbutazone administration. Data on untreated dogs indicated that arachidonic acid, at a final concentration of 50 micrograms/mL and collagen, at a final concentration of 5 micrograms/mL, were useful agents for studying whole blood platelet aggregation in the dog, but adenosine diphosphate, at a final concentration of 30 microM was not. The high single dose (900 mg) of phenylbutazone significantly inhibited platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid at 1.5,4,7 and 12 hours following administration. The results indicated that the whole blood electronic aggregometer was of limited value in detecting subtle changes in platelet aggregation. It was concluded, however, that the instrument is potentially useful as a rapid screening aid for detecting canine patients at high risk of platelet-related bleeding problems. PMID:3930056

  19. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  20. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage

    PubMed Central

    Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions. PMID:26121269

  1. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline de Fátima Aquino; Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions. PMID:26121269

  2. Blood flow reductions in stenosed canine coronary arteries: vasospasm or platelet aggregation?

    PubMed

    Folts, J D; Gallagher, K; Rowe, G G

    1982-02-01

    In 67 dogs with a 60-80% coronary stenosis produced by an external constricting plastic ring, blood flow measured with an electromagnetic flowmeter showed cyclical flow reductions of varying magnitude and duration, and then an abrupt return to control flow. In 45 dogs, heparin did not prevent these flow reductions, but ibuprofen (Motrin) or indomethacin abolished them. With incremental doses of each of these drugs, the cyclical flow reduction and the platelet function in vitro were diminished proportionately. In 10 more dogs, during low flow, pinching or poking the narrowed vessel suddenly restored normal flow. Topical application of papaverine and nitroglycerin proximal to the stenosis did not abolish the cyclic flow reduction, although a transient fall in systemic pressure indicated that they had been absorbed. Seven dogs had the constricting cylinder and flow probe chronically implanted for 4-6 weeks. A single oral dose of aspirin, 20 mg/kg, abolished their cyclic flow reductions for 2-4 days. In five dogs with 70% stenosis in the circumflex coronary artery, coronary arteriography was performed before coronary flow reduction and when coronary blood flow was low. This showed that there was a considerable additional reduction in the size of the mechanically constricted lumen during spontaneous flow reduction. In one dog, a nonopacified mass was dislodged from the area of constriction in 67 msec and this restored the lumen to its control diameter. Similar rapid clearing was filmed in two more dogs. In no case was vasospasm observed. These results suggest that obstruction from platelets aggregated in the narrowed lumen caused the cyclic flow reductions. PMID:7053882

  3. Effect of an electrical left ventricular assist device on red blood cell and platelet survival in the cow. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Melaragno, A.J.; Vecchione, J.J.; Katchis, R.J.; Abdu, W.A.; Ouellet, R.P.

    1982-04-23

    Blood volume measurements were made in cows after infusion of human 125 iodine albumin and autologous 51 chromium-labeled red blood cells. Repeated intravenous infusions of iodinated human albumin did not appear to isosensitize the cows. When the cow red blood cells were incubated at 37 C after labeling with 51 chromium, there was elution of the 51 chromium, and the 51 chromium T 50 values were 45 hours in both healthy cows and cows with LVAD's. Measurements also were made in the cow platelets labeled with 51 chromium or 111 Indium-oxine. The platelets labeled with 51 chromium had T 50 values of 4 days, and platelets labeled with 111 Indium-oxine had T 50 values of 0.9 to 2.7 days. 51 chromium-labeled platelets had similar T 50 values in healthy cows and cows with LVAD's. Bovine platelets isolated from units of blood using serial differential centrifugation were labeled with 51 chromium or with 111 Indium-oxine, and after infusion in healthy cows and cows with LVAD's measurements were made of platelet circulation and distribution. The disappearance of platelet radioactivity from the blood was linear with time, and the platelet lifespan was 6-10 days. The presence of an LVAD did not affect initial recovery or lifespan of cow platelets.

  4. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on platelet function in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gomi, T; Ikeda, T; Shibuya, Y; Nagao, R

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of antihypertensive therapy on platelet activation in essential hypertension, the plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) were examined in 45 patients with essential hypertension and 20 age-matched normotensive control subjects. Hypertensive patients were assigned to monotherapy with one of five different antihypertensive drugs for 6 months, and the change of plasma levels of beta-TG was reexamined after the completion of the monotherapy. The plasma beta-TG increased in hypertensive patients compared with levels in normotensive control subjects. Monotherapy with each drug resulted in sufficient blood pressure control in all hypertensive patients. The plasma beta-TG decreased significantly after monotherapy with an alpha-blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). The plasma beta-TG increased with the use of a diuretic but did not change with the use of a beta-blocker or calcium antagonist. The platelet activation observed in patients with essential hypertension is reversed by monotherapy with an alpha-blocker or an ACEI. It is possible that these drugs reduce the development of hypertensive vascular complications due to suppression of platelet activation in patients with essential hypertension. PMID:11131267

  5. Platelet kinetics with indium-111 platelets: comparison with chromium-51 platelets.

    PubMed

    Peters, A M; Lavender, J P

    1983-04-01

    The application of 111In-oxine to platelet labeling has contributed to the understanding of platelet kinetics along three lines: 1. It allows the measurement of new parameters of splenic function, such as the intrasplenic platelet transit time, which has shed new light on the physiology of splenic blood cell handling. 2. It facilitates the measurement of platelet life span in conditions, such as ITP, in which 51Cr may undergo undesirable elution from the platelet as a result of platelet-antibody interaction. 3. It allows the determination of the fate of platelets, that is, the site of platelet destruction in conditions in which reduced platelet life span is associated with abnormal platelet consumption, as a result of either premature destruction of "abnormal" platelets by the RE system, or the consumption (or destruction) of normal platelets after their interaction with an abnormal vasculature. Future research using 111In platelets may yield further valuable information on the control as well as the significance of intrasplenic platelet pooling, on the role of platelets in the development of chronic vascular lesions, and on the sites of platelet destruction in ITP. With regard to the latter, methods will have to be developed for harvesting sufficient platelets representative of the total circulating platelet population from severely thrombocytopenic patients for autologous platelet labeling. This would avoid the use of homologous platelets, which is likely to be responsible for some of the contradictory data relating to the use of radiolabeled platelet studies for the prediction of the response of patients with ITP to splenectomy. PMID:6346489

  6. Model of platelet transport in flowing blood with drift and diffusion terms.

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, E C; Belgacem, F

    1991-01-01

    A drift term is added to the convective diffusion equation for platelet transport so that situations with near-wall excesses of platelets can be described. The mathematical relationship between the drift and the fully developed, steady-state platelet concentration profile is shown and a functional form of the drift that leads to concentration profiles similar to experimentally determined profiles is provided. The transport equation is numerically integrated to determine concentration profiles in the developing region of a tube flow. With the approximate drift function and typical values of augmented diffusion constant, the calculated concentration profiles have near-wall excesses that mimic experimental results, thus implying the extended equation is a valid description of rheological events. Stochastic differential equations that are equivalent to the convective diffusion transport equation are shown, and simulations with them are used to illustrate the impact of the drift term on platelet concentration profiles during deposition in a tube flow. PMID:1883945

  7. Long-term untreated streptozotocin-diabetes leads to increased expression and elevated activity of prostaglandin H2 synthase in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Siewiera, Karolina; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Wieteska, Lukasz; Watala, Cezary

    2016-05-01

    In diabetes-related states of chronic hyperglycaemia elevated concentrations of glucose may alter the functioning of platelet enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, including prostaglandin H2 synthase (cyclooxygenase) (PGHS, COX). Therefore, the principal aim of this study was to assess the effects of experimental chronic hyperglycaemia on platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) expression and activity. Blood platelet activation and reactivity were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with the 5-month streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes. The PGHS-1 abundance in platelets was evaluated with flow cytometry and Western blotting, while its activity monitored using a high resolution respirometry and the peroxidase fluorescent assay. The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in platelets were assayed immunoenzymatically. Circulating platelets from diabetic were characterised by increased size, elevated 'priming' and altered reactivity, compared to non-diabetic animals. Both Western blot analysis and flow cytometry revealed significantly elevated expressions of platelet PGHS-1 in STZ-diabetic rats (p < 0.05). We also observed significantly elevated platelet PGHS-1-related arachidonic acid metabolism in diabetic vs. non-diabetic animals, with the use of polarographic (p < 0.05) and total activity assay (p < 0.001). Such increases were accompanied by the elevated production of PGE2 (p < 0.001) and TXB2 (p < 0.05) in diabetic animals. The increased PGHS-1-dependent oxygen consumption and the total activity of PGHS-1 in diabetic animals remained very significant (p < 0.001) also upon adjusting for blood platelet PGHS-1 abundance. Therefore, our results further contribute to the explanation of the increased metabolism of arachidonic acid observed in diabetes. PMID:26325148

  8. Aspirin insensitive thrombophilia: Transcript profiling of blood identifies platelet abnormalities and HLA restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Payam; Katz, Richard; Toma, Ian; Li, Ranyang; Reiner, Jonathan; VanHouten, Kiersten; Carpio, Larry; Marshall, Lorraine; Lian, Yi; Bupp, Sujata; Fu, Sidney W.; Rickles, Frederick; Leitenberg, David; Lai, Yinglei; Weksler, Babette B.; Rebling, Frederik; Yang, Zhaoqing; McCaffrey, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin is the most widely used antiplatelet agent because it is safe, efficient, and inexpensive. However, a significant subset of patients does not exhibit a full inhibition of platelet aggregation, termed ‘aspirin resistance’ (AR). Several major studies have observed that AR patients have a 4-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and other thrombotic events. Arachidonic acid-stimulated whole blood aggregation was tested in 132 adults at risk for ischemic events, and identified an inadequate response to aspirin therapy in 9 patients (6.8%). Expression profiling of blood RNA by microarray was used to generate new hypotheses about the etiology of AR. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were decreases in several known platelet transcripts, including clusterin (CLU), glycoproteins IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B/3), lipocalin (LCN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and the thrombopoetin receptor (MPL), but with increased mRNA for the T-cell Th1 chemokine CXCL10. There was a strong association of AR with expression of HLA-DRB4 and HLA-DQA1. Similar HLA changes have been linked to autoimmune disorders, particularly antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), in which autoantibodies to phospholipid/protein complexes can trigger platelet activation. Consistent with APS, AR patients exhibited a 30% reduction in platelet counts. Follow-up testing for autoimmune antibodies observed only borderline titers in AR patients. Overall, these results suggest that AR may be related to changes in platelet gene expression creating a hyperreactive platelet, despite antiplatelet therapy. Future studies will focus on determining the protein levels of these differential transcripts in platelets, and the possible involvement of HLA restriction as a contributing factor. PMID:23454623

  9. Keishibukuryogan, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Inhibits Platelet Aggregation in Guinea Pig Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Terawaki, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Masamichi; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Omiya, Yuji; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Kase, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Effects of keishibukuryogan (KBG) on platelet aggregation were investigated. To ensure the specificity of KBG, tokishakuyakusan (TSS) and kamisyoyosan (KSS), which are known to have platelet aggregation-inhibiting effects, and rikkunshito (RKT) and shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), which are considered to be devoid of such effects, were used for comparison. The platelet aggregation of each test drug was measured by the screen filtration pressure method using whole blood of guinea pigs and expressed as a collagen-induced pressure rate (%) or a collagen concentration required for 50% increase in the pressure rate (PATI value). KBG suppressed the collagen-induced whole blood pressure rate increase and increased the PATI value, like TSS and KSS. Neither RKT nor SKT showed these effects. The Moutan cortex and Cinnamomi cortex, the constituent crude drugs of KBG, showed KBG-like pressure rate suppression and PATI-increasing effects. Furthermore, paeonol, a representative component of Moutan cortex, and aspirin which is known to have platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity (COX-1 inhibitor) also showed similar effects. These results suggest that the platelet aggregation-inhibiting activity of the constituent crude drugs Moutan cortex and Cinnamomi cortex is involved in the improving effects of KBG on impaired microcirculation and that paeonol plays a role in these effects. PMID:26379740

  10. White blood cell and platelet indices as prognostic markers in patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Kostakis, Ioannis D.; Machairas, Nikolaos; Markopoulos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that oncogenesis is associated with systemic inflammation. The present study investigated white blood cell and platelet indices, whose values change during the inflammatory response, in women with invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Preoperatively obtained white blood cell and platelet counts from 53 patients with early breast cancer, who developed systemic metastases over a mean follow-up period of 65 months, were analyzed and compared with those of a matching control group formed of 37 patients with the same characteristics, who remained recurrence-free during the same time period. Patients who developed distant metastasis had a significantly higher mean platelet volume and lower neutrophil count than patients who did not present with distant metastasis. Furthermore, time to distant metastasis development was longer in patients with a lower mean platelet volume, whilst patients with a lower neutrophil count had a shorter systemic disease-free time interval. However, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that these parameters provided moderate accuracy in predicting which patients may develop distant metastasis. No differences were detected between patient groups regarding additional parameters. Patients who developed systemic disease during a mean follow-up period of 65 months were observed to have an increased mean platelet volume and decreased neutrophil count preoperatively. These results indicate that such parameters may be of prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to further investigate this hypothesis. PMID:27446480

  11. Potential use of blood bank platelet concentrates to accelerate wound healing of diabetic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Deok-Woo; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Hong, Yong-Taek; Woo, Hong-Suh; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Gottrup, Finn

    2007-11-01

    Many clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of platelet releasates on diabetic wound healing, but large volumes of blood must be aspirated from patients and a platelet separator is required. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of blood bank platelet concentrate (BBPC) for accelerating diabetic wound healing. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) contents in BBPC were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in vitro, and the in vivo study involved comparing extents of wound healing in BBPC-treated and control groups using diabetic mouse wound models. In the in vitro study, 5.2 +/- 1.2 pg of PDGF-BB was found to be released by 1 million platelets in fresh BBPC, and adding thrombin to BBPC significantly increased the levels of PDGF-BB released. Our in vivo study in diabetic mice revealed that BBPC treatment greatly accelerated wound healing. Our results suggest that BBPC has potential to accelerate the healing of diabetic ulcers. PMID:17992147

  12. Effects of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa on the markers of oxidative stress and blood platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kedzierska, Magdalena; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive substances found in numerous foods can be successfully and safely used to modify various cellular functions and affect the oxidative stress. Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances shown to have anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidative and antiplatelet activities. We investigated antioxidant properties of the extract from berries of A. melanocarpa by the estimation of the selected and other biomarkers of oxidative stress, i.e. the level of 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2) (8-EPI) (by immunoassay kit) and the amount of glutathione (by HPLC method) in control platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The expression of alpha(IIb)beta(3) (a marker of platelet activation) was measured by flow cytometer. The antioxidative and antiplatelet properties of the tested extract were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa (at the highest tested concentration -100 microg/ml) decreased the production of 8-EPI (a marker of lipid peroxidation) in control blood platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (2 mM). A combined action of the tested plant extract and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced form of glutathione in platelets compared with cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. Moreover, the tested plant extract (at the highest used concentration -100 microg/ml) reduced the expression of alpha(IIb)beta(3) on blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that the tested plant extract was found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of pure resveratrol. PMID:20218910

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  14. Effects of the extract from Conyza canadensis on human blood platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, J; Olas, B; Pawlaczyk, I; Gancarz, R; Wachowicz, B

    2007-06-01

    The effects of different parts of extract from medicinal plant Conyza canadensis, used to control bleeding, on human blood platelet aggregation in vitro were investigated. Aqueous extract of Conyza c. from young or old plants, glycoconjugate part, polysaccharide part and aglycon part at the concentrations above 0.75 mg/ml strongly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen (2 microg/ml) in dose-dependent manner. Polysaccharide part isolated from plant extract had the strongest inhibitory effect on aggregation stimulated by collagen and seems to be responsible for antiaggregatory properties. PMID:17660590

  15. Altered Platelet Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Cause or a Consequence of Uteroplacental Disease?

    PubMed

    Müllers, Sieglinde M; Burke, Naomi; Flood, Karen; Cowman, Jonathan; O'connor, Hugh; Cotter, Brian; Kearney, Morgan; Dempsey, Mark; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth; Geary, Michael P; Kenny, Dermot; Malone, Fergal D

    2016-07-01

    Objective A limited number of platelet function studies in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have yielded conflicting results. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity in IUGR using a novel platelet aggregation assay. Study Design Pregnancies with IUGR were recruited from 24 weeks' gestation (estimated fetal weight < 10th centile) and had platelet function testing performed after diagnosis. A modification of light transmission aggregometry created dose-response curves of platelet reactivity in response to multiple agonists at differing concentrations. Findings were compared with healthy third trimester controls. IUGR cases with a subsequent normal birth weight were analyzed separately. Results In this study, 33 pregnancies retained their IUGR diagnosis at birth, demonstrating significantly reduced platelet reactivity in response to all agonists (arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide, and epinephrine) when compared with 36 healthy pregnancy controls (p < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for cases demonstrating an increasing in utero growth trajectory. When IUGR preceded preeclampsia or gestational hypertension, platelet function was significantly reduced compared with normotensive IUGR. Conclusion Using this comprehensive platelet assay, we have demonstrated a functional impairment of platelets in IUGR. This may reflect platelet-derived placental growth factor release. Further evaluation of platelet function may aid in the development of future platelet-targeted therapies for uteroplacental disease. PMID:26906182

  16. The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charneau, Sébastien; Junqueira, Magno; Costa, Camila M.; Pires, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Ellen S.; Bussacos, Ana C.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Ricart, Carlos André O.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC-MS/MS analysis using a LTQ-Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug's blood-feeding.

  17. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced. PMID:24117160

  18. Expression of myotubularins in blood platelets: Characterization and potential diagnostic of X-linked myotubular myopathy.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Rana; Severin, Sonia; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Gratacap, Marie-Pierre; Laporte, Jocelyn; Buj-Bello, Ana; Tronchère, Hélène; Payrastre, Bernard

    2016-07-29

    Phosphoinositides play a key role in the spatiotemporal control of central intracellular processes and several specific kinases and phosphatases regulating the level of these lipids are implicated in human diseases. Myotubularins are a family of 3-phosphatases acting specifically on phosphatidylinositol 3-monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5 bisphosphate. Members of this family are mutated in genetic diseases including myotubularin 1 (MTM1) and myotubularin-related protein 2 (MTMR2) which mutations are responsible of X-linked centronuclear myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, respectively. Here we show that MTM1 is expressed in blood platelets and that hundred microliters of blood is sufficient to detect the protein by western blotting. Since the most severe cases of pathogenic mutations of MTM1 lead to loss of expression of the protein, we propose that a minimal amount of blood can allow a rapid diagnostic test of X-linked myotubular myopathy, which is currently based on histopathology of muscle biopsy and molecular genetic testing. In platelets, MTM1 is a highly active 3-phosphatase mainly associated to membranes and found on the dense granules and to a lesser extent on alpha-granules. However, deletion of MTM1 in mouse had no significant effect on platelet count and on platelet secretion and aggregation induced by thrombin or collagen stimulation. Potential compensation by other members of the myotubularin family is conceivable since MTMR2 was easily detectable by western blotting and the mRNA of several members of the family increased during in vitro differentiation of human megakaryocytes and MEG-01 cells. In conclusion, we show the presence of several myotubularins in platelets and propose that minimal amounts of blood can be used to develop a rapid diagnostic test for genetic pathologies linked to loss of expression of these phosphatases. PMID:27155155

  19. Life span and tissue distribution of 111indium-labeled blood platelets in hypomagnesemic lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.; Miller, J.K.; White, P.K.; Ramsey, N.

    1983-05-01

    Circulating platelets may be activated by exposed triple-helical collagen in atherosclerotic lesions in Mg-deficient ruminants. Autologous platelets, labeled in vitro with 111In and determined to be active, were injected into 5 hypomagnesemic and 3 control lambs fed semipurified diets with 100 or 2,000 mg of Mg/kg of feed for 3 months. During the first 68 hours, 111In concentrations were 11 times higher in packed cells than in plasma. Packed-cell 111In increased 60% during the first 2 hours, probably due to initial tissue sequestration and later release of labeled platelets. Thereafter, platelet half-life span averaged 60 and 63 hours for hypomagnesemic and control lambs. After 68 hours, lambs were injected with native vascular collagen fibrils at 500 micrograms/kg of body weight to initiate reversible platelet aggregation. Within 1 minute, 83% of packed-cell 111In disappeared from circulation. Thirty minutes later, the lambs were euthanatized and necropsied and in the lungs, liver, and spleen, 111In averaged 24%, 19%, and 9%, respectively, of 111In injected 68 hours earlier. Organ deposits were not affected by Mg intake, but 111In in the lungs was somewhat lower in 2 lambs injected with inactivated collagen. Pathologic changes induced by reversible platelet aggregation were compatible with right ventricular failure complicated by pulmonary edema, similar to changes in hypomagnesemic lambs that died spontaneously. Platelets in blood exposed to vascular lesions in hypomagnesemic ruminants could be a major mortality risk factor in grass tetany disease.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Channel Geometry on Platelet Activation and Blood Damage

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingshu; Yun, B. Min; Fallon, Anna M.; Hanson, Stephen R.; Aidun, Cyrus K.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    Thromboembolic complications in Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are believed to be due to the combination of high shear stresses and large recirculation regions. Relating blood damage to design geometry is therefore essential to ultimately optimize the design of BMHVs. The aim of this research is to quantitatively study the effect of 3D channel geometry on shear-induced platelet activation and aggregation, and to choose an appropriate blood damage index (BDI) model for future numerical simulations. The simulations in this study use a recently developed lattice-Boltzmann with external boundary force (LBM-EBF) method [Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Numer. Method Fluids 62(7):765–783, 2010; Wu, J., and C. K. Aidun. Int. J. Multiphase flow 36:202–209, 2010]. The channel geometries and flow conditions are re-constructed from recent experiments by Fallon [The Development of a Novel in vitro Flow System to Evaluate Platelet Activation and Procoagulant Potential Induced by Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Leakage Jets in School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Atlanta: Georgia Institute of Technology] and Fallon et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 36(1):1]. The fluid flow is computed on a fixed regular ‘lattice’ using the LBM, and each platelet is mapped onto a Lagrangian frame moving continuously throughout the fluid domain. The two-way fluid–solid interactions are determined by the EBF method by enforcing a no-slip condition on the platelet surface. The motion and orientation of the platelet are obtained from Newtonian dynamics equations. The numerical results show that sharp corners or sudden shape transitions will increase blood damage. Fallon’s experimental results were used as a basis for choosing the appropriate BDI model for use in future computational simulations of flow through BMHVs. PMID:20976558

  1. The role of point-of-care assessment of platelet function in predicting postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements after coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thekkudan, Joyce; Sahajanandan, Raj; Gravenor, Mike; Lakshmanan, Suresh; Fayaz, Khazi Mohammed; Luckraz, Heyman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Objective platelet function assessment after cardiac surgery can predict postoperative blood loss, guide transfusion requirements and discriminate the need for surgical re-exploration. We conducted this study to assess the predictive value of point-of-care testing platelet function using the Multiplate® device. Methods: Patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively recruited (n = 84). Group A (n = 42) patients were on anti-platelet therapy until surgery; patients in Group B (n = 42) stopped anti-platelet treatment at least 5 days preoperatively. Multiplate® and thromboelastography (TEG) tests were performed in the perioperative period. Primary end-point was excessive bleeding (>2.5 ml/kg/h) within first 3 h postoperative. Secondary end-points included transfusion requirements, re-exploration rates, intensive care unit and in-hospital stays. Results: Patients in Group A had excessive bleeding (59% vs. 33%, P = 0.02), higher re-exploration rates (14% vs. 0%, P < 0.01) and higher rate of blood (41% vs. 14%, P < 0.01) and platelet (14% vs. 2%, P = 0.05) transfusions. On multivariate analysis, preoperative platelet function testing was the most significant predictor of excessive bleeding (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, P = 0.08), need for blood (OR: 5.5, P < 0.01) and platelet transfusion (OR: 15.1, P < 0.01). Postoperative “ASPI test” best predicted the need for transfusion (sensitivity - 0.86) and excessive blood loss (sensitivity - 0.81). TEG results did not correlate well with any of these outcome measures. Conclusions: Peri-operative platelet functional assessment with Multiplate® was the strongest predictor for bleeding and transfusion requirements in patients on anti-platelet therapy until the time of surgery. Study registration: ISRCTN43298975 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN43298975/). PMID:25566711

  2. Alterations of platelet functions in children and adolescents with iron-deficiency anemia and response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Galila M; Ibrahim, Wafaa E; Kassim, Nevine A; Ragab, Iman A; Saad, Abeer A; Abdel Raheem, Heba G

    2015-01-01

    Several changes in platelets have been reported in patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), so a relationship between iron metabolism and thrombopoiesis should be considered. We aimed to study the alterations of platelet functions in patients with IDA by assessment of platelet aggregation with epinephrine, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and ristocetin and by measuring platelet function analyzer-100 (PFA-100) closure time together with the effect of iron therapy on the same tests. A follow-up study was conducted in Ain Shams University Children's hospital in the period from June 2011 to June 2012 including 20 patients with confirmed IDA and 20 healthy age- and sex-matched control. Bleeding manifestations were reported. Laboratory analysis included complete blood count, assessment of iron status by measuring serum iron, TIBC and ferritin, assessment of platelet functions by PFA-100 closure time and platelet aggregation with collagen, ADP and ristocetin. Patients with IDA were treated by oral iron therapy 6 mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate and post-therapeutic re-assessment was done. Mean age of IDA patients was 5.7 ± 4.2 years. Bleeding manifestations were more common in patients group. Mean PFA-100 closure times (with epinephrine) were significantly longer in patients (179.1 ± 86.4 seconds) compared to control group (115 ± 28.5 seconds) (p < 0.05). Platelet aggregation by ADP (38.1 ± 22.2%), epinephrine (19.7 ± 14.2%) and ristocetin (58.8 ± 21.4%) were significantly reduced in patients compared to control (62.7 ± 6.2, 63.3 ± 6.9, 73.8 ± 8.3, respectively; p < 0.001). After treatment platelet aggregation tests induced by ADP (64.78 ± 18.25%), and epinephrine (55.47 ± 24%) were significantly increased in patients with IDA compared to before treatment (39.44 ± 21.85%, 20.33 ± 14.58%; p < 0.001). PFA-100 closure time as well showed significant decreased after treatment (118.4 ± 27.242) compared to before treatment (186.2 ± 90.35; p < 0.05). A negative

  3. Usefulness of platelet function tests to predict bleeding with antithrombotic medications.

    PubMed

    Gorog, Diana A; Otsui, Kazunori; Inoue, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological inhibition of platelets has always been regarded as a double-edged sword: the challenge of balancing the antithrombotic effect against the bleeding risk. Potent antiplatelet agents and novel oral anticoagulants, sometimes in combination, are increasingly used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease and for thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation. Although such treatment has reduced the risk of thrombotic events, the potential for major bleeding has increased, and a technique to identify those at increased bleeding risk is greatly needed. Platelet function tests (PFTs), most frequently VerifyNow and also the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein -phosphorylation assay, have been used to identify low on-treatment platelet reactivity, to identify individuals who may be at increased bleeding risk. Such results predict nuisance bleeding, but many individuals have low on-treatment platelet reactivity and yet do not exhibit major or even minor bleeding. Although PFTs may be useful in assessing populations, they do not allow identification of individual patients at risk of bleeding on either antiplatelet or novel oral anticoagulant therapy, nor do they allow the tailoring of such therapy to optimize the risk:benefit ratio. Thrombin plays a cardinal role in both arterial thrombus formation and hemostasis, yet most PFTs fail to assess the contribution of thrombin, because they employ anticoagulated blood. Techniques such as the calibrated automated thrombogram and the point-of-care global thrombosis test, performed on native blood, which measure endogenous thrombin potential, seem to show the most promise for profiling bleeding risk, as tests that most physiologically assess the effects of medications on thrombin. PMID:25839991

  4. Increased levels of platelet-activating factor in blood following intestinal ischemia in the dog.

    PubMed

    Filep, J; Hermán, F; Braquet, P; Mózes, T

    1989-01-31

    The possible role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in superior mesenteric artery occlusion induced circulatory collapse was studied in anesthetized dogs. PAF was measured by platelet aggregation assay. Identity of PAF-like product in blood was ascertained by thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and alkaline treatment. Low amount of PAF was detected in the mesenteric blood under normal conditions, during reperfusion PAF levels were significantly higher. Pretreatment of the animals with BN 52021, a specific PAF receptor antagonist abolished the fall in mean arterial pressure and the rise in hematocrit due to ischemia/reperfusion. These findings suggest that PAF may play an important role in mesenteric ischemia-induced circulatory collapse. PMID:2916986

  5. Platelet-derived CXCL12 regulates monocyte function, survival, differentiation into macrophages and foam cells through differential involvement of CXCR4–CXCR7

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, S N I; Seizer, P; Schlegel, F; Büttcher, M; Sindhu, N A; Müller, S; Mack, A; Gawaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Platelets store and release CXCL12 (SDF-1), which governs differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into either endothelial or macrophage-foam cells. CXCL12 ligates CXCR4 and CXCR7 and regulates monocyte/macrophage functions. This study deciphers the relative contribution of CXCR4–CXCR7 in mediating the effects of platelet-derived CXCL12 on monocyte function, survival, and differentiation. CXCL12 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) that ligate CXCR4–CXCR7 induced a dynamic bidirectional trafficking of the receptors, causing CXCR4 internalization and CXCR7 externalization during chemotaxis, thereby influencing relative receptor availability, unlike MCP-1. In vivo we found enhanced accumulation of platelets and platelet-macrophage co-aggregates in peritoneal fluid following induction of peritonitis in mice. The relative surface expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, and CXCR7 among infiltrated monocytes was also enhanced as compared with peripheral blood. Platelet-derived CXCL12 from collagen-adherent platelets and recombinant CXCL12 induced monocyte chemotaxis specifically through CXCR4 engagement. Adhesion of monocytes to immobilized CXCL12 and CXCL12-enriched activated platelet surface under static and dynamic arterial flow conditions were mediated primarily through CXCR7 and were counter-regulated by neutralizing platelet-derived CXCL12. Monocytes and culture-derived-M1–M2 macrophages phagocytosed platelets, with the phagocytic potential of culture-derived-M1 macrophages higher than M2 involving CXCR4–CXCR7 participation. CXCR7 was the primary receptor in promoting monocyte survival as exerted by platelet-derived CXCL12 against BH3-mimetic induced apoptosis (phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activation, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential). In co-culture experiments with platelets, monocytes predominantly differentiated into CD163+ macrophages, which was attenuated upon CXCL12 neutralization and CXCR4/CXCR7 blocking antibodies

  6. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  7. Variation of red blood cell distribution width and mean platelet volume after moderate endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Although physical exercise strongly influences several laboratory parameters, data about the hematological changes after medium distance running are scarce. We studied 31 middle-trained athletes (mean training regimen 217 ± 32 min/week) who performed a 21.1 km, half-marathon run. Blood samples were collected before the run, at the end, and 3 and 20 hours thereafter. The complete blood count was performed on Advia 2120 and included red blood cell (RBC), reticulocyte, and platelet counts; hemoglobin; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret CHR); RBC distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV). No significant variations were observed for MCH and Ret CHR. The RBC, reticulocyte, and hemoglobin values modestly decreased after the run. The MCV significantly increased at the end of running but returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. The RDW constantly increased, reaching a peak 20 hours after the run. The platelet count and MPV both increased after the run and returned to baseline 3 hours thereafter. These results may have implications for definition of reference ranges and antidoping testing, and may also contribute to explaining the relationship between endurance exercise and mortality, since previous studies reported that RDW and MPV may be significantly associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25197280

  8. White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project

    PubMed Central

    Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein

  9. Anti-thrombogenic properties of a nitric oxide-releasing dextran derivative: evaluation of platelet activation and whole blood clotting kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Damodaran, Vinod B.; Leszczak, Victoria; Wold, Kathryn A.; Lantvit, Sarah M.; Popat, Ketul C.; Reynolds, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling platelet activation and clotting initiated by cardiovascular interventions remains a major challenge in clinical practice. In this work, the anti-thrombotic properties of a polysaccharide-based nitric oxide (NO)-releasing dextran derivative are presented. Total platelet adhesion, platelet morphology and whole blood clotting kinetics were used as indicators to evaluate the anti-clotting properties of this material. With a total NO delivery of 0.203±0.003 μmol, the NO-releasing dextran derivative (Dex-SNO) mixed with blood plasma demonstrated a significantly lower amount of platelet adhesion and activation onto a surface and reduced whole blood clotting kinetics. Nearly 75% reduction in platelet adhesion and a significant retention of platelet morphology were observed with blood plasma treated with Dex-SNO, suggesting this to be a potential anti-platelet therapeutic agent for preventing thrombosis that does not have an adverse effect on circulating platelets. PMID:24349705

  10. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Malinowska, Paulina; Żuchowski, Jerzy; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and the generation of superoxide anion (O2 (-∙)) in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin) were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals). The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5- 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min) inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2 (-∙) in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL). The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:26933473

  11. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Malinowska, Paulina; Żuchowski, Jerzy; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and the generation of superoxide anion (O2−∙) in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin) were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals). The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min) inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2−∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL). The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:26933473

  12. Normalization methods in time series of platelet function assays

    PubMed Central

    Van Poucke, Sven; Zhang, Zhongheng; Roest, Mark; Vukicevic, Milan; Beran, Maud; Lauwereins, Bart; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Henskens, Yvonne; Lancé, Marcus; Marcus, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Platelet function can be quantitatively assessed by specific assays such as light-transmission aggregometry, multiple-electrode aggregometry measuring the response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and thrombin-receptor activating peptide and viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The task of extracting meaningful statistical and clinical information from high-dimensional data spaces in temporal multivariate clinical data represented in multivariate time series is complex. Building insightful visualizations for multivariate time series demands adequate usage of normalization techniques. In this article, various methods for data normalization (z-transformation, range transformation, proportion transformation, and interquartile range) are presented and visualized discussing the most suited approach for platelet function data series. Normalization was calculated per assay (test) for all time points and per time point for all tests. Interquartile range, range transformation, and z-transformation demonstrated the correlation as calculated by the Spearman correlation test, when normalized per assay (test) for all time points. When normalizing per time point for all tests, no correlation could be abstracted from the charts as was the case when using all data as 1 dataset for normalization. PMID:27428217

  13. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  14. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  15. Differences in Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation at Baseline and in Response to Aspirin and Aspirin Plus Clopidogrel in Patients With Versus Without Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Jain, Nishank; Li, Xilong; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sarode, Ravi; Toto, Robert D; Banerjee, Subhash; Hedayati, S Susan

    2016-02-15

    Thrombotic events while receiving antiplatelet agents (APAs) are more common in subjects with versus without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on antiplatelet effects of APA in CKD are scarce and limited by lack of baseline platelet function before APA treatment. We hypothesized subjects with stages 4 to 5 CKD versus no CKD have greater baseline platelet aggregability and respond poorly to aspirin and clopidogrel. In a prospective controlled study, we measured whole blood platelet aggregation (WBPA) in 28 CKD and 16 non-CKD asymptomatic stable outpatients not on APA, frequency-matched for age, gender, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. WBPA was remeasured after 2 weeks of each aspirin and aspirin plus clopidogrel. The primary outcome was percent inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) from baseline. The secondary outcome was residual platelet aggregability (RPA; proportion with <50% IPA). Baseline platelet aggregability was similar between groups except adenosine diphosphate-induced WBPA, which was higher in CKD versus non-CKD; median (interquartile range) = 13.5 (9.5 to 16.0) versus 9.0 (6.0 to 12.0) Ω, p = 0.007. CKD versus non-CKD participants had lower clopidogrel-induced IPA, 38% versus 72%, p = 0.04. A greater proportion of CKD versus non-CKD participants had RPA after clopidogrel treatment (56% vs 8.3%, p = 0.01). There were no significant interactions between CKD and the presence of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms for platelet aggregability in clopidogrel-treated participants. In conclusion, CKD versus non-CKD subjects exhibited similar platelet aggregation at baseline, similar aspirin effects and greater RPA on clopidogrel, which was independent of cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphisms. PMID:26725101

  16. Drag-reducing polymers diminish near-wall concentration of platelets in microchannel blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, R.; Marhefka, J.N.; Antaki, J.F.; Kameneva, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of platelets near the blood vessel wall or artificial surface is an important factor in the cascade of events responsible for coagulation and/or thrombosis. In small blood vessels and flow channels this phenomenon has been attributed to the blood phase separation that creates a red blood cell (RBC)-poor layer near the wall. We hypothesized that blood soluble drag-reducing polymers (DRP), which were previously shown to lessen the near-wall RBC depletion layer in small channels, may consequently reduce the near-wall platelet excess. This study investigated the effects of DRP on the lateral distribution of platelet-sized fluorescent particles (diam. = 2 µm, 2.5 × 108/ml) in a glass square microchannel (width and depth = 100 µm). RBC suspensions in PBS were mixed with particles and driven through the microchannel at flow rates of 6–18 ml/h with and without added DRP (10 ppm of PEO, MW = 4500 kDa). Microscopic flow visualization revealed an elevated concentration of particles in the near-wall region for the control samples at all tested flow rates (between 2.4 ± 0.8 times at 6 ml/h and 3.3 ± 0.3 times at 18 ml/h). The addition of a minute concentration of DRP virtually eliminated the near-wall particle excess, effectively resulting in their even distribution across the channel, suggesting a potentially significant role of DRP in managing and mitigating thrombosis. PMID:21084744

  17. Homocysteine is a novel risk factor for suboptimal response of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid in coronary artery disease: a randomized multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Karolczak, Kamil; Kamysz, Wojciech; Karafova, Anna; Drzewoski, Jozef; Watala, Cezary

    2013-08-01

    The incomplete inhibition of platelet function by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), despite the patients are receiving therapeutic doses of the drug ('aspirin-resistance'), is caused by numbers of risk factors. In this study we verified the idea that plasma homocysteine (Hcy) contributes to 'aspirin-resistance' in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-designed randomized controlled intervention study has been performed (126 CAD pts incl. 26 with T2DM) to determine whether increasing ASA dose from 75mg to 150mg daily may result in the increased antiplatelet effect, in the course of four-week treatment. Platelet response to collagen (coll) or arachidonic acid (AA) was monitored with whole blood aggregometry, plasma thromboxane (Tx), and Hcy levels were determined immunochemically. The ASA-mediated reductions in platelet response to coll (by 12±3%) or AA (by 10±3%) and in plasma Tx (by 20±9%; p<0.02 or less) were significantly greater for higher ASA dose and significantly correlated with plasma Hcy, which was significantly lower in "good" ASA responders compared to "poor" responders (p<0.001). Higher plasma Hcy appeared a significant risk factor for blood platelet refractoriness to low ASA dose (OR=1.11; ±95%CI: 1.02-1.20, p<0.02, adjusted to age, sex and CAD risk factors). Hcy diminished in vitro antiplatelet effect of low ASA concentration and augmented platelet aggregation (by up to 62% (p<0.005) for coll and up to 15% (p<0.005) for AA), whereas its acetyl derivative acted oppositely. Otherwise, Hcy intensified antiplatelet action of high ASA. Hyperhomocysteinaemia may be a novel risk factor for the suppressed blood platelet response to ASA, and homocysteine may act as a specific sensitizer of blood platelets to some agonists. While homocysteine per se acts as a proaggregatory agent to blood platelets, its acetylated form is able to reverse this effect. Thus, these findings reveal a possibly new

  18. Neonatal Transfusion Practice: When do Neonates Need Red Blood Cells or Platelets?

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Antonio; Franco, Caterina; Petrillo, Flavia; D'Amato, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Based on small studies and not on statistically valid clinical trials, guidelines for neonatal transfusions remain controversial and practices vary greatly. Premature infants and critically ill neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) often require blood transfusions and extremely preterm neonates receive at least one red blood cell transfusion during their hospital stay. Transfusions to neonates convey both benefits and risks and consequently it is imperative to establish specific guidelines to improve practice and avoid unnecessary transfusions. Appropriate and lifesaving platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic bleeding neonates pertains to 2% of all neonates in NICUs. Inversely, 98% of platelet transfusions are given prophylactically, in the absence of bleeding, with the assumption that this reduces the risk of a serious hemorrhage. To date, no evidence base is available for assigning a platelet transfusion trigger to NICU patients. Each NICU should approve specific guidelines that best suit its local clinical practice. Therefore, whatever guidelines are chosen in deciding when to transfuse, what is most important is to adhere strictly to the guidelines adopted, thus limiting unnecessary transfusions that convey no benefits and carry both known and unknown risks. PMID:27603540

  19. CD31 expression on peripheral blood stem cells predicts both early neutrophil and platelet engraftments.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Ayhan; Tombuloglu, Murat; Gulbahar, Okan; Arik, Bahar; Cagirgan, Seckin; Vural, Filiz; Gokmen, Nihal

    2013-10-01

    No detailed information currently exists about the immune phenotypic profiles of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) obtained by different mobilization regimens. The effects of these profiles on the outcome of transplantation are largely unknown. In this prospective study, the surface immune phenotypic features (CD11a, CD18, CD31, CD38, CD44, CD62e, CD62L, CD90, CD117, CD135 and CD184 expression) of sorted PBSCs that had been mobilized by growth factor with (group I and group II) or without (group III) disease-specific chemotherapies were investigated. The immune phenotypic features on mobilized PBSCs in groups I, II and III were not significantly different. The CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) positivity ratio on PBSCs inversely correlated with both the duration of neutrophil (r=-0.32, p=0.03) and platelet (r=-0.36, p=0.02) engraftment. No relationship was found between the engraftment (neutrophil and platelet) durations and CD184 (chemokine receptor CXC motif receptor 4 [CXCR4]) expression on PBSCs. We demonstrated that the surface immune phenotypic profiles on PBSCs obtained by several mobilization regimens were not different. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that CD31 expression on human PBSCs may positively affect both neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Contrary to our expectations, CD184 (CXCR4) expression on PBSCs has no effect on neutrophil or platelet engraftment. Considered together, our results suggest that additional surface antigens (such as CD31) may be more effective in the homing process. PMID:24025427

  20. A multiple time stepping algorithm for efficient multiscale modeling of platelets flowing in blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3-4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations.

  1. A Multiple Time Stepping Algorithm for Efficient Multiscale Modeling of Platelets Flowing in Blood Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-01-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3–4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations. PMID:25641983

  2. Circulating primers enhance platelet function and induce resistance to antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Blair, T A; Moore, S F; Hers, I

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists are antiplatelet compounds that are used clinically in patients with thrombosis. However, some patients are ‘resistant’ to antiplatelet therapy, which increases their risk of developing acute coronary syndromes. These patients often present with an underlying condition that is associated with altered levels of circulating platelet primers and platelet hyperactivity. Platelet primers cannot stimulate platelet activation, but, in combination with physiologic stimuli, significantly enhance platelet function. Objectives To explore the role of platelet primers in resistance to antiplatelet therapy, and to evaluate whether phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) contributes to this process. Methods and Results We used platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 production and ex vivo thrombus formation as functional readouts of platelet activity. Platelets were treated with the potent P2Y12 inhibitor AR-C66096, aspirin, or a combination of both, in the presence or absence of the platelet primers insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and thrombopoietin (TPO), or the Gz-coupled receptor ligand epinephrine. We found that platelet primers largely overcame the inhibitory effects of antiplatelet compounds on platelet functional responses. IGF-1-mediated and TPO-mediated, but not epinephrine-mediated, enhancements in the presence of antiplatelet drugs were blocked by the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. Conclusions These results demonstrate that platelet primers can contribute to antiplatelet resistance. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that there are PI3K-dependent and PI3K-independent mechanisms driving primer-mediated resistance to antiplatelet therapy. PMID:26039631

  3. Complement Activation in Trauma Patients Alters Platelet Function.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Gelareh; Aisiku, Omozuanvbo; Shapiro, Nathan; Hauser, Carl; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Tsokos, George C

    2016-09-01

    Trauma remains the main cause of death for both civilians and those in uniform. Trauma-associated coagulopathy is a complex process involving inflammation, coagulation, and platelet dysfunction. It is unknown whether activation of complement, which occurs invariably in trauma patients, is involved in the expression of trauma-associated coagulopathy. We designed a prospective study in which we enrolled 40 trauma patients and 30 healthy donors upon arrival to the emergency department of BIDMC. Platelets from healthy individuals were incubated with sera from trauma patients and their responsiveness to a thrombin receptor-activating peptide was measured using aggregometry. Complement deposition on platelets from trauma patients was measured by flow cytometry. Normal platelets displayed hypoactivity after incubation with trauma sera even though exposure to trauma sera resulted in increased agonist-induced calcium flux. Depletion of complement from sera further blocked activation of hypoactive platelets. Conversely, complement activation increased aggregation of platelets. Platelets from trauma patients were found to have significantly higher amounts of C3a and C4d on their surface compared with platelets from controls. Depletion of complement (C4d, C3a) reversed the ability of trauma sera to augment agonist-induced calcium flux in donor platelets. Our data indicate that complement enhances platelet aggregation. Despite its complement content, trauma sera render platelets hypoactive and complement depletion further blocks activation of hypoactive platelets. The defect in platelet activation induced by trauma sera is distal to receptor activation since agonist-induced Ca2+ flux is elevated in the presence of trauma sera owing to complement deposition. PMID:27355402

  4. Platelet-rich plasma does not decrease blood loss in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tingstad, Edwin M; Bratt, Sarah N; Hildenbrand, Kasee J; O'Malley, Brittany A; Mitchell, Elisabeth R; Gaddis, Corinne E; Jacobson, Charles A

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The authors hypothesized that this would result in less blood loss and greater hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at discharge and would potentially decrease the length of hospital stay. Leukocyte rich PRP was used during the procedure and at wound closure. Two surgeons performed all procedures in a similar fashion. Two different TKA implants were used. Each surgeon used the same implant throughout the study. A limited medial parapatellar approach was used and drains were used at closure. No tranexamic acid preparations were used. Continuous passive motion machines were used in all patients during their hospital stay. A total of 102 consecutive TKAs were performed. The study group (n=46) consecutively received the PRP injections during the TKA, whereas the control group (n=47) did not. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Estimated blood loss was recorded during surgery, and the auto-collection reinfusion drain system output was measured. The length of hospital stay was collected and recorded. The study showed that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were not different when comparing study and control groups. Age and sex differences were insignificant. Finally, no statistical difference was seen for the estimated blood loss and hospital stay between the 2 groups. Platelet-rich plasma use during TKA does not decrease hospital stay or reduce estimated blood loss in the perioperative period. PMID:25970373

  5. [Analysis of platelet-derived factors that modulate functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes].

    PubMed

    Sasada, M; Asagoe, K

    1994-04-01

    Interactions between platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) modulate their functions and play a role in the development of pathogenesis of some disease. Platelets secret various kinds of factors that affect PMN functions. They seemed to have important role in vivo, but little has been elucidated on exact mechanism of action and physiological meaning of each factor in relation to PMN functions. We studied the effects of platelets and released substances from activated platelets on the functions of PMN. Results were as follows. 1) Platelets enhanced bactericidal activities of PMN against E.coli. 2) Platelets had effects on the generation of superoxide anion (O2-) of PMN. Their effects were quite different according to the assay condition of PMN, that is, platelets inhibited O2- generation when PMN were at rest or stimulated slightly and they enhanced O2-generation of PMN that were stimulated with optimal condition. 3) Thrombin-activated platelets and their supernatant elicited a transient elevation of [Ca2] of PMN. The activity of the supernatant decreased by treating with hexokinase that decomposed ATP. Further treatment with trypsin abolished its activity almost completely. Considering with our additional experiments, factors that induced [Ca2+] elevation of PMN were ATP, beta-thromboglobulin and some trypsin-sensitive factor(s). 4) Supernatant of thrombin-activated platelets decreased random migration and chemokinesis of PMN. PMID:8028184

  6. Alterations in bovine platelet function and acute phase proteins induced by Pasteurella haemolytica A1.

    PubMed Central

    Cheryk, L A; Hooper-McGrevy, K E; Gentry, P A

    1998-01-01

    Platelet function was assessed by aggregometry in 10 Holstein calves before and after exposure to Pasteurella haemolytica (biotype A, serotype 1) by intrabronchial challenge. At 24 h after exposure the platelets had become more reactive to stimulation with known platelet agonists such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) and the platelet aggregates that formed were more resistant to disaggregation. The activation of platelets was an early response in the challenged calves as platelet function had returned to pretreatment levels 72 h after exposure to the bacteria while the acute phase reactant proteins, haptoglobin and fibrinogen, were approaching their peak values and alpha 2-macroglobulin levels had also risen significantly (P < 0.05) at this time. The plasma levels of these proteins were still elevated and albumin levels were depressed 6 d post-treatment. At post-mortem all calves exhibited pneumonic tissue damage. When P. haemolytica leukotoxin was added directly to bovine platelet suspensions both spontaneous aggregation and an increase in the aggregation response to ADP and PAF stimulation were observed. The morphological appearance of the platelet aggregates exhibited the typical pattern for bovine platelets with 2 distinct zones of cells being visible within each aggregate. One zone contained platelets in which the cytoplasmic granules were still evident and the other zone contained irregularly shaped platelets devoid of granular content. In the latter zone, discrete gaps, or pores, were evident in the plasma membrane of numerous platelets. This pore formation is characteristic of leukotoxin action and is not observed in ADP or PAF induced aggregates. Images Figure 2. PMID:9442932

  7. Platelet C1- inhibitor. A secreted alpha-granule protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schmaier, A H; Smith, P M; Colman, R W

    1985-01-01

    In order to characterize which proteins of the contact phase of coagulation interact with platelets, human platelets were studied immunochemically and functionally to determine if they contain C1- inhibitor. By means of monospecific antibody to C1- inhibitor, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) was developed to measure directly platelet C1- inhibitor. With the CELISA, from 33 to 115 ng of C1- inhibitor antigen per 10(8) platelets from 15 normal donors was quantified in lysates of washed human platelets solubilized in nonionic detergent. The mean concentration in 10(8) platelets was 62 +/- 33 ng (SD). Plasma C1- inhibitor either in the platelet suspension medium or on the surface of the platelets could account for only from 6.5 to 16% of the total antigen measured in the solubilized platelets. Upon functional studies, platelets contained 84 +/- 36 ng (SD) of C1- inhibitor activity in 10(8) platelets. As assessed by the CELISA, platelet C1- inhibitor antigen was immunochemically identical to plasma and purified C1- inhibitor. In contrast, the mean concentration of platelet C1- inhibitor antigen in platelets from four patients with classical hereditary angioedema was 8.3 ng/10(8) platelets (range, 5.3 to 11.3 ng/10(8) platelets). 25 and 31% of the total platelet C1- inhibitor was secreted without cell lysis from normal platelets after exposure to collagen (20 micrograms/ml) and thrombin (1 U/ml), respectively, and this secretion was blocked by metabolic inhibitors. Platelet subcellular fractionation showed that platelet C1- inhibitor resided mostly in alpha-granules, similar to the location of platelet fibrinogen. Thus, human platelets contained C1- inhibitor, which became available by platelet secretion. The identification of platelet C1- inhibitor suggests that platelets may modulate the activation of the proteins of early blood coagulation and the classical complement pathways. Images PMID:3965505

  8. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... fight infection and are part of your body's defense system. Platelets help blood to clot when you have a cut or wound. Bone marrow, the spongy material inside your bones, makes new blood cells. Blood cells ...

  9. Most Recent Evidence Behind Aggregometry and Genotyping Methods as Platelet Function Testing for Tailored Anti-Platelet Treatment Among PCI Patients.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Sylwia N; Kołtowski, Łukasz; Tomaniak, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Aggregometry and genotyping are methods of platelet function testing, which can be beneficial for high-risk patients undergoing invasive cardiac procedures. An optimal level of platelet reactivity (PR) should be maintained. There are discrepancies between individuals and their response to clopidogrel, accounting for the incidence of poor responders from 5% to 44%. This phenomenon predisposes the patients to increased risk of ischaemic events and thereby overall poorer clinical outcome. Prasugrel and tricagrelor are newer without genetic correlation to their action, however associated with increased bleeding risk. Aggregometry methods assess platelet reactivity at the exact moment of blood sampling. They reflect "phenotype" of the patient and vary after drug administration or dose change. The most popular tests are Light Transmission Aggregometry, Vasodilator-Stimulated Protein, VerifyNow, Multiple Electrode Aggregometry and Thrombelastography. There is proven genetic correlation between some cytochrome enzymes on clopidogrel response. The most widely tested is gene CYP2C19, which produces the enzyme transforming clopidogrel into an active metabolite. The CYP2C19*2 allele carriers have higher PR which can result in more thrombotic events. The manuscript shows the most recent evidence behind platelet function testing. Aggregometry is shown to be beneficial in 5 trials and 1 meta-analysis, while one paper was of different opinion. Ten studies show a positive clinical effect of genotyping on patients' outcome, while one does not support it. The best method of identifying high-risk individuals could be both methods and personalisation of antiplatelet therapy may decrease adverse ischaemic outcomes. PMID:26469115

  10. Targeted drug delivery to circulating tumor cells via platelet membrane-functionalized particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiahe; Ai, Yiwei; Wang, Lihua; Bu, Pengcheng; Sharkey, Charles C; Wu, Qianhui; Wun, Brittany; Roy, Sweta; Shen, Xiling; King, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastases in distant organs via hematogenous dissemination. Fundamental studies in the past decade have suggested that neutralization of CTCs in circulation could represent an effective strategy to prevent metastasis. Current paradigms of targeted drug delivery into a solid tumor largely fall into two main categories: unique cancer markers (e.g. overexpression of surface receptors) and tumor-specific microenvironment (e.g. low pH, hypoxia, etc.). While relying on a surface receptor to target CTCs can be greatly challenged by cancer heterogeneity, targeting of tumor microenvironments has the advantage of recognizing a broader spectrum of cancer cells regardless of genetic differences or tumor types. The blood circulation, however, where CTCs transit through, lacks the same tumor microenvironment as that found in a solid tumor. In this study, a unique "microenvironment" was confirmed upon introduction of cancer cells of different types into circulation where activated platelets and fibrin were physically associated with blood-borne cancer cells. Inspired by this observation, synthetic silica particles were functionalized with activated platelet membrane along with surface conjugation of tumor-specific apoptosis-inducing ligand cytokine, TRAIL. Biomimetic synthetic particles incorporated into CTC-associated micro-thrombi in lung vasculature and dramatically decreased lung metastases in a mouse breast cancer metastasis model. Our results demonstrate a "Trojan Horse" strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis. PMID:26519648

  11. Platelet function and activation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Tong, Linda J; Hosgood, Giselle L; French, Anne T; Irwin, Peter J; Shiel, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess platelet closure time (CT), mean platelet component (MPC) concentration, and platelet component distribution width (PCDW) in dogs with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease. ANIMALS 89 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and 39 control dogs (not CKCSs). PROCEDURES Platelet count, MPC concentration, PCDW, and Hct were measured by use of a hematology analyzer, and CT was measured by use of a platelet function analyzer. Murmur grade and echocardiographic variables (mitral valve regurgitant jet size relative to left atrial area, left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio, and left ventricular internal dimensions) were recorded. Associations between explanatory variables (sex, age, murmur grade, echocardiographic variables, platelet count, and Hct) and outcomes (CT, MPC concentration, and PCDW) were examined by use of multivariate regression models. RESULTS A model with 5 variables best explained variation in CT (R(2), 0.74), with > 60% of the variance of CT explained by mitral valve regurgitant jet size. The model of best fit to explain variation in MPC concentration included only platelet count (R(2), 0.24). The model of best fit to explain variation in PCDW included platelet count and sex (R(2), 0.25). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, a significant effect of mitral valve regurgitant jet size on CT was consistent with platelet dysfunction. However, platelet activation, as assessed on the basis of the MPC concentration and PCDW, was not a feature of subclinical chronic valvular heart disease in CKCSs. PMID:27463549

  12. Platelet aggregation test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003669.htm Platelet aggregation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The platelet aggregation blood test checks how well platelets , a ...

  13. Impact of Aspirin and Clopidogrel Interruption on Platelet Function in Patients Undergoing Major Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Le Manach, Yannick; Kahn, David; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Le Sache, Frederic; Smadja, David M.; Remones, Veronique; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Coriat, Pierre; Gaussem, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. Methods/Results We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group). The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline) and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by optical aggregation in the presence of collagen, arachidonic acid (aspirin) and ADP (clopidogrel) and by VASP assay (clopidogrel). Platelet-leukocyte complex (PLC) level was quantified at each time-point. At baseline, platelet function was efficiently inhibited by aspirin and had recovered fully in most patients 5 days after drug withdrawal. PLC levels five days after aspirin reintroduction were similar to baseline (+4±10%; p = 0.16), in line with an effective platelet inhibition. Chronic clopidogrel treatment was associated with variable platelet inhibition and its withdrawal led to variable functional recovery. PLC levels were significantly increased five days after clopidogrel reintroduction (+10±15%; p = 0.02), compared to baseline. Conclusions Aspirin withdrawal 5 days before high-bleeding-risk procedures was associated with functional platelet recovery, and its reintroduction two days after surgery restored antiplaletet efficacy five days later. This was not the case of clopidogrel, and further work is therefore needed to define its optimal perioperative management. PMID:25141121

  14. Flow cytometry analysis of platelet P-selectin expression in whole blood--methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, J L; Alexander, H D; Rea, I M

    2000-12-01

    P-selectin is an adhesion molecule found in the alpha granules of platelets. Activation occurs in response to a range of inflammatory and thrombotic agents resulting in rapid up-regulation. Flow cytometry methods have recently been described for the analysis of platelet P-selectin expression in whole blood. While introducing these methods into our laboratory it was noted that expression could be stimulated, in vitro, in a number of ways. This study shows that red cell lysis, the anticoagulant K3 EDTA and the time elapse between blood collection and antibody labelling had statistically significant effects on P-selectin expression. Post-labelling fixation, with CellFIX, caused no significant effect. We conclude that blood for P-selectin analysis should be collected in sodium citrate and that red cell lysis and centrifugation should be avoided. When comparing samples, the time between collection and labelling should be standardized. The relatively high CV for the assay indicates that all samples should be labelled and analysed in duplicate with the mean level reported. PMID:11318803

  15. The Blood Group A Genotype Determines the Level of Expression of the Blood Group A on Platelets But Not the Anti-B Isotiter

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Barbara; Eichelberger, Beate; Jungbauer, Christof; Panzer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The extent of expression of the blood group A on platelets is controversial. Further, the relation between platelets' blood group A expression and the titers of isoagglutinins has not been thoroughly investigated, so far. Methods We evaluated the relation between the genotype with platelets' blood group A and H expression estimated by flow cytometry and the titers of isoagglutinins. Results The A expression varied between genotypes and within genotypes. However, the expression in A1 was stronger than in all other genotypes (p < 0.0001). An overlap of expression levels was apparent between homozygous A1A1 and heterozygous A1 individuals. Still, The A1A1 genotype is associated with a particularly high antigen expression (p = 0.009). Platelets' A expression in A2 versus blood group O donors was also significant (p = 0.007), but there was again an overlap of expression. The secretor status had only little influence on the expression (p = 0.18). Also, isoagglutinin titers were not associated with genotypes. Conclusion: To distinguish between A1 and A2 donors may reduce incompatible platelet transfusions and therefore be favorable on platelet transfusion increment. Clinical data are needed to support this notion. PMID:26733767

  16. cADP-ribose formation by blood platelets is not responsible for intracellular calcium mobilization.

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, P; Leray, C; Ravanat, C; Hallia, A; Cassel, D; Cazenave, J P; Gachet, C

    1998-01-01

    Human platelet CD38 is a multifunctional ectoenzyme catalysing the synthesis and hydrolysis of cADP-ribose (cADPR), a recently identified calcium-mobilizing agent that acts independently of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and is known to be expressed by human platelets. The present work shows that ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity is exclusively a membrane activity, of which the major part is located in plasma membranes and a small part in internal membranes. In broken cells, cyclase activity was insensitive to the presence of calcium and was not modulated by agonists such as thrombin or ADP, whereas in intact cells thrombin increased cADPR formation by 30%, an effect due to fusion of granules with the plasma membrane. In order to assess the role of cADPR as a calcium-mobilizing agent, vesicles were prepared from internal membranes and loaded with 45CaCl2. These vesicles were efficiently discharged by IP3 in a dose-dependent manner, but were not responsive to cADPR or ryanodine in the presence or absence of calmodulin. Thus cADPR is unlikely to play a role in intracellular calcium release in human blood platelets. PMID:9531481

  17. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS. PMID:27507559

  18. 2E4 (Kaptin): A novel actin-associated protein from human blood platelets found in lamellipodia and the tips of the stereocilia of the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, Elaine L.; Abraham, Manoj T.

    2010-01-01

    Actin – 2E4/kaptin – platelet activation – stereocilia – sensory epithelium Platelet activation, crucial for hemostasis, requires actin polymerization, yet the molecular mechanisms by which localized actin polymerization is mediated are not clear. Here we report the characterization of a novel actin-binding protein. 2E4, originally isolated from human blood platelets and likely to be involved in the actin rearrangements occurring during activation. 2E4 binds to filamentous (F)-actin by F-actin affinity chromatography and is eluted from F-actin affinity columns and extracted from cells with ATP. Its presence at the leading edge of platelets spread on glass and in the lamellipodia of motile fibroblasts suggests a role in actin dynamics. Using localization to obtain clues about function, we stained the sensory epithelium of the embryonic inner car to determine whether 2E4 is at the barbed end of actin filaments during their elongation. Indeed, 2E4 was present at the tips of the elongating stereocilium. 2E4 is novel by DNA sequence and has no identifiable structural motifs. Its unusual amino acid sequence, its ATP-sensitive actin association and its location at sites of actin polymerization in cells suggest 2E4 plays a unique role in the actin rearrangements that accompany platelet activation and stereocilia formation. PMID:10099934

  19. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Presenting with JMML-Like Blood Picture and Normal Sized Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajesh B.; Shanmukhaiah, Chandrakala; Bamborde, Shailesh; Wasekar, Nilesh; Toshniwal, Manoj; Mohite, Aniket; Patil, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this paper is to report the case of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) that presented with unusual laboratory features. Clinical Presentation and Intervention. Male neonate admitted with symptoms related to thrombocytopenia, whose initial diagnosis was considered as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and JMML (juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia) but subsequently diagnosis was confirmed as WAS. Conclusion. This case shows that a suspicion of WAS is warranted in the setting of neonatal thrombocytopenia with JMML-like blood picture and normal sized platelets. PMID:27340577

  20. An overview of platelet indices for evaluating platelet function in children with scorpion envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Capan; Tekin, Mehmet; Colak, Pinar; Uckardes, Fatih; Turgut, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between platelet indices and scorpion envenomations (SE). Medical records of 76 children who were hospitalised for scorpion stings in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between February 2013 and November 2013, and 55 healthy children who were similar to the patient group in terms of age and sex, were analysed retrospectively. The leucocyte (WBC), thrombocyte (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values of the 76 children with SE were recorded. These values were compared with the healthy control group. Significantly higher WBC and PDW values were noted in patients with SE in comparison to the controls. Patients with SE had significantly lower mean MPV values compared to the healthy controls (9.03 ± 1.26 compared to 10.43 ± 1.44 fL, respectively; p < 0.001). Although the mean platelet count was slightly elevated in the SE group, no statistically significant difference existed between the two groups (p = 0.097). Furthermore, the mean PCT values in the SE group compared to the control group were slightly decreased, but this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.141). A significant inverse correlation existed between the MPV values and the WBC (r = -0.450, p < 0.01) and PLT counts (r = -0.420, p < 0.01). The PLT values were significantly correlated with the PCT values (r = 0.687, p < 0.01). This study demonstrated that SE may lead to several alterations in platelet indices. Significantly lower values of MPV and higher values of PDW were detected in SE patients. However, the increase in the platelet counts and the decrease in the PCT values were not significant. PMID:26417303

  1. An overview of platelet indices for evaluating platelet function in children with scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Konca, Capan; Tekin, Mehmet; Colak, Pinar; Uckardes, Fatih; Turgut, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between platelet indices and scorpion envenomations (SE). Medical records of 76 children who were hospitalised for scorpion stings in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between February 2013 and November 2013, and 55 healthy children who were similar to the patient group in terms of age and sex, were analysed retrospectively. The leucocyte (WBC), thrombocyte (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT), platelet distribution width (PDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) values of the 76 children with SE were recorded. These values were compared with the healthy control group. Significantly higher WBC and PDW values were noted in patients with SE in comparison to the controls. Patients with SE had significantly lower mean MPV values compared to the healthy controls (9.03 ± 1.26 compared to 10.43 ± 1.44 fL, respectively; p < 0.001). Although the mean platelet count was slightly elevated in the SE group, no statistically significant difference existed between the two groups (p = 0.097). Furthermore, the mean PCT values in the SE group compared to the control group were slightly decreased, but this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.141). A significant inverse correlation existed between the MPV values and the WBC (r = -0.450, p < 0.01) and PLT counts (r = -0.420, p < 0.01). The PLT values were significantly correlated with the PCT values (r = 0.687, p < 0.01). This study demonstrated that SE may lead to several alterations in platelet indices. Significantly lower values of MPV and higher values of PDW were detected in SE patients. However, the increase in the platelet counts and the decrease in the PCT values were not significant. PMID:26417303

  2. Platelets and their interactions with other immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Fong W.; Vijayan, K. Vinod; Rumbaut, Rolando E.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate blood cells, long known to be critically involved in hemostasis and thrombosis. In addition to their role in blood clots, increasing evidence reveals significant roles for platelets in inflammation and immunity. However, the notion that platelets represent immune cells is not broadly recognized in the field of Physiology. This manuscript reviews the role of platelets in inflammation and immune responses, and highlights their interactions with other immune cells, including examples of major functional consequences of these interactions. PMID:26140718

  3. Platelet Immobilization on Supported Phospholipid Bilayers for Single Platelet Studies.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Eva; Donati, Alessia; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-08-23

    The worldwide cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic is of grave concern. A major role in the etiology of CVDs is played by the platelets (thrombocytes). Platelets are anuclear cell fragments circulating in the blood. Their primary function is to catalyze clot formation, limiting traumatic blood loss in the case of injury. The same process leads to thrombosis in the case of CVDs, which are commonly managed with antiplatelet therapy. Platelets also have other, nonhemostatic functions in wound healing, inflammation, and tissue regeneration. They play a role in the early stages of atherosclerosis and the spread of cancer through metastases. Much remains to be learned about the regulation of these diverse platelet functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Breakthroughs in this regard are expected to come from single platelet studies and systems approaches. The immobilization of platelets at surfaces is advantageous for developing such approaches, but platelets are activated when they come in contact with foreign surfaces. In this work, we develop and validate a protocol for immobilizing platelets on supported lipid bilayers without activation due to immobilization. Our protocol can therefore be used for studying platelets with a wide variety of surface-sensitive techniques. PMID:27438059

  4. Platelet Adhesion under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet adhesive mechanisms play a well-defined role in hemostasis and thrombosis, but evidence continues to emerge for a relevant contribution to other pathophysiological processes including inflammation, immune-mediated responses to microbial and viral pathogens, and cancer metastasis. Hemostasis and thrombosis are related aspects of the response to vascular injury, but the former protects from bleeding after trauma while the latter is a disease mechanism. In either situation, adhesive interactions mediated by specific membrane receptors support the initial attachment of single platelets to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. In the subsequent steps of thrombus growth and stabilization, adhesive interactions mediate platelet to platelet cohesion (aggregation) and anchoring to the fibrin clot. A key functional aspect of platelets is their ability to circulate in a quiescent state surveying the integrity of the inner vascular surface, coupled to a prompt reaction wherever alterations are detected. In many respects, therefore, platelet adhesion to vascular wall structures, to one another or to other blood cells are facets of the same fundamental biological process. The adaptation of platelet adhesive functions to the effects of blood flow is the main focus of this review. PMID:19191170

  5. Heparin inhibition of von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet function in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, M; McNeill, P M; Carlson, P L; Kermode, J C; Adelman, B; Conroy, R; Marques, D

    1991-01-01

    The intravenous administration of heparin to patients before open heart surgery reduced ristocetin cofactor activity by 58% (P less than 0.01, t test), and this impairment of von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet function was closely related to plasma heparin levels (r2 = 0.9), but not to plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. We hypothesized that heparin may inhibit vWF-dependent platelet hemostatic functions by directly binding vWF in solution and interfering with vWF-GpIb binding. Using the in vitro techniques of ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, fluorescent flow cytometric measurement of vWF-platelet binding, and conventional radioligand binding assays we observed that heparin inhibited both vWF-dependent platelet function and vWF-platelet binding in a parallel and dose-dependent manner. Heparin also inhibited platelet agglutination induced by bovine vWF and inhibited the binding of human asialo-vWF to platelets in ristocetin-free systems. The inhibitory potency of heparin was not dependent upon its affinity for antithrombin III, but was molecular weight dependent: homogeneous preparations of lower molecular weight were less inhibitory. Heparin impairment of vWF function may explain why some hemorrhagic complications of heparin therapy are not predictable based on techniques for monitoring the conventional anticoagulant effects of heparin. PMID:2022745

  6. Functional validation of platelet-activating factor receptor sites characterized biochemically by a specific and reproducible ( sup 3 H)platelet-activating factor binding in human platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tahraoui, L.; Floch, A.; Cavero, I. )

    1990-03-01

    In human platelet membranes, (3H)platelet-activating factor(PAF)-C18 binding sites exhibited high affinity (Kd 0.074 +/- 0.005 nM, n = 28 healthy volunteers), saturability, elevated stereoselectivity, marked pharmacological specificity and small intersubject variability. The maximal binding capacity was 215 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein. Saturation of (3H)PAF binding was obtained with 0.3 nM ligand, and its isotherm was compatible with a single class of binding sites. The stereoselectivity for (3H)PAF was clearly indicated by the low displacing potency of enantio-PAF-C16 (the synthetic enantiomer of PAF) that was 5000-fold less potent than PAF. Specific (3H)PAF binding attained 65% with 0.1 nM ligand and was displaced fully not only by cold PAF but also by RP 59227 (Ki = 6.2 +/- 1.3 nM, n = 7), a novel, potent and specific PAF receptor antagonist in a pure enantiomeric form and several other antagonists such as CV-6209, WEB 2086, L-652,731 and BN 52021. Various classical pharmacological agents did not interfere with the (3H)PAF binding. In intact platelets, (3H)PAF binding shared the same properties as those just described for membrane preparations. A functional role for these binding sites was suggested by the high correlation (r = 0.94, P less than .001) between the Ki values for several known PAF antagonists determined in (3H)PAF binding and the IC50 values obtained against PAF-induced aggregation in whole platelets. Thus, the present (3H)PAF binding in human platelet membranes may be a useful pharmacological tool to study possible changes in (3H)PAF binding parameters induced by pathological states for which PAF may be directly or indirectly responsible.

  7. FXIa and platelet polyphosphate as therapeutic targets during human blood clotting on collagen/tissue factor surfaces under flow.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Travers, Richard J; Morrissey, James H; Diamond, Scott L

    2015-09-17

    Factor XIIa (FXIIa) and factor XIa (FXIa) contribute to thrombosis in animal models, whereas platelet-derived polyphosphate (polyP) may potentiate contact or thrombin-feedback pathways. The significance of these mediators in human blood under thrombotic flow conditions on tissue factor (TF) -bearing surfaces remains inadequately resolved. Human blood (corn trypsin inhibitor treated [4 μg/mL]) was tested by microfluidic assay for clotting on collagen/TF at TF surface concentration ([TF]wall) from ∼0.1 to 2 molecules per μm(2). Anti-FXI antibodies (14E11 and O1A6) or polyP-binding protein (PPXbd) were used to block FXIIa-dependent FXI activation, FXIa-dependent factor IX (FIX) activation, or platelet-derived polyP, respectively. Fibrin formation was sensitive to 14E11 at 0 to 0.1 molecules per µm(2) and sensitive to O1A6 at 0 to 0.2 molecules per µm(2). However, neither antibody reduced fibrin generation at ∼2 molecules per µm(2) when the extrinsic pathway became dominant. Interestingly, PPXbd reduced fibrin generation at low [TF]wall (0.1 molecules per µm(2)) but not at zero or high [TF]wall, suggesting a role for polyP distinct from FXIIa activation and requiring low extrinsic pathway participation. Regardless of [TF]wall, PPXbd enhanced fibrin sensitivity to tissue plasminogen activator and promoted clot retraction during fibrinolysis concomitant with an observed PPXbd-mediated reduction of fibrin fiber diameter. This is the first detection of endogenous polyP function in human blood under thrombotic flow conditions. When triggered by low [TF]wall, thrombosis may be druggable by contact pathway inhibition, although thrombolytic susceptibility may benefit from polyP antagonism regardless of [TF]wall. PMID:26136249

  8. Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kim, Hak Hee

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a matrix of fibrin and platelets that releases cytokines that are important in wound healing. PRP is produced from the patient's blood and therefore has less risk of allergic reaction and infection. We have obtained PRP with an enhanced white blood cell component (W-PRP) by optimizing the centrifugal separation of PRP from plasma. Here we show that injection of W-PRP into the auricle of nude mice gave greater tissue augmentation compared to PRP. Further augmentation occurred when bFGF was added to W-PRP, and there was a significant increase in the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in mice treated with W-PRP+bFGF. Our results suggest that W-PRP may have value in cosmetic surgery aimed at rejuvenation of wrinkled and sagging skin. W-PRP injection constitutes a new concept in cell transplantation, in which cells required for tissue regeneration are induced by cytokines released from the transplanted cells. PMID:22793069

  9. In-line filtration of platelet concentrates obtained with the Omnix blood cell separator.

    PubMed

    Moog, R; Müller, N; Nieper, A

    1995-12-01

    The quality of platelet concentrates (PC) obtained with the blood cell separator Omnix was investigated before and after in-line filtration. PC were filtered 2h (protocol A) and 4 h (protocol B) after the termination of apheresis. Platelet (PLT) yield after filtration was similar in both protocols (median 3.7 vs. 3.4 x 10(11)). Median white blood cell (WBC) contamination after leucocyte depletion was 0.07 x 10(6) (range 0.02-3.27 x 10(6)) in protocol A and 0.06 x 10(6) (range 0.02-2.1 x 10(6)) in protocol B. Glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, morphology score and pH value were not statistically different before and after filtration in both protocols. We conclude that in-line filtration results in sufficient leucocyte depletion of the PC. The prefiltration storage time did not influence the studied parameters of product quality. PMID:8646295

  10. Platelet aggregability and in vivo platelet deposition in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease--evaluation by indium-111-platelet scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Isaka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Uehara, A.; Hashikawa, K.; Mieno, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Handa, N.; Nakabayashi, S.; Imaizumi, M.; Kamada, T. )

    1989-12-15

    In ischemic cerebrovascular disease, it is not clear whether platelet function in vitro actually reflects the situation in vivo. Using indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as a method for detecting platelet activation in vivo, we tried to elucidate this problem. Twenty eight patients with chronic stage of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and 17 control subjects were examined. Platelet scintigrams were positive in 9 of 28 patients in CVD, while all were negative in control. A comparison of the results obtained from qualitative platelet imaging and platelet aggregability was performed to evaluate whether threshold aggregation concentration (TAC) grade differed across the three groups (control, CVD patients without platelet deposition and CVD patients with platelet deposition). CVD patients with platelet deposition showed a higher TAC than those patients who did not show platelet deposition (P less than 0.05) or control subjects without platelet deposition (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that some patients in chronic stages of CVD may have active platelet deposition on carotid atheromatous lesions, and presence of platelet deposition in vivo could contribute to reduce platelet reactivity in peripheral blood.

  11. Platelet aggregability and in vivo platelet deposition in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease--evaluation by indium-111-platelet scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Y; Kimura, K; Uehara, A; Hashikawa, K; Mieno, M; Matsumoto, M; Handa, N; Nakabayashi, S; Imaizumi, M; Kamada, T

    1989-12-15

    In ischemic cerebrovascular disease, it is not clear whether platelet function in vitro actually reflects the situation in vivo. Using indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as a method for detecting platelet activation in vivo, we tried to elucidate this problem. Twenty eight patients with chronic stage of ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and 17 control subjects were examined. Platelet scintigrams were positive in 9 of 28 patients in CVD, while all were negative in control. A comparison of the results obtained from qualitative platelet imaging and platelet aggregability was performed to evaluate whether threshold aggregation concentration (TAC) grade differed across the three groups (control, CVD patients without platelet deposition and CVD patients with platelet deposition). CVD patients with platelet deposition showed a higher TAC than those patients who did not show platelet deposition (P less than 0.05) or control subjects without platelet deposition (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that some patients in chronic stages of CVD may have active platelet deposition on carotid atheromatous lesions, and presence of platelet deposition in vivo could contribute to reduce platelet reactivity in peripheral blood. PMID:2633402

  12. Platelet Indices of Selenium Status in Healthy and Selenium-Deficient Sheep: a Comparison with Selenium Indices in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Bahrami, Yaser; Rezaei, Siamak Asri; Anassori, Ehsan; Janalipour, Ali; Khosravi, Voria

    2015-11-01

    Several biomarkers have been used to evaluate selenium (Se) status in livestock. However, there is no report on the potential usefulness of the Se indices of platelets in diagnosis of Se deficiency in large animals. In the current study, Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in platelets of 38 healthy and 142 Se-deficient ewes were assessed, and their correlation with plasma Se concentration, plasma GPx activity, whole blood Se concentration, and erythrocyte GPx activity was determined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cutoff values of Se concentration and GPx activity of the platelets and to summarize the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers. In Se-deficient ewes, consistent with other indices, Se concentration and GPx activity in platelets were significantly lower than those of the healthy ewes. There was a positive significant correlation between Se concentration and GPx activity in platelets with plasma Se concentration, whole blood Se concentration, and erythrocyte GPx activity. Based on the ROC curve analysis, the best cutoff value to predict inadequate plasma selenium concentration was ≤0.0055 attogram/platelet for the platelet Se concentration, with a sensitivity of 100.0 %, specificity of 92.4 %, and AUC of 0.94. For platelet GPx activity, the cutoff value was ≤203.6 U/g protein with a sensitivity of 97.4 %, specificity of 77.7 %, and AUC of 0.90. The results of this study suggested that the platelet Se concentration and GPx activity can be considered a reliable and valid intermediate-term surrogate parameter in assessment of dietary Se intake in sheep. PMID:25900578

  13. In vitro interactions of blood, platelet, and fibroblast with biodegradable magnesium-zinc-strontium alloys.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T Y; Cipriano, A F; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Liu, Huinan

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloy is an attractive class of metallic biomaterial for cardiovascular applications due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. In this study, we investigated the degradation in blood, thrombogenicity, and cytocompatibility of Magnesium-Zinc-Strontium (Mg-Zn-Sr) alloys, specifically four Mg-4 wt % Zn-xSr (x = 0.15, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 wt %) alloys, together with pure Mg control and relevant reference materials for cardiovascular applications. Human whole blood and platelet rich plasma (PRP) were used as the incubation media to investigate the degradation behavior of the Mg-Zn-Sr alloys. The results showed that the PRP had a greater pH increase and greater concentration of Mg(2+) ions when compared with whole blood after 2 h of incubation with the same respective Mg alloys, suggesting that the Mg alloys degraded faster in PRP than in whole blood. The Mg alloy with 4 wt % Zn and 0.15 wt % Sr (named as ZSr41A) was identified as the most promising alloy for cardiovascular stent applications, because it showed slower degradation and less thrombogenicity, as indicated by the lower concentrations of Mg(2+) ions released and less deposition of platelets. Additionally, ZSr41 alloys were cytocompatible with fibroblasts in direct exposure culture in which the cells adhered and proliferated around the samples, with no statistical difference in cell adhesion density compared with the blank reference. Future studies on the ZSr41 alloys are necessary to investigate their direct interactions with other important cells in cardiovascular system, such as vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. PMID:25690931

  14. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Grover, Amit; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Giustacchini, Alice; Gambardella, Adriana; Macaulay, Iain; Mancini, Elena; Luis, Tiago C; Mead, Adam; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC transcriptomes and HSC function at the single-cell level, we identify increased molecular platelet priming and functional platelet bias as the predominant age-dependent change to HSCs, including a significant increase in a previously unrecognized class of HSCs that exclusively produce platelets. Depletion of HSC platelet programming through loss of the FOG-1 transcription factor is accompanied by increased lymphoid output. Therefore, increased platelet bias may contribute to the age-associated decrease in lymphopoiesis. PMID:27009448

  15. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Amit; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Giustacchini, Alice; Gambardella, Adriana; Macaulay, Iain; Mancini, Elena; Luis, Tiago C.; Mead, Adam; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC transcriptomes and HSC function at the single-cell level, we identify increased molecular platelet priming and functional platelet bias as the predominant age-dependent change to HSCs, including a significant increase in a previously unrecognized class of HSCs that exclusively produce platelets. Depletion of HSC platelet programming through loss of the FOG-1 transcription factor is accompanied by increased lymphoid output. Therefore, increased platelet bias may contribute to the age-associated decrease in lymphopoiesis. PMID:27009448

  16. Peroxiredoxin II Is an Antioxidant Enzyme That Negatively Regulates Collagen-stimulated Platelet Function*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Yong; Wang, Su Bin; Min, Ji Hyun; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-induced platelet signaling is mediated by binding to the primary receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Reactive oxygen species produced in response to collagen have been found to be responsible for the propagation of GPVI signaling pathways in platelets. Therefore, it has been suggested that antioxidant enzymes could down-regulate GPVI-stimulated platelet activation. Although the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) has emerged as having a role in negatively regulating signaling through various receptors by eliminating H2O2 generated upon receptor stimulation, the function of PrxII in collagen-stimulated platelets is not known. We tested the hypothesis that PrxII negatively regulates collagen-stimulated platelet activation. We analyzed PrxII-deficient murine platelets. PrxII deficiency enhanced GPVI-mediated platelet activation through the defective elimination of H2O2 and the impaired protection of SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) against oxidative inactivation, which resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of key components for the GPVI signaling cascade, including Syk, Btk, and phospholipase Cγ2. Interestingly, PrxII-mediated antioxidative protection of SHP-2 appeared to occur in the lipid rafts. PrxII-deficient platelets exhibited increased adhesion and aggregation upon collagen stimulation. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that PrxII deficiency facilitated platelet-dependent thrombus formation in injured carotid arteries. This study reveals that PrxII functions as a protective antioxidant enzyme against collagen-stimulated platelet activation and platelet-dependent thrombosis. PMID:25802339

  17. Studies on antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Olas, B; Wachowicz, B; Nowak, P; Kedzierska, M; Tomczak, A; Stochmal, A; Oleszek, W; Jeziorski, A; Piekarski, J

    2008-12-01

    The antioxidant properties of extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) containing: anthocyanidines, phenolic acids and quercetine glycosides on oxidative/nitrative stress induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-), a powerful physiological oxidant, nitrating species and inflammatory mediator) in human blood platelets were studied in vitro. The extract from A. melanocarpa (5 - 50 microg/mL) significantly inhibited platelet protein carbonylation (measured by ELISA method) and thiol oxidation estimated with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) (DTNB) induced by peroxynitrite (0.1 mM) (IC(50)--35 microg/mL for protein carbonylation, and IC(50)--33 microg/mL for protein thiol oxidation). The tested extract only slightly reduced platelet protein nitration (measured by C- ELISA method). The extract also caused a distinct reduction of platelet lipid peroxidation induced by peroxynitrite. Moreover, in our preliminary experiments we observed that the extract (50 microg/mL) reduced oxidative/nitrative stress in blood platelets from patients with breast cancer. The obtained results indicate that in vitro the extract from A. melanocarpa has the protective effects against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative/nitrative damage to the human platelet proteins and lipids. The extract from A. melanocarpa seems to be also useful as an antioxidant in patients with breast cancer. PMID:19212014

  18. Platelet MAO and personality--function and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Oreland, L; Hallman, J; Damberg, M

    2004-08-01

    Research on the association between platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and personality traits, such as sensation seeking and impulsiveness, is reviewed with an emphasis on early history and current situation. The effects of MAO-inhibiting compounds in cigarette smoke for the interpretation of this association are discussed and recent results confirming a true association between platelet MAO activity and personality and vulnerability, for e.g. type 2 alcoholism are presented. From a clinical point of view, the link between platelet MAO activity, which is highly genetically regulated and is stable in the individual, and personality traits, has had its greatest impact on the understanding of the nature of constitutional factors making individuals vulnerable, for e.g. substance abuse and other forms of sociopathic behaviour. The molecular mechanisms underlying the association between platelet MAO and behaviour are discussed and evidence that common transcriptional factors, e.g. within the AP-2 family, regulating both the expression of platelet MAO and components of the central monoaminergic systems, such as synthesising enzymes, receptors and transporters, are presented. A hypothesis is put forward, that such common transcription factors may not directly regulate platelet MAO expression, but rather mitochondrial density, or outer mitochondrial membrane surface. PMID:15279564

  19. The dimeric platelet collagen receptor GPVI-Fc reduces platelet adhesion to activated endothelium and preserves myocardial function after transient ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Schönberger, Tanja; Ziegler, Melanie; Borst, Oliver; Konrad, Ildiko; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Massberg, Steffen; Ochmann, Carmen; Jürgens, Tobias; Seizer, Peter; Langer, Harald; Münch, Götz; Ungerer, Martin; Preissner, Klaus T; Elvers, Margitta; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2012-10-01

    Platelets play a critical role in the pathophysiology of reperfusion, sepsis, and cardiovascular diseases. In a multiple step process, they adhere to activated endothelium and release proinflammatory cytokines thereby promoting the inflammatory process. Glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is the major collagen receptor on the platelet surface and triggers platelet activation and primary hemostasis. Activation of GPVI leads to stable platelet adhesion and degranulation of platelet granules. However, GPVI is critically involved in platelet adhesion to activated endothelium without exposure of subendothelial matrix. Earlier studies show that the soluble GPVI-Fc binds to collagen and protects mice from atherosclerosis and decreases neointima proliferation after arterial injury. Here, we show for the first time that recombinant GPVI-Fc binds to activated endothelium mainly via vitronectin and prevents platelet/endothelial interaction. Administration of GPVI-Fc reduced infarct size and preserved cardiac function in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. This process was associated with reduced GPVI-induced platelet degranulation and release of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, administration of GPVI-Fc offers a novel strategy to control platelet-mediated inflammation and to preserve myocardial function following myocardial infarction. PMID:22814400

  20. Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Pre-Eclampsia Placentas Differentially Affect Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Tannetta, Dionne S.; Hunt, Kathryn; Jones, Chris I.; Davidson, Naomi; Coxon, Carmen H.; Ferguson, David; Redman, Christopher W.; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Sargent, Ian L.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) complicates around 3% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of PE remains unclear however its underlying cause originates from the placenta and manifests as raised blood pressure, proteinuria, vascular or systemic inflammation and hypercoagulation in the mother. Women who develop PE are also at significantly higher risk of subsequently developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. In PE, the failing endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative and inflammatory stressed syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta sheds increased numbers of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) into the maternal circulation. Platelet reactivity, size and concentration are also known to be altered in some women who develop PE, although the underlying reasons for this have not been determined. In this study we show that STBEV from disease free placenta isolated ex vivo by dual placental perfusion associate rapidly with platelets. We provide evidence that STBEV isolated from normal placentas cause platelet activation and that this is increased with STBEV from PE pregnancies. Furthermore, treatment of platelets with aspirin, currently prescribed for women at high risk of PE to reduce platelet aggregation, also inhibits STBEV-induced reversible aggregation of washed platelets. Increased platelet reactivity as a result of exposure to PE placenta derived STBEVs correlates with increased thrombotic risk associated with PE. These observations establish a possible direct link between the clotting disturbances of PE and dysfunction of the placenta, as well as the known increased risk of thromboembolism associated with this condition. PMID:26551971

  1. Functional responses and molecular mechanisms involved in histone-mediated platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Carestia, A; Rivadeneyra, L; Romaniuk, M A; Fondevila, C; Negrotto, S; Schattner, M

    2013-11-01

    Histones are highly alkaline proteins found in cell nuclei and they can be released by either dying or inflammatory cells. The recent observations that histones are major components of neutrophil extracellular traps and promote platelet aggregation and platelet-dependent thrombin generation have shown that these proteins are potent prothrombotic molecules. Because the mechanism(s) of platelet activation by histones are not completely understood, we explored the ability of individual recombinant human histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 to induce platelet activation as well as the possible molecular mechanisms involved. All histones were substrates for platelet adhesion and spreading and triggered fibrinogen binding, aggregation, von Willebrand factor release, P-selectin and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates; however, H4 was the most potent. Histone-mediated fibrinogen binding, P-selectin and PS exposure and the formation of mixed aggregates were potentiated by thrombin. Histones induced the activation of ERK, Akt, p38 and NFκB. Accordingly, histone-induced platelet activation was significantly impaired by pretreatment of platelets with inhibitors of ERK (U 0126), PI3K/Akt (Ly 294002), p38 (SB 203580) and NFκB (BAY 11-7082 and Ro 106-9920). Preincubation of platelets with either aspirin or dexamethasone markedly decreased fibrinogen binding and the adhesion mediated by histones without affecting P-selectin exposure. Functional platelet responses induced by H3 and H4, but not H1, H2A and H2B, were partially mediated through interaction with Toll-like receptors -2 and -4. Our data identify histones as important triggers of haemostatic and proinflammatory platelet responses, and only haemostatic responses are partially inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:23965842

  2. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  3. Lyn and PECAM-1 function as interdependent inhibitors of platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ming, Zhangyin; Hu, Yu; Xiang, Jizhou; Polewski, Peter; Newman, Peter J; Newman, Debra K

    2011-04-01

    Inhibition of platelet responsiveness is important to control pathologic thrombus formation. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and the Src family kinase Lyn inhibit platelet activation by the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) collagen receptor; however, it is not known whether PECAM-1 and Lyn function in the same or different inhibitory pathways. In these studies, we found that, relative to wild-type platelets, platelets derived from PECAM-1-deficient, Lyn-deficient, or PECAM-1/Lyn double-deficient mice were equally hyperresponsive to stimulation with a GPVI-specific agonist, indicating that PECAM-1 and Lyn participate in the same inhibitory pathway. Lyn was required for PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent binding of the Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2, SHP-2. These results support a model in which PECAM-1/SHP-2 complexes, formed in a Lyn-dependent manner, suppress GPVI signaling. PMID:21297004

  4. Platelet storage in PAS-2 or autologous plasma: impact on functional parameters.

    PubMed

    Bunescu, A; Hild, M; Lundahl, J; Egberg, N

    2001-04-01

    Currently, several platelet additive solutions for long-term platelet storage have been introduced. The aim of this study was to compare the deterioration of functional status of platelets stored for up to 5 days in autologous plasma (AP) only, with platelet stored in PAS-2, a salt solution containing acetate, citrate and sodium chloride. Change in platelet adhesion, aggregation and activation was measured by flow cytometric technique. In addition, beta-Thromboglobulin (beta-TG), lactate and glucose were determined. After 5 days of storage, the expression of P-Selectin was significantly higher, the production of lactate and the consumption of glucose were significantly lower, in platelets stored in PAS-2 than in autologous plasma. No significant differences were detected on day 5 between the two groups with regard to fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor binding capacity, or to beta-TG release. It can be concluded that neither storage medium was consistently better for the parameters tested. However, it must be emphasized that platelets stored in autologous plasma exhibited less lesion, in terms of P-Selectin expression compared with platelets stored in PAS-2. PMID:11299027

  5. Quality of packed red blood cells and platelet concentrates collected by multicomponent collection using the MCS plus device.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G C; Jilma-Stohlawetz, P; Stiegler, G; Weigel, G; Horvath, M; Tanzmann, A; Höcker, P; Fischer, M B

    2003-01-01

    The demand for blood components is constantly increasing, while the exclusion criteria for donors are strengthened in order to reach maximal safety for donors and patients. To counterbalance reduced availability of volunteers, multicomponent collections (MCC) is an attractive approach to produce more than one component during a single apheresis procedure from one donor, such as packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelet concentrates (PCs). Further, the exposures of patients to a limited number of donors reduces the possibility of alloimmunization and transfusion-related diseases. We measured the quality of PRBCs and PCs obtained by MCC, using the MCS+ device with the LDPRBC program, Revision B, and compared them with the quality of manually collected PRBCs and PCs collected with the Revision C2 of the MCS+. We found higher pH levels and lower hemolysis assessed by means of fHb and K+ in the supernatant of PRBCs over the whole storage period of 42 days in MCC-derived PRBCs. The functional metabolism assessed by intracellular ATP was higher in PRBCs collected by MCC than in manually collected units. Furthermore, PCs obtained during MCC showed an increase in p-selectin expression on day 5 of storage compared to PCs collected with the Revision C2 of the MCS+. The p-selectin expression on MCC platelets was within the range of p-selectin expression found in PCs obtained by other apheresis devices. These results indicate less storage lesion in MCC-derived PRBCs compared to manually collected units and no compromise in the quality of MCC PCs obtained in the same apheresis procedure. PMID:12717789

  6. Editorial Commentary: Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Knee Pain and Function in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-11-01

    Systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that platelet-rich plasma improves knee pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Ultimately, biologics hold promise for chondroprotection in addition to symptomatic relief. PMID:26542203

  7. Rearranged EML4-ALK fusion transcripts sequester in circulating blood platelets and enable blood-based crizotinib response monitoring in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R. Jonas A.; Karachaliou, Niki; Berenguer, Jordi; Gimenez-Capitan, Ana; Schellen, Pepijn; Teixido, Cristina; Tannous, Jihane; Kuiper, Justine L.; Drees, Esther; Grabowska, Magda; van Keulen, Marte; Heideman, Danielle A.M.; Thunnissen, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Viteri, Santiago; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Rosell, Rafael; Smit, Egbert F.; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancers harboring EML4-ALK rearrangements are sensitive to crizotinib. However, despite initial response, most patients will eventually relapse, and monitoring EML4-ALK rearrangements over the course of treatment may help identify these patients. However, challenges associated with serial tumor biopsies have highlighted the need for blood-based assays for the monitoring of biomarkers. Platelets can sequester RNA released by tumor cells and are thus an attractive source for the non-invasive assessment of biomarkers. Methods: EML4-ALK rearrangements were analyzed by RT-PCR in platelets and plasma isolated from blood obtained from 77 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, 38 of whom had EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors. In a subset of 29 patients with EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors who were treated with crizotinib, EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets were correlated with progression-free and overall survival. Results: RT-PCR demonstrated 65% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets. In the subset of 29 patients treated with crizotinib, progression-free survival was 3.7 months for patients with EML4-ALK+ platelets and 16 months for those with EML4-ALK− platelets (hazard ratio, 3.5; P = 0.02). Monitoring of EML4-ALK rearrangements in the platelets of one patient over a period of 30 months revealed crizotinib resistance two months prior to radiographic disease progression. Conclusions: Platelets are a valuable source for the non-invasive detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements and may prove useful for predicting and monitoring outcome to crizotinib, thereby improving clinical decisions based on radiographic imaging alone. PMID:26544515

  8. A comparative evaluation of the blood clot, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin in regeneration of necrotic immature permanent teeth: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Isha; Mittal, Neelam; Mishra, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was designed as a clinical trial to evaluate and compare the regenerative potential of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and blood clot in immature necrotic permanent teeth with or without associated apical periodontitis. Methods: Access preparation was done under rubber dam isolation. Copious irrigation was done with 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste was placed as an intracanal medicament. After 4 weeks, the cases were divided into four groups with five patients in each group. The study design had three test arms and one control arm. Group I in which mineral trioxide aggregate apexification was carried out and it was kept as control group to evaluate the regenerative potential of blood clot and platelet concentrates, Group II in which blood clot was used as scaffold in the canal, Group III in PRF was used as scaffold, and Group IV in which PRP carried on collagen was used as a scaffold. Results: The clinical and radiographic evaluation after 6 and 18 months was done by two independent observers who were blinded from the groups. The scoring was done as: None score was denoted by, Fair by 1, Good by 2, and Excellent by 3. The data were then analyzed statistically by Fisher's exact test using Statistics and Data 11.1(PRP Using harvest Smart PReP2) which showed statistically significant values in Group III as compared to other Groups. Conclusion: PRF has huge potential to accelerate the growth characteristics in immature necrotic permanent teeth as compared to PRP and blood clot. PMID:25684914

  9. Seasonal variation of imipramine binding in the blood platelets of normal controls and depressed patients

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1988-02-01

    Imipramine binding (IB) was studied in the blood platelets from normal controls and depressed patients over a 4-year period (1981-1984) to determine if seasonal variation was present in Bmax or KD. Bimonthly variation in the Bmax of IB was found in normal controls studied longitudinally. No such variation was found when individual values from normal controls were examined on a monthly or seasonal basis. Bmax in depressed patients showed a significant seasonal, but not monthly, variation. KD of IB varied in normal controls using monthly or seasonal data, but not in the probably more reliable bimonthly data. These results suggest that IB studies comparing groups of subjects should match groups for season of the year or, for greater accuracy, month of the year.

  10. Effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on the formation of blood vessels in subcutaneous implants in mice.

    PubMed

    Andrade, S P; Vieira, L B; Bakhle, Y S; Piper, P J

    1994-03-01

    Angiogenesis accompanies inflammatory processes and many other pathological conditions. We have studied the effect of platelet-activating factor (PAF) a well-known inflammatory mediator, as a promoter of angiogenesis in the sponge implant model in mice. Development of blood vessels and blood flow were monitored by use of a 133Xe washout technique. The results showed PAF to have angiogenic activity, which was inhibited by WEB 2086, and the PAF-induced vasculature to have normal pharmacological reactivity. PMID:7516807

  11. Platelet lysate from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis-derived platelet concentrates for the isolation and expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: production process, content and identification of active components

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Natalie; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fürst, Daniel; Maurer, Caroline; Dausend, Julia; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Mailänder, Volker; Lotfi, Ramin; Ignatius, Anita; Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Rojewski, Markus Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background aims The clinical use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) requires ex vivo expansion in media containing supplements such as fetal bovine serum or, alternatively, human platelet lysate (PL). Methods Platelet concentrates were frozen, quarantine stored, thawed and sterile filtered to obtain PL. PL content and its effect on fibroblast-colony-forming unit (CFU-F) formation, MSC proliferation and large-scale expansion were studied. Results PL contained high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), soluble CD40L (sCD40L), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), platelet-derived growth factor AB/BB (PDGF-AB/BB), chemokine (C-C) ligand 5 (CCL5; RANTES) transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1/2/3 (GRO), with low batch-to-batch variability, and most were stable for up to 14 days. Inhibition of PDGF-BB and bFGF decreased MSC proliferation by about 20% and 50%, respectively. The strongest inhibition (about 75%) was observed with a combination of anti-bFGF + anti-PDGF-BB and anti-bFGF + anti-TGF-β1 + anti-PDGF-BB. Interestingly, various combinations of recombinant PDGF-BB, bFGF and TGF-β1 were not sufficient to promote cell proliferation. PL from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis platelet concentrates did not differ significantly in their growth-promoting activity on MSC. Conclusions PL enhances MSC proliferation and can be regarded as a safe tool for MSC expansion for clinical purposes. \\in particular, PDGF-BB and bFGF are essential components for the growth-promoting effect of PL, but are not sufficient for MSC proliferation. PMID:22296115

  12. The effects of plasma-processing conditions on the morphology of adherent human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Murugesan, R.; Hanley, E.; Lauer, J. L.; Shohet, J. L.; Albrecht, R. M.; Heintz, J. A.; Oliver, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Hematocompatibility and nonfouling properties of materials are crucial for the development of small-scale biomedical devices. This study examines the adhesion and morphology of purified human platelets on plasma-polymerized tetraglyme-coated glass substrates. The effect of varying the plasma-processing parameters on platelet responses was determined using scanning electron microscopy. Images of platelets on the coated surfaces show that a significant reduction in platelet adhesion and spreading can be achieved as the processing parameters are varied.

  13. Oral administration of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors impairs GPVI-mediated platelet function.

    PubMed

    Rigg, Rachel A; Aslan, Joseph E; Healy, Laura D; Wallisch, Michael; Thierheimer, Marisa L D; Loren, Cassandra P; Pang, Jiaqing; Hinds, Monica T; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T

    2016-03-01

    The Tec family kinase Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays an important signaling role downstream of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in hematopoietic cells. Mutations in Btk are involved in impaired B-cell maturation in X-linked agammaglobulinemia, and Btk has been investigated for its role in platelet activation via activation of the effector protein phospholipase Cγ2 downstream of the platelet membrane glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Because of its role in hematopoietic cell signaling, Btk has become a target in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma; the covalent Btk inhibitor ibrutinib was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of these conditions. Antihemostatic events have been reported in some patients taking ibrutinib, although the mechanism of these events remains unknown. We sought to determine the effects of Btk inhibition on platelet function in a series of in vitro studies of platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation. Our results show that irreversible inhibition of Btk with two ibrutinib analogs in vitro decreased human platelet activation, phosphorylation of Btk, P-selectin exposure, spreading on fibrinogen, and aggregation under shear flow conditions. Short-term studies of ibrutinib analogs administered in vivo also showed abrogation of platelet aggregation in vitro, but without measurable effects on plasma clotting times or on bleeding in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of Btk significantly decreased GPVI-mediated platelet activation, spreading, and aggregation in vitro; however, prolonged bleeding was not observed in a model of bleeding. PMID:26659727

  14. The influence of fibrin polymerization and platelet-mediated contractile forces on citrated whole blood thromboelastography profile.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, Tahar; Gerotziafas, Grigoris T; Seghatchian, Jerhad; Samama, Meyer M; Hatmi, Mohamed; Elalamy, Ismail

    2006-05-01

    Thromboelastography analysis providing a global assessment of coagulation is gaining new interest in clinical practice. MinimalTF triggered whole blood thromboelastography provides a valuable tool for studying the kinetics of clot formation (expressed by the parameters R, K and alpha-angle) and the physical characteristics of the clot, such as its firmness and the elastic modulus shear (expressed by the parameters maximal amplitude MA and G). We studied the influence of fibrin polymerization and platelet functional status on each parameter of thromboelastographic trace obtained by minimalTF activation inWB by employing increasing concentrations of a fibrin polymerization inhibitors (the tetrapeptide Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-OH.AcOH; Pefabloc-FG) and an inhibitor of actin polymerization (Cytochalasin D). Pefabloc-FG at concentrations higher than 5 mg/ml prolonged the R and K times and decreased the alpha-angle in a concentration-dependent manner but it did not modify MA and G parameters. At the concentration of 5 mg/ml, Pefabloc-FG completely inhibited clot formation. Cytochalasin D had no effect on R time but decreased the alpha-angle, MA and G parameters by reaching a plateau at the concentration of 5 microM. The effect of cytochalasin D was more pronounced on MA and G than on the alpha-angle. A combination of both Pefabloc-FG (0.5 mg/ml) and cytochalasin D (50 microM) significantly decreased alpha-angle compared to control as well as their single effect. However, G value was dramatically reduced in the presence of cytochalasin D exposure, without any additional effect when both inhibitors were combined. This study confirms the importance of fibrin polymerisation on the kinetics of thrombus formation and demonstrates the close association between the quality of the thrombus and the functional status of platelets. Normal platelet contractile forces are of major importance for the maximum amplitude of TEG which is related to the strength and elastic modulus of the thrombus

  15. Platelets: covert regulators of lymphatic development.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Cara C; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L

    2010-12-01

    The field of platelet biology has rapidly expanded beyond the classical role of platelets in preventing blood loss and orchestrating clot formation. Despite the lack of transcriptional ability of these anuclear cell fragments, platelet function is now thought to encompass such diverse contexts as tissue repair, immune activation, primary tumor formation, and metastasis. Recent studies from multiple groups have turned the spotlight on an exciting new role for platelets in the formation of lymphatic vessels during embryonic development. Genetic experiments demonstrate that podoplanin, a transmembrane protein expressed on lymphatic endothelial cells, engages the platelet C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) when exposed to blood, leading to SYK-SLP-76-dependent platelet activation. When components of this pathway are disrupted, aberrant vascular connections form, resulting in blood-lymphatic mixing. Furthermore, platelet-null embryos manifest identical blood-lymphatic mixing. The identification of platelets as the critical cell type mediating blood-lymphatic vascular separation raises new questions in our understanding of lymphatic development and platelet biology. PMID:21071706

  16. Properdin-Mediated C5a Production Enhances Stable Binding of Platelets to Granulocytes in Human Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Adam Z; Saggu, Gurpanna; Kulkarni, Koustubh V; Cortes, Claudio; Thurman, Joshua M; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ferreira, Viviana P

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced levels of platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs) are found in patients suffering from many different inflammatory vascular diseases, and their formation in animal models of vascular disease is associated with increased thromboinflammation and worsened outcomes. The complement system, a part of the innate immune system, influences PGA formation, but the mechanisms for its effects are unknown. In this study, we have defined complement-mediated mechanisms that enhance PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP) using ex vivo flow cytometry assays. We demonstrate that physiological properdin, a positive regulator of complement alternative pathway activity, increases PGA formation when added to TRAP-stimulated blood. All physiological properdin forms increase PGA formation, but properdin tetramers are the most efficient at increasing complement activity and PGA formation. Inhibition of endogenous properdin, either circulating in the blood or produced locally by leukocytes, impairs TRAP-mediated PGA formation to the same level as specific inhibition of either the alternative or classical pathway. Additionally, blocking the interaction of C5a with its cellular receptor prevents properdin-mediated increases in PGA formation. Adding either properdin tetramers or C5a to whole blood increases CD11b expression on granulocytes, and this increase is prevented by blockade of the C5a-C5a receptor axis. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of properdin on PGA formation are tightly regulated by Factor H. Cumulatively, our data indicate that properdin enhances PGA formation via increased production of C5a, and that inhibition of properdin function has therapeutic potential to limit thromboinflammation in diseases characterized by increased PGA formation. PMID:27183616

  17. Pravastatin and C reactive protein modulate protease- activated receptor-1 expression in vitro blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Chu, L-X; Zhou, S-X; Yang, F; Qin, Y-Q; Liang, Z-S; Mo, C-G; Wang, X-D; Xie, J; He, L-P

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) plays an important role in mediating activation of human platelets by thrombin. However, mechanism of statin in ADP-induced platelet PAR-1 expression is also unknown. Aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoblotting and ELISA were used to determine role of pravastatin participating in ADP-induced platelet activation and PAR-1 expression. ADP stimulation significantly increased PAR-1 expression on platelets. PAR-1 antagonist SCH-79797 inhibited platelet aggregation as well as decreased platelet P-selectin expression induced by ADP. CRP inhibited PAR-1 expression induced by ADP in a concentration-dependent manner. Pravastatin treatment reduced PAR-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination treatment of CRP and Pravastatin significantly reduced platelet PAR-1 expression induced by ADP. By western-blot analysis, pravastatin treatment did not influence total PAR-1 after ADP treatment. CRP decreased platelet total PAR-1 expression induced by ADP. Pravastatin and CRP reduced TXB2 formation by ADP significantly. CRP decreased thrombin fragment F1+2 level with ADP treatment. Pravastatin, in contrast, did not influence F1+2 level. Upon treatment with Pravastatin reduced platelet LOX-1 expression induced by ADP. In conclusion, PAR-1 served as a critical mechanism to relay platelet activation process induced by ADP. CRP and pravastatin reduce PAR-1 expression in platelet by ADP pathway. PMID:26950455

  18. Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Grosdidier, Charlotte; Guinier, Marie; Perret, Claire; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Germain, Marine; Raslova, Hana; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre E.; Saut, Noemie; Pillois, Xavier; Nurden, Alan T.; Cambien, François; Pierres, Anne; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet’s ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis. PMID:24958846

  19. The influence of herbal medicine on platelet function and coagulation: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Platelet activation and aggregation play a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Herbal medicines have been traditionally used in the management of CVD and can play a role in modifying CVD progression, particularly in platelet function, and have the potential of altering platelet function tests, as well as some coagulation parameters. Herbal medicines, such as feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginseng, motherwort, St John's wort, and willow bark, were found to reduce platelet aggregation. In vitro studies show promise in the reduction of platelet aggregation for Andrographis, feverfew, garlic, ginger, Ginkgo, ginseng, hawthorn, horse chestnut, and turmeric. In addition, cranberry, danshen, dong quai, Ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, and St John's wort were found to have potential interactions with warfarin. Furthermore, St John's wort interacted with clopidogrel and danshen with aspirin. Therefore, repeat testing of platelet function and coagulation studies, particularly for patients on warfarin therapy, may be required after exclusion of herbal medicines that could have possibly affected initial test results. PMID:25839871

  20. Platelet mimicry: The emperor's new clothes?

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Hunter, Alan Christy; Peer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Here we critically examine whether coating of nanoparticles with platelet membranes can truly disguise them against recognition by elements of the innate immune system. We further assess whether the "cloaking technology" can sufficiently equip nanoparticles with platelet-mimicking functionalities to include in vivo targeting of damaged blood vessels and binding to platelet-adhering opportunistic pathogens. We present views for improved, and pharmaceutically viable nanoparticle design strategies. PMID:26409192

  1. Pathogen Reduction Technology Treatment of Platelets, Plasma and Whole Blood Using Riboflavin and UV Light.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Susanne; Goodrich, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial contamination and emerging infections combined with increased international travel pose a great risk to the safety of the blood supply. Tests to detect the presence of infection in a donor have a 'window period' during which infections cannot be detected but the donor may be infectious. Agents and their transmission routes need to be recognized before specific tests can be developed. Pathogen reduction of blood components represents a means to address these concerns and is a proactive approach for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted diseases. The expectation of a pathogen reduction system is that it achieves high enough levels of pathogen reduction to reduce or prevent the likelihood of disease transmission while preserving adequate cell and protein quality. In addition the system needs to be non-toxic, non-mutagenic and should be simple to use. The Mirasol® Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) System for Platelets and Plasma uses riboflavin (vitamin B2) plus UV light to induce damage in nucleic acid-containing agents. The system has been shown to be effective against clinically relevant pathogens and inactivates leukocytes without significantly compromising the efficacy of the product or resulting in product loss. Riboflavin is a naturally occurring vitamin with a well-known and well-characterized safety profile. The same methodology is currently under development for the treatment of whole blood, making pathogen reduction of all blood products using one system achievable. This review gives an overview of the Mirasol PRT System, summarizing the mechanism of action, toxicology profile, pathogen reduction performance and clinical efficacy of the process. PMID:21779202

  2. Pathogen Reduction Technology Treatment of Platelets, Plasma and Whole Blood Using Riboflavin and UV Light

    PubMed Central

    Marschner, Susanne; Goodrich, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination and emerging infections combined with increased international travel pose a great risk to the safety of the blood supply. Tests to detect the presence of infection in a donor have a ‘window period’ during which infections cannot be detected but the donor may be infectious. Agents and their transmission routes need to be recognized before specific tests can be developed. Pathogen reduction of blood components represents a means to address these concerns and is a proactive approach for the prevention of transfusion-transmitted diseases. The expectation of a pathogen reduction system is that it achieves high enough levels of pathogen reduction to reduce or prevent the likelihood of disease transmission while preserving adequate cell and protein quality. In addition the system needs to be non-toxic, non-mutagenic and should be simple to use. The Mirasol® Pathogen Reduction Technology (PRT) System for Platelets and Plasma uses riboflavin (vitamin B2) plus UV light to induce damage in nucleic acid-containing agents. The system has been shown to be effective against clinically relevant pathogens and inactivates leukocytes without significantly compromising the efficacy of the product or resulting in product loss. Riboflavin is a naturally occurring vitamin with a well-known and well-characterized safety profile. The same methodology is currently under development for the treatment of whole blood, making pathogen reduction of all blood products using one system achievable. This review gives an overview of the Mirasol PRT System, summarizing the mechanism of action, toxicology profile, pathogen reduction performance and clinical efficacy of the process. PMID:21779202

  3. Venous levels of shear support neutrophil-platelet adhesion and neutrophil aggregation in blood via P-selectin and beta2-integrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantopoulos, K.; Neelamegham, S.; Burns, A. R.; Hentzen, E.; Kansas, G. S.; Snapp, K. R.; Berg, E. L.; Hellums, J. D.; Smith, C. W.; McIntire, L. V.; Simon, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After activation, platelets adhere to neutrophils via P-selectin and beta2-integrin. The molecular mechanisms and adhesion events in whole blood exposed to venous levels of hydrodynamic shear in the absence of exogenous activation remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole blood was sheared at approximately 100 s(-1). The kinetics of neutrophil-platelet adhesion and neutrophil aggregation were measured in real time by flow cytometry. P-selectin was upregulated to the platelet surface in response to shear and was the primary factor mediating neutrophil-platelet adhesion. The extent of neutrophil aggregation increased linearly with platelet adhesion to neutrophils. Blocking either P-selectin, its glycoprotein ligand PSGL-1, or both simultaneously by preincubation with a monoclonal antibody resulted in equivalent inhibition of neutrophil-platelet adhesion (approximately 30%) and neutrophil aggregation (approximately 70%). The residual amount of neutrophil adhesion was blocked with anti-CD11b/CD18. Treatment of blood with prostacyclin analogue ZK36374, which raises cAMP levels in platelets, blocked P-selectin upregulation and neutrophil aggregation to baseline. Complete abrogation of platelet-neutrophil adhesion required both ZK36374 and anti-CD18. Electron microscopic observations of fixed blood specimens revealed that platelets augmented neutrophil aggregation both by forming bridges between neutrophils and through contact-mediated activation. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with a model in which venous levels of shear support platelet adherence to neutrophils via P-selectin binding PSGL-1. This interaction alone is sufficient to mediate neutrophil aggregation. Abrogation of platelet adhesion and aggregation requires blocking Mac-1 in addition to PSGL-1 or P-selectin. The described mechanisms are likely of key importance in the pathogenesis and progression of thrombotic disorders that are exacerbated by leukocyte-platelet aggregation.

  4. Platelet receptor interplay regulates collagen-induced thrombus formation in flowing human blood.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Pia R-M; Munnix, Imke C A; Smethurst, Peter A; Deckmyn, Hans; Lindhout, Theo; Ouwehand, Willem H; Farndale, Richard W; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2004-02-15

    The platelet glycoproteins (GPs) Ib, integrin alpha(2)beta(1), and GPVI are considered central to thrombus formation. Recently, their relative importance has been re-evaluated based on data from murine knockout models. To examine their relationship during human thrombus formation on collagen type I fibers at high shear (1000 s(-1)), we tested a novel antibody against GPVI, an immunoglobulin single-chain variable fragment, 10B12, together with specific antagonists for GPIb alpha (12G1 Fab(2)) and alpha(2)beta(1) (6F1 mAb or GFOGER-GPP peptide). GPVI was found to be crucial for aggregate formation, Ca(2+) signaling, and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, but not for primary adhesion, even with more than 97% receptor blockade. Inhibiting alpha(2)beta(1) revealed its involvement in regulating Ca(2+) signaling, PS exposure, and aggregate size. Both GPIb alpha and alpha(2)beta(1) contributed to primary adhesion, showing overlapping function. The coinhibition of receptors revealed synergism in thrombus formation: the coinhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors with collagen receptors further decreased adhesion and aggregation, and, crucially, the complete eradication of thrombus formation required the coinhibition of GPVI with either GPIb alpha or alpha(2)beta(1). In summary, human platelet deposition on collagen depends on the concerted interplay of several receptors: GPIb in synergy with alpha(2)beta(1) mediating primary adhesion, reinforced by activation through GPVI, which further regulates the thrombus formation. PMID:14563646

  5. New analogues of 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid block human blood platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase-1 activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thromboxane A2 is derived from arachidonic acid through the action of cyclooxygenases and thromboxane synthase. It is mainly formed in blood platelets upon activation and plays an important role in aggregation. Aspirin is effective in reducing the incidence of complications following acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The anti-thrombotic effect of aspirin is obtained through the irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid were shown previously to modulate platelet activation and to block thromboxane receptors. Results and discussion We synthesized 10 compounds based on the structures of analogues of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroxyocatdecadienoic acid and evaluated their effect on platelet aggregation triggered by arachidonic acid. The structure activity relationship was evaluated. Five compounds showed a significant inhibition of platelet aggregation and highlighted the importance of the lipidic hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain and the phenol group. Their IC50 ranged from 7.5 ± 0.8 to 14.2 ± 5.7 μM (Mean ± S.E.M.). All five compounds decreased platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis in response to collagen whereas no modification of platelet aggregation in response to thromboxane receptor agonist, U46619, was observed. Using COS-7 cells overexpressing human cyclooxygenase-1, we showed that these compounds are specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 with IC50 ranging from 1.3 to 12 μM. Docking observation of human recombinant cyclooxygenase-1 supported a role of the phenol group in the fitting of cyclooxygenase-1, most likely related to hydrogen bonding with the Tyr 355 of cyclooxygenase-1. Conclusions In conclusion, the compounds we synthesized at first based on the structures of analogues of 12 lipoxygenase metabolites showed a role of the phenol group in the anti-platelet and anti-cyclooxygenase-1 activities. These compounds mediate their

  6. [STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PLATELETS AND PLATELET-DERIVED MICROVESICLES].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, A A; Nevzorova, T A; Mordakhanova, E R; Andrianova, I A; Litvinov, R I

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are the anucleated blood cells, wich together with the fibrin stop bleeding (hemostasis). Cellular microvesicles are membrane-surrounded microparticles released into extracellular space upon activation and/or apoptosis of various cells. Platelet-derived macrovesicles from the major population of circulating blood microparticles that play an important role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Despite numerous studies on the pathophysiology of platelet-derived macrovesicles, mechanisms of their formation and structural details remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the ultrastructure of parental platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles formed in vitro by quiescent cells as well as by cells stimulated with one of the following activators: arachidonic acid, ADP, thrombin, calcium ionophore A23187. Using transmission electron microscopy of human platelets and isolated microvesicles, we analyzed the intracellular origin, steps of formation, structural diversity, and size distributions of the subcellular particles. We have revealed that thrombin, unlike other stimuli, not only induced vesiculation of the plasma membrane but also caused break-up of the cells followed by formation of microparticles that are comparable with microvesicles by size. A fraction of these microparticles contained cellular organelles surrounded by a thin membrane. The size of platelet-derived macrovesicles varied from 30 nm to 500 nm, however, the size distributions depended on the nature of a cell-activating stimulus. The results obtained provide new information about the formation of platelet-derived macrovesicles and their structural diversity, wich is important to understand their multiple functions in normal and disease states. PMID:27228656

  7. Platelet function testing in transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soon Tjin; Coughlan, Catherine A; Murphy, Stephen J X; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Montaner, Joan; Thijs, Vincent; Marquardt, Lars; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) are not protected from further vascular events with antiplatelet therapy. Measurement of inhibition of platelet function ex vivo on antiplatelet therapy, using laboratory tests that correlate with the clinical effectiveness of these agents, would potentially enable physicians to tailor antiplatelet therapy to suit individuals. A systematic review of the literature was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet function/reactivity in CVD patients, especially those treated with aspirin, dipyridamole or clopidogrel. Particular emphasis was paid to information from commonly available whole blood platelet function analysers (PFA-100®, VerifyNow® and Multiplate®). Data on pharmacogenetic mechanisms potentially influencing high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on antiplatelet therapy in CVD were reviewed. Two-hundred forty-nine potentially relevant articles were identified; 93 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion. The prevalence of ex vivo HTPR in CVD varies between 3-62% with aspirin monotherapy, 8-61% with clopidogrel monotherapy and 56-59% when dipyridamole is added to aspirin in the early, subacute or late phases after TIA/stroke onset. The prevalence of HTPR on aspirin was higher on the PFA-100 than on the VerifyNow in one study (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the prevalence of HTPR on aspirin was lower when one used 'novel longitudinal' rather than 'cross-sectional, case-control' definitions of HTPR on the PFA early after TIA or stroke (p = 0.003; 1 study). Studies assessing the influence of genetic polymorphisms on HTPR in CVD patients are limited, and need validation in large multicentre studies. Available data illustrate that an important proportion of CVD patients have ex vivo HTPR on their prescribed antiplatelet regimen, and that the prevalence varies depending on the definition and assay used. Large, adequately-sized, prospective multicentre collaborative studies are

  8. B cells and platelets harbor prion infectivity in the blood of deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Mathiason, Candace K; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A; Dahmes, Sallie J; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Mason, Gary L; Telling, Glenn C; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A

    2010-05-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) blood infectivity is associated with the cellular versus the cell-free/plasma fraction of blood and (ii) in particular if B-cell (MAb 2-104(+)), platelet (CD41/61(+)), or CD14(+) monocyte blood cell phenotypes harbor infectious prions. All four deer transfused with the blood mononuclear cell fraction from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive by 19 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer inoculated with cell-free plasma from the same source developed prion infection. All four of the deer injected with B cells and three of four deer receiving platelets from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive in as little as 6 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer receiving blood CD14(+) monocytes developed evidence of CWD infection (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis) after 19 months of observation. Results of the Tg(CerPrP) mouse bioassays mirrored those of the native cervid host. These results indicate that CWD blood infectivity is cell associated and suggest a significant role for B cells and platelets in trafficking CWD infectivity in vivo and support earlier tissue-based studies associating putative follicular B cells with PrP(CWD). Localization of CWD infectivity with leukocyte subpopulations may aid in enhancing the sensitivity of blood-based diagnostic assays for CWD and other TSEs. PMID:20219916

  9. Biologic nanoparticles and platelet reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Virginia M; Hunter, Larry W; Chu, Kevin; Kaul, Vivasvat; Squillace, Phillip D; Lieske, John C; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2009-01-01

    Aim Nanosized particles (NPs) enriched in hydroxyapatite and protein isolated from calcified human tissue accelerate occlusion of endothelium-denuded arteries when injected intravenously into rabbits. Since platelet aggregation and secretory processes participate in normal hemostasis, thrombosis and vascular remodeling, experiments were designed to determine if these biologic NPs alter specific platelet functions in vitro. Methods Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from citrate anticoagulated human blood. Platelet aggregation and ATP secretion were monitored in response to thrombin receptor agonists peptide (10 μM) or convulxin (50 μg/ml) prior to and following 15 min incubation with either control solution, human-derived NPs, bovine-derived NPs or crystals of hydroxyapatite at concentrations of 50 and 150 nephelometric turbidity units. Results Incubation of platelets for 15 min with either human- or bovine-derived NPs reduced aggregation induced by thrombin receptor activator peptide and convulxin in a concentration-dependent manner. Hydroxyapatite caused a greater inhibition than either of the biologically derived NPs. Human-derived NPs increased ATP secretion by unstimulated platelets during the 15 min incubation period. Conclusion Effects of bovine-derived and hydroxyapatite NPs on basal release of ATP were both time and concentration dependent. These results suggest that biologic NPs modulate both platelet aggregation and secretion. Biologically derived NPs could modify platelet responses within the vasculature, thereby reducing blood coagulability and the vascular response to injury. PMID:19839809

  10. The role of point-of-care platelet function testing in predicting postoperative bleeding following cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Corredor, C; Wasowicz, M; Karkouti, K; Sharma, V

    2015-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis appraises the utility of point-of-care platelet function tests for predicting blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgical patients, and analyses whether their use within a transfusion management algorithm is associated with improved patient outcomes. We included 30 observational studies incorporating 3044 patients in the qualitative assessment, and nine randomised controlled trials including 1057 patients in the meta-analysis. Platelet function tests demonstrated significant variability in their ability to predict blood loss and transfusion requirements. Their use within a blood transfusion algorithm demonstrated a reduction in blood loss at longest follow-up (mean difference -102.9 ml (95% CI -149.9 to -56.1 ml), p < 0.001), and transfusion of packed red cells (RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.78-0.94), p = 0.001) and fresh frozen plasma (RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.30-0.59), p < 0.001). Viscoelastic methods used in combination with other platelet function tests achieved greater reduction in blood loss (mean difference -111.8 ml (95% CI -174.9 to -49.1 ml), p = 0.0005) compared with their use alone (mean difference -90.6 ml (95% CI 166.1-15.0 ml), p = 0.02). We conclude that incorporation of point-of-care platelet function tests into transfusion management algorithms is associated with a reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery patients. PMID:25916344

  11. Blood Coagulation Parameters and Platelet Indices: Changes in Normal and Preeclamptic Pregnancies and Predictive Values for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zou, Jiaqun; Yang, Zhiling; Han, Jian; Huang, Wei; Yu, Lili; Zheng, Yingru; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE. Objectives We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE. Methods Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79), mild preeclampsia (mPE) (n = 53) and severe preeclampsia (sPE) (n = 42), were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis. Results During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV) increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05). However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD) during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743) and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671) and ideal predictive efficiency. Conclusion Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring

  12. Evaluation of platelet function during extended storage in additive solution, prepared in a new container that allows manual buffy-coat platelet pooling and leucoreduction in the same system

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Eva María; Lozano, María Luisa; Guiu, Isabel Sánchez; Egea, José Manuel; Vicente, Vicente; de Terán, Laura Collantes; Rivera, José

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel and practical storage container designed for manual buffy-coat pooling and leucodepletion was evaluated to assess its filtration performance and to analyse the quality of stored leucoreduced buffy-coat-derived platelet pools. Materials and methods. To analyse the Grifols Leucored® Transfer PL system, blood was collected from random donors into standard triple bag systems, and fractionated using standard procedures to obtain buffy-coats. Ten leucodepleted platelet pools were prepared each from five units of buffy-coats in additive solution. Concentrates were stored for 10 days at 22 °C on an end-over-end agitator. On days 0, 5, 7, and 10 of storage, samples were tested using standard in vitro platelet parameters. Results The use of this novel system for volume reduction and leucodepletion of buffy-coats resuspended in additive solution led to platelet pools that met the European requirements. pH was maintained well, declining from an initial value of 7.11±0.04 to 6.88±0.08 after 10 days. Parameters of cell lysis, response to a hypotonic stimulus and aggregation induced by agonists (arachidonic acid, ristocetin, collagen or thrombin receptor activating peptide) were also well-preserved. During storage, the quality profile of the platelet pools remained very similar to that previously reported in platelet concentrates in terms of metabolism, platelet activation (CD62, CD63, sCD62), expression of glycoproteins Ib and IIb/IIIa, capacity of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa to become activated upon ADP stimulation, and release of biological response modifiers (sCD40L and RANTES). Discussion. This new system allows the preparation of leucodepleted buffy-coat platelet pools in additive solution with good preservation of platelet function. The logistics of the procedure are relatively simple and it results in good-quality components, which may reduce costs and ease the process of buffy-coat pooling and leucocyte reduction in transfusion services. PMID:22682335

  13. Evaluation of platelet function using the in vitro bleeding time and corrected count increment of transfused platelets. Comparison between platelet concentrates derived from pooled buffy coates and apheresis.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L; Kristensen, J; Olsson, K; Bring, J; Högman, C F

    1996-01-01

    The functional capacity of transfused platelets was evaluated with in vitro bleeding time (IVBT) and corrected count increment (CCI) in order to compare platelet concentrates (PCs) derived from pooled buffy coats (BC-PCs) with PCs collected by apheresis (A-PCs). The suspension medium in the BC-PCs was 30% CPD plasma and 70% of an additive solution (containing sodium and potassium chloride, sodium citrate and phosphate, mannitol), and in the A-PCs the medium was 100% CPD plasma. IVBT was evaluated using a Thrombostat 4000/2. BC-PC and A-PC were transfused 57 and 41 times, respectively to 36 patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. PCs transfused within 2 days of donation were considered fresh, and those transfused within 3-5 days were considered stored. IVBT was determined before, as well as 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion; CCI was determined 10-30 min and 24 h after transfusion. The median pretransfusion IVBT value was 486 s. It was measurable in 21 of 98 (21%) of the transfusions, i.e. below the cutoff limit of 486 s. Ten to 30 min after transfusion, the IVBT showed a measurable reduction in 90% of the transfusions with fresh BC-PCs, 92% of those with fresh a-PCs, 63% of those with stored BC-PCs and 79% of those with stored A-PCs. After 24 h, the corresponding values were 63% for fresh BC-PCs, 50% for fresh A-PCs, 26% for stored BC-PCs and 38% for stored A-PCs. The median value of CCI 10-30 min after transfusion was 20 for fresh BC-PCs, 17 for fresh A-PCs, 16 for stored BC-PCs and 14 for stored A-PCs. The difference in IVBT between fresh and stored BC-PCs was significant (p = 0.032), unlike that between fresh and stored A-PC. After 24 h the corresponding values were 7 for fresh BC-PCs, 4 for fresh A-PCs, 4 for stored BC-PCs and 3 for stored A-PCs. When all transfusions with fresh PCs (BC-PCs + A-PCs) were compared with all transfusions with stored PCs, a statistical difference was demonstrated in both CCI (p = 0.027) and IVBT (p = 0.043). Spearman

  14. Effects on platelet function of combination etoposide and carboplatin chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, P; Properzi, E; Pisani, M; Clerico, A; Schiavetti, A; Lenti, L; Pulcinelli, F M; Ferroni, P; Gazzaniga, P P

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a therapeutic course of the combination of carboplatin and etoposide on platelet function have been evaluated in 10 pediatric patients with brain tumors. Platelet count, in vitro aggregation tests, P-selectin expression and agonist-induced ATP release were evaluated before, and 7 and 15 days after one cycle of chemotherapy. The analysis of the results demonstrated the presence of an in vitro platelet aggregation defect in response to collagen and arachidonic acid in all patients 7 days after therapy. A concomitant decrease of collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced ATP release was also observed. Both platelet aggregation and ATP release returned to baseline values 15 days after chemotherapy administration. Conversely, in vitro platelet aggregation and secretion induced by ADP and epinephrine were unaltered by carboplatin and etoposide administration. Furthermore, P-selectin expression was negative at baseline and did not change after chemotherapy. These results support the hypothesis that combination etoposide and carboplatin chemotherapy in pediatric patients is responsible for possible disturbances in biochemical pathways required for platelet secretion and aggregation. PMID:16793755

  15. Sulfasalazine and its metabolites inhibit platelet function in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    MacMullan, Paul A; Madigan, Anne M; Paul, Nevin; Peace, Aaron J; Alagha, Ahmed; Nolan, Kevin B; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Kenny, Dermot

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of sulfasalazine and its metabolites on platelet function in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA). One hundred thirty-five consecutive patients with an established diagnosis of IA were screened. Those with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), taking anti-platelet agents or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were excluded. A total of 32 patients were investigated, 15 taking sulfasalazine and 17 taking other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and no sulfasalazine. These two cohorts were compared to 15 patients with stable CVD on long-term aspirin. The effect of sulfasalazine and its metabolites on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation was also tested in vitro in samples from healthy donors (n = 18). Demographics, CVD risk factors and disease activity indices were similar in the sulfasalazine and other DMARD groups. AA-induced platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited in the sulfasalazine group (9 ± 7 %) and comparable to that in the aspirin group (10 ± 6 %). In contrast, there was no effect on AA-induced platelet aggregation in the other DMARDs group (77 ± 12 %) (p < 0.001). Furthermore, sulfasalazine therapy had no effect on platelet aggregation in response to multiple other agonists. Sulfasalazine and its metabolites (5-aminosalicylic acid and sulfapyridine) exerted an additive and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on AA-induced platelet aggregation in vitro (p < 0.001). The inhibition of AA-induced platelet aggregation by sulfasalazine is comparable to that achieved by aspirin and is dependent on both sulfasalazine and its metabolites. This represents a potential mechanism that may contribute to the known cardioprotective effect of sulfasalazine in patients with IA. PMID:25253538

  16. ARF6-dependent regulation of P2Y receptor traffic and function in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Owens, Sian E; Saha, Keya; Pope, Robert J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in the internalization and function of P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function. PMID:22916275

  17. ARF6-Dependent Regulation of P2Y Receptor Traffic and Function in Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Owens, Sian E.; Saha, Keya; Pope, Robert J.; Mundell, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors, the P2Y1 and P2Y12 purinoceptors. Recently, we demonstrated that P2Y1 and P2Y12 purinoceptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, revealing that the underlying mechanism requires receptor internalization and subsequent trafficking as an essential part of this process. In this study we investigated the role of the small GTP-binding protein ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in the internalization and function of P2Y1 and P2Y12 purinoceptors in human platelets. ARF6 has been implicated in the internalization of a number of GPCRs, although its precise molecular mechanism in this process remains unclear. In this study we show that activation of either P2Y1 or P2Y12 purinoceptors can stimulate ARF6 activity. Further blockade of ARF6 function either in cell lines or human platelets blocks P2Y purinoceptor internalization. This blockade of receptor internalization attenuates receptor resensitization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nm23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase regulated by ARF6 which facilitates dynamin-dependent fission of coated vesicles during endocytosis, is also required for P2Y purinoceptor internalization. These data describe a novel function of ARF6 in the internalization of P2Y purinoceptors and demonstrate the integral importance of this small GTPase upon platelet ADP receptor function. PMID:22916275

  18. Multiwavelength UV/visible spectroscopy for the quantitative investigation of platelet quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattley, Yvette D.; Leparc, German F.; Potter, Robert L.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    1998-04-01

    The quality of platelets transfused is vital to the effectiveness of the transfusion. Freshly prepared, discoid platelets are the most effective treatment for preventing spontaneous hemorrhage or for stopping an abnormal bleeding event. Current methodology for the routine testing of platelet quality involves random pH testing of platelet rich plasma and visual inspection of platelet rich plasma for a swirling pattern indicative of the discoid shape of the cells. The drawback to these methods is that they do not provide a quantitative and objective assay for platelet functionality that can be used on each platelet unit prior to transfusion. As part of a larger project aimed at characterizing whole blood and blood components with multiwavelength UV/vis spectroscopy, isolated platelets and platelet in platelet rich plasma have been investigated. Models based on Mie theory have been developed which allow for the extraction of quantitative information on platelet size, number and quality from multi-wavelength UV/vis spectra. These models have been used to quantify changes in platelet rich plasma during storage. The overall goal of this work is to develop a simple, rapid quantitative assay for platelet quality that can be used prior to platelet transfusion to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment. As a result of this work, the optical properties for isolated platelets, platelet rich plasma and leukodepleted platelet rich plasma have been determined.

  19. A perfusion chamber developed to investigate platelet interaction in flowing blood with human vessel wall cells, their extracellular matrix, and purified components.

    PubMed

    Sakariassen, K S; Aarts, P A; de Groot, P G; Houdijk, W P; Sixma, J J

    1983-10-01

    A flat perfusion chamber was developed to study the interaction of blood platelets in flowing blood with cultured human vessel wall cells, their connective tissue matrix, and isolated connective tissue components at defined shear rate conditions. A cover slip covered with endothelial cells or extracellular matrix components was introduced into the chamber. Laser-Doppler velocimetry showed a symmetrical flow profile at flow rates between 50 and 150 ml/min (wall shear rate 300 to 1100 sec-1). Platelet deposition was estimated by using blood platelets labeled with indium-111 or by a morphometric method. Blood platelets did not adhere to endothelial cells at wall shear rates of 765 sec-1 and the endothelial cells remained attached for at least 10 min of perfusion. In preconfluent cultures of endothelial cells, blood platelets adhered to extracellular material in areas between the cells. Removal of endothelial cells by treatment with 0.5% Triton X-100 induced increased platelet adherence with a preference for certain, as yet unidentified, fibrillar structures of the extracellular matrix. Platelet adherence to equine collagen was also studied after coating the cover slips by spraying of small collagen droplets followed by air drying. Platelet adherence and the subsequent platelet aggregate formation occurred predominantly along visible collagen fibers. These studies showed that this perfusion chamber has a laminar and symmetrical flow allowing qualitative and quantitative investigation of platelet interaction with endothelial cells, their extracellular matrix, and pure connective tissue components. A variety of wall shear rates and exposure times can be applied at controlled conditions without removing cells or extracellular material. PMID:6619647

  20. Ligustrazine improves blood circulation by suppressing Platelet activation in a rat model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajuan; Zhu, Huizhi; Tong, Jiabing; Li, Zegeng

    2016-07-01

    Chuan-xiong (Ligusticum wallichii) is a traditional herbal medicine in Eastern Asia, but the effect of its active component ligustrazine remains unclear. We explored its effect and possible mechanism in a well-characterized rat model of allergic asthma. Ligustrazine suppressed bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacholine, and suppressed lung inflammation in asthmatic rats. Ligustrazine exhibited potent immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects: it suppressed lymphocyte and eosinophil mobilization, and reduced cytokine IL-5 and IL-13 production significantly in lung tissues from asthmatic rats (P<0.05). Further histological examinations clearly demonstrated that ligustrazine improved blood circulation and ameliorated platelet activation, aggregation and adhesion, which induced sustained infiltration and activation of various inflammatory cells, including lymphocytes and eosinophils, followed by synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The present study suggests that ligustrazine is a potent agent for the treatment of allergic asthma due to its strong anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. PMID:27362664

  1. Autologous platelet-rich plasma compared with whole blood for the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis; a comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Kianimehr, Lida; Ahrar, Mohmmad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intralesional injection of autologous blood-derived products has recently gained attention as a potential treatment for plantar fasciitis (PF). We compared platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood (WB) for the treatment of chronic PF. Materials and Methods: Patients with chronic PF received either an intralesional injection of 3 cc PRP prepared by double centrifuge technique or WB (n = 17 in each group). Overall, morning and walking pain severity were assessed by 11-point numerical rating scale, and function was assessed by the Roles and Maudsley score (RMS) at baseline and 1-month and 3 months after treatment. Ultrasonography was performed to measure plantar fascia thickness at baseline and 3 months after treatment. Results: Pain scores were reduced over the study in the PRP (mean change = −5.00 ± 1.17 to −5.47 ± 1.46) and WB groups (mean change = −5.29 ± 2.56 to −6.47 ± 2.83), with no difference between groups (P > 0.05). One month and 3 months after treatment, successful treatment (RMS of ≤ 2) was respectively observed in 29.4% and 82.3% of the PRP and in 47.1% and 76.4% of the WB groups (P > 0.05). Also, fascia thickness was decreased in both the PRP and WB groups (mean change = −1.74 ± 1.11 vs. −1.21 ± 0.73 mm, respectively, P = 0.115). Conclusions: Significant improvement in pain and function, as well as decrease in plantar fascia thickness, was observed by intralesional injection of the PRP and WB in patients with chronic PF. The study results indicate similar effectiveness between PRP and WB for the treatment of chronic PF in short-term. PMID:27274499

  2. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate, discoid cells, roughly 2-3 μm in diameter that function primarily as regulators of hemostasis, but also play secondary roles in angiogensis and innate immunity. Although human adults contain nearly one trillion platelets in circulation that are turned over every 8-10 days, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in platelet production is still incomplete. Platelets stem from large (30-100 μm) nucleated cells called megakaryocytes that reside primarily in the bone marrow. During maturation megakaryocytes extend long proplatelet elongations into sinusoidal blood vessels from which platelets ultimately release. During this process, platelets develop a number of distinguishable structural elements including: a delimited plasma membrane; invaginations of the surface membrane that form the open canalicular system (OCS); a closed-channel network of residual endoplasmic reticulum that form the dense tubular system (DTS); a spectrin-based membrane skeleton; an actin-based cytoskeletal network; a peripheral band of microtubules; and numerous organelles including α-granules, dense-granules, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Proplatelet elongation and platelet production is an elaborate and complex process that defines the morphology and ultrastructure of circulating platelets, and is critical in understanding their increasingly numerous and varied biological functions. PMID:22918725

  3. Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Burnouf, Thierry; Chen, Jen-Wei; Lin, Liang-In

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphism of human platelet antigens (HPAs) leads to alloimmunizations and immune-mediated platelet disorders including fetal-neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), posttransfusion purpura (PTP), and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). HPA typing and knowledge of antigen frequency in a population are important in particular for the provision of HPA-matched blood components for patients with PTR. We have performed allele genotyping for HPA-1 through -6 and -15 among 998 platelet donors from 6 blood centers in Taiwan using sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. The HPA allele frequency was 99.55, and 0.45% for HPA-1a and -1b; 96.49, and 3.51% for HPA-2a and -2b; 55.81, and 44.19% for HPA-3a and -3b; 99.75, and 0.25% for HPA-4a and -4b; 98.50, and 1.50% for HPA-5a and -5b; 97.75 and 2.25% for HPA-6a and -6b; 53.71 and 46.29% for HPA-15a and -15b. HPA-15b and HPA-3a, may be considered the most important, followed by HPA-2, -6, -1, -5, and -4 systems, as a cause of FNAIT, PTP, and PTR based on allele frequency. HPA-4b and HPA-5b role cannot be excluded based on their immunogenicity. A larger-scale study will now be conducted to confirm these hypotheses and to establish an apheresis donor database for the procurement of HPA-matched apheresis platelets for patients with PTR. PMID:23865077

  4. Functional domains on von Willebrand factor. Recognition of discrete tryptic fragments by monoclonal antibodies that inhibit interaction of von Willebrand factor with platelets and with collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Sixma, J J; Sakariassen, K S; Stel, H V; Houdijk, W P; In der Maur, D W; Hamer, R J; de Groot, P G; van Mourik, J A

    1984-01-01

    We have identified two functional domains on the von Willebrand factor (VWF) moiety of the Factor VIII-von Willebrand factor complex (FVIII-VWF), one interacting with blood platelets, and one interacting with vessel wall collagens, by means of two monoclonal antibodies directed against the VWF molecule, CLB-RAg 35 and CLB-RAg 201. The monoclonal antibody CLB-RAg 35 inhibited virtually all platelet adherence to artery subendothelium and to purified vessel wall collagen type III, at relatively high wall shear rates. CLB-RAg 35 also inhibited the ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation and the binding of FVIII-VWF to the platelet in the presence of ristocetin but did not affect the binding of FVIII-VWF to collagen. The monoclonal antibody CLB-RAg 201 inhibited the binding of FVIII-VWF to purified vessel wall collagen type I and III and all platelet adherence to collagen type III and the platelet adherence to subendothelium that was mediated by FVIII-VWF in plasma. The two functional domains on FVIII-VWF that were recognized by CLB-RAg 35 and CLB-RAg 201 were identified by means of immunoprecipitation studies of trypsin-digested FVIII-VWF. The domains resided on different polypeptide fragments, with a Mr of 48,000 for the collagen binding domain and a Mr of 116,000 for the platelet binding domain. The 116,000-mol wt fragment consisted of subunits of 52,000/56,000 mol wt and 14,000 mol wt after reduction. The 52,000/56,000-mol wt subunits possessed the epitope for CLB-RAg 35. Images PMID:6332119

  5. Comparison between human and porcine thromboelastograph parameters in response to ex-vivo changes to platelets, plasma, and red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sondeen, Jill L; de Guzman, Rodolfo; Amy Polykratis, Irene; Dale Prince, Malcolm; Hernandez, Orlando; Cap, Andrew P; Dubick, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    In the acute care setting, both the tracings and numeric outputs (R time, angle, and MA) of thrombelastography (TEG) may be used to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to determine the sensitivity of TEG to isolated changes in platelet count, hematocrit and fibrinogen concentration in human blood. As pigs have a similar coagulation system, we also compared the responses of the pig blood. Eight volunteers (>18 years of age, no anticoagulation or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy, not pregnant) were enrolled into this study. Four female anesthetized donor pigs were instrumented percutaneously with a catheter for blood collection. All blood was collected into sodium citrate. The concentration of each component (platelets, fibrinogen, and red blood cells) was changed while keeping the other components constant by use of centrifugation or preparation of each individual's plasma into platelet poor plasma, platelet rich plasma, cryoprecipitate, purified washed platelets, and packed red blood cells as appropriate. TEG (Haemoscope) analysis was performed and compared with the patients' whole blood diluted with lactated Ringer's solution. We demonstrated that the major factor affecting the MA and angle was the platelet count. In fact, reducing platelets alone resulted in TEG profiles and parameters that were similar to lactated Ringer's dilution profiles. Swine blood responses were parallel to that of human blood, although there were offsets especially of TEG-R and angle that confirmed that the swine are hypercoagulable compared with humans. Superficially similar TEG tracing patterns can be produced by divergent mechanisms associated with altered concentrations of blood components. PMID:24047887

  6. Microfluidic assay of hemophilic blood clotting: Distinct deficits in platelet and fibrin deposition at low factor levels

    PubMed Central

    Colace, T.; Fogarty, Patrick F.; Panckeri, Karen A.; Li, Ruizhi; Diamond, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coagulation factor deficiencies create a range of bleeding phenotypes. Microfluidic devices offer controlled hemodynamics and defined procoagulant triggers for measurement of clotting under flow. Objectives We tested a flow assay of contact pathway-triggered clotting to quantify platelet and fibrin deposition distal of dysfunctional thrombin production. Microfluidic metrics were then compared with PTT or % factor activity assays. Methods Whole blood (WB) treated with low level corn trypsin inhibitor (4 µg/ml) from 9 healthy donors and 27 patients [deficient in: Factor VIII (19 patients); IX (1); XI (1); VWF (6)] was perfused over fibrillar collagen at wall shear rate=100 s−1. Results Using healthy WB, platelets deposited within 30 sec, while fibrin appeared within 6 min. Compared to healthy controls, WB from patients displayed a 50% reduction in platelet deposition only at <1 % factor activity. In contrast, striking defects in fibrin deposition occurred for patients with <13% factor activity (or PTT >40 sec). Full occlusion of the 60-micron high channel was completely absent over the 15 min test in patients with <1% factor activity, while an intermediate defect was present in patients with >1% factor. Conclusion Spontaneous bleeding in patients with < 1% factor activity may be linked to deficits in both platelet and fibrin deposition, a risk known to be mitigated when factor levels are raised to >1 % activity (PTT of ~40–60 sec), a level that does not necessarily rescue fibrin formation under flow. PMID:24261634

  7. Poly (I:C) downregulates platelet production and function through type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, Leonardo; Pozner, Roberto Gabriel; Meiss, Roberto; Fondevila, Carlos; Gómez, Ricardo Martin; Schattner, Mirta

    2015-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication of viral infections; the underlying mechanisms appear to depend on the identity of the virus involved. Previous research, including reports from our group, indicates that as well as having antiviral activity type I interferons (IFN I) selectively downregulate platelet production. In this study we extended understanding of the role of endogenous IFN I in megakaryo/thrombopoiesis by evaluating platelet and megakaryocyte physiology in mice treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA, Toll-like receptor-3 ligand and strong IFNβ inducer. Mice-treated with poly (I:C) showed thrombocytopaenia, an increase in mean platelet volume and abnormal haemostatic and inflammatory platelet-mediated functionality, indicated by decreased fibrinogen binding and platelet adhesion, prolonged tail bleeding times and impaired P-Selectin externalisation, RANTES release and thrombin-induced platelet-neutrophil aggregate formation. These changes were associated with an increase in size and an abnormal distribution of bone marrow megakaryocytes within the vascular niche and were directly correlated with the plasmatic and bone marrow IFNβ levels. All these effects were absent in genetically modified mice lacking the IFN I receptor. Our results suggest that IFN I is the central mediator of poly (I:C)-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction and indicate that these abnormalities are due to changes in the last stages of megakaryocyte development. These data provide new evidence for the role of IFN I in megakaryocyte distribution in the bone marrow niches and its influence on thrombopoiesis and haemostasis. PMID:26134179

  8. Glycoxidized HDL, HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids and HDL from diabetic patients inhibit platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Quang Huy; El Alaoui, Meddy; Véricel, Evelyne; Ségrestin, Bérénice; Soulère, Laurent; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Calzada, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Context High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL, and HDL from T2D patients on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL. Results Compared to control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to SR-BI. Glycoxidized HDL prevented collagen-induced increased phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, as well as intracellular calcium mobilization. HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids, namely PC(16:0/13-HODE) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation. Increased concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE and 15-HETE in phospholipids (2.1, 2.1 and 2.4-fold increase respectively) were found in HDL from patients with T2D, and these HDL also inhibited platelet aggregation via SR-BI. Conclusions Altogether, our results indicate that in vitro glycoxidized HDL as well as HDL from T2D patients inhibit platelet aggregation, and suggest that oxidized LA-containing phospholipids may contribute to the anti-aggregatory effects of glycoxidized HDL and HDL from T2D patients. PMID:25794249

  9. [Effects of lysine clonixinate on platelet function. Comparison with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents].

    PubMed

    Kramer, E H; Sassetti, B; Kaminker, A J; De Los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Di Girolamo, G

    2001-01-01

    One of the mechanisms of action of non steroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) consists of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This explains many of the pharmacological effects and adverse events observed in medical practice. Administration of NSAIDs to patients with hemostatic disorders or perioperative conditions entails the risk of bleeding due to inhibition of platelet function. This study deals with platelet changes induced by lysine clonixinate vs diclofenac, ibuprofen and aspirin in classical tests such as platelet count, platelet factor 3 (PF3) activity and platelet aggregation with various inductors and more recent procedures such as P-selectin measurement by flow cytometry. Unlike control drugs, lysine clonixinate did not induce changes in platelet count or function when administered to healthy volunteers at the commonly used therapeutic doses. PMID:11474878

  10. The effect of the perfluorocarbon emulsion Oxycyte on platelet count and function in the treatment of decompression sickness in a swine model.

    PubMed

    Cronin, William A; Senese, Angela L; Arnaud, Francoise G; Regis, David P; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    Decompression from elevated ambient pressure is associated with platelet activation and decreased platelet counts. Standard treatment for decompression sickness (DCS) is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Intravenous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion is a nonrecompressive therapy being examined that improves mortality in animal models of DCS. However, PFC emulsions are associated with a decreased platelet count. We used a swine model of DCS to study the effect of PFC therapy on platelet count, function, and hemostasis. Castrated male swine (n = 50) were fitted with a vascular port, recovered, randomized, and compressed to 180 feet of sea water (fsw) for 31 min followed by decompression at 30 fsw/min. Animals were observed for DCS, administered 100% oxygen, and treated with either emulsified PFC Oxycyte (DCS-PFC) or isotonic saline (DCS-NS). Controls underwent the same procedures, but were not compressed (Sham-PFC and Sham-NS). Measurements of platelet count, thromboelastometry, and coagulation were obtained 1 h before compression and 1, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 192 h after treatment. No significant changes in normalized platelet counts were observed. Prothrombin time was elevated in DCS-PFC from 48 to 192 h compared with DCS-NS, and from 96 to 192 h compared with Sham-PFC. Normalized activated partial thromboplastin time was also elevated in DCS-PFC from 168 to 192 h compared with Sham-PFC. No bleeding events were noted. DCS treated with PFC (Oxycyte) does not impact platelet numbers, whole blood clotting by thromboelastometry, or clinical bleeding. Late changes in prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time associated with PFC use in both DCS therapy and controls warrant further investigation. PMID:26650458

  11. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae infection and moxalactam on platelet function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S L; Courtney, J T; Kenal, K A

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study, children with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis received moxalactam or ampicillin or chloramphenicol. Of 41 children, 6 had prolonged bleeding times (greater than 6 min), and 7 of 9 tested had abnormal platelet aggregation at hospital admission. At the end of therapy, no children in the ampicillin-chloramphenicol group, compared with 5 of 22 moxalactam-treated children (23%) (P = 0.08), had prolonged bleeding times (6.5 to 7.5 min). Our data suggest that H. influenzae meningitis and treatment with moxalactam may each have an effect on platelet function in children. PMID:3579263

  12. Preoperative platelet transfusions and perioperative red blood cell requirements in patients with thrombocytopenia undergoing noncardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Matthew A.; Jia, Qing; Clifford, Leanne; Wilson, Gregory; Brown, Michael J.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Kor, Daryl J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perioperative hemorrhage impacts patient outcomes and health care resource utilization, yet the risks of transfusion therapies are significant. In patients with preoperative thrombocytopenia, the effects of prophylactic preoperative platelet (PLT) transfusion on perioperative bleeding complications remain uncertain. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of noncardiac surgical patients between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011. Propensity-adjusted analyses were used to evaluate associations between preoperative thrombocytopenia, preoperative PLT transfusion, and the outcomes of interest, with a primary outcome of perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. RESULTS A total of 13,978 study participants were included; 860 (6.2%) had a PLT count of not more than 100 × 109/L with 71 (8.3%) receiving PLTs preoperatively. Administration of PLTs was associated with higher rates of perioperative RBC transfusion (66.2% vs. 49.1%, p 0.0065); however, in propensity-adjusted analysis there was no significant difference between groups (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {95% CI}], 1.68 [0.95–2.99]; p =0.0764]. Patients receiving PLTs had higher rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR [95% CI], 1.95 [1.10–3.46]; p =0.0224) and longer hospital lengths of stay (estimate [95% bootstrap CI], 7.2 [0.8–13.9] days; p =0.0006) in propensity-adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION Preoperative PLT transfusion did not attenuate RBC requirements in patients with thrombocytopenia undergoing noncardiac surgery. Moreover, preoperative PLT transfusion was associated with increased ICU admission rates and hospital duration. These findings suggest that more conservative management of preoperative thrombocytopenia may be warranted. PMID:26559936

  13. Brain Function and Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassen, Niels A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of radioactive isotopes to graphically represent changes in the amount of blood flowing in areas of the human cerebral cortex, reflecting changes in the activity of those areas. Numerous illustrations are included. (Author/MA)

  14. Dose response of surfactants to attenuate gas embolism related platelet aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, David M.; Eckmann, Yonaton Y.; Tomczyk, Nancy

    2014-03-01

    Intravascular gas embolism promotes blood clot formation, cellular activation, and adhesion events, particularly with platelets. Populating the interface with surfactants is a chemical-based intervention to reduce injury from gas embolism. We studied platelet activation and platelet aggregation, prominent adverse responses to blood contact with bubbles. We examined dose-response relationships for two chemically distinct surfactants to attenuate the rise in platelet function stimulated by exposure to microbubbles. Significant reduction in platelet aggregation and platelet activation occurred with increasing concentration of the surfactants, indicating presence of a saturable system. A population balance model for platelet aggregation in the presence of embolism bubbles and surfactants was developed. Monte Carlo simulations for platelet aggregation were performed. Results agree qualitatively with experimental findings. Surfactant dose-dependent reductions in platelet activation and aggregation indicate inhibition of the gas/liquid interface's ability to stimulate cellular activation mechanically.

  15. Transfusion of Plasma, Platelets, and Red Blood Cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 Ratio and Mortality in Patients With Severe Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, John B.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Fox, Erin E.; Wade, Charles E.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Callcut, Rachael A.; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Cotton, Bryan A.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Inaba, Kenji; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Muskat, Peter; O’Keeffe, Terence; Rizoli, Sandro; Robinson, Bryce R. H.; Scalea, Thomas M.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Weinberg, Jordan A.; Callum, Jeannie L.; Hess, John R.; Matijevic, Nena; Miller, Christopher N.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Hoyt, David B.; Pearson, Gail D.; Leroux, Brian; van Belle, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severely injured patients experiencing hemorrhagic shock often require massive transfusion. Earlier transfusion with higher blood product ratios (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells), defined as damage control resuscitation, has been associated with improved outcomes; however, there have been no large multicenter clinical trials. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness and safety of transfusing patients with severe trauma and major bleeding using plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pragmatic, phase 3, multisite, randomized clinical trial of 680 severely injured patients who arrived at 1 of 12 level I trauma centers in North America directly from the scene and were predicted to require massive transfusion between August 2012 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS Blood product ratios of 1:1:1 (338 patients) vs 1:1:2 (342 patients) during active resuscitation in addition to all local standard-of-care interventions (uncontrolled). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were 24-hour and 30-day all-cause mortality. Prespecified ancillary outcomes included time to hemostasis, blood product volumes transfused, complications, incidence of surgical procedures, and functional status. RESULTS No significant differences were detected in mortality at 24 hours (12.7% in 1:1:1 group vs 17.0% in 1:1:2 group; difference, −4.2% [95% CI, −9.6% to 1.1%]; P = .12) or at 30 days (22.4% vs 26.1%, respectively; difference, −3.7% [95% CI, −10.2% to 2.7%]; P = .26). Exsanguination, which was the predominant cause of death within the first 24 hours, was significantly decreased in the 1:1:1 group (9.2% vs 14.6% in 1:1:2 group; difference, −5.4% [95% CI, −10.4% to −0.5%]; P = .03). More patients in the 1:1:1 group achieved hemostasis than in the 1:1:2 group (86% vs 78%, respectively; P = .006). Despite the 1:1:1 group receiving more plasma (median of 7 U vs 5 U, P < .001) and

  16. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Bynagari, Yamini S; Nagy, Bela; Tuluc, Florin; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Kim, Soochong; Vijayan, K Vinod; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-05-15

    The novel class of protein kinase C (nPKC) isoform eta is expressed in platelets, but not much is known about its activation and function. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of activation and functional implications of nPKCeta using pharmacological and gene knock-out approaches. nPKCeta was phosphorylated (at Thr-512) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by 2MeSADP. Pretreatment of platelets with MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, or YM-254890, a G(q) blocker, abolished 2MeSADP-induced phosphorylation of nPKCeta. Similarly, ADP failed to activate nPKCeta in platelets isolated from P2Y1 and G(q) knock-out mice. However, pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, AR-C69331MX did not interfere with ADP-induced nPKCeta phosphorylation. In addition, when platelets were activated with 2MeSADP under stirring conditions, although nPKCeta was phosphorylated within 30 s by ADP receptors, it was also dephosphorylated by activated integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 mediated outside-in signaling. Moreover, in the presence of SC-57101, a alpha(IIb)beta3 receptor antagonist, nPKCeta dephosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in murine platelets lacking PP1cgamma, a catalytic subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase, alpha(IIb)beta3 failed to dephosphorylate nPKCeta. Thus, we conclude that ADP activates nPKCeta via P2Y1 receptor and is subsequently dephosphorylated by PP1gamma phosphatase activated by alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. In addition, pretreatment of platelets with eta-RACK antagonistic peptides, a specific inhibitor of nPKCeta, inhibited ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation. PMID:19286657

  17. A novel blood incubation system for the in-vitro assessment of interactions between platelets and biomaterial surfaces under dynamic flow conditions: The Hemocoater.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Cécile; Boccoz, Ana; Düregger, Katharina; Kuhnla, Ariane

    2016-10-01

    Hemocompatibility evaluation of biomaterials necessitates the use of blood incubation systems which simulate physiological flow conditions. However, most of the current systems have various limitations, especially restricted material variability, poor access to the test surface or damage of blood cells due to the use of a pump. In this paper, we combined the advantages of existent setups and developed a new planar shaped incubation test bench to lift those restrictions and mimic the pulsatile in-vivo situation. The adjustable flow conditions at the tested material surface were defined and corresponded to those in blood vessels. Platelet/material-interaction, as major aspect of hemocompatibility, was investigated for four common polymeric materials (polyoxymethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene and silicone elastomer) with platelet deprivation and platelet adhesion tests. Highly significant differences in the adhesion of platelets onto the tested material surfaces were measured. The number of adhered platelets on the most hydrophobic sample (silicone elastomer) was four-times higher than on the most hydrophilic sample (polyoxymethylene). These findings were confirmed with a scanning microscopic analysis and demonstrated the suitability of the testing device for the evaluation of platelet/material interactions. Moreover, hemolysis measurements demonstrated that the system did not provoke blood damage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2430-2440, 2016. PMID:27213915

  18. The role of anticoagulation in the measurement of platelet volumes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C B; Diaz, D D; Quinn, P G; Lapins, M; Kurtz, S R; Valeri, C R

    1983-09-01

    The effect of anticoagulation on platelet size stability was studied using blood collected in seven different anticoagulants and stored at room temperature for up to eight hours. The mean platelet volume (MPV) value was most stable in blood collected in 15% ACD and ACD/Na2EDTA. In blood collected in Na2EDTA, K3EDTA, or 11.9% ACD, there was an increase in MPV in the first two hours, after which the MPVs remained stable up to eight hours. Sodium citrate and heparin proved unreliable for the measurement of platelet volume. Platelet counts were stable (less than 5% variation) in all anticoagulants except heparin, which had 16% variation for the eight hours of study. Simultaneously, RBC counts and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) measurements were stable in all seven anticoagulants, with sodium citrate producing the most variation. A negative correlation was observed between MCV and pH of the anticoagulated blood. WBC counts showed less than 3% variation in all anticoagulants except sodium citrate and heparin. Separate experiments demonstrated that electrolyte composition, pH, tonicity, and method of calcium chelation all influenced the stability of the MPV. Of the anticoagulants studied, ACD/Na2 EDTA appeared to provide the best conditions of anticoagulation for both routine clinical and research laboratory measurement of the MPV. It inhibited platelet activation but left the platelets in their normal discoid shape. Platelets could be removed from the anticoagulant and studied in functional assays for up to eight hours after blood drawing. Both platelet counts and MPVs remained stable in blood collected in ACD/Na2 EDTA anticoagulant for up to eight hours at room temperature. In 52 volunteers studied, an inverse correlation (r = -0.72, P less than 0.001) was observed between platelet count and MPV, suggesting that the circulating platelet mass may be a more important indicator of platelet homeostasis than either the platelet count or the mean platelet volume alone. PMID

  19. Relative activities on and uptake by human blood platelets of 5-hydroxytryptamine and several analogues

    PubMed Central

    Born, G. V. R.; Juengjaroen, Kanchana; Michal, F.

    1972-01-01

    1. The specificity of platelet receptor sites for 5-HT uptake and for the rapid morphological change and aggregation was investigated with 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and seventeen analogues as well as with some antagonists of 5-HT. 2. The analogues, with the exception of 5-hydroxy-N'N'-dibutyltryptamine, caused the rapid morphological change in platelets. In concentrations below those needed to produce the agonistic action (viz. 0.05-2.0 μM), these analogues themselves inhibited competitively the shape change caused by 5-HT. 3. The velocity of change in shape caused by 5-HT was reduced in low Na media. 4. Ten analogues produced platelet aggregation; three of these, viz. 5-methoxy-α-methyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-α-methyltryptamine and 5-hydroxy-N'N'-diisopropyltryptamine), were approximately equipotent with 5-HT. Six analogues did not induce platelet aggregation. 5. All the analogues which prevented the initial change in shape of platelets caused by 5-HT also inhibited its aggregating effect, apparently competitively with low Ki values (0.02-1.6 μM). 6. As with the inhibition of shape change, the inhibition of aggregation shows relatively low structural specificity of the receptor site. 7. Methysergide was a potent inhibitor of shape change and aggregation (Ki∼0.03 μM); imipramine was much less inhibitory (Ki∼5-10 μM). 8. Only one analogue (5-hydroxy-α-methyltryptamine) was taken up like 5-HT by platelets. All the other analogues inhibited the uptake of 5-HT by platelets (Ki=0.2-2.7 μM). 9. Methysergide was a weak inhibitor of 5-HT uptake (Ki∼125 μM) whereas imipramine was very effective (Ki∼0.3 μM). 10. Our results show that the initial change in shape of platelets is required for and precedes aggregation. The structural specificity of the platelet receptor concerned with shape change and aggregation caused by 5-HT appears low whereas the uptake mechanism is a highly specific one. The uptake probably proceeds through more than one step, the

  20. Relative activities on and uptake by human blood platelets of 5-hydroxytryptamine and several analogues.

    PubMed

    Born, G V; Juengjaroen, K; Michal, F

    1972-01-01

    1. The specificity of platelet receptor sites for 5-HT uptake and for the rapid morphological change and aggregation was investigated with 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and seventeen analogues as well as with some antagonists of 5-HT.2. The analogues, with the exception of 5-hydroxy-N'N'-dibutyltryptamine, caused the rapid morphological change in platelets. In concentrations below those needed to produce the agonistic action (viz. 0.05-2.0 muM), these analogues themselves inhibited competitively the shape change caused by 5-HT.3. The velocity of change in shape caused by 5-HT was reduced in low Na media.4. Ten analogues produced platelet aggregation; three of these, viz. 5-methoxy-alpha-methyltryptamine, 5-hydroxy-alpha-methyltryptamine and 5-hydroxy-N'N'-diisopropyltryptamine), were approximately equipotent with 5-HT. Six analogues did not induce platelet aggregation.5. All the analogues which prevented the initial change in shape of platelets caused by 5-HT also inhibited its aggregating effect, apparently competitively with low K(i) values (0.02-1.6 muM).6. As with the inhibition of shape change, the inhibition of aggregation shows relatively low structural specificity of the receptor site.7. Methysergide was a potent inhibitor of shape change and aggregation (K(i) approximately 0.03 muM); imipramine was much less inhibitory (K(i) approximately 5-10 muM).8. Only one analogue (5-hydroxy-alpha-methyltryptamine) was taken up like 5-HT by platelets. All the other analogues inhibited the uptake of 5-HT by platelets (K(i)=0.2-2.7 muM).9. Methysergide was a weak inhibitor of 5-HT uptake (K(i) approximately 125 muM) whereas imipramine was very effective (K(i) approximately 0.3 muM).10. Our results show that the initial change in shape of platelets is required for and precedes aggregation. The structural specificity of the platelet receptor concerned with shape change and aggregation caused by 5-HT appears low whereas the uptake mechanism is a highly specific one. The

  1. Cocoa flavanols and platelet and leukocyte function: recent in vitro and ex vivo studies in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Heptinstall, Stan; May, Jane; Fox, Sue; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Zhao, Lian

    2006-01-01

    There is growing interest in possible beneficial effects of specific dietary components on cardiovascular health. Platelets and leukocytes contribute to arterial thrombosis and to inflammatory processes. Previous studies performed in vitro have demonstrated inhibition of platelet function by (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, flavan-3-ols (flavanols) that are present in several foods including some cocoas. Also, some modest inhibition of platelet function has been observed ex vivo after the consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products by healthy adults. So far there are no reports of effects of cocoa flavanols on leukocytes. This paper summarizes 2 recent investigations. The first was a study of the effects of cocoa flavanols on platelet and leukocyte function in vitro. The second was a study of the effects of consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage by healthy adults on platelet and leukocyte function ex vivo. Measurements were made of platelet aggregation, platelet-monocyte conjugate formation (P/M), platelet-neutrophil conjugate formation (P/N), platelet activation (CD62P on monocytes and neutrophils), and leukocyte activation (CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils) in response to collagen and/or arachidonic acid. In the in vitro study several cocoa flavanols and their metabolites were shown to inhibit platelet aggregation, P/M, P/N, and platelet activation. Their effects were similar to those of aspirin and the effects of a cocoa flavanol and aspirin did not seem to be additive. There was also inhibition of monocyte and neutrophil activation by flavanols, but this was not replicated by aspirin. 4'-O-methyl-epicatechin, 1 of the known metabolites of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin, was consistently effective as an inhibitor of platelet and leukocyte activation. The consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa beverage also resulted in significant inhibition of platelet aggregation, P/M and P/N, and platelet activation induced by collagen. The inhibitory effects

  2. The release of nucleotides, 5-hydroxytryptamine and enzymes from human blood platelets during aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Mills, D. C. B.; Robb, I. A.; Roberts, G. C. K.

    1968-01-01

    1. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adrenaline caused the aggregation of human platelets suspended in plasma containing citrate anticoagulant and stirred at 37° C. The aggregation occurred in two phases and the second phase was associated with the appearance in the plasma of up to 30% of the ATP and 55% of the ADP present in the platelets. The concentration of ADP appearing in the plasma was up to 7 times the concentration added. 2. Radioactivity was released by ADP and by adrenaline from platelets labelled with radioactive 5-hydroxytryptamine; this release was closely correlated with the second phase of aggregation and with the release of nucleotides. 3. Acid phosphatase, β-glucuronidase and adenylate kinase were released to a small extent during second phase aggregation by ADP or adrenaline; thrombin and collagen particles caused significantly greater release of β-glucuronidase than of either acid phosphatase or of adenylate kinase. 4. Morphological changes indicating degranulation of the platelets were observed during the second phase of aggregation produced by adrenaline and by ADP. 5. The second phase of aggregation, degranulation of platelets, and the release of nucleotides, of labelled 5-hydroxytryptamine and of enzymes, were all inhibited by concentrations of amitriptyline which did not inhibit aggregation. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2 PMID:5649642

  3. Characteristics of platelet gels combined with silk

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Isabella; Kluge, Jonathan A.; Moreau, Jodie; Calabrese, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Platelet gel, a fibrin network containing activated platelets, is widely used in regenerative medicine due the capacity of platelet-derived growth factors to accelerate and direct healing processes. However, limitations to this approach include poor mechanical properties, relatively rapid degradation, and the lack of control of release of growth factors at the site of injection. These issues compromise the ability of platelet gels for sustained function in regenerative medicine. In the present study, a combination of platelet gels with silk fibroin gel was studied to address the above limitations. Mixing sonicated silk gels with platelet gels extended the release of growth factors without inhibiting gel forming ability. The released growth factors were biologically active and their delivery was modified further by manipulation of the charge of the silk protein. Moreover, the silk gel augmented both the rheological properties and compressive stiffness of the platelet gel, tuned by the silk concentration and/or silk/platelet gel ratio. Silk-platelet gel injections in nude rats supported enhanced cell infiltration and blood vessel formation representing a step towards new platelet gel formulations with enhanced therapeutic impact. PMID:24480538

  4. Characteristics of platelet gels combined with silk.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Isabella; Kluge, Jonathan A; Moreau, Jodie; Calabrese, Rossella; Kaplan, David L; Balduini, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    Platelet gel, a fibrin network containing activated platelets, is widely used in regenerative medicine due the capacity of platelet-derived growth factors to accelerate and direct healing processes. However, limitations to this approach include poor mechanical properties, relatively rapid degradation, and the lack of control of release of growth factors at the site of injection. These issues compromise the ability of platelet gels for sustained function in regenerative medicine. In the present study, a combination of platelet gels with silk fibroin gel was studied to address the above limitations. Mixing sonicated silk gels with platelet gels extended the release of growth factors without inhibiting gel-forming ability. The released growth factors were biologically active and their delivery was modified further by manipulation of the charge of the silk protein. Moreover, the silk gel augmented both the rheological properties and compressive stiffness of the platelet gel, tuned by the silk concentration and/or silk/platelet gel ratio. Silk-platelet gel injections in nude rats supported enhanced cell infiltration and blood vessel formation representing a step towards new platelet gel formulations with enhanced therapeutic impact. PMID:24480538

  5. Moderate oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid improves platelet function and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Véricel, E; Colas, R; Calzada, C; Lê, Q H; Feugier, N; Cugnet, C; Vidal, H; Laville, M; Moulin, P; Lagarde, M

    2015-08-01

    Platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised by hyperactivation and high level of oxidative stress. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have beneficial effects on platelet reactivity and redox status. We investigated whether moderate DHA supplementation, given as a triglyceride form, may correct platelet dysfunction and redox imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial (n=11 post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes) to test the effects of 400 mg/day of DHA intake for two weeks on platelet aggregation, markers of arachidonic acid metabolism, lipid peroxidation status, and lipid composition. Each two week-period was separated from the other by a six-week washout. Daily moderate dose DHA supplementation resulted in reduced platelet aggregation induced by collagen (-46.5 %, p< 0.001), and decreased platelet thromboxane B2 (-35 %, p< 0.001), urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (-13.2 %, p< 0.001) and F2-isoprostane levels (-19.6 %, p< 0.001) associated with a significant increase of plasma and platelet vitamin E concentrations (+20 % and +11.8 %, respectively, p< 0.001). The proportions of DHA increased both in plasma lipids and in platelet phospholipids. After placebo treatment, there was no effect on any parameters tested. Our findings support a significant beneficial effect of low intake of DHA on platelet function and a favourable role in reducing oxidative stress associated with diabetes. PMID:25832443

  6. The interaction of sodium nitroprusside with human endothelial cells and platelets: nitroprusside and prostacyclin synergistically inhibit platelet function

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, R.I.; Weksler, B.B.; Jaffe, E.A.

    1982-12-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (NP) is a potent vasodilator that also inhibits platelet aggregation. To test the hypothesis that NP causes both of these effects by altering the balance between prostacyclin (PGI2) produced by endothelial cells and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) produced by platelets, we incubated each of these cell types with NP for 5 minutes and assayed the PGI2 and TXA2 produced. NP at pharmacologically achieved doses (0.01--30 micrograms/ml) inhibited platelet aggregation and resultant TXA2 synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p less than 0.001). The inhibition was not dependent on cAMP production, external calcium concentration, or suppression of TXA2 synthesis. NP did not alter the production of PGI2 by cultured human endothelial cells as measured by radioimmunoassay for 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha, the stable hydrolysis product of PGI2. However, supernates of NP-treated endothelial cells containing low, noninhibitory concentrations of NP unexpectedly inhibited platelet aggregation. This inhibition of platelet aggregation was due to synergy between PGI2 (0.1--3 nM) and NP (p interaction less than 0.03). The synergistic inhibition by NP and PGI2 of platelet aggregation and TXA2 synthesis in vivo may explain some of the beneficial actions of NP in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.

  7. Breaking the Mold: Transcription Factors in the Anucleate Platelet and Platelet-Derived Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lannan, Katie L.; Sahler, Julie; Kim, Nina; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are small anucleate blood cells derived from megakaryocytes. In addition to their pivotal roles in hemostasis, platelets are the smallest, yet most abundant, immune cells and regulate inflammation, immunity, and disease progression. Although platelets lack DNA, and thus no functional transcriptional activities, they are nonetheless rich sources of RNAs, possess an intact spliceosome, and are thus capable of synthesizing proteins. Previously, it was thought that platelet RNAs and translational machinery were remnants from the megakaryocyte. We now know that the initial description of platelets as “cellular fragments” is an antiquated notion, as mounting evidence suggests otherwise. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that platelet transcription factors are not vestigial remnants from megakaryocytes, but have important, if only partly understood functions. Proteins play multiple cellular roles to minimize energy expenditure for maximum cellular function; thus, the same can be expected for transcription factors. In fact, numerous transcription factors have non-genomic roles, both in platelets and in nucleated cells. Our lab and others have discovered the presence and non-genomic roles of transcription factors in platelets, such as the nuclear factor kappa β (NFκB) family of proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). In addition to numerous roles in regulating platelet activation, functional transcription factors can be transferred to vascular and immune cells through platelet microparticles. This method of transcellular delivery of key immune molecules may be a vital mechanism by which platelet transcription factors regulate inflammation and immunity. At the very least, platelets are an ideal model cell to dissect out the non-genomic roles of transcription factors in nucleated cells. There is abundant evidence to suggest that transcription factors in platelets play key roles in regulating inflammatory and hemostatic

  8. Gut Microbial Metabolite TMAO Enhances Platelet Hyperreactivity and Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifei; Gregory, Jill C; Org, Elin; Buffa, Jennifer A; Gupta, Nilaksh; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Mehrabian, Margarete; Sartor, R Balfour; McIntyre, Thomas M; Silverstein, Roy L; Tang, W H Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A; Brown, J Mark; Lusis, Aldons J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-03-24

    Normal platelet function is critical to blood hemostasis and maintenance of a closed circulatory system. Heightened platelet reactivity, however, is associated with cardiometabolic diseases and enhanced potential for thrombotic events. We now show gut microbes, through generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), directly contribute to platelet hyperreactivity and enhanced thrombosis potential. Plasma TMAO levels in subjects (n > 4,000) independently predicted incident (3 years) thrombosis (heart attack, stroke) risk. Direct exposure of platelets to TMAO enhanced sub-maximal stimulus-dependent platelet activation from multiple agonists through augmented Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Animal model studies employing dietary choline or TMAO, germ-free mice, and microbial transplantation collectively confirm a role for gut microbiota and TMAO in modulating platelet hyperresponsiveness and thrombosis potential and identify microbial taxa associated with plasma TMAO and thrombosis potential. Collectively, the present results reveal a previously unrecognized mechanistic link between specific dietary nutrients, gut microbes, platelet function, and thrombosis risk. PMID:26972052

  9. Correlation of statin-increased platelet APP ratios and reduced blood lipids in AD patients.

    PubMed

    Baskin, F; Rosenberg, R N; Fang, X; Hynan, L S; Moore, C B; Weiner, M; Vega, G L

    2003-06-24

    Platelets, like neurons, contain 120- to 130- and 110-kd amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). Their ratio is reduced in AD, further reductions correlating with reduced Mini-Mental Status Examination scores [r(11) = 0.69, p < 0.05]. As statins alter APP processing, platelet APPs were analyzed in patients with AD given anticholesterol drugs for 6 weeks. APP ratios increased [t(37) = -3.888, p = 0.0004], proportionally with reduced cholesterol [r(36) = -0.45, p = 0.005]. Longer trials may reveal slowed cognitive loss, validating this index. PMID:12821755

  10. Human blood platelet membrane glycoproteins. Resolution in different polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic systems.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, C S; Ali-Briggs, E F; Zonneveld, G T; Sturk, A; Clemetson, K J

    1980-02-29

    The separation of the major platelet membrane glycoproteins of normal subjects and subjects with well defined platelet membrane glycoprotein abnormalities have been examined using four different polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic techniques (continuous and discontinuous). The mobilities of the resolved glycoprotein bands have been correlated with the glycoprotein nomenclature proposed for the conventional sodium dodecyl sulphate-phosphate buffer system. Since the glycoprotein distribution varies depending on the system used, the merits of each method should be considered before application to a specific problem. PMID:6768152

  11. Role of the blood platelet in the pathogenesis and complications of experimental myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    Because new evidence contradicts a classic concept that obstructive coronary thrombosis is a major cause of sudden unexpected coronary death, we investigated the dynamic nature of a triple-helical collagen-platelet interaction in the systemic venous circulation of anesthetized/tranquilized guinea pigs. We propose that the swift LVP increase and the disruption of ECG conduction rhythm were caused by the biosynthesis and release of a burst of an ischemic chemical factor - a thromboxane A/sub 2/-like substance produced by the fresh platelet aggregates in the lungs.

  12. Platelet functional alterations in a Bernard-Soulier syndrome patient with filamin A mutation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaming; Dai, KeSheng; Wang, Zhaoyue; Cao, Lijuan; Bai, Xia; Ruan, Changgeng

    2015-01-01

    Defects in filamin A (FLNA) gene could lead to low platelet counts and decreased surface expression of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα. Here, we report and investigate the FLNA genomic alteration of a case with Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS), a rare hereditary bleeding disorder caused by quantitative or qualitative abnormalities in the GP Ib-IX-V receptor. DNA sequencing analysis reveals the presence of a GP Ibα c.987G > A mutation and a FLNA c.1582 G > A mutation in this patient. Transient transfection studies show that GP Ibα c.987G > A mutation abolishes the surface expression of GP Ibα on the transfected CHO cells. On the other hand, abnormal responses to collagen, including the platelet aggregation, secretion, and GP VI signaling pathways, are associated with FLNA c.1582G > A mutation. Our findings confirm a central role for FLNA in platelet-adhesive functions. The interaction between FLNA and GP Ibα in platelets deserves to be investigated. PMID:26133172

  13. Normal Platelet Integrin Function in Mice Lacking Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Clone-5 (Hic-5)

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Michael; Thielmann, Ina; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stegner, David

    2015-01-01

    Integrin αIIbβ3 plays a central role in the adhesion and aggregation of platelets and thus is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis. Integrin activation requires the transmission of a signal from the small cytoplasmic tails of the α or β subunit to the large extracellular domains resulting in conformational changes of the extracellular domains to enable ligand binding. Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5), a member of the paxillin family, serves as a focal adhesion adaptor protein associated with αIIbβ3 at its cytoplasmic tails. Previous studies suggested Hic-5 as a novel regulator of integrin αIIbβ3 activation and platelet aggregation in mice. To assess this in more detail, we generated Hic-5-null mice and analyzed activation and aggregation of their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, lack of Hic-5 had no detectable effect on platelet integrin activation and function in vitro and in vivo under all tested conditions. These results indicate that Hic-5 is dispensable for integrin αIIbβ3 activation and consequently for arterial thrombosis and hemostasis in mice. PMID:26172113

  14. A point mutation in the EGF-4 domain of β3 integrin is responsible for the formation of the Seca platelet alloantigen and affects receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Ulrich J.; Bakchoul, Tamam; Eva, Olga; Giptner, Astrid; Bein, Gregor; Aster, Richard H.; Gitter, Maria; Peterson, Julie; Santoso, Sentot

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is caused by fetomaternal platelet incompatibility with maternal antibodies crossing the placenta and destroying fetal platelets. Antibodies against human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) and HPA-5b are responsible for the majority of NAIT cases. We observed a suspected NAIT in a newborn with a platelet count of 25 G/l and petechial haemorrhages. Serological analysis of maternal serum revealed an immunisation against αIIbβ3 on paternal platelets only, indicating the presence of an antibody against a new rare alloantigen (Seca) residing on αIIbβ3. The location of Seca on αIIbβ3 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of paternal β3 revealed a single nucleotide exchange (G1818T) in exon 11 of the β3 gene (ITGB3), changing Lys580 (wild-type) to Asn580 (Seca). Two additional members of the family Sec were typed Seca positive, but none of 300 blood donors. Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing Asn580, but not Lys580 αIIbβ3, bound anti-Seca, which was corroborated by immunoprecipitation. Adhesion of transfected cells onto immobilised fibrinogen showed reduced binding of the Asn580 variant compared to wild-type αIIbβ3. Analysis of transfected cells with anti-LIBS and PAC-1 antibody showed reduced binding when compared to the wild-type. No such effects were observed with Seca positive platelets, which, however, are heterozygous for the Lys580Asn mutation. In this study, we describe a NAIT case caused by maternal alloimmunisation against a new antigen on αIIbβ3. Analysis with mutant transfected cells showed that the Lys580Asn mutation responsible for the formation of the Seca antigenic determinant affects αIIbβ3 receptor function. PMID:22116617

  15. Effects of single oral doses of lysine clonixinate and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet functions in man.

    PubMed

    Pallapies, D; Muhs, A; Bertram, L; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1996-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate is an analgesic drug with a so far unknown mechanism of action. We have determined its effect on platelet cyclooxygenase in man. Biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)B2 and prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha in clotting whole blood ex vivo as well as collagen-induced platelet aggregation measured before and at various time points after oral administration of 125 mg lysine clonixinate were compared to results obtained with 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). While biosynthesis of both TXB2 and PGF2 alpha measured radioimmunologically was inhibited significantly 2.5 h, but not 6 h, after administration of lysine clonixinate, inhibition by ASA was much greater and still highly significant after 48 h. Similarly, collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma was inhibited for a longer period and to a greater extent after administration of ASA than after lysine clonixinate. Our results indicate that lysine clonixinate is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor of moderate potency. It remains to be investigated whether mechanisms other than inhibition of cyclooxygenase contribute to the analgesic activity of lysine clonixinate. PMID:8866627

  16. Platelets in Lung Biology

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis, which is the intricate process by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling. PMID:23043249

  17. Thrombopoietin treatment of one graft in a double cord blood transplant provides early platelet recovery while contributing to long-term engraftment in NSG mice.

    PubMed

    van der Garde, Mark; van Hensbergen, Yvette; Brand, Anneke; Slot, Manon C; de Graaf-Dijkstra, Alice; Mulder, Arend; Watt, Suzanne M; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Human cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplants demonstrate delayed early neutrophil and platelet recovery and delayed longer term immune reconstitution compared to bone marrow and mobilized peripheral blood transplants. Despite advances in enhancing early neutrophil engraftment, platelet recovery after CB transplantation is not significantly altered when compared to contemporaneous controls. Recent studies have identified a platelet-biased murine HSC subset, maintained by thrombopoietin (TPO), which has enhanced capacity for short- and long-term platelet reconstitution, can self-renew, and can give rise to myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs. In previous studies, we have shown that transplantation of human CB CD34(+) cells precultured in TPO as a single graft accelerates early platelet recovery as well as yielding long-term repopulation in immune-deficient mice. In this study, using a double CB murine transplant model, we investigated whether TPO cultured human CB CD34(+) cells have a competitive advantage or disadvantage over untreated human CB CD34(+) cells in terms of (1) short-term and longer term platelet recovery and (2) longer term hematological recovery. Our studies demonstrate that the TPO treated graft shows accelerated early platelet recovery without impairing the platelet engraftment of untreated CD34(+) cells. Notably, this was followed by a dominant contribution to platelet production through the untreated CD34(+) cell graft over the intermediate to longer term. Furthermore, although the contribution of the TPO treated graft to long-term hematological engraftment was reduced, the TPO treated and untreated grafts both contributed significantly to long-term chimerism in vivo. PMID:25137252

  18. Activation of human blood platelets by arginine-vasopressin. Role of bivalent cations

    SciTech Connect

    Pletscher, A.; Erne, P.; Buergisser, E.F.; Ferracin, F.

    1985-12-01

    Arginine-vasopressin caused platelet activation, i.e., a shape change reaction and a rise in intracellular free Ca/sup 2 +/ ((Ca/sup 2 +/)i) only in the presence of certain bivalent cations. The EC50 of arginine-vasopressin (concentration causing half-maximal shape change) decreased with rising concentrations of Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, or Ca/sup 2 +/ in the medium, but was at least an order higher with Ca/sup 2 +/ than with Mn/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. The EC50 of the active bivalent cations (concentrations enabling 100 nM arginine-vasopressin to exert half-maximal shape change and rise in (Ca/sup 2 +/)i) varied with the individual cations, being by far the highest for Ca/sup 2 +/. The KD of (3H)arginine-vasopressin binding to platelet membranes and intact platelets markedly decreased when extracellular Mg/sup 2 +/ or Mn/sup 2 +/ were present, and the KD values were inversely related to the concentration of the cations. Ca/sup 2 +/ also lowered the KD values; however, the effect was less marked than that of Mg/sup 2 +/ or Mn/sup 2 +/ and, in physiological conditions, significant only in intact platelets. Vasopressin-1 antagonists counteracted arginine-vasopressin binding and the shape change reaction and (Ca/sup 2 +/)i rise induced by arginine-vasopressin. In the presence of Mn/sup 2 +/ in the medium, administration of arginine-vasopressin led to quenching of the intracellular fluorescence of 2-methyl-6-methoxy-8-nitroquinoline-loaded platelets, possibly due to influx of Mn/sup 2 +/. In conclusion, the dependency of the arginine-vasopressin-induced platelet activation on bivalent cations is at least partly due to an enhancement by these cations of the affinity of the vasopressin-1 receptor for arginine-vasopressin. Thereby, under physiological conditions, Mg/sup 2 +/ seems to be of primary importance. Other mechanisms may be involved, too, e.g., an enhancement by arginine-vasopressin of the influx of bivalent cations into the platelets.

  19. Exosome poly-ubiquitin inhibits platelet activation, downregulates CD36, and inhibits pro-atherothombotic cellular functions

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, Sowmya; Li, Wei; Silverstein, Roy L.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Activated platelets shed microparticles from plasma membranes, but also release smaller exosomes from internal compartments. While microparticles participate in athero-thrombosis, little is known of exosomes in this process. Materials & Methods Ex vivo biochemical experiments with human platelets and exosomes, and FeCl3-induced murine carotid artery thrombosis. Results Both microparticles and exosomes were abundant in human plasma. Platelet-derived exosomes suppressed ex vivo platelet aggregation and reduced adhesion to collagen-coated microfluidic channels at high shear. Injected exosomes inhibited occlusive thrombosis in FeCl3-damaged murine carotid arteries. Control platelets infused into irradiated, thrombocytopenic mice reconstituted thrombosis in damaged carotid arteries, but failed to do so after prior ex vivo incubation with exosomes. CD36 promotes platelet activation, and exosomes dramatically reduced platelet CD36. CD36 is also expressed by macrophages where it binds and internalizes oxidized LDL and microparticles, supplying lipid to promote foam cell formation. Platelet exosomes inhibited oxidized-LDL binding and cholesterol loading into macrophages. Exosomes were not competitive CD36 ligands, but instead sharply reduced total macrophage CD36 content. Exosomal proteins, in contrast to microparticle or cellular proteins, were highly adducted by ubiquitin. Exosomes enhanced ubiquitination of cellular proteins, including CD36, and blockade of proteosome proteolysis with MG-132 rescued CD36 expression. Recombinant unanchored K48 poly-ubiquitin behaved similarly to exosomes, inhibiting platelet function, macrophage CD36 expression, and macrophage particle uptake. Conclusions Platelet-derived exosomes inhibit athero-thrombotic processes by reducing CD36-dependent lipid loading of macrophages and by suppressing platelet thrombosis. Exosomes increase protein ubiquitination, and enhance proteasome degradation of CD36. PMID:25163645

  20. Inhibition of human platelet function in vitro and ex vivo by acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Lages, B; Weiss, H J

    1989-03-15

    The effects of acetaminophen (APAP) in vitro, or ex vivo following APAP ingestion, on human platelet aggregation, 14C-5HT secretion, and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) formation were assessed. APAP added in vitro to citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) inhibited aggregation, secretion, and TxB2 formation induced by collagen, epinephrine, arachidonate, and the ionophore A23187, but had no effect on the responses induced by the endoperoxide analog U44069. Arachidonate-induced responses were inhibited by lower concentrations of APAP than were the responses to the other agonists. In PRP obtained 1 hour after ingestion of 650 mg or 1000 mg APAP, arachidonate-induced TxB2 formation was inhibited by 40-99% in five subjects tested, whereas inhibition of collagen- or epinephrine-induced TxB2 formation was less consistent. Aggregation and secretion responses were not altered by APAP ingestion in 4 of the 5 subjects, but were inhibited in the remaining subject, who had the highest plasma APAP levels. In contrast to aspirin and indomethacin, APAP-induced inhibition of collagen-stimulated TxB2 formation could be partially overcome with increasing collagen concentrations. No such partial correction occurred with epinephrine, however. In washed platelet suspensions labeled with 3H-arachidonate, both APAP and aspirin inhibited the formation of labeled PGD2 and PGE2, as well as TxB2. These results suggest that APAP acts in human platelets as a reversible inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase, as found previously in other tissues, and that recent APAP ingestion can, on occasion, produce inhibition of platelet functional responses measured in vitro. PMID:2499947

  1. Nitric oxide therapies for local inhibition of platelets' activitation on blood-contacting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoako, Kagya Agyeman

    Blood-contacting devices interact with blood during their function much like the endothelium that modulates hemostasis. The surfaces of these devices however, lack endothelial-like properties, and consequently, upon blood contact, activate clotting factors to form clots. Systemic heparinization for inhibiting clot formation can cause bleeding and surface coatings show insignificant benefits. This research investigated nitric oxide (NO) production mimicry of the endothehum on artificial lungs (ALs) and pediatric catheters. Their surfaces were functionalized either by (1) entrapping NO donors inside their bulk, (2) incorporating catalysts to generate NO from NO-donors or (3) supplementing NO into sweep gas of artificial lungs. Pediatric catheters functionalized with NO-donor thin coats using method 1 is limited by short NO release duration. Method 2 has not been applied to large surface-area, low-flow devices like the AL. In this work NO-generating silicone membranes were synthesized and characterized to determine the relationship between surface properties, NO flux, and blood clotting time. These outcomes helped develop and optimize NO-generating gas-exchange silicone fibers that represent the majority of ALs surface area. The first NO-generating AL prototypes, using those fibers, were manufactured, incorporated into NO-generating circuits and tested for their non-thrombogenicity. To test for NO-release duration and non-thrombogenicity, catheters were fabricated to incorporate NO-donors inside their walls, characterized for NO flux and release duration by chemilumincscence, and tested for patency using a thrombogenicity model in rabbits. Methods 1-2 involve material modification using complicated and expensive chemical formulations and/or manufacturing. Method 3 however, functionalizes ALs by only adding NO into sweep gas. Decade-long anti-clotting testing using a wide range of NO concentrations has been conducted without knowledge of what concentration yields

  2. RNA-Seq of Tumor-Educated Platelets Enables Blood-Based Pan-Cancer, Multiclass, and Molecular Pathway Cancer Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Best, Myron G.; Sol, Nik; Kooi, Irsan; Tannous, Jihane; Westerman, Bart A.; Rustenburg, François; Schellen, Pepijn; Verschueren, Heleen; Post, Edward; Koster, Jan; Ylstra, Bauke; Ameziane, Najim; Dorsman, Josephine; Smit, Egbert F.; Verheul, Henk M.; Noske, David P.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Nilsson, R. Jonas A.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Wesseling, Pieter; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor-educated blood platelets (TEPs) are implicated as central players in the systemic and local responses to tumor growth, thereby altering their RNA profile. We determined the diagnostic potential of TEPs by mRNA sequencing of 283 platelet samples. We distinguished 228 patients with localized and metastasized tumors from 55 healthy individuals with 96% accuracy. Across six different tumor types, the location of the primary tumor was correctly identified with 71% accuracy. Also, MET or HER2-positive, and mutant KRAS, EGFR, or PIK3CA tumors were accurately distinguished using surrogate TEP mRNA profiles. Our results indicate that blood platelets provide a valuable platform for pan-cancer, multiclass cancer, and companion diagnostics, possibly enabling clinical advances in blood-based “liquid biopsies”. PMID:26525104

  3. Effect of a New Antioxidant Enoxifol on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Rheological Properties in Rats with Experimental Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kucheryavenko, A F; Spasov, A A; Anisimova, V A

    2016-04-01

    Effect of a new antioxidant enoxifol exhibiting antiplatelet activity in vitro and in vivo on hemostasis parameters was assessed in laboratory rats with experimental diabetes mellitus. Gliclazide, a hypoglycemic agent with antiplatelet properties, and pentoxifylline, a preparation improving blood rheology, were used as the reference drugs. Enoxifol produced a pronounced inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes comparable to the effect of gliclazide and decreased blood viscosity thus demonstrating a significant effect comparable to that of pentoxifylline. In view of the fact that oxidative stress is a pathogenetic components of vascular complications in diabetes, it can be assumed that improvement of hemostasis parameters under the effect of enoxifol is determined by its antiplatelet and antioxidant activities. PMID:27165061

  4. Improving platelet transfusion safety: biomedical and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Chavarin, Patricia; Laperche, Syria; Morel, Pascal; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Pozzetto, Bruno; Lozano, Miguel; Blumberg, Neil; Osselaer, Jean-Claude

    2016-03-01

    Platelet concentrates account for near 10% of all labile blood components but are responsible for more than 25% of the reported adverse events. Besides factors related to patients themselves, who may be particularly at risk of side effects because of their underlying illness, there are aspects of platelet collection and storage that predispose to adverse events. Platelets for transfusion are strongly activated by collection through disposal equipment, which can stress the cells, and by preservation at 22 °C with rotation or rocking, which likewise leads to platelet activation, perhaps more so than storage at 4 °C. Lastly, platelets constitutively possess a very large number of bioactive components that may elicit pro-inflammatory reactions when infused into a patient. This review aims to describe approaches that may be crucial to minimising side effects while optimising safety and quality. We suggest that platelet transfusion is complex, in part because of the complexity of the "material" itself: platelets are highly versatile cells and the transfusion process adds a myriad of variables that present many challenges for preserving basal platelet function and preventing dysfunctional activation of the platelets. The review also presents information showing--after years of exhaustive haemovigilance--that whole blood buffy coat pooled platelet components are extremely safe compared to the gold standard (i.e. apheresis platelet components), both in terms of acquired infections and of immunological/inflammatory hazards. PMID:26674828

  5. Improving platelet transfusion safety: biomedical and technical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Chavarin, Patricia; Laperche, Syria; Morel, Pascal; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Pozzetto, Bruno; Lozano, Miguel; Blumberg, Neil; Osselaer, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Platelet concentrates account for near 10% of all labile blood components but are responsible for more than 25% of the reported adverse events. Besides factors related to patients themselves, who may be particularly at risk of side effects because of their underlying illness, there are aspects of platelet collection and storage that predispose to adverse events. Platelets for transfusion are strongly activated by collection through disposal equipment, which can stress the cells, and by preservation at 22 °C with rotation or rocking, which likewise leads to platelet activation, perhaps more so than storage at 4 °C. Lastly, platelets constitutively possess a very large number of bioactive components that may elicit pro-inflammatory reactions when infused into a patient. This review aims to describe approaches that may be crucial to minimising side effects while optimising safety and quality. We suggest that platelet transfusion is complex, in part because of the complexity of the “material” itself: platelets are highly versatile cells and the transfusion process adds a myriad of variables that present many challenges for preserving basal platelet function and preventing dysfunctional activation of the platelets. The review also presents information showing - after years of exhaustive haemovigilance - that whole blood buffy coat pooled platelet components are extremely safe compared to the gold standard (i.e. apheresis platelet components), both in terms of acquired infections and of immunological/inflammatory hazards. PMID:26674828

  6. Human endometrial stromal stem cells differentiate into megakaryocytes with the ability to produce functional platelets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinju; Chen, Shuzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Stegeman, Samantha; Pfaff-Amesse, Teresa; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Wenfeng; Amesse, Lawrence; Chen, Yanfang

    2012-01-01

    Human endometrium is a high dynamic tissue that contains endometrial stromal stem cells (hESSCs). The hESSCs have been differentiated into a number of cell lineages. However, differentiation of hESSCs into megakaryocytes (MKs) has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of MK generation from hESSCs and subsequent production of functional platelets (PLTs). In our study, hESSCs were cultured from endometrial stromal cells as confirmed by positive stromal cell specific markers (CD90 and CD29) and negative hematopoietic stem cell markers (CD45 and CD34) expression. Then, hESSCs were differentiated in a medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO) for 18 days. The MK differentiation was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The differentiation medium was collected for PLT production analysis by flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Our results show: 1) MKs were successfully generated from hESSCs as identified by expression of specific markers (CD41a: 1 ± 0.09% and 39 ± 3.0%; CD42b: 1.2 ± 0.06% and 28 ± 2.0%, control vs. differentiation) accompanied with reduction of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct4 and Sox2) expression; 2) The level of PLTs in the differentiation medium was 16 ± 1 number/µl as determined by size (2-4 µm) and CD41a expression (CD41a: 1 ± 0.4% and 90±2.0%, control vs. differentiation); 3) Generated PLTs were functional as evidenced by the up-regulation of CD62p expression and fibrinogen binding following thrombin stimulation; 4) Released PLTs showed similar ultra-structure characteristics (alpha granules, vacuoles and dense tubular system) as PLTs from peripheral blood determined by electron microscopic analysis. Data demonstrate the feasibility of generating MKs from hESSCs, and that the generated MKs release functional PLTs. Therefore, hESSCs could be a potential new stem cell source for in vitro MK/PLT production. PMID:22952951

  7. Comparison of humoral insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factor-β1, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentrations among equine autologous blood-derived preparations.

    PubMed

    Ionita, Christiane R; Troillet, Antonia R; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Winter, Karsten; Brehm, Walter; Ionita, Jean-Claude

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare humoral insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) concentrations in plasma and 3 types of equine autologous blood-derived preparations (ABPs). SAMPLE Blood and ABP samples from 12 horses. PROCEDURES Blood samples from each horse were processed by use of commercial systems to obtain plasma, platelet concentrate, conditioned serum, and aqueous platelet lysate. Half of the platelet concentrate samples were additionally treated with a detergent to release intracellular mediators. Humoral IGF-1, PDGF-BB, TGF-β1, and IL-1Ra concentrations were measured with ELISAs and compared statistically. RESULTS Median IGF-1 concentration was highest in conditioned serum and detergent-treated platelet concentrate, followed by platelet concentrate and plasma; IGF-1 was not detected in platelet lysate. Mean PDGF-BB concentration was highest in platelet lysate, followed by detergent-treated platelet concentrate and conditioned serum; PDGF-BB was not detected in plasma and platelet concentrate. Median TGF-β1 concentration was highest in detergent-treated platelet concentrate, followed by conditioned serum, platelet lysate, and platelet concentrate; TGF-β1 was not detected in most plasma samples. Median IL-1Ra concentration was highest in platelet lysate, followed by conditioned serum; IL-1Ra was not detected in almost all plasma, detergent-treated platelet concentrate, and platelet concentrate samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Each ABP had its own cytokine profile, which was determined by the specific processing method. Coagulation and cellular lysis strongly increased humoral concentrations of cell-derived cytokines. No ABP had the highest concentrations for all cytokines. Further studies are needed to assess clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:27463555

  8. Variability of residual platelet function despite clopidogrel treatment in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Schwonberg, Jan; Toennes, Stefan W; Mani, Helen; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2010-04-01

    Residual platelet function despite treatment with clopidogrel may predict an unfavourable cardiovascular outcome. The majority of studies have investigated the effects of clopidogrel administration in conjunction with aspirin in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the platelet response to clopidogrel in the absence of aspirin in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and to investigate whether non-responsiveness to clopidogrel is reproducible during long-term follow-up. Fifty-four clinically stable PAOD patients on a maintenance dose of 75 mg/d clopidogrel were enrolled in this study. Platelet function was assessed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 18 months using light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) with 2 microM ADP as an agonist. HPLC-coupled mass spectrometry was used to detect clopidogrel and clopidogrel carboxylic acid, the main metabolite of clopidogrel. Residual platelet function, as defined by late aggregation values within the reference range (i.e., >43%), was observed in 35.2% of patients at baseline and 17.6% during follow-up. During the observation period, 26.5% had switched from responder to non-responder status or vice versa. Among non-responders, either clopidogrel or its metabolite was detected in 89.5% and 83.3% of patients at baseline and at follow-up, respectively. We conclude that non-responsiveness to clopidogrel as determined by ADP-induced LTA is not stable over time. This phenomenon cannot be attributed to non-compliance alone. PMID:20153859

  9. Distinct roles for protein kinase C isoforms in regulating platelet purinergic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart J; Jones, Matthew L; Hardy, Adam R; Barton, Johanna F; Beaucourt, Stephanie M; Conley, Pamela B; Poole, Alastair W

    2006-09-01

    ADP is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), P2Y1 and P2Y12. We have shown previously that the receptors are functionally desensitized, in a homologous manner, by distinct kinase-dependent mechanisms in which P2Y1 is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) and P2Y12 by G protein-coupled receptor kinases. In this study, we addressed whether different PKC isoforms play different roles in regulating the trafficking and activity of these two GPCRs. Expression of PKCalpha and PKCdelta dominant-negative mutants in 1321N1 cells revealed that both isoforms regulated P2Y1 receptor signaling and trafficking, although only PKCdelta was capable of regulating P2Y12, in experiments in which PKC was directly activated by the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). These results were paralleled in human platelets, in which PMA reduced subsequent ADP-induced P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor signaling. PKC isoform-selective inhibitors revealed that novel, but not conventional, isoforms of PKC regulate P2Y12 function, whereas both novel and classic isoforms regulate P2Y1 activity. It is also noteworthy that we studied receptor internalization in platelets by a radioligand binding approach showing that both receptors internalize rapidly in these cells. ADP-induced P2Y1 receptor internalization is attenuated by PKC inhibitors, whereas that of the P2Y12 receptor is unaffected. Both P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors can also undergo PMA-stimulated internalization, and here again, novel but not classic PKCs regulate P2Y12, whereas both novel and classic isoforms regulate P2Y1 internalization. This study therefore is the first to reveal distinct roles for PKC isoforms in the regulation of platelet P2Y receptor function and trafficking. PMID:16804093

  10. An extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa modulates the generation of superoxide anion radicals in blood platelets from breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz; Glowacki, Rafal

    2009-10-01

    Plant antioxidants protect cells against oxidative stress. Because oxidative stress (measured by different biomarkers) is observed in breast cancer patients, the aim of this study was to establish the effects of a polyphenol-rich extract of Aronia melanocarpa (final concentration of 50 microg/mL, 5 min, 37 degrees C) on superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(-*)) and glutathione (GSH) in platelets from patients with breast cancer and in a healthy group in vitro. Generation of O(2)(-*) in platelets before and after incubation with the extract was measured by cytochrome C reduction. Using HPLC, we determined the level of glutathione in blood platelets. We observed a statistically significant increase of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as O(2)(-*) and a decrease in GSH in platelets from patients with breast cancer compared with the healthy group. We showed that the extract from A. melanocarpa added to blood platelets significantly reduced the production of O(2)(-*) in platelets not only from the healthy group but also from patients with breast cancer. Considering the data presented in this study, we have demonstrated the protective role of the extract from A. melanocarpa in patients with breast cancer in vitro. PMID:19444773

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine and dopamine transport by rat and human blood platelets

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J.L.; Olverman, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    1 Uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by rat platelets in plasma was very rapid and diffusion did not contribute significantly at substrate concentrations that did not saturate the active transport. 2 Under conditions which allowed measurement of initial rates of uptake, kinetic analysis revealed a high affinity uptake mechanism for 5-HT (Km = 0.7 μM). 3 Uptake of dopamine was relatively slow and involved a lower affinity (Km = 70 μM) active transport process. Diffusion contributed significantly at concentrations that did not saturate the active transport. 4 5-HT competitively inhibited uptake of dopamine, and vice versa; Ki values for both amines were similar to their respective Km values for uptake. 5 Chlorimipramine, desmethylimipramine and benztropine were tested as uptake inhibitors. Each was equipotent against 5-HT and dopamine, although the absolute potency of the drugs varied greatly. Chlorimipramine was the most potent (Ki## 100 nM), and kinetic analysis revealed that the inhibition was competitive against both 5-HT and dopamine. 6 Similar results were obtained in studies with human platelets: Km values for 5-HT and dopamine were about 1 μM and 100 μM respectively. Activity profiles of inhibitors were also similar: each compound tested was equipotent against 5-HT and dopamine, and the two amines each competitively inhibited uptake of the other. 7 We conclude that dopamine is actively transported by platelets via the 5-HT uptake mechanism, but with a much lower affinity. There is no high-affinity dopamine-specific mechanism corresponding to that in the corpus striatum. Consequently although platelets may be valid models of transport in 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones, they should not be regarded as models for the dopamine transport mechanism found in dopaminergic neurones. PMID:623937

  12. Luminal platelet aggregates in functional deficits in parenchymal vessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Victor; Flores, Rowena; Muller, Artur; Sehba, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiology of early ischemic injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is not understood. This study examined the acute effect of endovascular puncture-induced SAH on parenchymal vessel function in rat, using intravascular fluorescent tracers to assess flow and vascular permeability and immunostaining to assess structural integrity and to visualize platelet aggregates. In sham-operated animals, vessels were well filled with tracer administered 10 seconds before sacrifice, and parenchymal escape of tracer was rare. At ten minutes and 3 hours after hemorrhage, patches of poor vascular filling were distributed throughout the forebrain. Close examination of these regions revealed short segments of narrowed diameter along many profiles. Most vascular profiles with reduced perfusion contained platelet aggregates and in addition showed focal loss of collagen IV, a principal component of basal lamina. In contrast, vessels were well filled at 24 hours post-hemorrhage, indicating that vascular perfusion had recovered. Parenchymal escape of intravascular tracer was detected at 10 minutes post-hemorrhage and later as plumes of fluorescence emanating into parenchyma from restricted microvascular foci. These data demonstrate that parenchymal microvessels are compromised in function by 10 minutes after SAH and identify focal microvascular constriction and local accumulation of luminal platelet aggregates as potential initiators of that compromise. PMID:20654597

  13. Modulation of platelet and leucocyte function by a Chinese herbal formulation as compared with conventional antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian; Gaudry, Leonie; Dunkley, Scott; Brighton, Tim; Guo, Zhi Xin; Ye, Zheng Liang; Luo, Run Zhi; Chesterman, Colin N

    2008-02-01

    Platelet and leucocyte activity are important in the acute development of thrombosis and in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease. Dan Shen Di Wan (DS, Cardiotonic Pill or Dantonic(R) Pill) is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbal formulations for treating patients with atherosclerotic disease in China and several Asian countries. We studied the effect of DS on platelet and leucocyte function and compared the effects with conventional antiplatelet agents, cangrelor (ADP P2Y(12) receptor antagonist) and aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA). Measurements were made by platelet aggregation (%) and activation (CD62P %), platelet-monocyte conjugate formation (P/M, CD42a median fluorescence, mf), platelet-neutrophil conjugate formation (P/N, mf), and leucocyte activation (CD11b median fluorescence on monocytes and neutrophils, mf) in response to 3.3 micromol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP), 1.0 micromol/L platelet activating factor (PAF), 5.0 micromol/L adrenaline and 0.5 microg/mL collagen. We also evaluated the effect of its main component, water soluble extract of salvia miltiorrhiza (SME) on intracellular calcium mobilization in platelets triggered by 10 micromol/L ADP, 10 micromol/L PAF, 2 microg/mL collagen and 15 micromol/L thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Overall DS showed inhibition of platelet aggregation, platelet activation, platelet-leucocyte conjugate formation and leucocyte activation in response to all the agonists apart from adrenaline (all p < 0.01). DS showed inhibition of platelet aggregation and leucocyte activation equivalent to cangrelor 100 nmol/L and ASA 100 micromol/L. SME dose-dependently inhibited intracellular calcium mobilization in platelets following stimulation with all the platelet agonists with maximum effective at 0.36 mg/mL (all p < 0.01). When used at 0.18 mg/mL its inhibitory effect was equivalent to cangrelor and ASA. We conclude that DS is a potential inhibitor of both platelet and leucocyte activation

  14. Markers of inflammation, activation of blood platelets and coagulation disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. It is a group of chronic disorders characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal track with unknown etiology. Currently applied biomarkers include CRP, ESR, pANCA, ASCA, and fecal calprotectin. The etiopathogenesis of IBD is multifactorial. In patients with IBD in inflamed alimentary tract mucosa the number of recruited monocytes and activated macrophages which are source of cytokines. In IBD, the exacerbation is accompanied by thrombocytosis. Platelets play a crucial role in the hemostasis and inflammatory response. Selectins, which regulates the hemostasis and inflammatory response, stimulates the secretion of many inflammatory mediators such as β-thromboglobuline, CD40L, fibrinogen, IL-1β, platelet factor-4. In the course of IBD the following changes are observed: an increase in the number of platelets (reactive thrombocytosis), PDW and PCT, reduction in MPV, increased production and excretion of granular content products (P-selectin, GP53, β-TG, PF-4, vWF, fibrinolytic inhibitors). PMID:27117106

  15. Isolation of a 5-Kilodalton Actin-Sequestering Peptide from Human Blood Platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safer, Daniel; Golla, Rajasree; Nachmias, Vivianne T.

    1990-04-01

    Resting human platelets contain ≈0.3 mM unpolymerized actin. When freshly drawn and washed platelets are treated with saponin, 85-90% of the unpolymerized actin diffuses out. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions shows that the bulk of this unpolymerized actin migrates with a higher mobility than does pure G-actin, profilactin, or actin-gelsolin complex. When muscle G-actin is added to fresh or boiled saponin extract, the added muscle actin is shifted to the high-mobility form. The saponin extract contains an acidic peptide having a molecular mass in the range of 5 kDa, which has been purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase HPLC. This peptide also shifts muscle actin to the high-mobility form. Addition of either boiled saponin extract or the purified peptide to muscle G-actin also strongly and stoichiometrically inhibits salt-induced polymerization, as assayed by falling-ball viscometry and by sedimentation. We conclude that this peptide binds to the bulk of the unpolymerized actin in platelets and prevents it from polymerizing.

  16. Functional behavior of vessels from pigs with von Willebrand disease. Values of platelet deposition are identical to those obtained on normal vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Badimon, L.; Badimon, J.J.; Turitto, V.T.; Rand, J.; Fuster, V.

    1989-03-01

    Vessels from normal pigs and pigs with severe von Willebrand disease were exposed for up to 30 minutes to both nonanticoagulated and heparinized blood from normal pigs in an ex vivo perfusion system. Shear rates at the vessel surface were varied over a broad physiological range, gamma w = 212 to 3380 sec-1. The deposition of /sup 111/In-labeled platelets was determined by radiometric counting. For all shear rates and exposure times investigated, the levels of platelet deposition on de-endothelialized thoracic aorta of normal and von Willebrand disease pigs were not significantly different. Thus, the functional activity of the vessels correlated with the results obtained previously by immunofluorescence. Namely, the von Willebrand factor protein in the thoracic subendothelium of normal pigs is significantly diminished or absent and is comparable to the levels observed in von Willebrand disease pigs.

  17. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Ransom, D K; Hughes, B G

    1992-01-15

    The inhibitory effects of adenosine and 16 quantitatively determined organosulfur compounds derived from garlic cloves or commercial garlic preparations on collagen stimulated in vitro platelet aggregation in whole blood were determined. An estimation of the anti-aggregatory activity of several brands of the major types of commercial garlic preparations was determined from the activities of the individual compounds present in each sample. In platelet rich plasma (PRP) most of the anti-aggregatory activity of garlic clove homogenates was due to adenosine; however, in whole blood neither adenosine nor the polar fraction had any effect and all of the anti-aggregatory activity was due to allicin and other thiosulfinates. Allicin was equally active in whole blood and PRP. Among brands there was a several-fold variation in content of the organosulfur compounds and activity for all types of garlic products tested. The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed. PMID:1579891

  18. Blood vessel formation and function in bone.

    PubMed

    Sivaraj, Kishor K; Adams, Ralf H

    2016-08-01

    In addition to their conventional role as a conduit system for gases, nutrients, waste products or cells, blood vessels in the skeletal system play active roles in controlling multiple aspects of bone formation and provide niches for hematopoietic stem cells that reside within the bone marrow. In addition, recent studies have highlighted roles for blood vessels during bone healing. Here, we provide an overview of the architecture of the bone vasculature and discuss how blood vessels form within bone, how their formation is modulated, and how they function during development and fracture repair. PMID:27486231

  19. A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Ibelli, Adriana M G; Kim, Tae K; Hill, Creston C; Lewis, Lauren A; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

  20. The Catalytic Subunit of Protein Phosphatase 1 Gamma Regulates Thrombin-Induced Murine Platelet αIIbβ3 Function

    PubMed Central

    Gushiken, Francisca C.; Hyojeong, Han; Pradhan, Subhashree; Langlois, Kimberly W.; Alrehani, Nawaf; Cruz, Miguel A.; Rumbaut, Rolando E.; Vijayan, K. Vinod

    2009-01-01

    Background Hemostasis and thrombosis are regulated by agonist-induced activation of platelet integrin αIIbβ3. Integrin activation, in turn is mediated by cellular signaling via protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Although the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) interacts with αIIbβ3, the role of PP1c in platelet reactivity is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using γ isoform of PP1c deficient mice (PP1cγ−/−), we show that the platelets have moderately decreased soluble fibrinogen binding and aggregation to low concentrations of thrombin or protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4)-activating peptide but not to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen or collagen-related peptide (CRP). Thrombin-stimulated PP1cγ−/− platelets showed decreased αIIbβ3 activation despite comparable levels of αIIbβ3, PAR3, PAR4 expression and normal granule secretion. Functions regulated by outside-in integrin αIIbβ3 signaling like adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen and clot retraction were not altered in PP1cγ−/− platelets. Thrombus formation induced by a light/dye injury in the cremaster muscle venules was significantly delayed in PP1cγ−/− mice. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3)β-serine 9 that promotes platelet function, was reduced in thrombin-stimulated PP1cγ−/− platelets by an AKT independent mechanism. Inhibition of GSK3β partially abolished the difference in fibrinogen binding between thrombin-stimulated wild type and PP1cγ−/− platelets. Conclusions/Significance These studies illustrate a role for PP1cγ in maintaining GSK3β-serine9 phosphorylation downstream of thrombin signaling and promoting thrombus formation via fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation. PMID:20016849

  1. Lymphocyte-mediated inhibition of platelet cytotoxic functions during Hymenoptera venom desensitization: characterization of a suppressive lymphokine.

    PubMed

    Tsicopoulos, A; Tonnel, A B; Vorng, H; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Kusnierz, J P; Pestel, J; Capron, A

    1990-06-01

    Recently, it has been shown that platelets, through a receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE, could be specially triggered by venom allergens in hypersensitivity to hymenoptera, generating cytocidal mediators toward Schistosoma mansoni larvae, and oxygen metabolites measured by chemiluminescence. After rush immunotherapy, a depressed platelet response was demonstrated to be associated with the production of lymphokine(s). Here we report the characterization of a factor present in supernatants of antigen-stimulated T cells from patients after hymenoptera venom desensitization which is able to inhibit platelet cytotoxic functions in a dose-dependent manner. The optimal inhibition was observed with supernatants obtained after T lymphocyte stimulated with 10(-5) micrograms venom allergen/ml. Once specifically produced the platelet-suppressive effect of lymphocyte supernatants was not antigen specific. The producing T cell subpopulation was identified as CD8+. This lymphokine had an approximate molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.8. It was heat and acid stable and sensitive to trypsin and proteinase K but not to neuraminidase. This platelet inhibitory activity was absorbed by platelet membrane suggesting its binding to a receptor. These properties were very similar to a previously described platelet activity suppressive lymphokine, suggesting the participation of this lymphokine in the mechanisms of rush desensitization. PMID:2369915

  2. Effect of behavioral stress on platelet reactivity on polymeric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barbucci, R; Lamponi, S; Aloisi, A M

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that stressful stimuli change blood functions and platelet parameters are altered in humans and animals subjected to stress. We have examined the influences of behavioral stress on the morphological responses of platelets on a standard biomaterial, polyethylene (PE). Male rabbits were used. Blood was collected from the marginal vein of the ear 2 times per subject: the first sample was used as the baseline; 1 week later, the second was preceded in half of the subjects by 20 min of immobilization stress. In vitro adhesion of platelets on the PE was evaluated. The exposure of animals to stress induced a dramatic change in platelet morphology and functions on the PE: a higher degree of platelet adhesion, increased platelet spreading, and the appearance of pseudopodia. In the unstressed subjects there were no modifications of the platelets on the PE with respect to the baseline. The present experiment emphasizes for the first time the possible problems involved with the varying physiological conditions of patients before and after any biomaterial application surgery and of subjects who supply the blood for hemocompatibility tests performed on biomaterials. Therefore, in assessments of the performance of different biomaterials, the reactivity of blood factors in the patients should be considered and the test of blood compatibility should be performed with blood collected from donors in appropriate physiological conditions. PMID:10029143

  3. Northern elephant seal platelets: analysis of shape change and response to platelet agonists.

    PubMed

    Field, C L; Walker, N J; Tablin, F

    2001-02-15

    Blood platelets have a vital role in the maintenance of normal mammalian hemostasis. Rapid pressure changes and temperatures lower than 20 degrees C cause activation of human and terrestrial mammal platelets. Elephant seals are routinely subjected to pressures as high as 150 atm, yet do not suffer from the thrombotic effects of platelet activation associated with rapid decompression. We examined the ultrastructure of Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) platelets and their functional and morphological response to various platelet agonists. Unstimulated elephant seal platelets are discoid cells, with a microtubule coil, randomly dispersed alpha and dense granules, and glycogen granules. There are well-defined areas of membranous invaginations that indicate the presence of an open canalicular system (OCS). Aggregometry was used to determine the response of elephant seal platelets to various platelet agonists. Dose-dependent curves were generated for thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Platelet response to thrombin was dose-dependent and was maximal at 2.5 U/ml. Platelets collected in sodium citrate had blunted responses to both ADP and collagen. ADP stimulation caused only reversible, primary activation (shape change) at > or = 5 microM, while platelets did not aggregate in response to any concentration of collagen. Platelets collected in sodium heparin did respond fully to both to ADP and collagen. There was small, reversible shape change in response to ristocetin, but no response to epinephrine. Decreased sensitivity of elephant seal platelets to agonists may be a protective mechanism developed in response to rapid pressure changes and cold temperatures associated with adaptation to an extreme environment. PMID:11248288

  4. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width to Platelet Ratio is Related to Histologic Severity of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Xu, Hongqin; Wang, Xiaomei; Wu, Ruihong; Gao, Xiuzhu; Jin, Qinglong; Niu, Junqi

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and RDW to platelet ratio (RPR) were related to the histologic severity of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).Seventy-three treatment-naïve PBC patients who had undergone a liver biopsy between January 2010 and January 2015 were enrolled in our study. The patients' histological stages were based on the classifications of Ludwig and Scheuer. The patients were divided into early stage (Stage I) and advanced stage (Stage II, III, and IV) hepatic fibrosis according to their histological stage. All common patient demographics, clinical characteristics, hematological parameters, liver biochemistry, and antimitochondrial M2 antibody levels (AMA-M2) were retrospectively analyzed, and RDW, RPR, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis index based on the 4 factors (FIB-4) were calculated.A total of 28 (38.4%) patients had early stage PBC, whereas 45 (62.6%) were classified as advanced stage. Regarding age, no significant differences between the early and advanced stages were observed. Patients with advanced stage PBC had significantly higher RDW (13.6 vs 14.4; P = 0.019), conjugated bilirubin (10.1 vs 23.4; P = 0.029), and significantly lower cholinesterase (7901.1 vs 6060.8; P = 0.001) and platelets (212.6 vs 167.0; P = 0.006). However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in other routine parameters previously evaluated in PBC, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and mean platelet volume, were found between the groups. The sensitivity and specificity of RDW were 33.3% and 92.9%, respectively, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.66. However, the sensitivity and specificity of RPR were 46.7% and 96.4%, respectively, and the corresponding AUROC was 0.74 (P < 0.001). Hence, compared with preexisting indicators, RPR showed a higher AUROC than APRI (0.648; P = 0.035) and FIB-4 (0.682; P = 0.009).RDW

  5. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width to Platelet Ratio is Related to Histologic Severity of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Xu, Hongqin; Wang, Xiaomei; Wu, Ruihong; Gao, Xiuzhu; Jin, Qinglong; Niu, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to investigate whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and RDW to platelet ratio (RPR) were related to the histologic severity of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Seventy-three treatment-naïve PBC patients who had undergone a liver biopsy between January 2010 and January 2015 were enrolled in our study. The patients’ histological stages were based on the classifications of Ludwig and Scheuer. The patients were divided into early stage (Stage I) and advanced stage (Stage II, III, and IV) hepatic fibrosis according to their histological stage. All common patient demographics, clinical characteristics, hematological parameters, liver biochemistry, and antimitochondrial M2 antibody levels (AMA-M2) were retrospectively analyzed, and RDW, RPR, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis index based on the 4 factors (FIB-4) were calculated. A total of 28 (38.4%) patients had early stage PBC, whereas 45 (62.6%) were classified as advanced stage. Regarding age, no significant differences between the early and advanced stages were observed. Patients with advanced stage PBC had significantly higher RDW (13.6 vs 14.4; P = 0.019), conjugated bilirubin (10.1 vs 23.4; P = 0.029), and significantly lower cholinesterase (7901.1 vs 6060.8; P = 0.001) and platelets (212.6 vs 167.0; P = 0.006). However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) in other routine parameters previously evaluated in PBC, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and mean platelet volume, were found between the groups. The sensitivity and specificity of RDW were 33.3% and 92.9%, respectively, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.66. However, the sensitivity and specificity of RPR were 46.7% and 96.4%, respectively, and the corresponding AUROC was 0.74 (P < 0.001). Hence, compared with preexisting indicators, RPR showed a higher AUROC than APRI (0.648; P = 0.035) and FIB-4 (0.682; P

  6. Non-enzymatic modifications of prostaglandin H synthase 1 affect bifunctional enzyme activity - Implications for the sensitivity of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kassassir, Hassan; Siewiera, Karolina; Talar, Marcin; Stec-Martyna, Emilia; Pawlowska, Zofia; Watala, Cezary

    2016-06-25

    Due to its ability to inhibit the blood platelet PGHS-1, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin(®)) is widely used as a preventive agent in atherothrombotic diseases. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair effective ASA-mediated acetylation process. On the other hand, it is proposed that ASA can prevent some of the late complications of diabetes by lowering the extent of glycation at protein free amino groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extents of non-enzymatic N-glycosylation (glycation) and acetylation of blood platelet PGHS-1 (COX-1) and the competition between glycation and acetylation was investigated in order to demonstrate how these two reactions may compete against platelet PGHS-1. When PGHS-1 was incubated with glycating/acetylating agents (glucose, Glu; 1,6-bisphosphofructose, 1,6-BPF; methylglyoxal, MGO, acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), the enzyme was modified in 13.4 ± 1.6, 5.3 ± 0.5, 10.7 ± 1.2 and 6.4 ± 1.1 mol/mol protein, respectively, and its activity was significantly reduced. The prior glycation/carbonylation of PGHS-1 with Glu, 1,6-BPF or MGO decreased the extent of acetylation from 6.4 ± 1.1 down to 2.5 ± 0.2, 3.6 ± 0.3 and 5.2 ± 0.2 mol/mol protein, respectively, but the enzyme still remained susceptible to the subsequent inhibition of its activity with ASA. When PGHS-1 was first acetylated with ASA and then incubated with glycating/carbonylating agents, we observed the following reductions in the enzyme modifications: from 13.4 ± 1.6 to 8.7 ± 0.6 mol/mol protein for Glu, from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 3.9 ± 0.3 mol/mol protein for 1,6-BPF and from 10.7 ± 1.2 to 7.5 ± 0.5 mol/mol protein for MGO, however subsequent glycation/carbonylation did not significantly affect PGHS-1 function. Overall, our outcomes allow to better understand the structural aspects of the chemical competition between glycation and acetylation of PGHS-1

  7. [Indications and surveillance of platelet transfusions in surgery].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C; Bardiaux, L; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Leroy, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F; Hervé, P

    1995-01-01

    Surgery, after hematology, is the biggest consumer of homologous platelet concentrates. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent or control bleeding associated with deficiencies in platelet number or function. In surgery, general patterns (in function of pre-surgery platelet count) can be adopted in most of the indications for platelets. In emergency situations, and in some particular cases (related to the patient, the type of operation, etc.), the transfusion procedure depends on the team's experience, the results of the available clinical and biological tests, and the drugs. Strict monitoring is required during the transfusion procedure. The efficacy of the transfusion must be controlled 1 h and 24 hours after the transfusion, and a number of factors must be assessed, namely the immunological impact of the transfusion (on red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets) and the occurrence of infectious diseases transmitted via transfusion. In addition, for a possible future transfusion, a strategy must be proposed. PMID:7767484

  8. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating -18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r (2) = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  9. Examining Endothelial Function and Platelet Reactivity in Patients with Depression before and after SSRI Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Tye; Barton, David A.; Lambert, Elisabeth A.; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Gavin W.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is recognized that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) the mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the first signs of CVD. Using two techniques, flow-mediated dilatation in response to reactive hyperemia and laser Doppler velocimetry with iontophoresis, we examined endothelial function in the forearm before and after serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in 31 patients with MDD. Measurement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble P-selectin, and noradrenaline in plasma was also performed. Prior to treatment, markers of endothelial and vascular function and platelet reactivity were within the normal range. Following SSRI therapy (95 ± 5 days) symptoms of depression were reduced (paired difference between pre- and post-treatment Hamilton rating −18 ± 1, P < 0.001) with 19 patients recovered and 4 remitted. There occurred no significant change in markers of endothelial or vascular function following SSRI therapy. The improvement in Hamilton depression rating in response to therapy could be independently predicted by the baseline arterial plasma noradrenaline concentration (r2 = 0.36, P = 0.003). In this cohort of patients with MDD, SSRI therapy did not influence endothelial function or markers of vascular or platelet reactivity. Patient response to SSRI therapy could be predicted by the initial circulating level of noradrenaline, with noradrenaline levels being lower in responders. PMID:26924994

  10. Structural functional and folding scenario of an anti platelet and thrombolytic enzyme crinumin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar Awaneesh; Singh, Sanjay; Jagannadham, Medicherla V

    2014-07-01

    A folding pattern, conformational stability and therapeutic role of a protein helps in developing a suitable drug. Crinumin, a thrombolytic and anti platelet agent, has been studied for its functional and conformational properties by equilibrium unfolding methods. The crinumin belongs to α+β class of protein and exhibits a non native structure and two molten globule states at different conditions. Two domains in the molecular structure of the protein with altered stability are present that unfold sequentially. The enzyme maintains activity as well as structural integrity even in adverse conditions. These observations provide an understanding of protein folding as well as facilitate the development of a potential drug. PMID:24726528

  11. Oxidized LDL activates blood platelets through CD36/NOX2–mediated inhibition of the cGMP/protein kinase G signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Magwenzi, Simbarashe; Woodward, Casey; Wraith, Katie S.; Aburima, Ahmed; Raslan, Zaher; Jones, Huw; McNeil, Catriona; Wheatcroft, Stephen; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Febbriao, Maria; Kearney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes unregulated platelet activation in dyslipidemic disorders. Although oxLDL stimulates activatory signaling, it is unclear how these events drive accelerated thrombosis. Here, we describe a mechanism for oxLDL-mediated platelet hyperactivity that requires generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under arterial flow, oxLDL triggered sustained generation of platelet intracellular ROS, which was blocked by CD36 inhibitors, mimicked by CD36-specific oxidized phospholipids, and ablated in CD36−/− murine platelets. oxLDL-induced ROS generation was blocked by the reduced NAD phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor, gp91ds-tat, and absent in NOX2−/− mice. The synthesis of ROS by oxLDL/CD36 required Src-family kinases and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation and activation of NOX2. In functional assays, oxLDL abolished guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated signaling and inhibited platelet aggregation and arrest under flow. This was prevented by either pharmacologic inhibition of NOX2 in human platelets or genetic ablation of NOX2 in murine platelets. Platelets from hyperlipidemic mice were also found to have a diminished sensitivity to cGMP when tested ex vivo, a phenotype that was corrected by infusion of gp91ds-tat into the mice. This study demonstrates that oxLDL and hyperlipidemia stimulate the generation of NOX2-derived ROS through a CD36-PKC pathway and may promote platelet hyperactivity through modulation of cGMP signaling. PMID:25710879

  12. Dicer1-mediated miRNA processing shapes the mRNA profile and function of murine platelets.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jesse W; Chappaz, Stéphane; Corduan, Aurélie; Chong, Mark M W; Campbell, Robert; Khoury, Amanda; Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Wurtzel, Jeremy G T; Michael, James V; Goldfinger, Lawrence E; Mumaw, Michele M; Nieman, Marvin T; Kile, Benjamin T; Provost, Patrick; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-04-01

    Human platelets contain microRNAs (miRNAs) and miRNA processing machinery, but their contribution to platelet function remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that murine megakaryocyte (MK)-specific knockdown of Dicer1, the ribonuclease that cleaves miRNA precursors into mature miRNAs, reduces the level of the majority of miRNAs in platelets. This leads to altered platelet messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles and mild thrombocytopenia. Fibrinogen receptor subunits Itga2b (αIIb) and Itgb3 (β3) mRNAs were among the differentially expressed transcripts that are increased in platelets lacking Dicer1. Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a member of the miRNA silencing complex, co-immunoprecipitated with αIIband β3mRNAs in wild-type platelets. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested reduced αIIb/β3/Ago2 complexes in miRNA-deficient platelets. These results suggested that miRNAs regulate both integrin subunits. Subsequent 3' untranslated region luciferase reporter assays confirmed that the translation of both αIIband β3mRNAs can be regulated by miRNAs miR-326, miR-128, miR-331, and miR-500. Consistent with these molecular changes, the deletion ofDicer1resulted in increased surface expression of integrins αIIband β3, and enhanced platelet binding to fibrinogen in vivo and in vitro. Heightened platelet reactivity, shortened tail-bleeding time, and reduced survival following collagen/epinephrine-induced pulmonary embolism were also observed in Dicer1-deficient animals. CombinedPf4-cre-mediated deletion of Drosha and Dicer1 did not significantly exacerbate phenotypes observed in single Dicer1 knockout mice. In summary, these findings indicate that Dicer1-dependent generation of mature miRNAs in late-stage MKs and platelets modulates the expression of target mRNAs important for the hemostatic and thrombotic function of platelets. PMID:26773046

  13. Hemostatic Function and Transfusion Efficacy of Apheresis Platelet Concentrates Treated with Gamma Irradiation in Use for Thrombocytopenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mei; Xu, Wei; Wang, Bao-Long; Su, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background During the transfusion of blood components, the transfer of allogeneic donor white blood cells (WBCs) can mediate transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). To minimize the reaction, exposure of blood products to gamma irradiation is currently the standard of care. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare hemostatic function, transfusion efficacy, and safety of gamma-irradiated single-donor apheresis platelet concentrates (PCs) and of conventional non-irradiated PCs in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. Methods 20 double-dose single-donor leukoreduced PCs were split in two identical units; one was gamma-irradiated with 25 Gy (study arm A) and the other remains non-irradiated (study arm B). Both units were stored under equal conditions. Hematologic patients were randomly assigned to receive gamma-irradiated or conventional non-irradiated PCs. Hemostatic function was evaluated by thrombelastography (TEG). TEG measurements were taken pre transfusion and 1 and 24 h post transfusion. TEG profiles were measured, noting the time to initiate clotting (R), the angle of clot formation (α), and the maximum amplitude (clot strength (MA)). Whole blood samples were collected from these thrombocytopenic patients at 1 and 24 h for PLT count increments (CIs) and corrected count increments (CCIs) with assessments of transfusion efficacy. Time to next PLT transfusion, transfusion requirement of RBCs, active bleeding, and adverse events (AEs), were analyzed. Results No differences could be found in hemostatic function parameters (MA, R, and α) between study arms A and B (all p values > 0.096) pre transfusion as well as 1 and 24 h post transfusion. No differences between study arms A and B were observed for mean (± standard deviation (SD)) 1-hour CCI (12.83 ± 6.33 vs. 11.59 ± 5.97) and 24-hour CCI (6.56 ± 4.10 vs. 5.76 ± 4.05). Mean 1-hour CI and 24-hour CI were not significantly different in both study arms (p = 0

  14. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  15. The effects of haemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 solution on coagulation as assessed by thromboelastography and platelet receptor function studies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Yang, K; Kershaw, G; Wong, G; Dunkley, S; Kam, P C A

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of haemodilution with either 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 (Voluven(®)) or 0.9% normal saline (NS) on blood coagulation in vitro. Haemodilution with 6% HES 130/0.4 impaired coagulation, as indicated by the changes in thromboelastographic parameters k-time, α-angle and maximum amplitude. Light transmission aggregometry and multiple electrode aggregometry demonstrated that impaired platelet receptor function occurred only at high levels of haemodilution (40%) with both fluids, but there was no significant difference between the two fluids (P=0.05). The thromboelastographic functional fibrinogen assay showed that the fibrinogen component of clot strength was significantly impaired with haemodilution with HES 130/0.4 compared with haemodilution with NS (whole blood [14.4 ± 4.6 mm] versus 40% HES dilution [3.7 ± 1.9], [P=0.001]; versus 40% NS dilution [10.4 ± 4.6], [P=0.129]). These findings suggest that there is little difference between HES or NS in relation to coagulation or platelet function during minor or moderate haemodilution, but at high levels of haemodilution with HES, fibrinogen activity is more impaired compared with NS. PMID:26603798

  16. Scalable Functionalized Graphene Nano-platelets as Tunable Cathodes for High-performance Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Sung-Wook; Hong, Jihyun; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Dae-chul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Sungjin; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-01-01

    High-performance and cost-effective rechargeable batteries are key to the success of electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage systems. Extensive research has focused on the development of (i) new high-energy electrodes that can store more lithium or (ii) high-power nano-structured electrodes hybridized with carbonaceous materials. However, the current status of lithium batteries based on redox reactions of heavy transition metals still remains far below the demands required for the proposed applications. Herein, we present a novel approach using tunable functional groups on graphene nano-platelets as redox centers. The electrode can deliver high capacity of ~250 mAh g−1, power of ~20 kW kg−1 in an acceptable cathode voltage range, and provide excellent cyclability up to thousands of repeated charge/discharge cycles. The simple, mass-scalable synthetic route for the functionalized graphene nano-platelets proposed in this work suggests that the graphene cathode can be a promising new class of electrode. PMID:23514953

  17. Normalization methods in time series of platelet function assays: A SQUIRE compliant study.

    PubMed

    Van Poucke, Sven; Zhang, Zhongheng; Roest, Mark; Vukicevic, Milan; Beran, Maud; Lauwereins, Bart; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Henskens, Yvonne; Lancé, Marcus; Marcus, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Platelet function can be quantitatively assessed by specific assays such as light-transmission aggregometry, multiple-electrode aggregometry measuring the response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, collagen, and thrombin-receptor activating peptide and viscoelastic tests such as rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).The task of extracting meaningful statistical and clinical information from high-dimensional data spaces in temporal multivariate clinical data represented in multivariate time series is complex. Building insightful visualizations for multivariate time series demands adequate usage of normalization techniques.In this article, various methods for data normalization (z-transformation, range transformation, proportion transformation, and interquartile range) are presented and visualized discussing the most suited approach for platelet function data series.Normalization was calculated per assay (test) for all time points and per time point for all tests.Interquartile range, range transformation, and z-transformation demonstrated the correlation as calculated by the Spearman correlation test, when normalized per assay (test) for all time points. When normalizing per time point for all tests, no correlation could be abstracted from the charts as was the case when using all data as 1 dataset for normalization. PMID:27428217

  18. Different Influences of Hematocrit on the Results of Two Point-Of-Care Platelet Function Tests, the VerifyNow Assay and Multiple Electrode Platelet Aggregometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Gi; Suh, Jung-Won; Park, Jin Joo; Oh, Il-Young; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Cho, Young-Seok; Youn, Tae-Jin; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported a considerable association between the VerifyNow (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA, USA) P2Y12 assay results and hematocrit. No reports, however, have described an association between the multiple electrode platelet aggregometry (MEA; Dynabyte, Munich, Germany) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) assay results and hematocrit. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hematocrit on the results of 2 different point-of-care platelet function tests. Methods A total of 462 consecutive patients who were undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. Platelet function was evaluated with both the VerifyNow P2Y12 and MEA ADP assays. Results Anemic patients (n = 152, 32.9%) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (5.3% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.046) during the follow-up (median: 18.8 months). Although the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay results demonstrated a significant inverse correlation with hematocrit (r = −0.409, p<0.001), there was no such correlation between the MEA ADP assay results and hematocrit (r = 0.039, p = 0.401). In the multivariate analysis, anemia was an independent predictor of high on-treatment platelet reactivity, defined as a VerifyNow P2Y12 reaction unit level of ≥252.5 (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval = 1.39–3.52; p = 0.001). Importantly, this association was independent of an intrinsic change in platelet reactivity as measured by the MEA ADP assay. Adjusting for the influence of hematocrit improved the strength of the correlation between the VerifyNow P2Y12 and MEA ADP assay results. Conclusions Hematocrit significantly influenced the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay results, a phenomenon that was presumably in-vitro. Hematocrit level should therefore be considered when interpreting results of the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. PMID:25427105

  19. Is Platelet-rich plasma superior to whole blood in the management of chronic tennis elbow: one year randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral humeral epicondylitis, or ‘tennis elbow’, is a common condition with a variety of treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Autologous Whole Blood (AWB) represent new therapeutic options for chronic tendinopathies including tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the long term effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in patients with chronic tennis elbow. Methods Seventy six patients with chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis with duration of symptoms more than 3 months were included in this study and randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous leukocyte rich PRP (4.8 times of plasma) and group 2 with 2 mL of AWB. Tennis elbow strap, stretching and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS), Mayo score (modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 0, 4, 8 weeks and 6 and 12 months. Results All pain variables including VAS, PPT and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups at each follow up intervals compared to baseline. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain, functional scores and treatment success rates in all follow up examinations (P >0/05). Conclusion PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective methods to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis and their efficacy persisted during long term follow up. PRP was not superior to AWB in long term follow up. PMID:24635909

  20. Correlation Between the CYP2C19 Phenotype Status and the Results of Three Different Platelet Function Tests in Cardiovascular Disease Patients Receiving Antiplatelet Therapy: An Emphasis on Newly Introduced Platelet Function Analyzer-200 P2Y Test

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuhua; Choi, Jae-Lim; Guo, Long Zhe; Goh, Ri-Young; Kim, Bo-Ram; Woo, Kwang-Sook; Kim, Moo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background An association has been reported between CYP2C19 polymorphism and the altered antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel. We investigated this association using the newly introduced platelet function analyzer (PFA)-200 (INNOVANCE PFA-200 System; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) P2Y test. Methods Polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and the degree of inhibition of platelet function were determined in 83 patients. Three different platelet function tests were used to evaluate the degree of platelet inhibition and to check the association with genotype. Results The post-procedure PFA-200 values of extensive metabolizers (EM) patients (285.3±38.8) were higher than those of intermediate metabolizers (IM) and poor metabolizers (PM) patients (227.7±98.3 and 133.7±99.2, respectively; P=0.024). Light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) and the VerifyNow system showed that the post-procedure values for EM patients were lower than those of IM and PM patients (LTA: 24.4±15.7, 34.1±17.6, and 42.2±16.9, respectively, P<0.001; VerifyNow: 133.2±60.5, 171.5±42.6, and 218.7±59.3, respectively, P<0.001). The high residual platelet reactivity (HPR) rates were significantly different among the EM, IM, and PM groups using PFA-200 (PM:IM:EM=82.4:40.6:11.8, P<0.001). Conclusions Approximately, 59.0% of Korean patients with cardiovascular disease receiving clopidogrel had CYP2C19 loss-of-function genotypes classified as IM or PM, and the frequency was similar to the data from Asian people. The PFA-200, LTA, and VerifyNow platelet function tests revealed evidence of a significant association between the efficacy of clopidogrel and CYP2C19 genotypes. PMID:26522758

  1. Effects of the commercial extract of aronia on oxidative stress in blood platelets isolated from breast cancer patients after the surgery and various phases of the chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Glowacki, Rafal; Bald, Edward; Czernek, Urszula; Szydłowska-Pazera, Katarzyna; Potemski, Piotr; Piekarski, Janusz; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz

    2012-03-01

    Since the extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa presents antioxidative properties in plasma and in blood platelets, not only from healthy group, but also from patients with benign breast diseases and in patients with invasive breast cancer before surgery, the aim of our present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress by measuring the level of various biomarkers of this process such as the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(-·)), the amount of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins or the amount of glutathione in blood platelets isolated from breast cancer patients after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy in the presence of A. melanocarpa extract (Aronox) in vitro. We demonstrated in platelet proteins from patients with invasive breast cancer (after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy) higher level of carbonyl groups than in control healthy group. The level of 3-nitrotyrosine in platelet proteins from patients with invasive breast cancer was also significantly higher than in healthy subject group. We observed an increase of other biomarkers of oxidative stress such as O(2)(-·) and a decrease of GSH in platelets from patients with breast cancer (after the surgery and after various phases of the chemotherapy) compared to the healthy group. In model system in vitro our results showed that the commercial extract from berries of A. melanocarpa due to antioxidant action, significantly reduced the oxidative/nitrative stress in platelets from patients with invasive breast cancer caused by the surgery and various phases of the chemotherapy. PMID:22101070

  2. Acetyl eugenol, a component of oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) inhibits aggregation and alters arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K C; Malhotra, N

    1991-01-01

    In continuation of our studies with the oil of cloves--a common kitchen spice and a crude drug for home medicine--we have isolated yet another active component identified as acetyl eugenol (AE); the earlier reported active component being eugenol. The isolated material (IM) was found to be a potent platelet inhibitor; IM abolished arachidonate (AA)-induced aggregation at ca. 12 microM, a concentration needed to abolish the second phase of adrenaline-induced aggregation. Chemically synthesized acetyl eugenol showed similar effects on AA- and adrenaline-induced aggregation. A dose-dependent inhibition of collagen-induced aggregation was also observed. AE did not inhibit either calcium ionophore A23187- or thrombin-induced aggregation. Studies on aggregation and ATP release were done using whole blood (WB). AA-induced aggregation in WB was abolished at 3 micrograms/ml (14.6 microM) which persisted even after doubling the concentration of AA. ATP release was inhibited. Inhibition of aggregation appeared to be mediated by a combination of two effects: reduced formation of thromboxane and increased generation of 12-lipoxygenase product (12-HPETE). These effects were observed by exposing washed platelets to (14C)AA or by stimulating AA-labelled platelets with ionophore A23187. Acetyl eugenol inhibited (14C)TxB2 formation in AA-labelled platelets on stimulation with thrombin. AE showed no effect on the incorporation of AA into platelet phospholipids. PMID:2011614

  3. Effects of three novel metalloproteinases from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus on blood coagulation and platelets.

    PubMed

    Howes, J-M; Kamiguti, A S; Theakston, R D G; Wilkinson, M C; Laing, G D

    2005-06-20

    Two metalloproteinases, a 24-kDa P-I EoVMP1 and a 56-kDa P-III EoVMP2, have recently been isolated from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus. We now reveal a new 65-kDa haemorrhagic group P-III metalloproteinase which we have designated EoVMP3. The aim of this study was to determine whether these three snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) affect platelets and blood coagulation. EoVMP1 had no effect on the aggregation of washed human platelets, whereas EoVMP2 inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, EoVMP3 did not inhibit the aggregation of platelets by collagen but instead activated platelets in the absence of any additional co-factors. All three SVMPs were capable of activating prothrombin to varying degrees and can therefore be described as procoagulants. EoVMP1, EoVMP2 and EoVMP3 share sequence identity with other members of the reprolysin family, but differ greatly in their effects on some of the components that control haemostasis. PMID:15863354

  4. Endocannabinoids Control Platelet Activation and Limit Aggregate Formation under Flow

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Valentina; Koekman, Arnold C.; Weeterings, Cees; Roest, Mark; de Groot, Philip G.; Herczenik, Eszter; Maas, Coen

    2014-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system has previously been implicated in the regulation of neurons and inflammatory cells. Additionally, it has been reported that endocannabinoid receptors are present on circulating platelets, but there has been conflicting evidence on their contribution to platelet function. Objectives Our aim was to examine the role of endocannabinoids in platelet function in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Results We studied the effects of the well-characterized endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide on platelet aggregation in suspension, α-granule release, calcium mobilization, Syk phosphorylation, as well as platelet spreading and aggregate formation under flow. Anandamide inhibits platelet aggregation and α-granule release by collagen, collagen-derived peptide CRP-XL, ADP, arachidonic acid and thromboxane A2 analogue U46619. However, activation via thrombin receptor PAR-1 stays largely unaffected. Calcium mobilization is significantly impaired when platelets are stimulated with collagen or CRP-XL, but remains normal in the presence of the other agonists. In line with this finding, we found that anandamide prevents collagen-induced Syk phosphorylation. Furthermore, anandamide-treated platelets exhibit reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, have a decreased capacity for binding fibrinogen in solution and show perturbed platelet aggregate formation under flow over collagen. Finally, we investigated the influence of Cannabis sativa consumption by human volunteers on platelet activation. Similar to our in vitro findings with anandamide, ex vivo collagen-induced platelet aggregation and aggregate formation on immobilized collagen under flow were impaired in whole blood of donors that had consumed Cannabis sativa. Conclusions Endocannabinoid receptor agonists reduce platelet activation and aggregate formation both in vitro and ex vivo after Cannabis sativa consumption. Further elucidation of this novel regulatory mechanism for platelet function

  5. Study of blood compatibility with poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate). Relationship between water structure and platelet compatibility in poly(2-methoxyethylacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Mochizuki, Akira; Ishii, Naoki; Motomura, Tadahiro; Hatakeyama, Tatsuko

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we reported that poly(2-methoxyethylacrylate) (PMEA) showed excellent blood compatibility and implied that the water structure in PMEA contributed to the blood compatibility. In this study, the relationship between the water structure and the blood compatibility is clarified by studying the influence of the monomer composition of poly(MEA-co-HEMA) on the water structure and the blood compatibility of the copolymers. The water in the polymer was classified into three types: free water, freezing bound water, and nonfreezing water. The polymers with 0-30 mol % of HEMA content had a significant amount of freezing bound water, and the amount decreases greatly when the composition of HEMA exceeded 30 mol %. On the other hand, the amount of other water increased simply with an increase of HEMA content. The evaluation of the platelet compatibility of poly(MEA-co-HEMA) revealed that the adhesion number and the morphological change of platelet on the copolymer surface were least when the HEMA content was 0-20 mol %. These two results strongly suggest that the freezing bound water relates to the platelet compatibility of the polymers. PMID:11866553

  6. Real-time monitoring of the functional status of platelets treated by Infukoll using a computer-aided laser phase microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, Irina A.; Babakova, Svetlana; Kiseleva, Elena; Dyugeev, Adyan; Konradov, Alexander A.; Shabalin, Vladimir

    1999-02-01

    Combined analysis of optic-geometrical characteristics makes it possible to comprehensively evaluate the morphological and functional state of the cytological object, which can not be done during visual observation. The technique is discussed for real-time monitoring of the functional status of platelets using computer-aided phase microscope (CPM) 'Cytoscan'. High accuracy and sensitivity of CPM with respect to determination of local temporal phase make it possible to register the dynamic processes in the voluntarily chosen points and sections of micro-objects, to obtain the Fourier's spectra and other characteristics suitable for statistical analysis. Human platelets were prepared from venous blood of healthy donors and pregnant women by standard methods, suspended in culture medium 199 and treated by different doses of 6% Infukoll HES. Nonfixating and nonstaining cells were studied with CPM: height accuracy 0.5 nm, magnification 1000, acquisition time 4 - 30 s. In our experiments we used time resolution about 0.03 s and 30 x lens with numerical aperture 0.65. During investigations of temporal processes a certain section was chosen in the topogram of cell image and local values for the phase of scattered wave in each of the points of the chosen cell's profile were measured. On the basis of the results of automated phase image analysis of optic-geometrical characteristics of living cells, the new quantitative express-method for evaluating of the functional status of human platelets was developed and tested. The structural changes of cells were visualized in alteration of 3-D images, phase profiles, in the decrease of mean cell phase diameters, heights, volumes, in disturbance of histograms of phase heights distribution by cell image points. New data on the behavior of platelets treated by Infukoll in vitro and in vivo were obtained. Analysis of intracellular dynamics was allowed to characterize the cell's regions of maximal activity, but the intensity of processes

  7. Classical scrapie prions in ovine blood are associated with B lymphocytes and platelets-rich plasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal brain disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent, and is accompanied by the accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Although collection of a blood...

  8. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... of other blood components, such as platelets and plasma , may take less time. After the transfusion, you ...

  9. Storage of human red blood cells and platelets. Some aspects concerning the factors leading to storage lesion characterized as morphological changes and vesiculation. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Solberg, C

    1988-01-01

    1. Storage renders erythrocytes more responsive to thermally induced morphological changes, especially the shedding of microvesicles. 4-8 week old cells can be morphologically "rejuvenated" by heating. 2. If pH increases during storage of platelets an extensive loss of small particles occurs. The platelet disintegration is associated with a loss in the metabolic activity, discharge of LDH, increased susceptibility to phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase C and is found to be initiated during the actual preparation of platelet concentrates. 3. Activation of platelets during preparation can be decreased by shortening the first centrifugation time or by using adenine in the anticoagulant. 4. A 4 hour prestorage of the whole blood unit prior to centrifugation strongly decreases the activation of platelets upon stimuli and results in platelet concentrates much more stable to storage. PMID:3070889

  10. Twice daily dosing of aspirin improves platelet inhibition in whole blood in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and micro- or macrovascular complications.

    PubMed

    Spectre, Galia; Arnetz, Lisa; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Brismar, Kerstin; Li, Nailin; Hjemdahl, Paul

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of low-dose aspirin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been questioned. We tested if twice daily dosing of aspirin would be more effective in T2DM, possibly due to increased platelet turnover. A randomised cross-over study compared 75 mg aspirin OD, 75 mg BID and 320 mg OD (≥ 2 week treatment periods) in 25 patients with T2DM and micro- or macrovascular complications. Platelet responses were examined by impedance aggregometry (WBA) and the IMPACT-R aspirin test in whole blood, light transmittance aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma (LTA), and urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (TxM). Aspirin 75 mg BID decreased arachidonic acid (AA)-induced WBA compared to 75 mg OD (9.7 ± 4.5 vs. 12.6 ± 3.5 ohm; p = 0.003) or to 320 mg OD (11.5 ± 4.2 Ohms; p = 0.049). WBA responses to collagen were similarly attenuated by BID or high dosing (by 12-14%; p = 0.02 for both). The IMPACT-R showed a better response to 75 mg BID compared to 75 mg OD (p = 0.049), but not to 320 mg OD. AA-induced aggregation by LTA was <6.5% on all occasions, with no differences between aspirin dosages. TxM was reduced after 320 mg OD (p = 0.002), but not 75 mg BID (p = 0.07). Reticulated platelets were highly correlated with mean platelet volume (MPV; r2 = 0.74, p<0.0001). Both markers for platelet turnover were correlated with AA-induced WBA, but neither identified patients who benefited from BID dosing dependably. In conclusion, twice daily dosing improved laboratory responses to aspirin in high risk T2DM patients. Studies of whether BID dosing of aspirin can improve clinical outcomes in such patients are of interest. PMID:21800009

  11. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    SciTech Connect

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. )

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  12. Platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet aggregation induced by binding of VWF to platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Laduca, F.M.; Bell, W.R.; Bettigole, R.E. State Univ. of New York, Buffalo )

    1987-11-01

    Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) was evaluated in the presence of platelet-collagen adhesion. RIPA of normal donor platelet-rich plasma (PRP) demonstrated a primary wave of aggregation mediated by the binding of von Willebrand factor (VWF) to platelets and a secondary aggregation wave, due to a platelet-release reaction, initiated by VWF-platelet binding and inhibitable by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). An enhanced RIPA was observed in PRP samples to which collagen had been previously added. These subthreshold concentrations of collagen, which by themselves were insufficient to induce aggregation, caused measurable platelet-collagen adhesion. Subthreshold collagen did not cause microplatelet aggregation, platelet release of ({sup 3}H)serotonin, or alter the dose-responsive binding of {sup 125}I-labeled VWF to platelets, which occurred with increasing ristocetin concentrations. However, ASA inhibition of the platelet release reaction prevented collagen-enhanced RIPA. These results demonstrate that platelet-collagen adhesion altered the platelet-release reaction induced by the binding of VWF to platelets causing a platelet-release reaction at a level of VWF-platelet binding not normally initiating a secondary aggregation. These findings suggest that platelet-collagen adhesion enhances platelet function mediated by VWF.

  13. Highly active antiretroviral therapy-related mechanisms of endothelial and platelet function alterations.

    PubMed

    Gresele, Paolo; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Momi, Stefania; Francisci, Daniela; Baldelli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, which has allowed the infected population to age and become prone to chronic degenerative diseases common to the general population, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Possible causative mechanisms of HIV-associated CAD are related to classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution, which may be due to either HIV infection or to HAART-associated toxicity. However, other mechanisms are emerging as crucial for the cardiovascular complication of HIV and HAART. This article analyzes the effects of HIV and HAART on endothelial function, endothelium-leukocyte interactions, and platelets as possible mechanisms of enhanced cardiovascular risk. PMID:24987863

  14. Parvovirus B19 Passive Transmission by Transfusion of Intercept® Blood System-Treated Platelet Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Gowland, Peter; Fontana, Stefano; Stolz, Martin; Andina, Nicola; Niederhauser, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Pathogen reduction methods for blood components are effective for a large number of viruses though less against small, non-enveloped viruses such as Parvovirus B19 (B19V). This article describes the passive transmission by transfusion of two B19V-contaminated pooled platelet concentrates (PCs) which were treated with the Intercept® blood pathogen reduction system. Case Reports Two transfusion cases of B19V-contaminated Intercept-treated pooled PCs were described. Due to the analysis delay, the PCs were already transfused. The viral content of each donation was 4.87 × 1010 IU/ml in case 1and 1.46 × 108 IU/ml in case 2. B19V (52 IU/ml) was detected in the recipient of the case 1 PC, whereas no virus could be detected in the case 2 PC recipient. A B19V IgM response and a transient boost of the underlying B19V IgG immune status and was observed in recipient 1. Recipient of the case 2 PC remained B19V IgG- and IgM-negative. B19V DNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed a 100% homology between donor and recipient. Conclusion This report describes passive B19V transmission by a PC with very high B19 viral load which elicited a transient boost of the B19V immunity, but not by a PC with a lower B19V content, suggesting that there is a B19 viral load threshold value at which B19V inactivation is exceeded. PMID:27403092

  15. Sources of variability in platelet accumulation on type 1 fibrillar collagen in microfluidic flow assays.

    PubMed

    Neeves, Keith B; Onasoga, Abimbola A; Hansen, Ryan R; Lilly, Jessica J; Venckunaite, Diana; Sumner, Meghan B; Irish, Andrew T; Brodsky, Gary; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J; Di Paola, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic flow assays (MFA) that measure shear dependent platelet function have potential clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of bleeding and thrombotic disorders. As a step towards clinical application, the objective of this study was to measure how phenotypic and genetic factors, as well as experimental conditions, affect the variability of platelet accumulation on type 1 collagen within a MFA. Whole blood was perfused over type 1 fibrillar collagen at wall shear rates of 150, 300, 750 and 1500 s⁻¹ through four independent channels with a height of 50 µm and a width of 500 µm. The accumulation of platelets was characterized by the lag time to 1% platelet surface coverage (Lag(T)), the rate of platelet accumulation (V(PLT)), and platelet surface coverage (SC). A cohort of normal donors was tested and the results were correlated to plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels, platelet count, hematocrit, sex, and collagen receptors genotypes. VWF levels were the strongest determinant of platelet accumulation. VWF levels were positively correlated to V(PLT) and SC at all wall shear rates. A longer Lag(T) for platelet accumulation at arterial shear rates compared to venous shear rates was attributed to the time required for plasma proteins to adsorb to collagen. There was no association between platelet accumulation and hematocrit or platelet count. Individuals with the AG genotype of the GP6 gene had lower platelet accumulation than individuals with the AA genotype at 150 s⁻¹ and 300 s⁻¹. Recalcified blood collected into sodium citrate and corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) resulted in diminished platelet accumulation compared to CTI alone, suggesting that citrate irreversibly diminishes platelet function. This study the largest association study of MFA in healthy donors (n = 104) and will likely set up the basis for the determination of the normal range of platelet responses in this type of assay. PMID:23355889

  16. Comparative morphology analysis of live blood platelets using scanning ion conductance and robotic dark-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Max-Joseph; Seifert, Jan; Strasser, Erwin F; Gawaz, Meinrad; Schäffer, Tilman E; Rheinlaender, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Many conventional microscopy techniques for investigating platelet morphology such as electron or fluorescence microscopy require highly invasive treatment of the platelets such as fixation, drying and metal coating or staining. Here, we present two unique but entirely different microscopy techniques for direct morphology analysis of live, unstained platelets: scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and robotic dark-field microscopy (RDM). We demonstrate that both techniques allow for a quantitative evaluation of the morphological features of live adherent platelets. We show that their morphology can be quantified by both techniques using the same geometric parameters and therefore can be directly compared. By imaging the same identical platelets subsequently with SICM and RDM, we found that area, perimeter and circularity of the platelets are directly correlated between SICM and dark-field microscopy (DM), while the fractal dimension (FD) differed between the two microscopy techniques. We show that SICM and RDM are both valuable tools for the ex vivo investigation of the morphology of live platelets, which might contribute to new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological role of platelet spreading. PMID:27063564

  17. Impact of experimental haemodilution on platelet function, thrombin generation and clot firmness: effects of different coagulation factor concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Carolina; Escolar, Gines; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Lopez-Vílchez, Irene; Lozano, Miguel; Cid, Joan; Pino, Marcos; Beltrán, Joan; Basora, Misericordia; Pereira, Arturo; Galan, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haemodilution during resuscitation after massive haemorrhage may worsen the coagulopathy and perpetuate bleeding. Materials and methods Blood samples from healthy donors were diluted (30 and-60%) using crystalloids (saline, Ringer’s lactate, PlasmalyteTM) or colloids (6% hydroxyethylstarch [HES130/0.4], 5% human albumin, and gelatin). The effects of haemodilution on platelet adhesion (Impact R), thrombin generation (TG), and thromboelastometry (TEM) parameters were analysed as were the effects of fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), activated recombinant factor VII (FVIIa), and cryoprecipates on haemodilution. Results Platelet interactions was already significantly reduced at 30% haemodilution. Platelet reactivity was not improved by addition of any of the concentrates tested. A decrease in TG and marked alterations of TEM parameters were noted at 60% haemodilution. HES130/0.4 was the expander with the most deleterious action. TG was significantly enhanced by PCC whereas rFVIIa only caused a mild acceleration of TG initiation. Fibrinogen restored the alterations of TEM parameters caused by haemodilution including those caused by HES 130/0.4. Cryoprecipitates significantly improved the alterations caused by haemodilution on TG and TEM parameters; the effects on TG disappeared after ultracentrifugation of the cryoprecipitates. Discussion The haemostatic alterations caused by haemodilution are multifactorial and affect both blood cells and coagulation. In our in vitro approach, HES 130/0.4 had the most deleterious effect on haemostasis parameters. Coagulation factor concentrates did not improve platelet interactions in the Impact R, but did have favourable effects on coagulation parameters measured by TG and TEM. Fibrinogen notably improved TEM parameters without increasing thrombin generation, suggesting that this concentrate may help to preserve blood clotting abilities during haemodilution without enhancing the prothrombotic risk. PMID

  18. Regulation of the Genetic Code in Megakaryocytes and Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rondina, Matthew T.; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Platelets are generated from nucleated precursors referred to as megakaryocytes. The formation of platelets is one of the most elegant and unique developmental processes in eukaryotes. Because they enter the circulation without nuclei, platelets are often considered simple, non-complex cells that have limited functions beyond halting blood flow. However, emerging evidence over the past decade demonstrates that platelets are more sophisticated than previously considered. Platelets carry a rich repertoire of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins that contribute to primary (adhesion, aggregation, secretion) and alternative (immune regulation, RNA transfer, translation) functions. It is also becoming increasing clear that the “genetic code” of platelets changes with race, genetic disorders, or disease. Changes in the “genetic code” can occur at multiple points including megakaryocyte development, platelet formation, or in circulating platelets. This review focuses on regulation of the “genetic code” in megakaryocytes and platelets and its potential contribution to health and disease. PMID:26149034

  19. RhoG protein regulates platelet granule secretion and thrombus formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Goggs, Robert; Harper, Matthew T; Pope, Robert J; Savage, Joshua S; Williams, Christopher M; Mundell, Stuart J; Heesom, Kate J; Bass, Mark; Mellor, Harry; Poole, Alastair W

    2013-11-22

    Rho GTPases such as Rac, RhoA, and Cdc42 are vital for normal platelet function, but the role of RhoG in platelets has not been studied. In other cells, RhoG orchestrates processes integral to platelet function, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane trafficking. We therefore hypothesized that RhoG would play a critical role in platelets. Here, we show that RhoG is expressed in human and mouse platelets and is activated by both collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin stimulation. We used RhoG(-/-) mice to study the function of RhoG in platelets. Integrin activation and aggregation were reduced in RhoG(-/-) platelets stimulated by CRP, but responses to thrombin were normal. The central defect in RhoG(-/-) platelets was reduced secretion from α-granules, dense granules, and lysosomes following CRP stimulation. The integrin activation and aggregation defects could be rescued by ADP co-stimulation, indicating that they are a consequence of diminished dense granule secretion. Defective dense granule secretion in RhoG(-/-) platelets limited recruitment of additional platelets to growing thrombi in flowing blood in vitro and translated into reduced thrombus formation in vivo. Interestingly, tail bleeding times were normal in RhoG(-/-) mice, suggesting that the functions of RhoG in platelets are particularly relevant to thrombotic disorders. PMID:24106270

  20. RhoG Protein Regulates Platelet Granule Secretion and Thrombus Formation in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Goggs, Robert; Harper, Matthew T.; Pope, Robert J.; Savage, Joshua S.; Williams, Christopher M.; Mundell, Stuart J.; Heesom, Kate J.; Bass, Mark; Mellor, Harry; Poole, Alastair W.

    2013-01-01

    Rho GTPases such as Rac, RhoA, and Cdc42 are vital for normal platelet function, but the role of RhoG in platelets has not been studied. In other cells, RhoG orchestrates processes integral to platelet function, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and membrane trafficking. We therefore hypothesized that RhoG would play a critical role in platelets. Here, we show that RhoG is expressed in human and mouse platelets and is activated by both collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin stimulation. We used RhoG−/− mice to study the function of RhoG in platelets. Integrin activation and aggregation were reduced in RhoG−/− platelets stimulated by CRP, but responses to thrombin were normal. The central defect in RhoG−/− platelets was reduced secretion from α-granules, dense granules, and lysosomes following CRP stimulation. The integrin activation and aggregation defects could be rescued by ADP co-stimulation, indicating that they are a consequence of diminished dense granule secretion. Defective dense granule secretion in RhoG−/− platelets limited recruitment of additional platelets to growing thrombi in flowing blood in vitro and translated into reduced thrombus formation in vivo. Interestingly, tail bleeding times were normal in RhoG−/− mice, suggesting that the functions of RhoG in platelets are particularly relevant to thrombotic disorders. PMID:24106270

  1. Effective ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrates in teflon bags

    SciTech Connect

    Capon, S.M.; Sacher, R.A.; Deeg, H.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Several plastic materials used in blood storage were evaluated for their ability to transmit ultraviolet B (UVB) light. A plastic bag manufactured from sheets of transparent Teflon efficiently (78-86%) transmitted UVB light and was employed in subsequent functional studies of lymphocytes and platelets exposed to UVB light while contained in these bags. In vitro experiments showed a UVB dose-dependent abrogation of lymphocyte responder and stimulator functions, with concurrent preservation of platelet aggregation responses. In a phase I pilot study, UVB-treated platelet concentrates were administered to four bone marrow transplant recipients. Adverse effects attributable to the transfusions were not observed, and patients showed clinically effective transfusion responses. No patient developed lymphocytotoxic HLA or platelet antibodies. These studies suggest that platelets can be effectively irradiated with UVB light in a closed system. However, numerous variables, including container material, volume and composition of contents, steady exposure versus agitation, and exact UV wavelength, must be considered.

  2. York platelet syndrome is a CRAC channelopathy due to gain-of-function mutations in STIM1.

    PubMed

    Markello, Thomas; Chen, Dong; Kwan, Justin Y; Horkayne-Szakaly, Iren; Morrison, Alan; Simakova, Olga; Maric, Irina; Lozier, Jay; Cullinane, Andrew R; Kilo, Tatjana; Meister, Lynn; Pakzad, Kourosh; Bone, William; Chainani, Sanjay; Lee, Elizabeth; Links, Amanda; Boerkoel, Cornelius; Fischer, Roxanne; Toro, Camilo; White, James G; Gahl, William A; Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2015-03-01

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry is the major route of replenishment of intracellular Ca(2+) in animal cells in response to the depletion of Ca(2+) stores in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is primarily mediated by the Ca(2+)-selective release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel, which consists of the pore-forming subunits ORAI1-3 and the Ca(2+) sensors, STIM1 and STIM2. Recessive loss-of-function mutations in STIM1 or ORAI1 result in immune deficiency and nonprogressive myopathy. Heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in STIM1 cause non-syndromic myopathies as well as syndromic forms of miosis and myopathy with tubular aggregates and Stormorken syndrome; some of these syndromic forms are associated with thrombocytopenia. Increased concentration of Ca(2+) as a result of store-operated Ca(2+) entry is essential for platelet activation. The York Platelet syndrome (YPS) is characterized by thrombocytopenia, striking ultrastructural platelet abnormalities including giant electron-opaque organelles and massive, multilayered target bodies and deficiency of platelet Ca(2+) storage in delta granules. We present clinical and molecular findings in 7 YPS patients from 4 families, demonstrating that YPS patients have a chronic myopathy associated with rimmed vacuoles and heterozygous gain-of-function STIM1 mutations. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of STIM1-related human disorders and define the molecular basis of YPS. PMID:25577287

  3. Oral Streptococci Utilize a Siglec-Like Domain of Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesins to Preferentially Target Platelet Sialoglycans in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingquan; Bensing, Barbara A.; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Chen, Xi; Ruhl, Stefan; Sullam, Paul M.; Varki, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group streptococci have a

  4. Evaluation of Platelet and Red Blood Cell Parameters with Proposal of Modified Score as Discriminating Guide for Iron Deficiency Anemia and β-Thalassemia Minor

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Vikas; Chandra, Smita; Rawat, Anil; Nautiyal, Ruchira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) and β-Thalassaemia Minor (BTM) are considered to be important cause of microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Studies have evaluated various red cell parameters which are easily available on electronic cell counters for discrimination of IDA and BTM in different ethnic populations. The analysis of previously established red cell discriminative indices with new cut-off have also been done by studies which may be relevant in their set of population for differentiation. Aim The study was conducted to propose a modified score considering the established red blood cell indices with a new cut off and to formulate index taking into consideration Red Blood Cell (RBC) and platelet parameters for early differentiation of IDA and BTM. Materials and Methods The prospective study included cases with MCV< 80 fl and new modified score of 11 was proposed by statistically analysing the previous discriminative indices with new cut-off by giving score 0 for IDA and score 1 for BTM. The summation of all scores gave modified 11 T score. A new cut off for differentiation of IDA and BTM was proposed in the study by using ROC curve and analysing AUC which statistically corresponded to highest accuracy. An attempt to formulate a new index using the RBC and platelet parameters was also made for initial discrimination. Results The study included 153 cases and in addition to red blood cell parameters, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width also showed statistical significant difference between IDA and BTM (p<0.05). Modified new 11 T score was 87.6% specific for BTM while proposed index showed 80.4% negative predictive value for BTM and correctly identified 75% of cases. Conclusion The proposed new index and modified 11T score may be used for initial discrimination of BTM and IDA especially in resource limited regions. Apart from RBC parameters, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width may also be useful in early differentiation

  5. The effects of siguazodan, a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on human platelet function.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, K. J.; England, P. J.; Hallam, T. J.; Maguire, J.; Moores, K.; Reeves, M. L.; Simpson, A. W.; Rink, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of siguazodan (SK&F 94836) a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor with inotropic and vasodilator activity, were studied on human platelets. 2. Siguazodan selectively inhibited the major cyclic AMP-hydrolysing PDE in human platelet supernatants. The inhibited enzyme has been variously termed cyclic GMP-inhibited PDE or PDE-III. 3. In platelet-rich plasma (PRP), siguazodan inhibited U46619-induced aggregation more potently than that induced by ADP and collagen. Treatment of the PRP with aspirin had no effect on the potency of siguazodan. 4. In washed platelets, siguazodan increased cyclic AMP levels and reduced cytoplasmic free calcium [( Ca2+]i). ADP decreased the ability of siguazodan to raise cyclic AMP and this may explain its lower potency in inhibiting responses to ADP. 5. Siguazodan has anti-platelet actions over the same concentration range that it is an inotrope and vasodilator. PMID:2158847

  6. Investigation of function similarities between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and platelet calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatases with the inhibitors quercetin and calmidazolium

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T.H.; Campbell, K.P.; White, G.C. II

    1987-12-01

    The platelet and skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatases (Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPases) were functionally compared with respect to substrate activation by steady-state kinetic methods using the inhibitors quercetin and calmidazolium. Quercetin inhibited platelet and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activities in a dose-dependent manner with IC/sub 50/ values of 25 and 10 ..mu..M, respectively. Calmidazolium also inhibited platelet and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activities, with half-maximal inhibition measured at 5 and 4 ..mu..M, respectively. Both inhibitors also affected the (/sup 45/Ca) calcium transport activity of intact platelet microsomes at concentrations similar to those which reduced Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity. These inhibitors were then used to examine substrate ligation by the platelet and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump proteins. For both Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase proteins, quercetin has an affinity for the E-Ca/sub 2/ (fully ligated with respect to calcium at the exterior high-affinity calcium binding sites, unligated with respect to ATP) conformational state of the protein that is approximately 10-fold grater than for other conformational states in the hydrolytic cycle. Quercetin can thus be considered a competitive inhibitor of the calcium pump proteins with respect to ATP. In contrast to the effect of quercetin, calmidazolium interacts with the platelet and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPases in an uncompetitive manner. The dissociation constants for this inhibitor for the different conformational states of the calcium pump proteins were similar, indicating that calmidazolium has equal affinity for all of the reaction intermediates probed. These observations indicate that the substrate ligation processes are similar for the two pump proteins. This supports the concept that the hydrolytic cycles of the two proteins are comparable.

  7. Haemostasis monitored in stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates in the proportion of 4 :  4 :  1 diluted with crystalloids and colloids.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Anna; Edgren, Gustaf; Ambrosio, Daniela; Gryfelt, Gunilla; Östlund, Anders; Wikman, Agneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate haemostasis analysed with thromboelastometry and blood gas and blood count variables, in stored blood components and the effects after dilution with Ringer[Combining Acute Accent]s acetate, albumin and hydroxyethyl starch (HES). Aliquots from stored red blood cells, plasma and platelet concentrates were mixed in the proportion of 4 : 4 : 1 and analysed with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), blood count [haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, platelet count] and blood gas (pH, calcium, sodium, potassium, glucose levels). The blood mix was thereafter diluted 20 and 33% with Ringer's acetate, albumin or HES. The stored blood component mix in a ratio of 4 : 4 : 1 had a low pH (7.11 ± 0.03, mean ± standard deviation), nonmeasurable calcium level, and high concentrations of sodium, potassium and glucose but ROTEM curves within normal range after recalcification. With Ringer's acetate dilution, the ROTEM variables changed almost linearly with increasing dilution volume. When albumin was used in the 33% dilution, the clot firmness of the fibrin clot (FibTEM) was further reduced, and with HES dilution, there was a pronounced impairment. The stored blood mix had a low pH and calcium level, both of which might have a significant influence on the coagulation process but normal ROTEM curves after recalcification. Dilution with Ringer's acetate and albumin resulted in moderate deterioration, while dilution with HES showed severely impaired haemostasis. PMID:26963027

  8. Platelets Potentiate Brain Endothelial Alterations Induced by Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Wassmer, Samuel C.; Combes, Valéry; Candal, Francisco J.; Juhan-Vague, Irène; Grau, Georges E.

    2006-01-01

    Brain lesions of cerebral malaria (CM) are characterized by a sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) and platelets within brain microvessels, as well as by blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility that PRBC and platelets induce functional alterations in brain endothelium. In a human brain endothelial cell line, named HBEC-5i, exhibiting most of the features demanded for a pathophysiological study of BBB, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lymphotoxin α (LT-α) reduced transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), enhanced the permeability to 70-kDa dextran, and increased the release of microparticles, a recently described indicator of disease severity in CM patients. In vitro cocultures showed that platelets or PRBC can have a direct cytotoxic effect on activated, but not on resting, HBEC-5i cells. Platelet binding was required, as platelet supernatant had no effect. Furthermore, platelets potentiated the cytotoxicity of PRBC for TNF- or LT-α-activated HBEC-5i cells when they were added prior to these cells on the endothelial monolayers. This effect was not observed when platelets were added after PRBC. Both permeability and TEER were strongly affected, and the apoptosis rate of HBEC-5i cells was dramatically increased. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which platelets can be deleterious to the brain endothelium during CM. PMID:16369021

  9. Platelets and galectins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A major function of platelets is keeping the vascular system intact. Platelet activation at sites of vascular injury leads to the formation of a hemostatic plug. Activation of platelets is therefore crucial for normal hemostasis; however, uncontrolled platelet activation may also lead to the formation of occlusive thrombi that can cause ischemic events. Although they are essential for proper hemostasis, platelet function extends to physiologic processes such as tissue repair, wound remodeling and antimicrobial host defense, or pathologic conditions such as thrombosis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Platelets can be activated by soluble molecules including thrombin, thromboxane A2 (TXA2), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), serotonin or by adhesive extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as von Willebrand factor (vWF) and collagen. Here we describe recent advances in the activation of platelets by non-canonical platelet agonists such as galectins. By acting either in soluble or immobilized form, these glycan-binding proteins trigger all platelet activation responses through modulation of discrete signaling pathways. We also offer new hypotheses and some speculations about the role of platelet-galectin interactions not only in hemostasis and thrombosis but also in inflammation and related diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer. PMID:25405160

  10. [Blood-nerve barrier: structure and function].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a dynamic interface between the endoneurial microenvironment and surrounding extracellular space or blood contents, and is localized the innermost layer of multilayered ensheathing perineurium and endoneurial microvessels. Since the BNB is a key structure controlling the internal milieu of the peripheral nerve parenchyma, adequate understanding of the BNB is crucial for developing treatment strategies for human peripheral nervous system disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and diabetic and various metabolic/toxic neuropathies. However, fewer studies have been conducted on the BNB, if we compare against the number of studies on the blood-brain barrier. This is because of the lack of adequate human cell lines originating from the BNB. In our laboratory, human immortal cell lines from the BNB, namely, the endothelial cell line and pericyte cell line, have recently been established and vigorous investigations of their biological and physiological properties are now underway. Pericytes constituting the BNB were found to possess robust ability of controlling BNB integrity via secretion of various cytokines and growth factors including bFGF, VEGF, GDNF, BDNF, and angiopoietin-1. Unknown soluble factors secreted by pericytes also contribute to the upregulation of claudin-5 in endothelial cells in the BNB and thus, strengthen the barrier function of the BNB. In diabetic neuropathy, pericytes were shown to regulate the vascular basement membrane, while AGEs were shown to induce basement membrane hypertrophy and disrupt the BNB by increasing the autocrine secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta from pericytes. In this review article, we discuss the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the human BNB as well as the molecular mechanisms of mononuclear cell infiltration across the BNB. PMID:21613659

  11. Evaluation of participants with suspected heritable platelet function disorders including recommendation and validation of a streamlined agonist panel

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Gillian C.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E.; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T.; Watson, Steve P.

    2012-01-01

    Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA2 pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y12 ADP and TxA2 receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories. PMID:23002116

  12. Activated tumor cell integrin αvβ3 cooperates with platelets to promote extravasation and metastasis from the blood stream.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martin R; Zuka, Masahiko; Lorger, Mihaela; Tschan, Mario; Torbett, Bruce E; Zijlstra, Andries; Quigley, James P; Staflin, Karin; Eliceiri, Brian P; Krueger, Joseph S; Marchese, Patrizia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Felding, Brunhilde H

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients, and understanding mechanisms that control tumor cell dissemination may lead to improved therapy. Tumor cell adhesion receptors contribute to cancer spreading. We noted earlier that tumor cells can expressing the adhesion receptor integrin αvβ3 in distinct states of activation, and found that cells which metastasize from the blood stream express it in a constitutively high affinity form. Here, we analyzed steps of the metastatic cascade in vivo and asked, when and how the affinity state of integrin αvβ3 confers a critical advantage to cancer spreading. Following tumor cells by real time PCR, non-invasive bioluminescence imaging, intravital microscopy and histology allowed us to identify tumor cell extravasation from the blood stream as a rate-limiting step supported by high affinity αvβ3. Successful transendothelial migration depended on cooperation between tumor cells and platelets involving the high affinity tumor cell integrin and release of platelet granules. Thus, this study identifies the high affinity conformer of integrin αvβ3 and its interaction with platelets as critical for early steps during hematogenous metastasis and target for prevention of metastatic disease. PMID:27067975

  13. Activated tumor cell integrin αvβ3 cooperates with platelets to promote extravasation and metastasis from the blood stream

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Martin R.; Zuka, Masahiko; Lorger, Mihaela; Tschan, Mario; Torbett, Bruce E.; Zijlstra, Andries; Quigley, James P.; Staflin, Karin; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Krueger, Joseph S.; Marchese, Patricia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Felding, Brunhilde H.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients, and understanding mechanisms that control tumor cell dissemination may lead to improved therapy. Tumor cell adhesion receptors contribute to cancer spreading. We noted earlier that tumor cells can expressing the adhesion receptor integrin αvβ3 in distinct states of activation, and found that cells which metastasize from the blood stream express it in a constitutively high affinity form. Here, we analyzed steps of the metastatic cascade in vivo and asked, when and how the affinity state of integrin αvβ3 confers a critical advantage to cancer spreading. Following tumor cells by real time PCR, non-invasive bioluminescence imaging, intravital microscopy and histology allowed us to identify tumor cell extravasation from the blood stream as a rate-limiting step supported by high affinity αvβ3. Successful transendothelial migration depended on cooperation between tumor cells and platelets involving the high affinity tumor cell integrin and release of platelet granules. Thus, this study identifies the high affinity conformer of integrin αvβ3 and its interaction with platelets as critical for early steps during hematogenous metastasis and target for prevention of metastatic disease. PMID:27067975

  14. Activated platelet supernatant can augment the angiogenic potential of human peripheral blood stem cells mobilized from bone marrow by G-CSF.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeehoon; Hur, Jin; Kang, Jin-A; Yun, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jae-Il; Ko, Seung Bum; Lee, Choon-Soo; Lee, Jaewon; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2014-10-01

    Platelets not only play a role in hemostasis, but they also promote angiogenesis and tissue recovery by releasing various cytokines and making an angiogenic milieu. Here, we examined autologous 'activated platelet supernatant (APS)' as a priming agent for stem cells; thereby enhance their pro-angiogenic potential and efficacy of stem cell-based therapy for ischemic diseases. The mobilized peripheral blood stem cells ((mob)PBSCs) were isolated from healthy volunteers after subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. APS was collected separately from the platelet rich plasma after activation by thrombin. (mob)PBSCs were primed for 6h before analysis. Compared to naive platelet supernatants, APS had a higher level of various cytokines, such as IL8, IL17, PDGF and VEGF. APS-priming for 6h induced (mob)PBSCs to express key angiogenic factors, surface markers (i.e. CD34, CD31, and CXCR4) and integrins (integrins α5, β1 and β2). Also (mob)PBSCs were polarized toward CD14(++)/CD16(+) pro-angiogenic monocytes. The priming effect was reproduced by an in vitro reconstruction of APS. Through this phenotype, APS-priming increased cell-cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion. The culture supernatant of APS-primed (mob)PBSCs contained high levels of IL8, IL10, IL17 and TNFα, and augmented proliferation and capillary network formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo transplantation of APS-primed (mob)PBSCs into athymic mice ischemic hindlimbs and Matrigel plugs elicited vessel differentiation and tissue repair. In safety analysis, platelet activity increased after mixing with (mob)PBSCs regardless of priming, which was normalized by aspirin treatment. Collectively, our data identify that APS-priming can enhance the angiogenic potential of (mob)PBSCs, which can be used as an adjunctive strategy to improve the efficacy of cell therapy for ischemic diseases. PMID:25016235

  15. Assessment of omega-fatty-acid-supplemented human platelets for potential improvement in long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, Chitra; Stewart, Michael W; Cutting, Mary A; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2002-01-15

    Uptake of omega (omega)-3 fatty acids can influence membrane stability and cell mobility. We investigated the effects of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on the hemostatic efficacy of human platelets using an in vivo rabbit bleeding model. In vitro assays such as platelet aggregation, vWF bead-mediated ATP release and platelet adhesion to beads (measured by the residual platelet count [RPC] [free platelet count after reacting with the beads]/[baseline platelet count]x 100=%RPC; a high %RPC indicates reduced platelet function) were conducted on platelets treated with 1% fish oil (omega-3); 2% fish oil emulsion or 1% soy oil (omega-6). Oil treatment of platelets reduced the vWF bead-induced ATP release insignificantly. Addition of omega-3 agents reduced physical reactivity (%RPC) with the vWF beads by a factor of 1.2 (oil) and 1.9 (emulsion). The omega-6 oil enhanced reactivity by a factor of 1.7. After washing to remove excess reagent, platelet resuspension was most efficient with the omega-3 emulsion. Platelet function was higher with the omega-3-treated platelets (%RPC=52.3%, omega-3 oil; 63.3%, omega-3 emulsion vs. 85%, omega-6 oil; 82% untreated platelets). Ethyl-palmitate-treated thrombocytopenic rabbits were infused with human platelets. Survival times of the treated platelets, as monitored by flow cytometry (6.2-8.2 h) were comparable to untreated platelets (8.6 h). In the rabbit kidney injury model, blood loss after infusion of the treated platelets was similar to that of saline-infused rabbits (75.3+/-3.4 g). However, platelets washed prior to infusion reduced blood loss to a value comparable to that of fresh platelets (48.3+/-5 g). Furthermore, the presence of the infused platelets at the injury site was clearly visualized using FITC-tagged anti CD42a antibody. Thus, the omega-3-based agents protect the platelets from damage during the washing procedure as demonstrated in vitro by improved platelet resuspension, low %RPC, high stimulus-responsive ATP secretion

  16. Platelets in Pulmonary Immune Responses and Inflammatory Lung Diseases.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Elizabeth A; Weyrich, Andrew S; Zimmerman, Guy A

    2016-10-01

    Platelets are essential for physiological hemostasis and are central in pathological thrombosis. These are their traditional and best known activities in health and disease. In addition, however, platelets have specializations that broaden their functional repertoire considerably. These functional capabilities, some of which are recently discovered, include the ability to sense and respond to infectious and immune signals and to act as inflammatory effector cells. Human platelets and platelets from mice and other experimental animals can link the innate and adaptive limbs of the immune system and act across the immune continuum, often also linking immune and hemostatic functions. Traditional and newly recognized facets of the biology of platelets are relevant to defensive, physiological immune responses of the lungs and to inflammatory lung diseases. The emerging view of platelets as blood cells that are much more diverse and versatile than previously thought further predicts that additional features of the biology of platelets and of megakaryocytes, the precursors of platelets, will be discovered and that some of these will also influence pulmonary immune defenses and inflammatory injury. PMID:27489307

  17. Use of 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation for decontamination of platelet concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Wiesehahn, G.P.; Morel, P.A.; Corash, L. )

    1989-07-01

    Transmission of viral diseases through blood products remains an unsolved problem in transfusion medicine. We have developed a psoralen photochemical system for decontamination of platelet concentrates in which platelets are treated with long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA, 320-400 nm) in the presence of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). Bacteria, RNA viruses, and DNA viruses ranging in genome size from 1.2 x 10(6) daltons, encompassing the size range of human pathogens, were inoculated into platelet concentrates and subjected to treatment. This system inactivated 25 to 30 logs/h of bacteria Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus, 6 logs/h of bacteriophage fd, 0.9 log/h of bacteriophage R17 and 1.1 logs/h of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in platelet concentrates maintained in standard storage bags. Platelet integrity and in vitro function before, immediately following photochemical treatment, and during prolonged storage after treatment, were evaluated by measuring: (1) extracellular pH; (2) platelet yields; (3) extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels; (4) platelet morphology; (5) platelet aggregation responsiveness; (6) thromboxane beta-2 (TXB-2) production; (7) dense body secretion; and (8) alpha granule secretion. These assays demonstrated that this photochemical inactivation system inactivated bacteria and viruses in platelet concentrates with minimal adverse effects on the in vitro function of platelets in comparison to untreated control concentrates maintained under current, standard blood bank conditions.

  18. [Functional morphology of endonasal blood capillaries].

    PubMed

    Grevers, G

    1989-01-01

    Harvey (1628) was the first to describe the blood circulatory system. 50 years later, the capillary system was discovered by Marcello Malpighi as a link between arteries and veins. Since then, the microvascular network has been examined abundantly by means of various morphological and physiological techniques. During the last decades the development of the technical equipment enabled us to receive detailed informations on the structural and ultrastructural aspects of the vasculature and--particularly--the capillary endothelium. New electron microscopic investigations on the behaviour of this special cell system. In the present study we combined our own morphological results on the endonasal microcirculatory system--using different morphological techniques--to interpret these anatomical finding under functional aspects. PMID:2644502

  19. Chrono-lume and magnesium potentiate aggregation of canine but not human platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Callan, M B; Shofer, F S; Wojenski, C; Giger, U

    1998-07-01

    The effects of Chrono-lume (CL) and magnesium sulfate (Mg2+), a component of this luciferin-luciferase reagent, on platelet aggregation were studied in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from blood anticoagulated with sodium citrate from humans, dogs, cats, horses, and cows. The final added Mg2+ concentration of both solutions ranged from 0.75-3.7 mM. CL and Mg2+ had no effect on maximum aggregation of platelets from humans induced by sub-threshold concentrations of collagen and ADP. In contrast, addition of CL or Mg2+ to canine PRP resulted in a dose-dependent and equal potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to sub-threshold concentrations of collagen, ADP, and thrombin in normal and thrombopathic dogs. The effect of CL on platelet aggregation induced by sub-threshold concentrations of agonists was less pronounced and varied in other species according to the agonist. The reason for the marked difference in sensitivity of human and canine platelets to CL or Mg2+ is not clear, although a difference in releasable cation pools of the platelets from these two species has been recognized. Platelet aggregation studies of animals with suspected thrombopathias should be performed without CL to prevent masking of a platelet function defect. PMID:9684806

  20. CD44 sensitivity of platelet activation, membrane scrambling and adhesion under high arterial shear rates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guilai; Liu, Guoxing; Alzoubi, Kousi; Chatterjee, Madhumita; Walker, Britta; Münzer, Patrick; Luo, Dong; Umbach, Anja T; Elvira, Bernat; Chen, Hong; Voelkl, Jakob; Föller, Michael; Mak, Tak W; Borst, Oliver; Gawaz, Meinrad; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is required for signalling of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an anti-apoptotic pro-inflammatory cytokine. MIF is expressed and released from blood platelets, key players in the orchestration of occlusive vascular disease. Nothing is known about a role of CD44 in the regulation of platelet function. The present study thus explored whether CD44 modifies degranulation (P-selectin exposure), integrin activation, caspase activity, phosphatidylserine exposure on the platelet surface, platelet volume, Orai1 protein abundance and cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca2+]i). Platelets from mice lacking CD44 (cd44(-/-)) were compared to platelets from corresponding wild-type mice (cd44(+/+)). In resting platelets, P-selectin abundance, α(IIb)β3 integrin activation, caspase-3 activity and phosphatidylserine exposure were negligible in both genotypes and Orai1 protein abundance, [Ca2+]i, and volume were similar in cd44(-/-) and cd44(+/+) platelets. Platelet degranulation and α(IIb)β3 integrin activation were significantly increased by thrombin (0.02 U/ml), collagen related peptide (CRP, 2 µg/ml and Ca(2+)-store depletion with thapsigargin (1 µM), effects more pronounced in cd44(-/-) than in cd44(+/+) platelets. Thrombin (0.02 U/ml) increased platelet [Ca2+]i, caspase-3 activity, phosphatidylserine exposure and Orai1 surface abundance, effects again significantly stronger in cd44(-/-) than in cd44(+/+) platelets. Thrombin further decreased forward scatter in cd44(-/-) and cd44(+/+) platelets, an effect which tended to be again more pronounced in cd44(-/-) than in cd44(+/+) platelets. Platelet adhesion and in vitro thrombus formation under high arterial shear rates (1,700 s(-1)) were significantly augmented in cd44(-/-) mice. In conclusion, genetic deficiency of CD44 augments activation, apoptosis and pro-thrombotic potential of platelets. PMID:26355696

  1. Platelet Dynamics during Natural and Pharmacologically Induced Torpor and Forced Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    de Vrij, Edwin L.; Vogelaar, Pieter C.; Goris, Maaike; Houwertjes, Martin C.; Herwig, Annika; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is an energy-conserving behavior in winter characterized by two phases: torpor and arousal. During torpor, markedly reduced metabolic activity results in inactivity and decreased body temperature. Arousal periods intersperse the torpor bouts and feature increased metabolism and euthermic body temperature. Alterations in physiological parameters, such as suppression of hemostasis, are thought to allow hibernators to survive periods of torpor and arousal without organ injury. While the state of torpor is potentially procoagulant, due to low blood flow, increased viscosity, immobility, hypoxia, and low body temperature, organ injury due to thromboembolism is absent. To investigate platelet dynamics during hibernation, we measured platelet count and function during and after natural torpor, pharmacologically induced torpor and forced hypothermia. Splenectomies were performed to unravel potential storage sites of platelets during torpor. Here we show that decreasing body temperature drives thrombocytopenia during torpor in hamster with maintained functionality of circulating platelets. Interestingly, hamster platelets during torpor do not express P-selectin, but expression is induced by treatment with ADP. Platelet count rapidly restores during arousal and rewarming. Platelet dynamics in hibernation are not affected by splenectomy before or during torpor. Reversible thrombocytopenia was also induced by forced hypothermia in both hibernating (hamster) and non-hibernating (rat and mouse) species without changing platelet function. Pharmacological torpor induced by injection of 5′-AMP in mice did not induce thrombocytopenia, possibly because 5′-AMP inhibits platelet function. The rapidness of changes in the numbers of circulating platelets, as well as marginal changes in immature platelet fractions upon arousal, strongly suggest that storage-and-release underlies the reversible thrombocytopenia during natural torpor. Possibly, margination of platelets

  2. Functional co-operation between the subunits in heterodimeric platelet-derived growth factor receptor complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Emaduddin, M; Ekman, S; Rönnstrand, L; Heldin, C H

    1999-01-01

    To determine the importance of the phosphorylation capacity of receptor kinase as well as the ability to serve as docking sites for SH2-domain-containing signal transduction molecules, we established pig aortic endothelial cell lines stably expressing kinase-active platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) alpha-receptors together with kinase-inactive beta-receptors, and vice versa. After stimulation with PDGF-AB, heterodimeric receptor complexes were formed in which the kinase-inactive receptor was phosphorylated by the kinase-active receptor, although less efficiently than in heterodimers of wild-type receptors. The kinase-active receptor was only minimally phosphorylated. Thus the phosphorylation within the receptor dimer occurred in trans between the components. Analyses of the abilities of heterodimeric receptor complexes of one kinase-active and one kinase-inactive receptor to mediate mitogenicity, chemotaxis and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase revealed less efficient effects than those of heterodimers of wild-type receptors. Importantly, however, the fact that signalling capacities were retained illustrates a functional co-operation between the two receptor molecules in the dimer, where one receptor provides a functional kinase and the other acts as a substrate and provides docking sites for downstream signalling molecules. PMID:10417313

  3. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

  4. Expression of the PlA2 allele of glycoprotein IIIa and its impact on platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Albert; Warner, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    Background The platelet fibrinogen receptor represents the final common pathway of platelet activation, and is formed from two glycoprotein (GP) subunits (GPIIb/IIIa). Carriage of the mutant PlA2 allele of GPIIIa has been shown to confer an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but published studies have disagreed as to the mechanism for this association. Objectives To assess whether carriage of the PlA2 allele conforms to Mendelian patterns of expression and to identify whether carriage of the mutant allele modulates platelet function. Methods Expression of the PlA2 allele was assessed in both healthy subjects (n = 25) and patients with known coronary artery disease (n = 90) through the development and validation of a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. Platelet function was assessed in the patient cohort in response to multiple agonists, and these data were analysed in the context of the proteomic data. Results Expression of the wild-type PlA1 allele and mutant PlA2 alleles was readily quantifiable and conformed to Mendelian patterns in both healthy and patient cohorts. Patients who were homozygous for the mutant PlA2 allele had an increased aggregatory response to adenosine diphosphate, collagen, adrenaline, ristocetin, thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 and U46619, when assessed using agonist-concentration response curves. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that carriage of the mutant PlA2 allele mediates an increased risk of cardiovascular events through the modulation of platelet reactivity. PMID:26858830

  5. Adaptation of ticks to a blood-feeding environment: evolution from a functional perspective.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; Neitz, Albert W H

    2004-01-01

    Ticks had to adapt to an existing and complex vertebrate hemostatic system from being free-living scavengers. A large array of anti-hemostatic mechanisms evolve